Publications

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2019
Omweri EA, Manyasi BN, Migosi J. "Use of Athletics and Debate in Developing Competencies Among Learners: Perception of Teachers." Journal of Education and Practice. 2019;10(35):54-62.
D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Use of the Robson Classification to compare Caesarean Section patterns at the Kenyatta National Hospital after and before free Maternity Services in Kenya." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):46-51.Website
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Ushairi katika Siasa Lamu.". In: Kiswahili, Utangamano na Maendeleo Endelevu Afrika Mashariki. Zanzibar: Kamisheni ya Kiswahili ya Afrika Mashariki; 2019.
Esther Githumbi, Marchant R, Olago D. "Using the Past to Inform a Sustainable Future: Palaeoecological Insights from East Africa.". In: Using the Past to Inform a Sustainable Future. Springer, Cham; 2019. Abstractusing_past.pdf

Abstract

An important aspect of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which aims to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 °C by 2050, has been the development of monitoring and evaluation plans that integrate climate change perspectives into new policies and programs for the protection and functioning of ecological systems. These include measures that enhance adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate change. Ecosystem change and the interaction of the different drivers of change in ecosystems have been studied at different temporal and spatial scales across different disciplines. However, the use of long temporal records documenting environmental and climatic change in understanding the impacts of the interacting drivers of change and planning sustainable use of resources is relatively new. We present examples of the use of palaeoecological data from East Africa in planning for the long-term sustainable use of natural resources by providing long-term historical perspectives on human–environment–societal–wildlife interactions and engagement with the biocultural heritage and societal evaluations of these spaces to achieve an increasingly diverse set of conservation, social and economic objectives. We link the Earth system processes whose associated boundaries can be directly related to sustainable development goals in our attempt to prevent unacceptable environmental change. The realisation that humans are having a significant impact on climate and landscapes means we now need to showcase the societal relevance of palaeoecological research and utilise its output especially in our efforts to remain within a safe operating space for humanity and ecosystems.

MO O. "The Utility of Geospatial Technology in Urban Morphological Studies." American Journal of Geographical Research and Reviews. 2019;2(11).
Zephania B, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Chege BM, Nyaga NM. Utility of Raman Spectroscopy in obesity detection with bands associated with fructose and branched chain amino acids as biomarkers. Washington, DC United States; 2019.
Awori MN, khan Mohamed MN, Mohamed AA. "Utility of the Bidirectional Glenn Shunt." Annals of African Surgery. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Bi-directional Glenn Shunts (BDGS) form part of the surgical strategy used to treat CHD; no data exists on BDGS usage in the study locality. Methods: A 7-year retrospective, descriptive study was carried out at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012. Results: Eleven BDGS were performed on 11 patients; 63.6% had tricuspid atresia, 27.3% had double outlet right ventricle and 9.1% had pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum.

Conclusion: Further studies are warranted to identify factors contributing to the late performance of BDGS, poor post-operative follow-up and failure to perform FC.

C M, L G, T D, G WE. "Utilization of Computerized systems in Dental Practice." J Ken Dent Ass. 2019.
Wamwea C, Ngare P, Bidima MLDM, Mwelu S. "Valuation of Quanto Caps and Floors in a Calibrated Multi-Curve Cross-Currency LIBOR Market Model." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(4):698-725. AbstractWebsite

Interest rate derivatives form part of the largest portion of traded financial instruments. Hence, it is important to have models that describe their dynamics accurately. This study aims at pricing Quanto caps and floors using the multi-curve cross-currency LIBOR market model (MCCCLMM) dynamics. A Black Scholes MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula is first derived. The MCCCLMM parameters are then calibrated to exactly match the USD and GBP cap market prices. The estimated model parameters are then used to price the Quanto options in the Black MCCCLMM Quanto caplet and floorlet formula. These prices are then compared to the Quanto cap and floor prices estimated via Monte Carlo simulations so as to ascertain its pricing accuracy

Ogeng’o JA, Mpekethu N, Gichangi P, Olabu B, Odula P, Munguti J, Misiani M. "VARIANT ANATOMY OF THE TESTICULAR ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2019;8(1):1358-1367. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_testicular_artery_among.pdf

Variant anatomy of the testicular artery is important for safe surgery in the retroperioneal area, and
accurate diagnosis of testicular and renal disease. The pattern of origin, number, course and branching
display ethnic and geographical variations. Data from black African populations and especially Eastern
Africa is scarce. The objective of this study was, therefore, to describe the topography of the intraabdominal
part of testicular artery in a sample of the Kenyan population. This was a descriptive crosssectional
study on one hundred (100) testicular arteries at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi. The samples were obtained from autopsy cases and cadaveric specimens. Standard midline
abdominal incisions were made, flaps of the anterior abdominal wall reflected and the intestines,
mesentery and pariental peritoneum retracted systematically to expose the testicular arteries. Their site
and level of origin, number, course and branching were examined. Macrographs of representative
variations were taken using a high resolution digital camera. The results were analysed using SPSS
version 21, and are presented using macrographs and frequency tables. Thirty three (33%) of the arteries
displayed a variant anatomy, with regard to their site of origin (8%), number (4%), course (14%) and
branching pattern (7%). Among the 14 cases of aberrant course, five (5%) arched over the left renal
vein, eight (8%) were retrocaval and one (1%) had a retroureteric course. Seven (7%) bifurcated within
the abdomen. The level of origin along the aorta varied from 1 centimetre above the renal arteries to 5.5
centimetres below them while the vertebral level of origin ranged from T12 to L4. This shows that the
testicular artery among Kenyans displays a high prevalence of variant anatomy characterized by origin
from the accessory renal artery, high level of aortic origin, duplication, retrocaval course and
intraabdominal; division. Preopertaive evaluation of renal and gonadal vasculature is recommended to
minimize misdiagnosis and inadvertent injury retroperitoneal surgery.

Muthini DN, Nzuma JN, Nyikal AR. "Variety Awareness, Nutrition Knowledge and Adoption of Nutritionally Enhanced Crop Varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2019;14(4):225-237.
Muthini DN, Nzuma JM, Nyikal RA. "Variety awareness, nutrition knowledge and adoption of nutritionally enhanced crop varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics . 2019;14(4):225-237. AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates the impact of variety awareness and nutrition knowledge on the adoption of biofortified crop varieties using a sample of 661 households from Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. The study employs the average treatment effect (ATE) framework to control for information on the KK15 bean variety and knowledge of its nutritional attributes among small-scale farmers. The results show that farmers who had knowledge of the nutritional attributes of KK15 beans were more likely to adopt relative to those who were only aware of the variety. A nutrition attribute knowledge gap of 8% was estimated, which represents the potential adoption loss due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional benefits. Adoption of biofortified crops can therefore be improved by disseminating information on the varieties and their nutritional attributes. This can be achieved by entrenching nutrition information in extension packages disseminated to farmers.

Mwema FM, Obiko JO, Leso T, MBUYA TO, Mose BR, Akinlabi ET. "Wear Characteristics of Recycled Cast Al-6Si-3Cu Alloys." Tribology in Induastry. 2019;41(4):613-621. AbstractDOI: 10.24874/ti.2019.41.04.13

Recycling of Al-Si alloys for high integrity structural components for the automotive industry applications has gained attention in the recent times. In this article, scrap of cylinder heads containing 6.01%Si and 2.62%Cu were recycled by casting into four alloys invariants: base alloy (no alloying elements added), 0.02%Ca, 0.38%Fe and 0.9%Fe+0.45%Mn additions. The structural properties were analysed through optical and SEM/EDS microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear characteristics of the alloys were investigated using a multi-pass ball on the flat reciprocating method under a normal load of 30 N and velocity of 4 mm/s. The results showed delamination and adhesive wear as the predominant wear mechanisms for the recycled Al-Si alloys. The base and 0.02%Ca alloys exhibited the lowest coefficients of friction and rates of wear. A comparison of the wear data to the published data on primary alloys revealed that our secondary alloys have the potential for applications in the automotive industry.

Ngarachu M, Bore M, Gichuhi S. Willingness to donate eyes and its associated factors among adults in a community in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
JK Omari, Mworia JK, Gichuki N, Mligo C. "Woody Species Composition in Upper Tana River Floodplain of Kenya: Potential Effects of Change in Flood Regimes." Journal of sustainability, environment and peace . 2019;1:91-97.
ONYANGO M A, OLUOCH M F. "Workforce Diversity and Performance of Kisumu Law Courts, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2019;10(12):doi:10.30845/ijbss.v10n12p3.
Collaborators WHOACTIONT. "The World Health Organization ACTION-I (Antenatal CorTicosteroids for Improving Outcomes in preterm Newborns) ." TRIALS. 2019;20(1):507. AbstractWebsite

Background
Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have long been regarded as a cornerstone intervention in mitigating the adverse effects of a preterm birth. However, the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries has not been established in an efficacy trial despite their widespread use. Findings of a large cluster-randomized trial in six low- and middle-income countries showed that efforts to scale up ACS use in low-resource settings can lead to harm. There is equipoise regarding the benefits and harms of ACS use in hospitals in low-resource countries. This randomized controlled trial aims to determine whether ACS are safe and efficacious when given to women at risk of imminent birth in the early preterm period, in hospitals in low-resource countries.

Methods/design
The trial design is a parallel, two-arm, double-blind, individually randomized, placebo-controlled trial of ACS (dexamethasone) for women at risk of imminent preterm birth. The trial will recruit 6018 women in participating hospitals across five low-resource countries (Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria and Pakistan). The primary objectives are to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone with placebo on survival of the baby and maternal infectious morbidity. The primary outcomes are: 1) neonatal death (to 28 completed days of life); 2) any baby death (any stillbirth postrandomization or neonatal death); and 3) a composite outcome to assess possible maternal bacterial infections. The trial will recruit eligible, consenting pregnant women from 26 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days gestation with confirmed live fetuses, in whom birth is planned or expected within 48 h. The intervention comprises a regimen of intramuscular dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The comparison is an identical placebo regimen (normal saline). A total of 6018 women will be recruited to detect a reduction of 15% or more in neonatal deaths in a two-sided 5% significance test with 90% power (including 10% loss to follow-up).

Discussion
Findings of this trial will guide clinicians, programme managers and policymakers on the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries. The trial findings will inform updating of the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on ACS use.

LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

Mercy D, Kinyanjui Sarah, Kiarie M. "‘Access to Justice for Intra Familial Child Sexual Abuse Victims in Kenya: A Mirage?" International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research.. 2019.
Jadeed MA, Waris A, Musembi C. "‘Delimiting the Kadhis’ Courts Probate Jurisdiction under the 2010 Constitutional Dispensation’." East African Law Journal. 2019:95.
Patricia K-M, Yohana G, Kinyanjui Sarah. "‘Sexual Harassment in the Workplace in Kenya’." East African Law Journal. 2019;(102).
Ndiritu A, J. M, C. N. "“Rowing The Boat in The Same Direction: A Must for Transformational Leaders.". IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME)e- ISSN: 2320–7388,p-ISSN: 2320–737X Volume 9, Issue 1Ser. II. (Jan. – Feb. 2019), PP 32-36.www.iosrjournals.org.". 2019. Abstract

Teamwork is the lubricant that makes the team to work efficiently. This only happens when the team members share and understand their common vision. This study sort to investigate the influence of Principals’ transformational leadership characteristic of “Inspiring a shared vision” and academic performance in secondary schools. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified random sampling was used in selection of respondents to ensure that principals from both public and private schools were included in the sample. Transformational leadership was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-self developed by Kouzes and Posner (1993). Principal’s responses were triangulated usingKouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices Inventory-others on teachers. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, t-test was used. Results indicated a modest correlation between leadership characteristic of “inspiring a Shared Vision” and students’ academic performance. This relationship was statistically significant (r=0.477 n=40 p=0.002). Based on the findings, it is recommended that principals should ensure that all the stakeholders are moving in the same direction by practicing transformational leadership characteristic of “inspiring others to act”.

Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: Laser Science. Optical Society of America; 2019:. Abstract
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Isaac MM, Muya SM, Kiiru W, Muchai M, others. "Avian Abundance, Diversity and Conservation Status in Etago Sub-County Kisii County Kenya." Open Journal of Ecology. 2019;9:157. Abstract
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Ndithia HK, Versteegh MA, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2019. Abstract
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Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Fajardo I, Lidtke AA, Bendoukha SA, Gonzalez-Llorente J, Rodríguez R, Morales R, Faizullin D, Matsuoka M, Urakami N, Kawauchi R, Miyazaki M, Yamagata N, Hatanaka K, Abdullah F, Rojas JJ, Keshk ME, Cosmas K, Ulambayar T, Saganti P, Holland D, Dachev T, Tuttle S, Dudziak R, Okuyama K-ichi. "Design, Implementation, and Operation of a Small Satellite Mission to Explore the Space Weather Effects in LEO." Aerospace. 2019;6. AbstractWebsite

Ten-Koh is a 23.5 kg, low-cost satellite developed to conduct space environment effects research in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Ten-Koh was developed primarily by students of the Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) and launched on 29 October 2018 on-board HII-A rocket F40, as a piggyback payload of JAXA’s Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT-2). The satellite carries a double Langmuir probe, CMOS-based particle detectors and a Liulin spectrometer as main payloads. This paper reviews the design of the mission, specifies the exact hardware used, and outlines the implementation and operation phases of the project. This work is intended as a reference that other aspiring satellite developers may use to increase their chances of success. Such a reference is expected to be particularly useful to other university teams, which will likely face the same challenges as the Ten-Koh team at Kyutech. Various on-orbit failures of the satellite are also discussed here in order to help avoid them in future small spacecraft. Applicability of small satellites to conduct space-weather research is also illustrated on the Ten-Koh example, which carried out simultaneous measurements with JAXA’s ARASE satellite.

Yumbya P, Hutchinson M, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Hexanal as a Post-harvest Treatment to Extend the Shelf-life of Banana Fruits (Musa acuminata var. Sweet Banana) in Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019:1-16. Abstract
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Nyangena IO, Owino WO, Imathiu S, Ambuko J. "Effect of pretreatments prior to drying on antioxidant properties of dried mango slices." Scientific African. 2019;6:e00148. Abstract
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Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW, others. "Effects of butorphanol, meloxicam and butorphanol-meloxicam combination on wound healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8:300-307. Abstract
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Otange B, Birech Z, Rop R, Julius Oyugi. "Estimation of HIV-1 viral load in plasma of HIV-1-infected people based on the associated Raman spectroscopic peaks." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2019. Abstract
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Wamaitha MN, Mogoa EM, Mande JD. "Evaluation of anesthesia produced by ketofol in acepromazine-or medetomidine-sedated dogs." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2019;6:215. Abstract
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Adwet WM, Pant HJ, MANGALA MJ,... "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a wastewater stabilization pond using radiotracer technique. Residence time distribution (RTD) of wastewater was measured using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer. The measured RTD was treated and mean residence time …

GATARI MJ. "First WHO Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health: A Brief Report." Clean Air Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

The subject conference (documented in www. who. int) was organized by WHO in collaboration with WMO, CCAC, UNFCC, UNECE, The World Bank, UN-DESA and EU-DEVCO in Geneva, Switzerland from 30 October to 01 November 2018. The conference …

GATARI MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E,... "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya." … Research Part D …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Airborne black carbon (BC) particles have serious implications for human health and climate change and thus represent a prime target for mitigation policies. The sources of BC include vehicles burning diesel fuel, which are common in urban areas in low-income countries. The …

Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "An ICT model for increased adoption of farm input information in developing countries: A case in Sikasso, Mali." Information Processing in Agriculture. 2019;6:26-46. Abstract
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Wangara AA, Hunold KM, Leeper S, Ndiawo F, Mweu J, Harty S, Fuchs R, Martin IBK, Ekernas K, Dunlop SJ, others. "Implementation and performance of the south african triage scale at kenyatta national hospital in nairobi, kenya." International journal of emergency medicine. 2019;12:1-8. Abstract
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Monroe-Wise A, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Fuller S, Dunbar M, Masuda D, Opiyo E, Muchai B, Chepken C, Omwenga E, Oboko R, others. "Improving information and communications technology (ict) knowledge and skills to develop health research capacity in Kenya." Online Journal of Public Health Informatics. 2019;11. Abstract
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Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J. "Influence of coating application methods on the postharvest quality of cassava." International journal of food science. 2019;2019. Abstract
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Gitau J, GATARI MJ, Pant HJ. "Investigation of flow dynamics of porous clinkers in a ball mill using technitium-99m as a radiotracer." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a ball mill of a cement plant in Kenya. Residence time distribution (RTD) of raw feed to the mill was measured using Technetium-99m adsorbed on the clinkers as a radiotracer. From the measured RTDs, solid holdup and …

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Musuva P, Chepken C, Getao K. "A naturalistic methodology for assessing susceptibility to social engineering through phishing." The African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11:2. Abstract
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Musuva PMW, Getao KW, Chepken CK. "A new approach to modelling the effects of cognitive processing and threat detection on phishing susceptibility." Computers in Human Behavior. 2019;94:154-175. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen T-H, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Achia T, others. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC public health. 2019;19:372. Abstract
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Gateri MW, Nyankanga R, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Optimizing Nitrogen Application in Onion (Allium cepa L.): Influence of Rate and Time of Topdressing on Growth, Yield and Quality." New Perspectives in International Plant and Soil Research Vol. 1. 2019:102-120. Abstract
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Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). AbstractWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

Okaru AO, Lachenmeier DW. "Processing Contaminants: Furfuryl Alcohol.". 2019. Abstract
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Mwamburi Samuel M., Mbatia Betty N.* RKKEM, M. NN. "Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by hydrocarbonaclastic bacteria." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2019;18:352-364. Abstract
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Nyangena IO, Owino WO, Imathiu S, Ambuko J. "Scientific African.". 2019. Abstract
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Okaru AO, Rehm J, Sommerfeld K, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "The threat to quality of alcoholic beverages by unrecorded consumption.". In: Alcoholic beverages. Woodhead Publishing; 2019:. Abstract
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Healey-Walsh J, Stuart-Shor E, Muchira J. "Through the Lens of Postcolonial Theory: Establishing Global North-South Partnerships." Nursing education perspectives. 2019;40:270-277. Abstract
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KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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Muchira J, Stuart-Shor E, Manne-Goehler J, Lo J, Tsai AC, Kakukire B, Okello S, Siedner MJ. "Validity of hemoglobin A1c for diagnosing diabetes among people with and without HIV in Uganda." International journal of STD & AIDS. 2019;30:479-485. Abstract
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Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko J, Owino WO. "Yield and tissue calcium concentration of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit as influenced by calcium source and time of application." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019:1-12. Abstract
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2018
Kamweru K. "Housing as Process: An Approach Based of a Multiple Client Approach.". In: 8th Annual East Africa Workshop and Exhibition,. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Gitao, C.G. "PhD supervision at University of Nairobi.". In: Carta Supervision workshop. Johannesburg, South Africa; 2018.
"The entitled family relations." People Daily, May 29, 2018.
Kiragu H, Mwangi E, Kamucha G. "A rapid MRI reconstruction method based on compressive sampling and concomitant artifacts suppression.". In: 19th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON). Marrakesh, Morocco ; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Amusing game of corruption in Africa as the rule of law fails." Sunday Nation, March 24, 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Expected break with past is still elusive." Sunday Nation, March 10, 2018.
Mitema A, Okoth S, Rafudeen SM. "Molecular biomarkers and phenotypic characterization as a means of determining genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus isolates.". In: 40th Mycotoxin Workshop Munich 2018. Munich; 2018.
Kiriinya LK, Marijnissen JCM, Agostino LF. "Application of Electrospray in thermal desalination in tropical countries.”.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "What it takes to unify the country goes beyond mega development projects." Sunday Nation, January 28, 2018.
Nambati EA, Kiarie WC, Kimani F, Kimotho JH, Otinga MS, Too E, Kaniaru S, Limson J, Bulimo W. "Unclear association between levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and blood parasitaemia: diagnostic implications?" Malaria Journal. 2018;17:9. Abstractnambati_et_al_2018.pdfnambati_et_al_2018.pdfWebsite

The use of saliva in diagnosis of infectious diseases is an attractive alternative to procedures that involve blood drawing. It promises to reduce risks associated with accidental needle pricks and improve patient compliance particularly in malaria survey and drug efficacy studies. Quantification of parasitaemia is useful in establishing severity of disease and in assessing individual patient response to treatment. In current practice, microscopy is the recommended technique, despite its limitations. This study measured the levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and investigated the relationship with blood parasitaemia.

Kanyinga K. "How to boost citizens’ participation in decision-making." Sunday Nation, February 24, 2018.
Mumbi M. "limate Responsive Architecture: Learning from the History of the Origin, Spread and Development of Tropical Modern Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "You needed to get close to the man to understand diplomacy." Sunday Nation, August 19, 2018.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Maswala ya Afya: mtazamo wa kiekolojia.". In: CHAKAMA. Maasai Mara University; 2018.
Muigua K. "Towards an Overarching Policy: Understanding Kenya’s Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Landscape and Culture.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. Intercontinental Hotel, ; 2018.towards_an_overarching_policy-ncia_conference_paper-ncia_conference_conference_paper_6th_june_2018_kariuki_muigua_ph.d.pdf
"Decolonising Language in Kenya by use of Kiswahili and Local Languages.". In: 1st International Conference on Decolonising Education. Embu University; 2018.
Muigua K. "Utilising Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms to Manage Commercial Disputes.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. InterContinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2018.
Muthomi J. "Technologies and innovations in Phytosanitary Systems.". In: The 2nd Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarter, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Wasamba P. "The Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) in the Age of Disruptions: Boon or Bane?". In: Makerere Humanities and Social Sciences Symposium. Kampala, Uganda; 2018.
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Ralwala AO. "Incorporation of semiology into the curricula of Kenyan schools of architecture.". In: Knowledge solutions for the society, the economy and the environment. 12th International Conference at Egerton University, 27th to 29th March 2018.; 2018.
Ralwala AO. "Kenyan cultural ecology as a central determinant in the architectural production of urban space—the example of Nairobi County. .". In: Knowledge solutions for the society, the economy and the environment. 12th International Conference at Egerton University, 27th to 29th March 2018.; 2018.
Ralwala AO. "The praxis of Critical Regionalism as a prescription for achieving a hybrid identity in Kenyan architecture.". In: Knowledge solutions for the society, the economy and the environment. 12th International Conference at Egerton University, 27th to 29th March 2018.; 2018.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements.". In: IADR. London, UK; 2018.
Mwadime JM, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Wanja DW, Maina JG, Maina SK, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Heavy Neascus species infestation of farmed Oreochromis niloticus in Kirinyaga county, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwadime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Preliminary findings of common bacterial pathogens affecting farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Olali T. "Ecology as thematic foci: The identity of Swahili Poetry and Ecocriticism experiment.". In: Environments of African Literature. Marriott Wardman Park, Washington, D.C, USA ; 2018.
Otieno CA, Wairimu S, Madadi VO, Kimani E, Jama HH, Ayah R. "TO DETERMINE THE USE OF LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZEOLITE FOR OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR .". In: 1st Annual Conference on Science for Development: Supporting Manufacturing, Affordable Housing, Universal Healthcare and Food Security . Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Implementing a school-based teacher support system for sustainable education development in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and innovation in Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Mwihia EW, Lyche JL, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi JK, Maina J, Ivanova L, Uhlig S, Mulei IR, Eriksen GS. "Co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in fish feed in Kenya.". In: ASM 2018 Scientific Programme. Leisure Lodge Resort, Mombasa, Kenya; 2018.
Wasamba P. "The Role of Books in Defining a People’s Future in Africa.". In: Indaba. Harare; 2018.
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Wachira K, Mwangi E, Jeon G. "A Hexomino Multi-path Generation Gradient-Based Debayering Technique for Low Resolution Cameras.". In: AEC 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Macharia EM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Evaluation of Properties of Waste Plastic Oil (WPO) as an Alternative Fuel for Compression -Ignition Engines.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Nyagetuba KM, Kimilu RK, Aganda A. "Hydropower Potential in a water supply system.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018 (AEC 2018). Narobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Lolgisoi LB, Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Improving the Prototyping Manufacturing Processes: The Development of an Assembly Manual for Suction Machine.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Prototyping Process at the University of Nairobi Maker-Space: A Case Study of Medical Devices for Maternal Newborn Health.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
BIRIR J, Gatari MJ, RAJAGOPAL P, Mwea SK, MUIA ML. "Interaction of ultrasonic waves with defects.". In: NDE2018. Mumbai, India; 2018.
"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Andreieva IO, Konstantynovska O, Midulla F, Marangu D, Mchedlishvili N. "Summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine: course report." Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(1):9-12. Abstract
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Masese L, Simoni JM, Shafi J, Adala L, Overbaugh J, Jaoko W, Richardson BA, McClelland RS. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Fertility Desire, Unprotected Sex, and Detectable Viral Load in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2018;78(3):276-282. Abstract

Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers. Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it was associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TMH, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Lumbiganon P, Patel AB, Carroli G, Fawole B, Goudar SS, Pujar YV, Neilson J, Hofmeyr JG, Su LL, Ferreira de Carvalho J, Pandey U, Mugerwa K, Shiragur SS, Byamugisha J, Giordano D, Gülmezoglu MA. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." N Engl J Med. 2018;379(8):743-752. Abstract

Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

Knowles DP, Kappmeyer LS, Haney D, Herndon DR, Fry LM, Munro JB, Sears K, Ueti MW, Wise LN, Silva M, Schneider DA, Grause J, White SN, Tretina K, Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Pelzel-McCluskey AM, Scoles GA, Mealey RH, Silva JC. "Discovery of a novel species, Theileria haneyi n. sp., infective to equids, highlights exceptional genomic diversity within the genus Theileria: implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance." Int J Parasitol. 2018;48(9-10):679-690. Abstract

A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses. The estimated divergence time between the new Theileria sp. and T. equi, based on genomic sequence data, is greater than 33 million years. Average protein sequence divergence between them, at 23%, is greater than that of Theileria parva and Theileria annulata proteins, which is 18%. The latter two represent highly virulent Theileria spp. of domestic cattle, as well as of African and Asian wild buffalo, respectively, which differ markedly in pathology, host cell tropism, tick vector and geographical distribution. The extent of genome-wide sequence divergence, as well as significant morphological differences, relative to T. equi justify the classification of Theileria sp. as a new taxon. Despite the overall genomic divergence, the nine member equi merozoite antigen (EMA) superfamily, previously found as a multigene family only in T. equi, is also present in the novel parasite. Practically, significant sequence divergence in antigenic loci resulted in this undescribed Theileria sp. not being detectable using currently available diagnostic tests. Discovery of this novel species infective to equids highlights exceptional diversity within the genus Theileria, a finding with serious implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance.

Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9840. Abstract

Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a complementary method to sprouting angiogenesis (SA). The hallmark of IA is formation of trans-capillary tissue pillars, their fusion and remodeling of the vascular plexus. In this study, we investigate the formation of the zebrafish caudal vein plexus (CVP) in Tg(fli1a:eGFP) and the synergistic interaction of IA and SA in crafting the archetypical angio-architecture of the CVP. Dynamic in vivo observations and quantitative analyses revealed that the primitive CVP during development was initiated through SA. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurred by IA. Intussusception contributed to the expansion of the CVP by formation of new pillars. Those pillars arose in front of the already existing ones; and in a subsequent step the serried pillars elongated and fused together. This resulted in segregation of larger vascular segments and remodelling of the disorganized vascular meshwork into hierarchical tree-like arrangement. Blood flow was the main driving force for IA, particularly shear stress geometry at the site of pillar formation and fusion. Computational simulations based on hemodynamics showed drop in shear stress levels at locations of new pillar formation, pillar elongation and fusion. Correlative 3D serial block face scanning electron microscopy confirmed the morphological substrate of the phenomena of the pillar formation observed in vivo. The data obtained demonstrates that after the sprouting phase and formation of the primitive capillary meshwork, the hemodynamic conditions enhance intussusceptive segregation of hierarchical vascular tree i.e. intussusceptive arborization resulting in complex vascular structures with specific angio-architecture.

Salih DA, Mwacharo JM, Pelle R, Njahira MN, Odongo DO, Mbole-Kariuki MN, Marcellino WL, Malak AK, Kiara H, El Hussein ARM, Bishop RP, Skilton RA. "Genetic diversity and population structure of Theileria parva in South Sudan." Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2018;9(4):806-813. Abstract

Theileria parva is a parasitic protozoan that causes East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. In South Sudan, ECF is considered a major constraint for livestock development in regions where the disease is endemic. To obtain insights into the dynamics of T. parva in South Sudan, population genetic analysis was performed. Out of the 751 samples included in this study, 178 blood samples were positive for T. parva by species-specific PCR, were collected from cattle from four regions in South Sudan (Bor = 62; Juba = 45; Kajo keji = 41 and Yei = 30) were genotyped using 14 microsatellite markers spanning the four chromosomes. The T. parva Muguga strain was included in the study as a reference. Linkage disequilibrium was evident when populations from the four regions were treated as a single entity, but, when populations were analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Bor, Juba and Kajo keji. Juba region had a higher multiplicity of infection than the other three regions. Principal components analysis revealed a degree of sub-structure between isolates from each region, suggesting that populations are partially distinct, with genetic exchange and gene flow being limited between parasites in the four geographically separated populations studied. Panmixia was observed within individual populations. Overall T. parva population genetic analyses of four populations in South Sudan exhibited a low level of genetic exchange between the populations, but a high level of genetic diversity within each population.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. "Surgery for postvitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD006366. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous that is used in the treatment of many disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from removal of the cataractous lens.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery versus no surgery for postvitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 May 2017), Embase.com (1947 to 17 May 2017), PubMed (1946 to 17 May 2017), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS) (January 1982 to 17 May 2017), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com); last searched May 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 May 2017, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 May 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently screened the search results according to the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:
We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
There is no evidence from RCTs or quasi-RCTs on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for postvitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for RCTs to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include changes (both gains and losses) of visual acuity, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture and retinal detachment. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one- or two-year) outcomes should be examined.
Update of Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013]

Emily N Kitivo, GH Nyamasyo JKM. "Agroecosytem disservices and service providers." South Eastern Kenya University; 2018.
Makenzius M, Faxelid E, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Odero TMA, Klingberg-Allvin M, Oguttu M. "Contraceptive uptake in post abortion care-Secondary outcomes from a randomised controlled trial, Kisumu, Kenya." PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0201214. AbstractWebsite

The aim was to explore contraceptive uptake, associated factors and satisfaction among post abortion-care (PAC) seeking women in Kenya. Due to unsafe abortions, almost 120 000 Kenyan women received PAC in 2012, and of these women, 70% did not use contraception before pregnancy.

Subramanian S, Gakunga R, Kibachio J, Gathecha G, Edwards P, Ogola E, Yonga G, Busakhala N, Munyoro E, Chakaya J, Ngugi N, Mwangi N, Von Rege D, Wangari L-M, Wata D, Makori R, Mwangi J, Mwanda W. "Cost and affordability of non-communicable disease screening, diagnosis and treatment in Kenya: Patient payments in the private and public sectors." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(1):e0190113. Abstract

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya, disproportionately to the rest of the world. Our objective was to quantify patient payments to obtain NCD screening, diagnosis, and treatment services in the public and private sector in Kenya and evaluate patients' ability to pay for the services.

Malusi B, L.O O. "Effect of Handedness on Completion Rate of Chemistry Timed Tasks by LeftHanded Learners .". In: The IAFOR International Conference on Education. Dubai; 2018.iicedubai2018_39167.pdf
Bore M. "Emergency management: chemical burns." Community Eye Health. 2018;31(103):72.
Mumbi M. "Evolution of Colonial Architecture and its contribution to Tropical Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Bore M. "How to supervise a master’s dissertation.". In: College of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa Congress. Ethiopia; 2018.
Bashaeb MO, Mutala TM, Muriithi IM. "Pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain at the department of diagnostic imaging, university of Nairobi." Pan Afr Med J. 2018;31:116. Abstract

the ankle joint is a frequently injured joint. It is also affected by inflammatory, infectious and tumoral lesions. Ultrasound is a safe and cost-effective imaging tool when evaluating the ankle joint, as most structures are superficial and accessible. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain.

Bashaeb MO, Mutala TM, Muriithi IM. "Pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain at the department of diagnostic imaging, university of Nairobi." Pan Afr Med J. 2018;31:116. Abstract

the ankle joint is a frequently injured joint. It is also affected by inflammatory, infectious and tumoral lesions. Ultrasound is a safe and cost-effective imaging tool when evaluating the ankle joint, as most structures are superficial and accessible. The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the ankle joint complex in patients presenting with ankle pain.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "Satisfaction with Delivery Services Offered under the Free Maternal Healthcare Policy in Kenyan Public Health Facilities." J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:4902864. Abstract

Patients' satisfaction is an individual's positive assessment regarding a distinct dimension of healthcare and the perception about the quality of services offered in that health facility. Patients who are not satisfied with healthcare services in a certain health facility will bypass the facility and are unlikely to seek treatment in that facility.

Nguru W, Moturi CA. "Supplier Selection Process Based on Fuzzy Logic.". In: Conference on Science and Development. College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Chiromo; 2018. Abstract

In Kenyan governmental organizations, supplier selection during procurement process is regulated by the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal act. The act requires the selection to be done on technical and financial basis, taking into consideration price, quality, time and service. The common way of selecting suppliers is by forming an evaluation committee which takes considerable time and may be characterized by biases and associated costs. Furthermore, the “quality” and “service” factors advised by the act are imprecise and subjective during an evaluation process and also challenging to quantify. This study presents an approach to help decision-makers evaluate potential suppliers by utilizing fuzzy inference system. Initially, the main quantitative and qualitative criteria used in supplier selection process in the construction service industry were identified from literatures and experts through structured questionnaires. After ranking the identified criteria, a Matlab Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was utilized to develop the selection model. The proposed model was tested using a real tender for construction works in a government office block. We realized that the proposed model makes the selection process more systematic and achieved a shorter turn-around time as compared to an evaluation committee. It was concluded that using the Fuzzy inference system resulted in an optimum solution and thus can support in decision making when selecting suppliers thus contributes to the advancement of e-procurement in supply chain management.

Perciani CT, Jaoko W, Farah B, Ostrowski MA, Anzala O, MacDonald KS. "αEβ7, α4β7 and α4β1 integrin contributions to T cell distribution in blood, cervix and rectal tissues: Potential implications for HIV transmission." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2):e0192482. Abstract

Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45). Here we show that blood and cervix were enriched in α4+β1+CD4+T cells and α4+β7hiCD4+T cells, whereas the rectum had an equal frequency of α4+β7hiCD4+T cells and αE+β7hiCD4+T cells. Most cervical and rectal αE+β7hiCD4+T cells expressed CCR5 as well as CD69. Interestingly, αEβ7 was the predominant integrin expressed by CD4negT cells in both mucosal sites, outnumbering αE+β7hiCD4+T cells approximately 2-fold in the cervix and 7-fold in the rectum. The majority of αE+β7hiCD4negT cells expressed CD69 at the mucosa. Taken together, our results show unique tissue-specific patterns of integrin expression. These results can help in guiding vaccine design and also the use of therapeutically targeting integrin adhesion as a means to preventing HIV.

M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. ") Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 2018;2(1).
Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Kelder EM. "Electrospray synthesis of porous cathode material for lithium ion batteries.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
simon munayi Janet chumba. "Management of sports in kenyan public and private universities:emerging trends.". In: Laikipia university international conference.; 2018.
"Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika utoaji wa huduma kwa umma nchini Kenya.". In: CHAUKIDU. State University of Zanzibar; 2018.
Ondieki EO. "TENEMENTS IN NAIROBI’S URBAN GROWTH.". In: Architectural Association of Kenya (AAK) Convention. Pride-Inn Paradise Beach Resort, Mombasa; 2018.
Oredo J. "Cloud Computing Adoption and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Organizational Mindfulness.". In: Kibabii University 3rd Interdisciplinary International Scientific Conference. Bungoma; 2018.
Dulo, Olago, D. O., Kanoti. "Ground water supply and sanitation challenges in developing countries: Case studies from Kenya.". In: International Association of Hydrogeologisy (IAH) Congress . Daejeon, Korea; 2018.
Ayah R. "Clinical Team Effectiveness and Scaling up of HIV Treatment and Care: A Survey of ART Services Nairobi County.". In: HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Mbuge DO. "The State of Environmental Engineering in Africa and Opportunities for Collaboration.". In: Duncan Onyango Mbuge. Tongji University, Shanghai, China; 2018.
Onyango CM, Kunyanga CN, Karanja DN, Wahome RG. " EMPLOYER PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY TRAINING IN KENYA ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2018;6(1):175-185.

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