Bio

Short Bio

A Biochemistry Lecturer with research interests in tick and tick borne diseases (TBDs) in areas of genetic diversity of tick species, molecular diagnostics, development of anti-tick vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits of TBDs. I have special interest in leadership and management, community development and gender and diversity.

Curriculum Vitae

Name: Esther G. Kanduma (B.Sc., Msc, PhD, Biochem)

Publications


2014

2012

Kanduma, E, Francis Gakuyab, Naftaly Githakaa, Saori Suzukia, Edward Kariukib, Hirohisa Mekataa, Satoru Konnaia, Tomohiro Okagawaa, Shirai T, Ikenakad Y, Ishizuka M, Murata S, Ohashi K.  2012.  Transcriptional profiling of inflammatory cytokine genes in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) infected with Theileria parva. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. IX, NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
Lorenza Beati, Jaymin Patel, HL-WHAEKET-MRKJG.  2012.  Phylogeography and Demographic History of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Tropical Bont Tick. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases . 12:1-12.

2011

2007

Kanduma, EG, Mukuri JC, Mwanda OW.  2007.  Survey of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) Antibody in Cancer Patients Attending Kenyatta National Hospital. Abstractsurvey_of_hanganutziu-_--.pdf

The sensitivity of HD antibody in cancer diagnosis/prognosis could be improved by detection of Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody. Combined evaluation of native HD and Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody was carried out. Presence and titre of these antibodies in cancer patients was investigated in serum samples obtained from 420 patients with various types of tumors. Results were compared with those of 246 age and sex-matched controls. The serum samples were analysed for hemagglutination antibodies by hemagglutination (HA) test and the antibodies quantified by ELISA. Dissociation was achieved by treating the samples with Glycine Hydrochloride (pH 1.8), then neutralised by Tris-HCl (pH 7.4). Mean HA titre was 16.8 in controls and 67.4 in patients (p<0.001). Patients aged between 26-35 years had the highest mean titre of 75.9 (p=0.397) while controls of the same age had the highest mean titres of 19.9 (p=0.043). Carcinomas had a mean titre of 81 compared to 54 for sarcoma and 52 for lymphoma (p=0.117) among histological types. Female patients had a titre of 75.2 compared to 55.7 of males (p<0.05) while the difference by gender in controls was 15.1 for males and 19.3 for females (p=0.199). The mean level of native HD antibody was -0.011 in controls compared to 0.004 in patients (p=0.03). The levels were significantly high in carcinoma (p=0.017) compared to sarcoma and carcinoma type of malignancy. There was no association between HD antibody levels and age. Mean levels were higher in females than males in both study groups (p=0.628) (p=0.601). IC dissociated antibody mean level was -0.06 in the control group compared to 0.014 in test cases (p=0.000). Levels were independent of gender (p=0.984) while they were highest in sarcoma type compared to other types of tumors that were negative for the antibodies (p=0.413). Both native and antigen-bound HD antibodies are significantly increased in cancer disease.

GATHONI, MSKANDUMAESTHER.  2007.  Kanduma EG, Mukuria JC, Mwanda OW.Serum total sialic acid and Hanganutziu-Deicher antibody in normals and in cancer patients.East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14.. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14.. : Kisipan, M.L. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

2006

GATHONI, MSKANDUMAESTHER.  2006.  Cullen MM, Sam NE, Kanduma EG, McHugh TD, Gillespie SH.Direct detection of heteroresistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using molecular techniques.J Med Microbiol. 2006 Aug;55(Pt 8):1157-8.. J Med Microbiol. 2006 Aug;55(Pt 8):1157-8.. : Kisipan, M.L. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

2005

GATHONI, MSKANDUMAESTHER.  2005.  Timothy D McHugh (2005). The early bactericidal activity of a moxifloxacin and isoniazid combination in smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. J Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (in press). J Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (in press). : Kisipan, M.L. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

2003

GATHONI, MSKANDUMAESTHER.  2003.  Gillespie SH, Gosling RD, Uiso LO, Sam NE, Bongard E, Kanduma EG, Nyindo M, Morris RW (2003). The Bactericidal activitry of moxifloxacin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 168(11):1342-5.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 168(11):1342-5.. : Kisipan, M.L. Abstract
Patients in whom acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was newly diagnosed were randomized to receive 400 mg moxifloxacin, 300 mg isonaizid, or 600 mg rifampin daily for 5 days. Sixteen-hour overnight sputa collections were made for the 2 days before and for 5 days of monotherapy. Bactericidal activity was estimated by the time taken to kill 50% of viable bacilli (vt50) and the fall in sputum viable count during the first 2 days designated as the early bactericidal activity (EBA). The mean vt50 of moxifloxacin was 0.88 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-1.33 days) and the mean EBA was 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.79). For the isoniazid group, the mean vt50 was 0.46 days (95% CI, 0.31-0.61 days) and the mean EBA was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00). For rifampin, the mean vt50 was 0.71 days (95% CI, 0.48-0.95 days) and the mean EBA was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15-0.41). Using the EBA method, isoniazid was significantly more active than rifampin (p < 0.01) but not moxifloxacin. Using the vt50 method, isoniazid was more active than both rifampin and moxifloxacin (p = 0.03). Moxifloxacin has an activity similar to rifampin in human subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis, suggesting that it should undergo further assessment as part of a short course regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis.
GATHONI, MSKANDUMAESTHER.  2003.  Kanduma E, Timothy D. McHugh, Stephen H. Gillespie (2003). Molecular Methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain typing-Users guide. J Appl Microbio 94:781-791. J Appl Microbio 94:781-791. : Kisipan, M.L. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

2001

GATHONI, MSKANDUMAESTHER.  2001.  Kanduma E.G, Mukuria JC, Mwanda WO (2001). Survey of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies in cancer patients- African Journal of Biotechnology/ Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-6th-7th September 2001, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Biotechnology/ Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-6th-7th September 2001, ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya. : Kisipan, M.L. Abstract
Patients in whom acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was newly diagnosed were randomized to receive 400 mg moxifloxacin, 300 mg isonaizid, or 600 mg rifampin daily for 5 days. Sixteen-hour overnight sputa collections were made for the 2 days before and for 5 days of monotherapy. Bactericidal activity was estimated by the time taken to kill 50% of viable bacilli (vt50) and the fall in sputum viable count during the first 2 days designated as the early bactericidal activity (EBA). The mean vt50 of moxifloxacin was 0.88 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-1.33 days) and the mean EBA was 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.79). For the isoniazid group, the mean vt50 was 0.46 days (95% CI, 0.31-0.61 days) and the mean EBA was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00). For rifampin, the mean vt50 was 0.71 days (95% CI, 0.48-0.95 days) and the mean EBA was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15-0.41). Using the EBA method, isoniazid was significantly more active than rifampin (p < 0.01) but not moxifloxacin. Using the vt50 method, isoniazid was more active than both rifampin and moxifloxacin (p = 0.03). Moxifloxacin has an activity similar to rifampin in human subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis, suggesting that it should undergo further assessment as part of a short course regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis.

2000

GATHONI, MSKANDUMAESTHER.  2000.  Kanduma E.G, Mukuria JC, Mwanda WO (2000). Serum sialic acid: Relationship with age of cancer patient, gender and type of tumor- Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-2nd-3rd September 2000, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Nair. Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Conference-2nd-3rd September 2000, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. : Kisipan, M.L. Abstract
Patients in whom acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was newly diagnosed were randomized to receive 400 mg moxifloxacin, 300 mg isonaizid, or 600 mg rifampin daily for 5 days. Sixteen-hour overnight sputa collections were made for the 2 days before and for 5 days of monotherapy. Bactericidal activity was estimated by the time taken to kill 50% of viable bacilli (vt50) and the fall in sputum viable count during the first 2 days designated as the early bactericidal activity (EBA). The mean vt50 of moxifloxacin was 0.88 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-1.33 days) and the mean EBA was 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.79). For the isoniazid group, the mean vt50 was 0.46 days (95% CI, 0.31-0.61 days) and the mean EBA was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.00). For rifampin, the mean vt50 was 0.71 days (95% CI, 0.48-0.95 days) and the mean EBA was 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15-0.41). Using the EBA method, isoniazid was significantly more active than rifampin (p < 0.01) but not moxifloxacin. Using the vt50 method, isoniazid was more active than both rifampin and moxifloxacin (p = 0.03). Moxifloxacin has an activity similar to rifampin in human subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis, suggesting that it should undergo further assessment as part of a short course regimen for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis.

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