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Kamwati SK;, Kakundi EM;, Mbae CK;, Kang’ethe EK;, Szonyia B;, Hussni MO. "First report of Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype in Kenyan cattle."; 2008. Abstract

The objective of the study was to identify Cryptosporidium genotypes from feces collected from urban and peri-urban dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, in order to determine their zoonotic potential. DNA was extracted from 34 samples that were diagnosed positive by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen technique. Two Cryptosporidium isolates examined at the 18S rRNA locus were identified as the deer-like genotype by DNA sequencing. As public health officials are facing the difficult decision whether to allow urban livestock production because of its economic benefits and a livelihood asset to the urban communities, or to ban it for its public health risks, the finding of non-zoonotic genotypes in a smallholder dairy system has significant public health as well as economic implications that merit further investigation

Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM, MacDermott JJ, Omore AO. "Analysis of Public Health Risks From Consumption of Informally Marketed Milk in Kenya.". 2004. Abstract

Despite an unfavorable policy environment against informal milk markets, these market account for most milk sales in Kenya. Convenient delivery and lower prices are the principal benefits for poor consumers. Current milk handling and safety regulations in Kenya are derived from models in industrialized countries. These may not be appropriate for local market conditions. An important step in targeting policies better is to collect quantitative and qualitative information about milk-borne health risk under different market situations. Preliminary results of assessments of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers in central Kenya show very low apparent prevalence of zoonotic health hazards in milk from smallholder herds o[that contribute most marketed milk. Higher bacterial counts were associated with longer market chains and distance to urban areas. Most (up to 80%) of samples did not meet national bacterial quality standards. Over 96% of consumes boiled milk before consumption mainly to lengthen shelf life but also for health reasons. The most important health risks were judged to be from antimicrobial residues found in up to 16% of milk samples tested.

Kang'ethe EK. "The impact of meat inspection on the control of bovine cysticercosis in Kenya.".; 1995. Abstract

Monthly meat inspection records for the period 1974-1991 were studied and reports of bovine cysticercosis in the carcasses, head and heart from different Provinces in Kenya were analysed. The national prevalence rate showed a dramatic decline from 8.8% in 1974 to 1.1% in 1991. Provincial prevalence rates showed a decline in the cases reported within the same period. The Coast Province showed a decrease from 4% in 1974 to 0.5% in 1991. Other provinces showed a similar trend. The impact meat inspection has made on the control of bovine cysticercosis and new strategies for its control are discussed.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THE IMPACT OF MEAT INSPECTION ON THE CONTROL OF BOVINE HYDATIDOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Cases of bovine hydatidosis in the livers and lungs at post mortem from different establishments in Kenya were analyzed for the period between 1974 and 1991. The results showed a significant difference in the condemnation rates of lungs between provinces (P=0.0001) and a decline per year of 0.4% though this was not statistically significant (P=0.4). The condemnation rates of livers showed a significant difference between the provinces (P=0.0001) with a decline of 2.3%. It was only in the Rift valley province where condemnation rates for both organs did not show a decline, but instead a significant increase was observed. Other provinces had significant declines indicating that the meat inspection and condemnation of infected organs had an impact in the control of hydatidosis. Overviews of the strategies for the control of hydatidosis in Kenya are discussed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "HYGIENE STATUS OF BOVINE CARCASES FROM THE THREE SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
A survey of hygienic quality of bovine carcases from three slaugherhouses with different throughput and management was assessed using total viable counts and coliform counts from 5 sites (hindquarter, flank, brisk, forequarter and neck) on each carcass. The total viable counts showed that all three slaughterhouses were equally contaminated with bacteria exceeding 105 per cm2; the coliform counts revealed that contamination of the flank and brisket sites differed between slaughterhouses. Factors attributed to this level of contamination and their controls were discussed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "ANALYSIS OF THE POSTMORTEM DIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS IN KENYAN CATTLE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of experimentally (n=30) and naturally (n=25) infected animals were used to study the reliability of meat inspection methods in Kenya. Total dissection was used as the gold standard to indicate absence or presence of bovine cysticercosis infection in cattle. The level of agreement between the two methods was on average lower in naturally infected animals than in artificially infected calves. This was because in natural infections, there was more light infections than in experimentally infections and these could not be detected in meat inspection method. The results further confirm that in spite of the time and effort taken by meat inspectors in looking for cysticerci at predilection sites, this method is very insensitive. It was therefore recommended that more parts of the carcass not naturally inspected according to the Kenya Meat Control Act (cap 356 of 1977) for bovine cysticercosis such as the lungs, hind legs, ribs and liver need to be considered as possible and equally important predilection sites and larger areas of these predilection sites should be examined. However, other better sensitive ante-mortem diagnostic methods should be developed to assist in the integrated management of the infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "COMPARATIVE ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON BESNOITIA BESNOITI AND BESNOITIA CAPRAE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Comparative transmission electron microscopy on Besnoitia besnoiti and on a strain of Besnoitia derived from goats in Kenya revealed that the two organisms differ in their pellicle, micropore, microtubules, nucleus, wall-forming body 1 (W1), amount of lipids and amylopectin. Thus the caprine besnoitia is probably a different organism and the term Besnoitia caprae should continue to be used.   Keywords; Besnoitia besnoiti, Besnoitia caprae, cystozoite, goat, ultrastructure, speciation 
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "BLOOD MEAL SOURCES OF GLOSSINA PALLIDIPES AND G. LONGIPENNIS (DIPTERA: GLOSSINIDAE) IN NGURUMAN, SOUTHWEST KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
In total, 1,952 Glossina pallidipes Austen and 1,098 G. longipennis Corti adults were collected in forest and savanna habitat in Nguruman, southwestern G. pallidipes and many indicate that ostriches are an important host. More detailed work on the role of ostriches in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis is required. Keywords; tsetse, blood source, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "AN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM HEALTH APPROACH: AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF SMALLHOLDER DAIRY FARMERS IN KIAMBU DISTRICT KANYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
This paper describes the methodology and some results obtained from an integrated assessment of smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District Kenya, using the agro-ecosystem health approach. Participatory techniques, soft system methods, complex system theory and convectional research are used in combination. The approach is holistic, multidisciplinary and iterative. It involves designing, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the development processes. The aim is to make smallholder dairy farms sustainable. A sustainable agricultural system is one in which resource management is optimized to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and its capacity. The approach applies the agro-ecosystems concepts of health developed both in veterinary and human health. Screening diagnosis and remediation of ecosystems pathologies are carried out in methods analogous to those in individuals and populations.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "DETECTION OF BEEF AND PORK IN FRESH AND HEAT TREATED MEAT PRODUCTS USING ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
Raw and heat-treated pork and beef products were purchased from the outlets of two leading Kenyan manufacturing firms. Pure beef and pork sausages and pork sausages containing 1, 5 and 10% beef were prepared in the laboratory. Antigens from these products were extracted with phosphate buffered saline. The presence of beef and pork in these products was determined using absorbed goat antisera to cattle and pig thermostable muscle antigens in an enzyme immunoassay. The assay was able to detect beef in pork sausages at the level of 10% and 5% but not at 1%. Of the 44 commercial beef products labelled as containing only beef, 23 (52.3%) were shown to contain pork and 23 (50%) of the 46 pork products were shown to contain beef. Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens proved to be of great value in species identification not only of fresh unheated meats but also of heated (cooked, pasteurized and autoclaved) meat products in an enzyme immunoassay.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "FASCIOLA WORMS, FECAL AND GALL BLADDER EGG COUNT RELATIONSHIPS IN SHEEP EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH FASCIOLA GIGANTICA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Goats were infected intradermally with caseous pus containing between 1x105 and 5x101 colony forming units (CFU) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Animals infected with doses of equal and above 1x105 CFU of the organism developed caseous lesions in the regional draining lymph nodes. On serological examination, 3/6 animals infected with equal or less than 1x101 CFU and 2/4 infected with equal or less than 1x102 CFU had no positive bacterial agglutination and antitoxin antibody titres respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly contagious disease since relatively low doses (1x102 CFU) of C.pseudotuberculosis injected intradermally could induce CLA lesions in draining lymph nodes. The serological response in terms of rate and extent appeared to depend on the dose of infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THE USE OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL METHODS IN MEAT SPECIES IDENTIFICATION: A BRIEF REVIEW.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
Meat species identification has been necessitated by cases of unfair trading where label declarations are not met; in respect to the species of origin of the meat. Advantages and disadvantages of using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoenzyme and fat analysis in speciation of raw and cooked meat are presented. Isoelectic focusing of myoglobulin seems to be the only promising method which can be adopted for use in speciation of meat. However, more research work on myoglobulin assay is needed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF BESNOITIA caprae IN GOATS.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae from naturally infected goats to susceptible ones was achieved by intra-nasal instillation and intra-conjuctival inoculation of cystozoites containing suspensions, subcutaneous implantation of fascia containing cysts and alternate needle pricking between infected and non infected goats. Typical chronic symptoms developed in the fascia infected does.Cystozoites inoculation into the eyes and mouth did not result in infection in utero, suggesting that intra-uterine transmission may not occur. In contrast to does with acute besnoitiosis, which occasionally aborted, the does with chronic besnoitiosis gave birth to healthy kids. Kids below the age of 4 months (pre-weaned period) born both to infected and non infected does were susceptible to besnoitiosis but appeared to be more resistant than adult goats.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF. "TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND THE CONSERVATION OF BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AT THE NGULIA RHINO SANCTUARY, TSAVO WEST NATIONAL PARK, KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
Tsetse polupations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros. High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment; G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipes averaged 3.6%, with three times as many T. vivax as T. congolense infections. T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovides and elephants. Rhino account for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), we estimated that the wild host population was acquiring seven infections per km2 per day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.   Keywords; epidemiology, disease, Glossina, parasitology, Trypanosoma
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "SERODIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS BY DETECTING LIVE Taenia saginata CYSTS USING A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY- BASED ANTIGEN ELISA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
{ An ante-mortem antigen ELISA based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n=24) and naturally (n=25) infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in natural infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificially infected calves it was above14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 1 and 2 in naturally infected steers escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harboring dead cysticerci gave negative results in the assay as were the case in non infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially and natural infected calves (r=o.798
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, WAKONYU DRKANJAL. "Investigation of the risk of consuming marketed milk with antimicrobial residues in Kenya.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HOST BLOOD FACTORS AND PROTEASES IN GLOSSINA MORSITANS SUBSPECIES INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
  Host blood effects on Trypanosoma congolense establishment in Glossina morsitans and Glossina morsitans centralis were investigated using goat, rabbit, cow and rhinocerous blood. Meals containing goat erythrocytes facilitated infection in G. m. morsitans, whereas meals containing goat plasma facilitated infection in G. m. centralis. Goat blood effects were not observed in the presence of complementary rabbit blood components. N-acetyl-glucosamine (a midgut lectin inhibitor) increased infection rates in some, but not all, blood manipulations. Cholesterol increased infections rates in G. m. centralis only. Both compounds together added to cow blood produced superinfection in G. m. centralis, but not in G. m. morsitans. Midgut protease levels didn’t differ 6 days post infection in flies maintaining infections versus flies clearing solutions. Protease levels were weakly correlated with patterns of infection, but only in G.m. morsitans. These results suggest that physiological mechanisms responsible for variation in infection rates are only superficially similar in these closely related tsetses.   Keywords; Glossina, Diptera, Glossinidae, Trypanosoma, lectis, proteases, goat, rabbit, cow, Diecros bicornis, choleastrol, glucosamine, erythocytes, serum
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CLINICAL, SEROLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN GOATS INFECTED WITH CORYNEBACTERIUM PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS THROUGH CUTANEOUS AND SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Goats were injected with caseous pus containing 106 colony forming units CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis either subcutaneously (s/c), intradermally (i/d) or smeared with caseous pus on either scarified or intact skin. All animals were then examined regulary for clinical abnormalities and also for antibodies to C. pseudotuberculosis. All animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after infection and examined for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) lesions.  Acute lameness was observed in all animals infected s/c but not in the other groups. The regional draining lymph nodes were detected palpably swollen by day three post infection in all animals infected i/d and in one infected on scarified skin. The route of infection did not influence the onset of serological response but animals infected i/d had more rapid and higher response. At post mortem, animals infected s/c; i/d or on scarified skin had abscesses in the regional draining lymph nodes but those infected on intact skin had none. These results indicted that CLA can be transmitted through either s/c, i/d or through scarified skin but that infection through intact skin was unlikely. The disease induced by i/d injection or on scarified skin was more typical of the natural disease in that it had no acute clinical signs.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF AUTOCLAVED MEAT SPECIES USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH: THE MISSING LINK TO SUSTAINABLE AND EFFECTIVE INTERVENTION IN AGRICULTURAL COMMITTEEE IN THE AESH FRAMEWORK.". In: Journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

There is an increasing need to incorporate into agricultural research an element of community participation. Community involvement in the identification of problems and solutions is seen as the key to adoption ands adaptation of new technologies. These two processes have been identified as crucial for sustainable agriculture and hence sustainable rural communities.

A wide gap exists between researchers in the various institutions and the farmer. Yet the latter is the end user of the products thereof. This is an approach to the top-down approach to agricultural extension where extension agents tell farmer's what ought to be done with little regard to the farmers experience and circumstances. Participatory action research (PAR) techniques bridge the gap between the farmer's experiences and the research/extension services. It enables analysis of problem situations and opportunities by farmers and researchers in a participatory and inclusive process. Within the agro-ecosystem health framework PAR is the process that generates a farmer driven demand for research and technology development. This paper describes how PAR is being used in an integrated assessment of agricultural communities in Kiambu agro-ecosystem.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IDENTIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF FRESH, COOKED AND CANNED MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS BY OUCHTERLONY’S DOUBLE DIFFUSION TEST.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
Antisera to thermosable muscle antigens (TMA) from 14 species of bovidae were raised in goats and/or sheep. To achieve species specificity the antisera were absorbed with serum from the other species. While the absorbed antisera to TMA to buffalo, impala, eland, waterbuck, wildebeest and oryx were rendered specific, the antiserum to cattle TMA cross-reacted with buffalo fresh meat antigens (FMA) and cooked meat antigens (CMA) but not with buffalo thermostable muscle antigens. Fresh and cooked muscle antigens from these two species could be differentiated by the antiserum to buffalo TMA. A similar approach was used to differentiate the FMA, CMA and TMA of kongoni, topi and wildebeest. Antiserum to cattle TMA proved useful in detecting the presence of beef meat in meat products that had undergone commercial sterilization.   Keywords: meat; meat products; thermostable muscle antitgens; immunodiffusion; antibodies; species identification
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PREVALENCE OF BESNOITIOSIS IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
A preliminary survey of besnoitiosis in domestic ruminants in Kenya based on field and farm visits, clinical and post mortem examinations and histopathological of tissues and biopsies showed that goats are the most affected followed by cattle, while sheep were unaffected. Caprine besnoitiosis occurred in a continuous belt in five of the 8 provinces in Kenya stretching from the Coast, Eastern, North Eastern, Nairobi and Rift Valley provinces.  Mandera in the North Eastern province had the highest prevalence rate of 36%, followed by Kwale 35%, Isiolo 35% Marsabit 33%, Wajir 28%, Nairobi 265 Meru 24%, Garissa 21% Taita Taveta 18%, Embu 17%, Kitui 9%, Machakos 7%, Laikipia 3% Kajiado 2% and Turkana and Elgeyo- Marakwet 1% each. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) between the bucks and does (18 and 18.4% respectively), but kids were less (4%) affected. Bovine besnoitiosis was found only in Tana River district with an infection rate of 11%.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PROCESSED KENYAN HONEY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYPMHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE PTHOGENESIS,INCUBATION PERIOD AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE AFTER EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Twenty goats in two groups of 10 were injected intradermally, with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The doses of infection were 1x105 and 5x104 colony forming units for groups 1 and 2 respectively. Thereafter, a goat from each group was killed every 2-3 days and examined for gross and microscopic caseous lesions in the draining lymph nodes. Bands or zones of macrophages and polymorphonuclear granulocytes were observed on the second day of infection in both groups. Gross caseous lesions were observed from day 8 and 9 of infection respectively. Positive bacterial agglutination test and haemolysin inhibition test titres were detected after 15-17days and 20 -25 days of infection respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis is a subacute disease with an incubation period of 8-9 days but it is not detectable serologically until after 15 days of infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CAPRINE BESNOITIOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Inoculation of cystozoites obtained from natural, chronic cases of caprine besnoitiosis produced clinical disease in goats but not in rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats or cattle. Histological examination of tissue sections from the experimental animals showed Besnoitia cysts only in goats. This, together with field observations that cattle reared together with goats having besnoitiosis do not contract the disease, suggests that the Besnoitia species that infects goats in Kenya is host-specific and is not Besnoitia besnoiti. We suggest that the name Besnoitia caprae be adapted for the pathogen.   Keywords; Besnoitia, clinical signs, conjuctiva, goats, infectivity, rabbits, rodents
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "APPLICATION OF IMMUNOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY IN RAPID DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN B1, IN CHICKEN LIVER TISSUES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract

Existing physicochemical analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in animal tissues are expensive, cumbersome, and hazardous. To offer an alternative to these methods, a novel and highly sensitive immunochemical method for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in chicken liver tissues is described in this study. Liver tissues were homogenized with cold methanol-acetone (50:50), followed by AFB1 extraction with methanol-acetone-PBS (25:25:50). The tissue extracts were, with or without further purification by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC), applied to a highly sensitive direct ELISA for determination of AFB1. The detection limits for this assay were 15 +/- 0.77 pg/mL when standards and samples were dissolved in methanol-PBS (10:90) and 17 +/- 2.0 pg/mL when methanol-acetone-PBS (5:5:90) solution was used. The average recoveries of AFB1 were 54.3 to 65.5% in artificially contaminated tissue samples at 1 to 5 ng/g. In samples spiked with AFB1 at 1 ng/g, the method had diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% for samples processed with IAC and 91.7 and 100%, respectively, for samples without IAC purification. The test was successfully applied to the detection of AFB1 in liver tissues from chickens that were experimentally dosed with AFB1. It is hoped that this test will be applicable in rapid detection of aflatoxins in poultry meats and in diagnosis of aflatoxicosis in chicken.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "TRIALS OF TRAPS AND ATTRACTANTS FOR STOMOXYS SPP. (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE).". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Five blue and black cloth traps designed for tsetse were tested for their ability to catch Stomoxys spp. in Kenya. Significantly greatest catches were obtained with Vavoua traps, which then were used to compare odor baits at Nairobi Park. Acetone, lactic acid and animal urine (cow, buffalo, waterbuck, camel) or dung (rhinoceros, elephant and hippopotamus) didn’t increase catches. However, 1-oceten-3-ol dispensed at 0.2-2.0 mg/h increased catches up to 3.7-fold. Vavoua traps were highly specific for Stomoxyinae, with 80% of the catch consisting of 11 different taxa of Stomoxys as well as genera such as Prostomoxys, Haematobosca, Stygeromyia and Rhinomusca. During periods of peak seasonal abundance, up to 3,000 Stomoxys per day were collected in an octenol-baited Vavoua trap. These high catches suggest that Vavoua traps may be of practical use for fly control in isolated settings at a relatively low cost.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THE IMPACT OF MEAT INSPECTION ON THE CONTROL OF BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Cases of bovine cysticercosis in the carcasses, head and heart from different establishments were analyzed for the period between 1974 and 1991. national prevalence rates showed a dramatic decline from 8.8% in 1974 to 1.1% in 1991. Provvincial prevalence rates showed a decline in the cases reported within the same period. With the coast province having a decline from 45 in 1974 to 0.5% in 1991. Other provinces showed a similar trend in the decline of C. bovis cases. The impact of meat inspection has made on the control of bovine cysticercosis and new strategies for its control are discussed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS OF THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN SPECIATION OF COOKED AND FRESH ANIMAL MEATS.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS TO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN KIAMBU DISTRICT.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Sustainability in agriculture requires a better understanding of interactions within the production syatem. Diverse factors such as social structure, knowledge and information flow all as well as other bio[hyscical afctors interact with each other to determine agricultural productivity and sustainability. Researchers and extension agents find that they need to deal with issues that may be outside their area of specialization. An interdisciplinary approach provides a framework through which such support can be provided.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS SUITABLE FOR USE IN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAYS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT FROM VARIOUS SPECIES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
A method for the extraction of thermostable muscle antigens for use in enzyme immunoassays is described. The method yields antigens devoid of contaminating proteins which reduce the adsorption of the antigens on to the plate. The effect of such proteins is stimulated by the addition of gelatin. Gelatin (5 mg ml-1) results in 100% inhibition of the antigen adsorption on to the plate.   Keywords: thermostable muscle antigens, enzyme immunoassay, meat species identification
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYMPHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE DOSE OF INFECTION AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Goats were infected intradermally with caseous pus containing between 1x105 and 5x101 colony forming units (CFU) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Animals infected with doses of equal and above 1x105 CFU of the organism developed caseous lesions in the regional draining lymph nodes. On serological examination, 3/6 animals infected with equal or less than 1x101 CFU and 2/4 infected with equal or less than 1x102 CFU had no positive bacterial agglutination and antitoxin antibody titres respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly contagious disease since relatively low doses (1x102 CFU) of C.pseudotuberculosis injected intradermally could induce CLA lesions in draining lymph nodes. The serological response in terms of rate and extent appeared to depend on the dose of infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "USE OF IMMUNOASSAYS IN MONITORING MEAT PROTEIN ADDITIVES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
A review of the methods used for monitoring meat protein additives of fresh and cooked meats using physico-chemical and immunological methods is presented.
Kimani VN, Mitoko G, McDermott B, Grace D, Ambia J, Kiragu MW, Njehu AN, Sinja J. "Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium fromurban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of nondairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

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