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ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "Isolation and characterization of group B streptococci from human and bovine sources within and around Nairobi.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Group B streptococci (GBS) were isolated from bovine bulk milk and from vaginas and throats of antenatal and postnatal women using TKT and rapid GBS media. Sixty three of 529 (12%) bovine milk samples, 9 of 48 (19%) vaginal and 3 of 48 (6%) throrat samples were positive. Both bovine and human beta hemolytic isolates were characterized biochemically and serologically. Pigment production was characteristic of both human and bovine beta haemolytic isolates. The majority (88%) of human isolates fermented salicin and not lactose and most bovine isolates were either lactose positive/salicin positive (41%) or lactose positive/salicin negative (38%). Human and bovine isolates were 100% and 85% typable respectively. Serotype distribution was similar in the bovine and human populations with serotype Ia, Ic and III being most common in both. Fermentation of sugars showed major differences between bovine and human isolates but similarity in serotype distribution suggests some genetic relationship.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

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