Publications

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2017
Mwangi TJ, Kibui AW. "Effects of Chemistry practicals on students' performance in secondary school chemistry." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;(ISSN (Online)).
Elly D, Kaijage ES. "Effects of Demand Side Factors on Access to External Finance by Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):44-6. Abstract

Abstract Purpose - This paper investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. Methodology - The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. Findings – The study establishes that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include variations in entrepreneur’s networks, firm growth and earnings volatility which explain variations in odds of access to external finance by 39.9 percent for networks and 45.8 percent for earnings volatility and firm growth. Implications – To minimize SMMEs financial constraints, social networking amongst entrepreneurs, firm growth and stabilized earning should be prioritized by management and policy makers. Though ethnic orientation influences the odds of access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure efficiency in external financing markets so that entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on this basis. Value - The study recommends establishment and support of sustainable social networks that guarantee enterprise growth given that firm growth also influence odds of access to external finance. Further studies should probe the significance of good financial management practices on odds of access to external finance in diverse settings and industries.

E K, J M. "Effects of East African Community integration on trade volume in the region." International Journal of Science, Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(9):23-37.
HM M, Kipyegon AN TVT. "Effects of Exposure to Effluent Contaminated River Water on Boar Reproduction." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(1):49-52.mutembei_and_kipyegon_2017.pdf
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The effects of Intermolecular Interaction in Line Broadening Phenomena.". In: J. Molecular Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 2017. Abstract

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GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Okoth S. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International journal of microbiology. 2017:1-9. Abstract5273893.pdfWebsite

This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin
production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits
fromSolanumaculeastrum, bark fromSyzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis,
and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and
UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were
suspended in 2ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm) for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed
species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in
both strains: UONV017 (mean = 18.50 ± 0.71 mm) and UONV003 (mean = 11.92 ± 0.94 mm) at 600mg/ml. Aqueous extracts
had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory
concentration at 25mg/ml against A. flavusUONV017.All the plant extracts in combinationwith light reduced the viability of fungal
conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds
were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further
development can control toxigenic fungal spread.

Njoki LM, Okoth SA, Wachira PM. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International Journal of Microbiology. 2017:Pages 9 doi:10.1155/2017/5273893.
Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "Effects of Modernization on Youths' Morality: A Case of Karuri Catholic Parish, Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(12):691-711.wachege_rugendo_article_1.pdf
Mwangi S, Elly DD. "Effects of Operating Environment Factors on Infrastructure Finance Flows in the Capital Markets in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):132-159 . Abstract

Purpose – This study sought to establish the whether the operating environment factors affect efficient infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya. Policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions are the operating environment factors which influence the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets.

Methodology – The study was undertaken using descriptive research design where a questionnaire was used targeting a population of 100 infrastructure related institutions. The questionnaire used to collect quantitative data was on the Likert scale with numerical scores 1 to 5. Descriptive and regression analysis were conducted on the data to show how each independent variable of the operating environment factors influences the infrastructure finance flows.

Findings – Majority of respondents think that there are inadequate policies, laws and regulations while half of these respondents believe that the institutions lack the necessary capacity to operate efficiently and effectively. From the results, majority of these respondents agreed that there is need for an urgent review of the existing financial sector policies and institutions. Half of the respondents want the regulations revised but majority of these respondents believe that the existing laws do not require review. The results indicated that the policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions significantly affect the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets in Kenya. From the results, it can be concluded that there are no adequate policy, legal, regulatory and institutional arrangements to facilitate the uptake of infrastructure finance in the capital markets. Further, it can be deduced that the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional regimes are poorly configured to deliver financing of infrastructure projects in the capital markets of Kenya. Finally, it can be inferred that the financial sector policies, regulations and institutions are not strong enough to provide a supportive environment in delivery of infrastructure finance.

Implications – The financial sector policies, laws, regulations and institutions need to be reviewed in order to create a conducive operating environment for financing of infrastructure investments. Benchmarking studies are critical for enhancement of policies, laws, regulations and institutions based on the international best practices for efficient and effective delivery of infrastructure finance through the capital markets in Kenya. Further research is recommended on effects of operating environment factors on infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya.

Keywords: Infrastructure investments, policy framework, legal environment, regulations, institutions

"EFFECTS OF SELECTED FIRMS CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE ." African development finance journal . 2017;1(2):102-116 . Abstracteffects_of_selected_firms_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Purpose - Capital structure choice remains a crucial decision alongside the vital choices intended by a corporate since they have a high consequence on the value and the cost of the company. Therefore this study main focus was to examine the effects of selected firms characteristics on the capital structure decisions of companies registered at the Nairobi Stock exchange.
Methodology - The study adopted a descriptive research design and used secondary data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of the SPSS software version 23 and presented with the help of frequency distributions, computation of mean and standard deviation. The association between the research variables was presented in a correlation matrix and a regression model.
Findings - Firm size showed greatest influence on the company choice of capital structure among the firms followed by asset structure, profitability and liquidity. Further, the regression model also generated adjusted R squared value of 0.692 that is to mean 69.2% of the variations in financing options can be well illustrated by variations in the firm size, asset structure, profitability and liquidity. The findings from the study indicated an affirmative correlation among firm’s size and the financing options. The findings also revealed an affirmative association among assets structure against the source of financing. The findings from the research also showed that there is undesirable association among the firm’s profitability and source of financing of the firms listed at the NSE while a negative relationship among liquidity and the principal investment was exhibited in the research findings. This leads to a conclusion that rise in company size resulted to a rise in the investment structure of a firm therefore increase in demand to increase the capital base by seeking more financing. The study also found out that an increase in asset structure resulted in an increase in capital structure while an increase in profitability levels resulted in decrease in capital structure; increase in in liquidity levels led to a decrease in capital structure of the firms listed at the NSE.
Implications –The study findings emphasize that firms should understand the specific characteristics that influence choice of their respective capital structure in order to opt for the best financing option. The study also further suggested that similar studies should be carried out every three to five years to find out the significance of firm characteristics on choice of capital structure of firms listed at the NSE
Value -The findings of the study would be significant to public institutions and other non-listed firms in the choice of financing options and design of capital structure. Policy makers would infer the findings in formulation of relevant capital structure policies.
Key words: Capital structure decisions, size of the firm, asset structure, profitability, liquidity

GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Masinde SP, Ochieng DDE. "Effects of Working Capital Management on Financial Performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies Listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):61-79. Abstract

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of Working Capital Management on the financial performance of Energy and Petroleum Companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. Methodology – The study was modelled as correlation survey. A data collection sheet was used to collect secondary data from the published financial statements of all Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange for a period of eight years between 2007 and 2014. Both descriptive and quantitative analyses were adopted. Pearson correlation, regression and ANOVA analysis were also conducted. Findings - The study suggests that Working Capital Management influence the Return on Assets significantly. 17.8% of the variations in profitability were influenced by variations in the Working Capital Management. The study establishes that the influence of Working Capital Management on profitability is statistically significant. The study finds weak negative associations between profitability and inventory conversion period, accounts collection period, accounts payable period and cash conversion cycles. The study establishes that the negative relationships between accounts payable period, cash conversion cycle and profitability are statistically significant. The relationships between accounts collection period, inventory conversion period and performance are not statistically significant. Implications - It is incumbent upon the Finance Managers of Energy and Petroleum companies listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange to understand the Energy and Petroleum business operations, and put in place robust Working Capital Management framework because of significant and positive impact on the financial performance of these companies. Value - A vibrant and profitable Energy and Petroleum sector has been identified as a key pillar to the achievement of Kenya’s Vision 2030. It is critical therefore, to reevaluate existing Working Capital Management framework of these companies for robustness in order to realize the Vision 2030.

Key Words: Working Capital Management, Financial Performance, Nairobi Securities Exchange

Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha M. "Efficacy of Plant Extracts and Antagonistic Fungi in Managing Tomato Pests and Diseases under Field Conditions." Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 2017;4(2):20-27.
Wafula1 GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(4):45-54.
Wafula GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6:45-54.
"Either Patronage or Partnership: John Gatu’s Proposal for Moratorium.". In: Dictionary of African Christian Biography.; 2017.
Nyongesa F, Aduda BO. "Electrophoretic Deposition of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films for Photocatalytic water purification systems." Advances in Materials. 2017;6(4):31-37. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on
conducting glass substrates for application in water purification from organic contaminants. Phenol was used as a model
pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film
deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO2 particles to the substrate with
homogeneous film coatings, is ethanol with a pH of 3.0, a TiO2 solid loading of 4.0 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the
solvent and a deposition voltage of 20.0V in a time of 210.0s. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films decreases
exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it is also dependent on film thickness, sintering temperature
and the intensity of the UV light. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity is observed at an optimal film thickness of 95.0 ±
2.0µm sintered at 300.0°C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive waste water purification
systems for light industries before discharge into the ecosystem.
Keywords: Electrophoretic Deposition, Titanium Dioxide, Photocatalysis

WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Emphasis on Photovoltaic (PV) Solar System Installation Training: A Case Study of a PV Solar System Installed in Makueni County, Kenya." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(8):31-37. AbstractJournal Article Website

The installation of Photovoltaic (PV) solar systems in institutions as well as homesteads in the rural areas in
Kenya is increasing at a high rate; and so is the need for the stake holders to make sure the PV solar systems are professionally designed, sized, installed and maintained. In PV solar system installation, the designing, sizing and the installation are very critical steps. A wrongly designed, sized and installed system will not perform optimally and will underperform (for undersized systems) and waste energy and resources (for oversized systems). Furthermore, undersized systems do not perform to the user’s expectation discouraging the user and eventually a negative customer attitude creeps in which may affect the uptake of solar PV systems. On the other hand, an oversized PV system is extra expense on the side of the client, creating an exaggerated high cost of PV solar systems, again discouraging potential clients from the adoption of the technology. Both scenarios mean loss of business, jobs and the economic and social benefits associated with PV technology. We present a case study of poorly installed PV systemsin Makueni County, Kenya. We observed that the solar modules pecifications at the back of the modules were not clearly done, the batteries were poorly matched and the cables used in the installation were undersized. Due to these issues, even a normal television set was not able to work since the system was installed four years ago (in 2012).The above case emphasizes the need for training in PV solar system design, sizing, installation, and maintenance.
Key words: Photovoltaic (PV), modules, solar system, Installation, training, professional

Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Empowering children and teachers through literacy: the case of children’s book project (CBP) for Tanzania." Education Research Journal.. 2017;7(5):94-102.
HM M, AN K, ER M. "Environmental Estrogen-Like Endocrine Disrupting Compounds and the Dangers they pose on Male Fertility: Review Case of Nairobi River Water." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies . 2017;3(3):25-29.
Bonsaana G B, EM N, DR I. "EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RED EYES IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN GHANA." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):14-18.
Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu (Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral." International Journal of Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(4):181-198. AbstractInternational Journal of Innovation Education and Research

Description
Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Wabomba JN, Shiundu PM, Onyari JM, Yanful E. "Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Cu(Ii) Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using a Kenyan Micaceous Mineral.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Copper (II) sorption on a Kenyan micaceous mineral (Mica-K) was studied in the batch mode. The effects of different experimental parameters such as; initial concentration, contact time, sorbent dose, pH, particle size, agitation speed, competition and temperature on the kinetics of copper removal were studied. The sorption pattern of copper onto Mica-K followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for copper sorption on Mica-K were also determined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis of metal ion-equilibrated Mica-K, demonstrated that copper, cadmium and Zinc containing nodules existed on the surface of Mica-K.

Mwambora SK, IJMwaniki. "Estimation of Waiting Times for the Three Transient States of HIV Infection in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Physical Sciences Research. 2017;5(1):73-76. AbstractWebsite

The methods that were employed in this project analyzed HIV data. The aim was to evaluate the evolution of HIV positive patients to bring out some significant factors associated with this pathology. Many clinical situations can be described in terms of the conditions that individuals can be in (states), how they can move among such states (transitions), and how likely such moves are (transition probabilities). State transition models were, therefore, best suited to analyze this decision problem. Transition probabilities from states 1, 2, and 3 into state 4 increased as time progressed. The estimated total length of stay in state 1 was longer than state 2 and 3 respectively.

Mutala TM, Maina PN. "Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge on Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience." Journal of Global Radiology. 2017;3(1):Art 1.
Mwathi ZM, Muiru WM, Kimenju JW, Wachira P. "Evaluation of bio-wastes for multiplication of Paecilomyces lilacinus." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10 (6): 1-5.
Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
8. Gladys A. Mbaringong, Nyaboga EN, Wang’ondu V, Kanduma E. "Evaluation of Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars Grown in Kenya for Resistance to Bacterial Blight Disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(2):94-101.
Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze EM, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):40-44. Abstract

Objective: This operational evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of having a screening fundus
camera in the diabetes clinic on the demand for eye clinic diabetic retinopathy services at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: A before-after evaluation design was used. The reference point was installation of a screening retinal fundus camera in the KNH diabetes clinic in May 2016. The ‘before’ period was January to June 2015 and the ‘after’ period was June to November 2016. The one-year gap between the evaluation periods was used for program development and user training. The primary measure of outcome was a comparison of the mean numbers of patients seen and treated before and after starting the screening program. Data was obtained from the medical records on both the diabetes and eye clinics.
Results: The total number of diabetic patients screened in the two periods was 3011 (monthly mean=502,
SD=44) and 2739 (monthly mean=457, SD=38) respectively. The total number referred to the eye clinic increased from 494 (monthly mean=82, SD=16) to 1065 (monthly mean=178, SD=30) while the total number of patients treated with lasers or intravitreal injections increased from 107 (monthly mean=18, SD=5) to 333 (monthly mean=56, SD=39).
Conclusions: Starting a diabetic retinopathy screening program using a fundus camera used based at the
diabetes clinic doubled the number of patients referred for further evaluation at the eye clinic (2.2-fold increase) and tripled the number of diabetics who received treatment for diabetic retinopathy (3.1-fold increase).

Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze M, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016 ." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):40-5.
Gichuhi S, M G, J N, M G, E NYENZE, P N, J K. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):40-44.
Gichuhi S, M G, J N, M G, EM N, T NP, J K. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):14-18.
 Mwinzi JM. "Existentialism School of Philosophy: the Baseline Causality of Lifelong Teaching and Learning." Elixir International Journal,. 2017;113(11):49100-49105.
Elias M, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Expansion of Crop Cultivation and its Impacts on Land Cover Changes in the Borana Rangeland Southern Ethiopia.". 2017. Abstract

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Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Experiences of student teachers’ on placement." International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review. 2017;4(5):90-102.
"Experiences of student-teachers on placement. ." International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review. 2017;4(5):90-102.
Gitonga P, Karani A, Kimani S. "Explore Best Practices in Family Nursing in Kenya: Empathy as a Value in Caring." http://www.opastonline.com/journal-of-nursing-healthcare/. 2017;2(2):1/4.
Abinya NA, Mwanda WO, Maina JMD, Odhiambo AO, Oyiro PO, Mwanzi SA, Dindi E, Waweru A. "Exploring Occupational and Familial Risks for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia." Journal of US-China Medical Science . 2017;1(14):31-35.cml_risk_us-china_publ.pdf
Kang’ethe EK, Gatwiri M, Sirma AJ, Ouko EO, Mburugu-Musoti CK, Kitala PM, Nduhiu GJ, Nderitu JG, JK Mungatu, Hietaniemi V, V Joutsjoki, Korhonen HJ. "Exposure of Kenyan population to aflatoxins in foods with special reference to Nandi and Makueni counties." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1 (2):131-137.
Muiruri KS, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu EK, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Expressed Centromere Specific Histone 3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated Triploid and Wild Diploid Bananas (Musa spp.)." Frontiers in plant science. 2017;1034:1034.
Maina EM, Oboko RO, Waiganjo PW. "Extending moodle grouping functionality using artificial intelligent techniques." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017:55-58. AbstractFull website link

Learning Management Systems such as Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning
Environment (Moodle) only supports random group assignment or instructor based
assignment method. However, with the understanding that random assignment method only
increases the likelihood of heterogeneity in the group, while instructor based method
involves the instructors and it is not dynamic, there is need to develop a group formation
mechanism which can guarantee heterogeneity based on learner's collaboration
competence level, has dynamism in grouping students and has less instructor involvement.
In view of this, this paper discusses how to extend Moodle grouping functionality in
discussion forums using an intelligent grouping algorithm which has the capability to mine
discussion forum data in Moodle and cluster students to different clusters based

KIPLAGAT CHEBONSAMMY, Onyari JM, Mulaa F, wabomba J. "Extraction and characterization of gelatin from Lates niloticus and potential industrial applications." Biofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;15(2):53-64. Abstract

Kiplagat CS, Onyari JM, Mulaa F, Wabomba J. 2018. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from Lates niloticus and potential industrial applications. Biofarmasi J Nat Prod Biochem 16: 53-64. This research aims to extract and characterize gelatin from Lates niloticus (Nile perch) scales, then blend it with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Hydrolysis of the scales was done using a crude alkaline protease harvested from a bacterium, Bacillus cereus strain wwcp 1, obtained from Lake Bogoria. The lyophilized solution yielded 16.3% of gelatin powder calculated from the dry weight of the scales. The sample was characterized using infrared spectroscopy and showed peaks at 3442 cm-1, 1653 cm-1 and~ 1590 cm-1 corresponding to Amide A, Amide I and Amide II bands respectively. The amino acid analysis shows that glycine was the most abundant amino acid (21.7%), followed by proline (14.6%) and alanine (11.8%). Isoleucine, Histidine, and Tyrosine were the least abundant (1.8, 1.4 and 0.9% respectively). Polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin blend films of various compositions ranging from 10% to 90% PVA were prepared by solution casting method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) tests showed the films had glass transition, melting and thermal decomposition onset temperatures intermediate between those of the respective individual polymers (PVA and gelatin). The thermal stability of the films reduced with the increase in the amount of the less thermally stable constituent. Lastly, potential applications of the prepared blend films were investigated. Batch experiments to assess the potential of the polymer blend …

W. KP, Maitho T, Wesonga PS. "Facilitation and Implementation of Environmental Education in Primary Schools in Nairobi Country, Kenya." Environmental and Earth Science. 2017;7(7)(ISSN):125-129.
Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017 . Abstract

East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
F. Muthwii, M.Chege, M.Muiva,University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya and M.Habtu, Mount Kenya University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box P.O.Box 5826 Kigali, Rwanda, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Kigali, Rwanda Request for reprints to: F. Muthwii , University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya. fkaluu77@gmail.com
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY F. MUTHWII, M.CHEGE, M.MUIVA and M.HABTU, ABSTRACT Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya. Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards. Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission. Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid. Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva, M.HABTU. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY." East African Medical Journal. 2017. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012,
it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics
indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur
in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28%
of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among
patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH), Kenya.
Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted
with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards.
A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which
every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used
to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors.
In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical
officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated
with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors
of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal
sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following
factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8
to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less
than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67;
P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64;
95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during
labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated
with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal
clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing
severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in
specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;91(2). Abstract

Abstract
Background:Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective:To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design:The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting:The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya.
Subjects:Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results:Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion:The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were;primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Miako GN, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing civil registration of household in cash transfer for orphans and vulnerable children programme in Karaba location, Mbeere South Sub-county." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(2):87-99. AbstractInternational Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management

Description
Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programme (CT-OVC) is one of the major initiatives by the Government of Kenya to support vulnerable children. Birth and death registration are of a particular importance in promoting and protecting the rights of the child. Absence of care giver’s identity card, death certificates for the deceased parents and child’s birth certificate increase the chances of violation of a child’s basic rights. Acquisition of death and birth certificates remains low despite government intervention. The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of cash transfer for orphans and vulnerable children programme on civil registration in Karaba Location of Mbeere South Subcounty. The study sought to determine how demographic characteristics of the caregivers, challenges faced by caregivers, household priorities of caregivers and household size affect civil registration. The study was conducted in Karaba Location of Mbeere South Sub-county using descriptive study design. The target population was 399 respondents comprising of 377 Caregivers, 20 children, 1 Children Officer and 1 Civil Registrar. The sample size was 102 respondents. Systematic sampling was used since a complete list of caregivers was available. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire, interview guide and focus group discussion guide while secondary data was obtained from documents review. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences and presented in frequency tables and cross tabulations. Study findings indicated that demographic characteristics of the caregiver such as age, gender occupation and education …

Kiugu RICHARDMWIRIGI, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing customer access to piped water and sanitation services in low income urban areas: A case of Meru town, Meru County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):356-369. Abstract

Description
A large number of urban residents in sub-Sahara Africa live in slums often characterized by lack of basic services such as water, sewerage and electricity. This is as a result of pressure due population growth, aging infrastructure, climatic change and unsustainable convention water management mostly employed in the region thus posing a huge challenge in managing the unreliable and scarce water resource. Meru Town is not exemption to this phenomenon as in that there are few sanitation facilities and also many people do not access to safe drinking water source. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors that influence customer access to piped water and sanitation services in low income urban areas in Meru Town. The study aimed at determining the influence of; physical parameters, affordability, institutional and structural constraints on customer access to piped water and sanitation services in low income urban areas. The research design used in the study was descriptive research. The target population comprised of 1080 households and 15 staff members of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. The sample size was from two stakeholders namely (i) 105 households and (ii) Purposively sampled 15 staff members of Meru Water and Sewerage Services. To determine the validity and reliability of the interview schedule, a pilot-testing was carried out in a different slum (Kigore) with similar characteristics like those other three. During the field study, information was collected from randomly selected households from three urban poor areas on accessibility and affordability of piped water and sanitation services. The instruments used …

Wanjala. G, Kogei, J.K, A.R. Riechi. "Factors Influencing Enrolment of Learners with Disabilities in Primary Schools with Inclusive Education in Nandi South District, Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning. 2017;4(2):172-190 .abstract.pdf
Gichure, N.G., Wahome, R.G., Njage, P.K., Karuri, H. W., Nzuma, M.J., Karantininis, K. "Factors influencing extent of traceability along organic fresh produce value chains: case of kale in Nairobi, Kenya." Organic Agriculture. 2017;7(3):293-302.
Kiambi EG, Mugambi MM. "FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE OF ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN PROJECTS IN IMENTI NORTH SUB COUNTY, MERU COUNTY, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017; 2(1):179-196.orphans_and_vulnerable_children_projects.pdf
Mutabari MM, Wanjohi JM. "Factors influencing performance of prisoners’ reintegration programmes: A case of women prisoners in Meru government of Kenya prison, Meru County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):464-485. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Offenders released from confinement face a
variety of challenges that may hinder their
ability to become law-abiding citizens. A
key feature of successful reintegration is the
attention to the reintegration programmes
for ex-prisoners into the community and the
development of interventions designed to
reduce the levels of recidivism. The purpose
of this study was to establish factors
influencing performance of prisoner’s
reintegration programmes focusing on
women prisoners in Meru Gk prison. The
study sought to determine the influence of
capacity of prison officers, employment
opportunities, substance abuse, and
education programmes on performance of
prisoner’s reintegration programmes among
women prisoners in Meru Women Gk
prison. The study is grounded on relapse
prevention theory, supported by the
empowerment theory and the public
participation theory. The study adopted
descriptive survey research design. The
target population for this study comprised of
all the 1259 inmates and 317 officers in the
prison according to prison records. The
sample size for the study was 309. Primary
data was obtained using self-administered
questionnaires. Further, the study used
simple random sampling to pick the
respondents in each stratum. Data was
analyzed using Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS Version 22.0). Descriptive
statistics such as frequencies, percentages,
mean score and standard deviation were
estimated for all the quantitative variables
and information presented inform of tables.
The qualitative data from the open-ended
questions was analyzed using conceptual
content analysis and presented in prose
form. The findings show that capacity of
prison officers, employment opportunities,
substance abuse and prison education
programmes greatly influence performance
of prisoner’s reintegration programme. The
study recommended there should be
adequate budgetary allocation of resources
to various GK prisons which will in turn
lead to efficient reintegration programmes.
This should also lead to efficient
reintegration programmes. An improved
Scheme of Service and Establishment
Structure for the Prisons Department needs
to be put in place to facilitate the
recruitment, promotion and retention of
adequate and relevantly trained/skilled
personnel.

Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "Factors Leading to Premature Deaths of Male Youths: A Case of Karuri Village, Kiambu County - Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2017;22(7):64-74.wachege_rugendo_article1.pdf
Ogada CN, Mutave RJ. "Factors that influence the use of the incisive pappila as refference to maxilary anterior tooth positions." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(8):592-596.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, W. K Munyua, Kibebe HW. "Farmer practices that influence risk factors, prevalence and control strategies of rabbit coccidiosis in Central Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(7).www_lrrd_org_lrrd29_7_koko29134_html.pdf
Tum PK, Wanjau RN, Thoruwa CL, Kithure JGN, Murungi JI. "Fate of lambda-cyhalothrin in kales, tomatoes and cabbage from rural setting in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2):12-18.kithure.pdf
Ogeng’o J, ONGETI K, Mwachaka P. "Features of atherosclerosis of common carotid arteries among black Kenyans." J. Morphol. Sci . 2017;34(2):54-57. Abstractfeatures_of_atherosclerosis_of_common_carotid_arteries_among_black_kenyans.pdf

Introduction: Data on the features of atherosclerosis of common carotid artery are important for informing strategies against ischaemic stroke in Subsaharan Africa, but are scarce. Materials and Methods: This study therefore investigated, by light microscopy, the presence of features of atherosclerosis in the left common carotid artery among 108 black Kenyans [76 males; 32 females; Mean age 36.4, range 22-82 years] who suffered violent death. Specimens from the distal segment of the artery were prepared for routine paraffin embedding, and 5μ sections stained with Mason’s Trichome. Results: At least one feature of atherosclerosis was observed in 22 (20.4%) cases. Intimal hyperplasia alone was present in all the 22 cases followed by Intimal hyperplasia and degeneration of internal elastic lamina 19 (17.6%); Intimal hyperplasia combined with disintegration of internal elastic lamina and medial degeneration 17 (15.7%). Thickening of tunica adventitia with neovascularization were present in 8 (7.4%) of cases. All the features were more frequent in males than females (1.4:1) and those over 40 years old. Eight of the cases (36.4%) were in individuals aged below 40 years. Conclusion: Multiple features of atherosclerosis in common carotid artery are present in over 20% of the asymptomatic black Kenyans studied. They occur more frequently in males, and affect individuals younger than 40 years. These features appear in all three layers of the vessel wall, suggesting that the disease has attained several stages of severity in this population. We recommend early screening for the disease in individuals at risk.

and Mette Lфrschal; Peder Klith Bфcher; Jeppe Pilgaard, Irene Amoke; Alice Odingo ATJ-CS. "Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara Ecosystem." Nature. 2017;7:41450.
Okoth S. "Field evaluation of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines in Kenya and South Africa." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017;31(6):862-878. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Aflatoxin, a carcinogenic toxin, is produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) grain by these fungi occurs before harvest, and the easiest strategy to prevent this is to develop/use maize varieties resistant to Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin accumulation. The objective of this investigation was to identify potential sources of resistance among 23 maize inbred lines (13 obtained from the MAIZE Competitive Grants Initiative, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre and 10 from Agricultural Research Council, South Africa). The inbred lines were planted in a randomized complete-block design at two locations each in Kenya and South Africa. Maize ears were inoculated at silking with three toxigenic strains of A. flavus. The inoculated ears in each plot were harvested at 12–18% moisture, dried, and visually assessed for Aspergillus ear rot (AER). Aflatoxin concentration in the kernels was determined using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Significant variation for both AER and aflatoxin concentration existed among the inbred lines at both locations in Kenya and one location in South Africa. Combined analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.001) lines × locations interaction for both AER and aflatoxin concentration. Higher incidences of AER (0–86.0%) and aflatoxin concentration (0.21–6.51 µg/kg) were recorded at Kiboko in Kenya than at the other three locations. A stronger genetic correlation (rG = 0.936, p < 0.0001) between the AER and aflatoxin concentration was recorded in Potchefstroom than at the other three locations. Repeatability of aflatoxin concentration was high at Kiboko (0.87) and Potchefstroom in South Africa (0.74). Three inbred lines, CML247, CML444, and CML495, emerged as potentially useful sources of resistance to AER and aflatoxin accumulation as they showed low levels of aflatoxin contamination in both localities in Kenya and in South Africa.

Nzioka OM, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Integration, Macroeconomic Volatility And Economic Growth In The East African Community." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(19):317-331. Abstract

This study aimed at determining the moderating effect of macroeconomic
volatility on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth in the EAC.
The study adopted a positivistic research philosophy and casual research
design.. Generalized-two stage least squares instrumental variable regression
model (G2SLSIV) was then conducted to test the hypothesis. The findings of
the study showed that, macro-economic volatility does not have a significant
moderating effect on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth. Therefore, the study recommends that, the governments of
respective member states work on a monetary policy that aims to attain a
single digit level of inflation rate (low inflation targeting), in the spirit of
macro-economic convergence. The study culminates with acknowledging the
limitations encountered and provides suggestions for further research.

Kimunduu GM, MWANGI MIRIE, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Performance and Dividend Policy." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(28):138-154. Abstractfinancial_performance_and_dividend_policy.pdf

Past studies on the relationship between dividend policy and firm
performance continue being an unresolved predicament with few studies
interrogating the causality relationship between financial performance and
dividend policy. The purpose of this study was to establish the nature of
relationship between financial performance and dividend policy of firms
listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study applied positivism
research philosophy and descriptive causal research design. The study was
anchored on hypothetical view that the relationship between financial
performance and dividend policy of firms listed at the Nairobi securities
exchange is not significant which was tested against a sample size of 31
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange selected using purposive
sampling technique. The research findings were as follows: There was a
statistically significant direct association between return on equity and
dividend policy. This implies that as firm profitability improve; a
corresponding proportionate change in dividend payout ratio is initiated by
management. In addition, it was established that there was a statistically
significant positive linkage between operating cash flows and dividend
policy which denotes that as cash flow levels from operating activities
change, dividend payout ratio will change in the same direction leading

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Odongo W, Olwal T, Omwansa T. Firefly Algorithm based Power Control in Wireless TV White Space Network. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
Amimo JO, Njuguna JN, Machuka E, Okoth E, Djikeng A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Bocavirus Strains from East Africa." Genome Announcement. 2017.
Zipporah M, Rohit P, Robinson M, Ralph S. "First-principle investigation of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Co2VIn and CoVIn Heusler compounds." AIP Advances. 2017;7. Abstract

Investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of full-Heusler Co2VIn as well as half-Heusler CoVIn Cobalt based Heusler compounds using density functional theory (DFT) leads to the general conclusion that Co2VIn and CoVIn are half-metallic materials with a gap at the Fermi level in the minority states and majority states respectively. A Hubbard-like Coulomb correlation term U has been included in the DFT (DFT+U) for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties of the compounds. The structural properties have been calculated for the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, and both Co2VIn and CoVIn are found to be stable in the ferromagnetic phase. The calculated magnetic moments are 2 μB2 μB and 0.9 μB0.9 μB per formula unit for Co2VIn and CoVIn respectively.

Opuko Hellen A., G. MM. "Flexible Work Practices and Job Performance in the Transport and Logistics Industry: The Kenyan perspective." DBA Africa Management Review. 2017;7(2):38-49.
Sarguta R. Four Routes to Mixed Poisson Distributions. Ottieno JAM, Mwaniki JI, Kipchirchir IC, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Mutende EA, Mwangi M, NJIHIA JM, Ochieng DE. "Free Cash Flows, Agency Costs and Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange.". In: The Pan-African Journal of Business Management. Vol. 1.; 2017:. Abstractfree_cash_flows_agency_costs_and_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities.pdf

Abstract: Firm performance is affected by various factors, both internal and external. Internal
factors include firm characteristics such as firm size, age, liquidity, leverage, profitability,
growth prospects among others. External factors include regulation, agency costs and general
macro-economic factors. This paper sought to establish the influence of agency costs on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm performance. The second objective was to assess
the influence of agency costs on the relationship between free cash flows and performance of
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study used both primary data and secondary
panel data which were obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the period 2006 to 2015.
Panel data and simple regression analyses using OLS were employed in the study. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive relationship with firm performance, and,
agency costs have a positive significant moderating effect on the relationship between free cash
flows and firm performance. All the predictor variables had a joint positive and significant effect
on performance. The main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a
positive relationship with firm performance and that agency costs; and specifically, firm
monitoring and corporate governance has a positive and significant effect on the performance of
firms listed at the NSE. Firm managers, shareholders, practitioners, the government and other
regulators should, therefore, enhance firm monitoring and corporate governance because the
benefits derived from investing therein seem to outweigh the costs.

Gakuu, C. M. KKHJ & PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2017.
Yangyuoru PM, Bradburn DA, Liu Z, Xiao TS, Russell R. "The G-quadruplex (G4) resolvase DHX36 efficiently and specifically disrupts DNA G4s via a translocation-based helicase mechanism." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017:jbc. M117. 815076.
Ogeng’o JA. "GALLSTONE DISEASE: A CALL TO AWARENESS IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017;6(2): 914-915. Abstract

Gallstone disease (GSD) is a major global health problem that causes high morbidity and mortality constituting a significant
economic burden in developed countries (Shaffer, 2006; Stinton and Shaffer, 2012; Njeze, 2013). It was previously
considered rare in sub-Saharan Africa (Stinton and Shaffer, 2012; Njeze, 2013). Its prevalence, however, is steadily rising
and has already attained considerable proportions in a number of countries perhaps consequent to epidemiological and
demographic transitions (Eze et al., 2016). This condition is important for several reasons – First, it is one of the most
common causes of upper gastrointestinal morbidity and may mimic / be associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, hiatal
hernia, esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenitis; acute and chronic pancreatitis, hepatitis and portal vein
thrombosis among others (Sabitha et al., 2016). Secondly, it is a predisposing / risk factor for overall mortality and other
diseases including various gastrointestinal cancers, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
especially coronary heart, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular diseases, arterial stiffness and heart failure (Yu et al., 2017).
The risk for CVD is independent of age, gender and other comorbidities (Olaiya et al., 2013). Thirdly, patients with GSD
appear to have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus; dyslipidemia,
hyperinsulinemia, sedentary life style and gut microbiota dysbiosis (Lv et al., 2015).

Mandala N, Kaijage E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Gender Diversity of Boards, Board Composition and Firm Performance." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(34):pages62-79,.
Mageto E.K, D. Makumbi, and K. Njoroge, Nyankanga R. "Genetic analysis of early-maturing maize (Zea Mays L.) inbred lines under stress and nonstress conditions." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017; DOI: 10.1080/15427528.2017.1315625(31:4, ):560-588.
Okoth S. "Genetic characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes in Colombia: the Amazon region, a challenge for malaria diagnosis and control." PloS one. 2017:1-17. Abstractjournal.pone_.0163137.pdfWebsite

Most Plasmodium falciparum-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) target histidine-rich
protein 2 (PfHRP2). However, P. falciparumisolates with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene and its
homolog gene, pfhrp3, have been detected. We carried out an extensive investigation on
365 P. falciparumdried blood samples collected from seven P. falciparumendemic sites in
Colombia between 2003 and 2012 to genetically characterise and geographically map
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative P. falciparumparasites in the country. We found a high proportion
of pfhrp2-negative parasites only in Amazonas (15/39; 38.5%), and these parasites
were also pfhrp3-negative. These parasites were collected between 2008 and 2009 in
Amazonas, while pfhrp3-negative parasites (157/365, 43%) were found in all the sites and
from each of the sample collection years evaluated (2003 to 2012). We also found that all
pfhrp2- and/or pfhrp3-negative parasites were also negative for one or both flanking genes.
Six sub-population clusters were established with 93.3% (14/15) of the pfhrp2-negative
parasites grouped in the same cluster and sharing the same haplotype. This haplotype
corresponded with the genetic lineage BV1, a multidrug resistant strain that caused two outbreaks
reportedin Peru between 2010 and 2013. We found this BV1 lineage in the Colombian
Amazon as early as 2006. Two new clonal lineages were identified in these parasites
from Colombia: the genetic lineages EV1 and F. PfHRP2 sequence analysis revealed high
genetic diversity at the amino acid level, with 17 unique sequences identified among 53
PfHRP2 sequences analysed. The use of PfHRP2-based RDTs is not recommended in
Amazonas because of the high proportionof parasites with pfhrp2 deletion (38.5%), and
implementation of new strategies for malaria diagnosis and control in Amazonas must be
prioritised.Moreover, studies to monitor and genetically characterise pfhrp2-negative P. falciparumparasites in the Americas are warranted, given the extensive human migration
occurring in the region.

Osena G, Amugune NO, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Stability of Cassava Plants Regenerated Through Organogenesis Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017;5(1):19-28.
Ng’ang’a TM, Wachira PM, Wango TJL, Ndung’u JM, Ndungo MN. "Geospatial Digital Rights Management: Challenge to Global Spatial Data Infrastructure.". In: Volunteered Geographic Information and the Future of Geospatial Data. London: IGI Global.; 2017.
Jakubowski H, Xie J, Mitra AK, Ghooi R, Hosseinkhani S, Alipour M, Hajipour B, Obiero G. "The Global Ethics Corner: foundations, beliefs, and the teaching of biomedical and scientific ethics around the world." Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. 2017;45(5):385-395. Abstract

The profound advances in the biomolecular sciences over the last decades have enabled similar advances in biomedicine. These advances have increasingly challenged our abilities to deploy them in an equitable and ethically acceptable manner. As such, it has become necessary and important to teach biomedical and scientific ethics to our students who will become the researchers, medical professionals, and global citizens of the future. As advances in the biosciences and medicine are made, developed, and used across the globe, our survival on an endangered planet requires global dialog and consensual action. To that end, a group of us from around the world have come together to describe the differing foundations of our ethical beliefs, and how ethical issues in biomedicine and in science are described and confronted in our countries. We hope to show the commonality in our beliefs and practices.

Mukonzo SE, ODOCK SO. "Green manufacturing and operational performance of a firm: Case of a cement manufacturing firm in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2017;8(4):106-120. Abstract

Green Manufacturing includes all practices connected with ecological concerns that constantly incorporate environmental manufacturing processes and products. Green Manufacturing considers decrease from the start or prevention, recycling and green product designs. It focuses on the greening production stage where pollutants are largely generated. The outcomes of these strategies would be no pollution, defects, downtime and zero inventories. The study sought to establish the relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance of a selected cement manufacturing company in Kenya. Secondary data on green manufacturing practices and operational performance was collected for a period of 4 years from 2011-2014. The results indicate a significant relationship between green manufacturing practices and operational performance. There is also compliance with the Kenya’s environmental management and co-ordination regulations for 1999 on the part of the cement manufacturing firm. The study emphasizes the implementation of green manufacturing projects that would focus on eliminating or controlling all kinds of pollution in its conclusion.

Key Words: Green Manufacturing; Emissions; Dust; Pollution; Waste Management; Operational Performance

Hayford A, Joseph OO, Afra N. "Green Marketing Orientation (GMO) and Performance of SMEs in Ghana." American Journal of Management. 2017;11(1):99-109.amegbe_owino__nuwasiima_2017.pdf
Serem JK, Wahome RG, D.W. Gakuya, S.G.Kiama, G.C.Gitao, D, W O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal health . 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
Serem JK, G WR, DW G, SG K, G GC, DW O. "Growth performance, feed conversion efficiency and blood characteristics of growing pigs fed on different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2017;9(11):327-333.serem_et_al_2017.pdf
N M, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, N N, L M, M B. Guidelines For Screening And Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2017.
Makunda CS. Harnessing cultural heritage for locally relevant interior design solutions for new apartments in Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract

Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

Nyongesa AW, Patel N, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "High khat dose and long-term exposure impairs spermatogenesis: experimental study using rabbit model." J. Morphol. Sci. 2017;34(3):156-167.morphology_paper.pdf
Okoth S. "Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia." PLOS One. 2017:1-13. Abstractjournal.pone_.0171150.pdfWebsite

More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

Ogeng’o J, Ominde BS, Ongeti KW, Olabu B, Maseghe P, Machira J, Murunga A. "HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN THE LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY ARTERIES AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2017;6(3):1033-1044. Abstracthistomorphological_features_of_atherosclerosis_in.pdf

The pattern of coronary artery atherosclerosis is valuable in informing mitigation strategies for coronary
heart disease. Histomorphological data on this disease among Africans living in Sub Saharan Africa are,
however, scarce. The left anterior descending is one of the most commonly afflicted arteries. This
study, therefore, examined the left anterior descending artery of 213 black Kenyans [Mean age 36.8
years, range 5 – 82 years] who had died of non cardiovascular causes for features of atherosclerosis.
The individuals were divided into male and female, then into 10-yr age groups. Specimens were
obtained from the proximal segment of the artery during autopsy at the Department of Human
Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. They were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and
sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Haematoxylin/Eosin and Mason’s trichrome and
examined with light microscope. Micrographs of representative features were taken using a high
resolution digital camera. At least one feature of atherosclerosis was present in 54 (25.4%) of the
individuals. The features observed included severe intimal hyperplasia (34; 63%), disintegration of the
internal elastic lamina [30; 55.6%]; atherosclerotic plaque (20; 37%), adventitial thicknening (14;
26%) and mural neovascularization (10; 18.5%). The mean age of those with features of
atherosclerosis was 38.4 years, range 6 – 62 years with 25 (46.3%) being aged 40 years and below. Of
these, the male: female ratio was 1.7:1. In conclusion, features of atherosclerosis are present in over
25% of the population studied. The disease affects young people, including women. Proactive
preventive measures including follow – up should commence early, and involve both men and women

Serem Jared K., John M. Kimani, Raphael G. Wahome, Daniel W. Gakuya, G.Kiama S, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets Global Veterinaria 19 (1): 478-486, .". 2017.
Olago D, Campisano CJ, Cohen AS, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK, et al. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: High-Resolution Paleoclimate Records from the East African Rift System and Their Implications for Understanding the Environmental Context of Hominin Evolution." Paleo Anthropology. 2017;1:43. Abstract2017_campisano_et_al._hspdp_drilling_paper.pdfFull Text

The possibility of a causal relationship between Earth history processes and hominin evolution in Africa has been the subject of intensive paleoanthropological research for the last 25 years. One fundamental question is: can any geohistorical processes, in particular, climatic ones, be characterized with sufficient precision to enable temporal correlation with events in hominin evolution and provide support for a possible causal mechanism for evolutionary changes? Previous attempts to link paleoclimate and hominin evolution have centered on evidence from the outcrops where the hominin fossils are found, as understanding whether and how hominin populations responded to habitat change must be examined at the local basinal scale. However, these outcrop records typically provide incomplete, low-resolution climate and environmental histories, and surface weathering often precludes the application of highly sensitive, state-of-the-art paleoenvironmental methods. continuous and well-preserved deep-sea drill core records have provided an alternative approach to reconstructing the context of hominin evolution, but have been collected at great distances from hominin sites and typically integrate information over vast spatial scales. The goal of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) is to analyze climate and other Earth system dynamics using detailed paleoenvironmental data acquired through scientific drilling of lacustrine depocenters at or near six key paleoanthropological sites in Kenya and Ethiopia. This review provides an overview of a unique collaboration of paleoanthropologists and earth scientists who have joined together to explicitly explore key hypotheses linking environmental history and mammalian (including hominin) evolution and potentially develop new testable hypotheses. With a focus on continuous, high-resolution proxies at timescales relevant to both biological and cultural evolution, the HSPDP aims to dramatically expand our understanding of the environmental history of eastern Africa during a significant portion of the Late Neogene and Quaternary, and to generate useful models of long-term environmental dynamics in the region.

Mweri JG. "How access to health care for deaf people can be improved in Kenya ." The conversation. 2017;march(2):1-3.
Ogara WO, Gitahi N, Mainga AO, Ongoro E. "Human carnivores conflict in Wamba District, Samburu County, Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2017;Vol. 9(9):284-291.human_carnivore_conflic_in_wamba_samburu_county.pdf
Masika M, Wachihi C, Muriuki F, Kimani J, R K. "Hypertension and obesity among HIV patients in a care programme in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV patients enrolled in the Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP), Nairobi, Kenya.

Design: A retrospective a study.

Setting: SWOP managed by the University of Manitoba, Nairobi team.

Subjects: We selected clinic visit records from HIV patients seen between 2011 and 2014, which had valid blood pressure and age entries.

Interventions: We analysed data to determine prevalence and correlates of hypertension and obesity in the study population. Associations were tested using chi-square for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables.

Main outcome measures: Hypertension and obesity.

Results: Three thousand one hundred ninety seven subjects were included in the study. All were HIV-positive and most (97.8%) were on ART. The mean age was 39.7 years (standard deviation = 8.8) and 72.4% of the subjects were female. The prevalence of hypertension was 7.7% (246/3197) and 31% of the study cases (798/2590) were either overweight or obese. Males were more likely to have hypertension (p < 0.001) while females were more predisposed to obesity (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Hypertension and obesity are important co-morbidities among HIV patients. Preventive and management strategies should be adopted as part of the comprehensive packages on offer at all existing HIV care and ART centres targeting those enrolled for services as well as their relatives and the community at large.

Awori MN. I AM- the meaning of life. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2017.
Olag D, Wolff C, Verschuren D, Daele MEV, Waldmann N, Meyer I, Lane CS, der Meeren VT, Ombori T, Kasanzu C. "ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017. AbstractFull Text

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and to assess the multi-faceted impact of this climate change on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) originally evolved and have lived ever since.

and Njue LG., Ombui JN. KLWGJKMJO. "Identification of antimicrobial compounds in garlic grown in Laikipia county." Journal of Agricultural research and review,. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Akello MO, Nzuve F, Olubayo F, Macharia G, Muthomi J. "Identification of Resistance Sources to Wheat Stem Rust from Introduced Genotypes in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(2):73-87.
Orao J. "Identity and Nationalism in MG Vassanji’s ‚The In-Between World of Vikram Lall’.". In: Samosa Festival. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Patricia Nthoki Muia UOGN&. "Impact of intellectual stimulation on students’ performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in public secondary schools, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;6(11):1034-1042 .
Wachege PN, Nyongesa KL. "Impact of Sabaot Land Defense Force Conflict (2006-2008) on the Roman Catholic Church in Cheptais, Bungoma." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;22(12):62-73.wachege_and_kibet_article.pdf
G. W, Koriyow Hussein A. "Impact of Subsidised Fees on Students’ Access to Quality Education in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2017;5(7):247-262 .abstract.pdf
Inyega JO, Inyega HN, Hardman F. "Implementing cross-age peer tutoring in the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies ISSN 2321 – 9203. 2017;5(4):16-22.
"Implementing cross-age peer tutoring in the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools. ." International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2017;5(4).
Wanjala. G, Koriyow Hussein A. "Implication of Subsidised Fees Programme on Pedagogical Practices in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir County , Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(8):19-34.abstract.pdf
Kiragu H, Kamucha G, Mwangi E. "An Improved Reconstruction Method for Compressively Sampled Magnetic Resonance Images Using Adaptive Gaussian Denoising." Springer International Publishing AG. 2017;416(LNEE):192-200.
Falkenstrom F, Gee MG, Kuria MW, Othieno CJ, Kumar M. "Improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy in two public hospitals in Nairobi." BJP Psych. International. 2017;14(3).
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In vitro activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):83-689.
Thuo BM, Thoithi GN, Maingi N, Ndwigah SN, Gitari RN, Otieno RO. "In vitro anthelmintic activity of Albizia gummifera, Crotalaria axillaris, Manilkara discolor, Teclea trichocarpa and Zanthoxylum usambarense using sheep nematodes." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(1):38-42.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In'vitro'activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):683.
Motomura K, Ganchimeg T, Nagata C, Ota E, Vogel JP, Betran AP, Torloni MR, Jayaratne K, Jwa SC, Mittal S, Recidoro ZD, Matsumoto K, Fujieda M, Nafiou I, Yunis K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Souza JP, Mori R. "Incidence and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior caesarean section: WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Scientific Reports. 2017;7. AbstractWebsite

Caesarean section (CS) is increasing globally, and women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. However, little is known about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture in women with prior CS, especially in developing countries. To investigate this, we conducted a secondary analysis of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health, which included data on delivery from 359 facilities in 29 countries. The incidence of uterine rupture among women with at least one prior CS was 0.5% (170/37,366), ranging from 0.2% in high-Human Development Index (HDI) countries to 1.0% in low-HDI countries. Factors significantly associated with uterine rupture included giving birth in medium- or low-HDI countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.0 and 3.88, respectively), lower maternal educational level (≤6 years) (AOR 1.71), spontaneous onset of labour (AOR 1.62), and gestational age at birth <37 weeks (AOR 3.52). Women with uterine rupture had significantly higher risk of maternal death (AOR 4.45) and perinatal death (AOR 33.34). Women with prior CS, especially in resource-limited settings, are facing higher risk of uterine rupture and subsequent adverse outcomes. Further studies are needed for prevention/management strategies in these settings.

Use of caesarean section (CS) deliveries has been steadily increasing, from 6.7% in 1990 to 19.1% in 2014 globally1,2. Consequently, the number of deliveries by mothers with prior CS is also on the rise1.

Women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture. The reported incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS ranged from 0.22% to 0.5% in some developed countries3,4,5,6. The risk factors for uterine rupture in women with a history of CS include prior classical incision, labour induction or argumentation, macrosomia, increasing maternal age, post-term delivery, short maternal stature, no prior vaginal delivery, and prior periviable CS4,7,8,9,10,11. Uterine rupture poses considerable risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The prevalence of maternal and perinatal complications, such as severe post-hemorrhagic anemia, major puerperal infection, bladder injury, hysterectomy, and perinatal mortality, are significantly higher in women with uterine rupture than women without uterine rupture4,10,12,13.

A World Health Organization (WHO) systematic review to determine the prevalence of uterine rupture worldwide identified uterine rupture as a serious obstetric complication being more prevalent and with more serious consequences in developing countries than in developed countries14. In developing countries, uterine rupture has been reportedly associated with obstructed labour, grand multiparity, injudicious obstetric interventions/manipulations, lack of antenatal care, unbooked status, poor access to emergency obstetric care, and low socioeconomic status rather than prior CS15,16,17,18. However, uterine rupture after prior CS is becoming more common as the availability of CS increases in these settings18. According to a literature review on uterine rupture in developing countries, the proportion of women with prior CS or uterine scar among women who had uterine rupture was up to 64%18. A study in India reported that the incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS was 1.69%19. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS from these settings.

Typically, uterine rupture occurs suddenly and requires immediate critical emergency care for mothers, fetuses, or neonates. The strategies for prevention and management, as well as the quality of affordable care for women at risk of or experiencing uterine rupture, are likely to vary across settings depending on their diagnostic capacity, availability of obstetric interventions, and human and facility resources. Therefore, the findings in developed countries may not be generalizable to low-resource countries and settings. The aim of this analysis was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS using data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which was conducted in facilities in 29 countries worldwide from 2010 to 2011.

Samuillah MH, Varma V, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Ogada CN, Mutave RJ. "Incisive Papilla and Positions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Among Kenyans of African Descent." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(5):385-390.
Gichuyia LN. INDOOR OVERHEAT- ING RISK: A FRAMEWORK FOR TEMPORAL BUILDING ADAPTATION DECISION-MAKING. Cambridge, London: University of Cambridge - https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.17146; 2017.
Kariuki BN, Saidi H, Ndung’u B, Kaisha W, Ogeng’o J. "INFLUENCE OF AGE ON GALLBLADDER MORPHOMETRY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(2):987-994. Abstractinfluence_of_age_on_gallbladder_morphometry.pdf

Morphometric properties of the gallbladder such as length, diameter and volume are determinants of gallbladder
function. These parameters are altered with age and may explain the age-related reduction in gallbladder
contractility associated with gallstone formation. Ninety-two gallbladder specimens of subjects aged between 21
and 84 were sourced from City mortuary and the Department of Human anatomy during autopsy. For each
gallbladder specimen, measurements of length and circumference were taken to the accuracy of 0.1millimetres
(mm) and used to calculate the gallbladder volume. These measurements were standardized using
measurements of liver length and weight. Data were recorded by age categories in age groups of 21-30, 31-40,
41-50, 51-60 and 61 or more years. The mean gallbladder volume was 47.948 (±19.080) cm3 and showed a
statistically significant increase with age (p <0.001). There was also a significant increase of gallbladder length
(p =0.01) and diameter (p <0.001). A positive correlation was observed between gallbladder length, diameter
and volume; 0.282, 0.485 and 0.480 respectively (p = 0.01). The gallbladder volume which is a function of
length and diameter, shows a statistically significant increase with age. Notably, there is a marked increase in
these parameters after the fifth decade. This could explain the exponential increase in prevalence of cholelithiasis
by 4 to 10 times after the fifth decade of life.

M KP. "Influence of Capacity Building in Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya." Journal of Human Resource & Leadership . 2017;1(2):42-57.
Kimuyu DM, Veblen KE, Riginos C, Chira RM, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Young TP. "Influence of cattle on browsing and grazing wildlife varies with rainfall and presence of megaherbivores." Ecological Applications. 2017;27(3):786-798.
Twalib MH, Magutu J. "INFLUENCE OF COMPENSATION ON EMPLOYEE TURNOVER." Influence of Compensation on Employee Turnover . 2017;2(6):125-135. Abstractinfluence_of_compensation_on_employee_turnover.pdf

The main objective of the study was to determine the influence of compensation on employee
turnover and the hypothesis that emanated from this was stated as compensation influences
employee turnover. The study used a descriptive survey. From a target population of 65
employees a sample of 26employees was selected, which is 40% of the target population.
Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive
statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using simple
linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that compensation influences
employee turnover (R2=.866, F=167.783, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was
0.93 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between compensation and employee
turnover. The study recommends that organizations should consider compensation as a strategy
of ensuring employee loyalty which will lead to competitive advantage of the organization. The paper suggests that the same study should be replicated in other larger organizations with more
population.

M KP. "Influence of Decentralized Units in Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya,." Journal of Public Policy & Governance . 2017;1(1):1-13.
Rose N. Obae, Selpher K. Cheloti, Mwangi G. "Influence of Free Day Secondary Education Subsidy On Completion Rates; A Case of Public Day Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya." International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences (IJRESS). 2017;7(2):2249-7382.
Njeru L, J.G M. "Influence of Gender Differences on Youth Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2017;6(8)(ISSN):851-861.
Twalib MH, Lukio OA. "THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR AT KENYA POWER ." DBA Africa Management Review . 2017;7 (2):215-227. Abstractpublished_ocb_article.pdf

Abstract
The main focus of the paper was determining the effect of gender on organizational
citizenship behaviour.The sub objectives emanated from this include to determine the
influence of gender on altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. The study used a
descriptive survey and a population study of 200 employees with a sample of 80 employees
which is 40% of the total population as recommended by experts(Mugenda and Mugenda,
2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires.
Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was
analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the main hypothesis that
gender influences organizational citizenship behaviour (R
2
=.167, F=13.869, P≤0.05). The
correlation coefficient for the model was 0.409 which also confirms that there is
anassociation between gender and organizational citizenship behaviour. The paper failed to
confirm the sub hypothesis that Female employees practice altruism than their male
counterparts. It failed to confirm thatMale employees practice more sportsmanship than
female employees. The other sub-hypothesis that female employees practice more courtesy
than their male counterpart was also confirmed. Civic Virtue was seen to be practiced
more with male employees than female employees. This sub hypothesis was confirmed. The
study recommends that managers should focus on integrating all the genders strong traits
for the benefit of the organization. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated
in other organization.

Mwaniki JR, Mugambi MM. "INFLUENCE OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEM (HIS) ON SERVICE DELIVERY IN PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES IN KENYA: A CASE OF IMENTI NORTH SUB-COUNTY, MERU COUNTY." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):239-258.health_information_system.pdf
Wabwoba CN, Ursulla A. Okoth, Mugambi M. "Influence Of Lecture Method On Pupil’s Performance In English Language In Kenya Certificate Of Primary Education In Non Formal Schools In Korogocho, Nairobi Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention. 2017;6(11):13-19.catherine_publication.pdf
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2017;22(10).
Sugut, W.K; Rambo OCM & JA. "Influence of Monitoring and Evaluation on Sustainability of HIV/Aids Programmes among Community Based Organizations in Kericho County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2017;22(10).
Macharia RW, Kibera PFN, Munyoki JN, Kinoti MW. "Influence of Organizational Demographics on the Relationship between Green Marketing Practices and Customer Satisfaction in the Soft Drink Industry in Nairobi Kenya ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research . 2017;32(2422):64-78.
Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "Influence of Perception and Quality of ICT‐Based Agricultural Input Information on Use of ICTs by Farmers in Developing Countries: Case of Sikasso in Mali." The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2017;83(1):1-21.Full website link
Mule, J.M., Kalai, J.M., Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of Principals' level of education on student leaders' involvement in secondary schools governance in Kenya." he Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(1):2304-2885.5.pdf
Mule, J.M., Kalai, J.M., Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of Principals' level of education on student leaders' involvement in secondary schools governance in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2017;5(1).
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