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2021
Harmsen H, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ, Wang’ondu VW. "Comparing law enforcement monitoring data and research data suggests an underestimation of bushmeat poaching through snaring in a Kenyan World Heritage Site." African journal of ecology. 2021;(https://doi.org/10.1111/aje.12879).
O OGUMOE, N. KC, J. KIMENJU, MW O. "Comparison of the efficiency of solar-powered prototype vapour compression cooler with evaporative charcoal cooler in maintaining quality of French beans ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(Special issue).
Wamuyu H, Odote C, Anyango S. "Compensating Toxic Torts in Kenya: Overcoming the Causation Dilemma." The Journal of Sustainable Development, Law and Policy. 2021;12(2):258-281.
Kinoti MW, Meru AK. "Competencies for Green Marketing Success in Emerging Markets.". In: Green Marketing and Management in Emerging Markets. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham; 2021. Abstract

This chapter addresses the critical competencies that provide the requisite skills and knowledge for championing the development and growth of green marketing in emerging markets. The link between environmental responsibility, social change and sustainable business practices has been the concern for practitioners and environmentalist for the past couple of decades in developed countries, and multi-agency teams have been deployed to address emerging issues if any. Besides, deployment of highly focused and committed environmental conscious personnel, there has been a tremendous improvement of innovative manufacturing processes and efficient technologies, leading to successful green marketing systems and programmes. Though, efforts are bearing fruits in emerging markets, on account of countries affiliation to global agencies, such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and many others, more need to be done to isolate key soft and hard competencies required to cascade global green marketing solutions to local firms. The chapter illustrates that green competencies, green thinking and rightful employee engagement foster green marketing activities in emerging markets.

Mutende R;, Akala W;, Imonje RK. "Connecting Theory and Practice: Pre-service Science Teachers’ Adoption and Implementation of the Demonstration Method." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2021;20(5):189-210.
Ondicho TG. "Conservation, Power and Politics: Maasai Involvement in Community-Based Conservation in the Amboseli Region of Kenya.". In: African Potentials’ and Natural Resource Management: Against the Image of ‘Deficiency’ and Tyranny of ‘Fortes’. Bamenda: Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group; 2021.
Ikua MD, Wambua BN, Omoke KJ. "Constraints and Opportunities for Greenhouse Farming Technology as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Variability by Smallholder Farmers of Nyandarua County of Kenya." East Africa Journal of Science,Technology & Innovation. 2021;2(Special ). Abstract

Nyandarua County of Kenya has been for a long time, manifested itself as one of the major food baskets in the country. This is because of its high and sustainable output in crop farming i.e., maize, Irish potatoes, wheat, and other horticultural crops like vegetables and fruits. However, this scenario has recently changed because the usual high crop output has not been forthcoming due to recent changes in climatic patterns where rainfall has become very unreliable and temperatures very extreme. In an attempt to adapt to this climate variability and its associated negative impacts on crop farming, smallholder farmers have tried to apply the greenhouse farming technology for them to be able to maintain and or improve the various crop output amid the climatic changes. The study aims to examine and assess the socio-economic determinants and constraints associated with this attempt of adaptation strategy. Using the primary data of 300 respondents (Smallholder farmers) in the County, the study adopted a logistic regression analysis model to associate the demographic, socio-economic, and constraints encountered by the smallholder farmers with the adoption of the greenhouse farming technology. The study results indicate that this adaptation strategy was reported by 25 out the 300 smallholder farmers (5.83%). The study results further suggest that financial constraints (27%) and lack of information (22.3%) are the major constraints preventing smallholder farmers from effectively adopting this adaptation strategy. However, the probability results of logistic regression analysis (68%) indicate that if properly adopted, the method can provide a solution to the currently reduced food shortages and increase food security among the smallholder farmers of Nyandarua County of Kenya.

Maina. "CONTEXTUALIZING CULTURAL SCULPTURE INTO PUBLIC SPACES FOR ALL." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1).
Maina. "CONTEXTUALIZING CULTURAL SCULPTURE INTO PUBLIC SPACES FOR ALL." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1).
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Makokha SN. "The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(164).
Ipara BO, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ, Makokha NS. "The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Newcastle disease (ND) poses a challenge especially for farmers rearing indigenous chicken under the extensive system. This is due to the lack of uniformity in practices, favoring the introduction and spread of the disease. This is worsened by the lack of information on how management practices contribute to the spread of ND. The current study assessed the role of extensive chicken production systems and management practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks in Kenya using a Poisson regression model (PRM) on primary survey data from 332 farmers in Kakamega and Machakos counties. Descriptive results showed a low access to institutional support services like extension, training, credit, and vaccination services for both male and female farmers. Results from the PRM analysis show that flock size, isolated and confined housing, multi-aged flock mixture, screening of birds, access to ND vaccination, ND awareness, distance to agro-veterinary service providers, and access to animal health training and extension services had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The findings underscore the need for innovative extension approaches that facilitate the use of information communication technologies to create more awareness on disease detection and mitigation measures. Use of farmer groups as innovation platforms for enhanced skill sharing and as key peer monitoring channels would also improve compliance with prescribed disease control methods. Further, there is a need for partnerships between local-level county governments, vaccine producers, and agro-veterinary service providers to ensure the development of low-cost vaccines and requisite storage facilities, and their timely delivery to the male and female resource-poor smallholder extensive chicken farmers.

Muhwezi MRL, Aseey A, Ondicho T, Otieno MAC. "The contribution of technical and vocational education and training to women’s economic empowerment in Kampala, Uganda." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;5(2):1-23.
Gateri AM, Ondicho TG, Karimi E. "Correlates of Domestic Violence against Men: Qualitative insights from Kenya." African Journal of Gender, Society, and Development. 2021;10(3):87-111.
P MO, N MJ, O AS, N MG. "Correlation of Tensile Strength and Corrosion Initiation Period of Reinforced Concrete." Cogent Engineering. 2021;Vol 8.
Makau MC, Powell J, Prendergast J, de Late PL, Morrison LJ, Gathura P, Fisch A. "Corrigendum to “Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle”[Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2021:235.
Buyinza D, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Koch A, Oriko R. "A coumestan and a coumaronochromone from Millettia lasiantha." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021;97:104277. AbstractView Website

Description
The manuscript describes the phytochemical investigation of the roots, leaves and stem bark of Millettia lasiantha resulting in the isolation of twelve compounds including two new isomeric isoflavones lascoumestan and lascoumaronochromone. The structures of the new compounds were determined using different spectroscopic techniques.

Simon N. Mbugua, Njenga LW, ROA, Wandiga SO, Onani MO. "COVID-19 and Cancer Therapy: Interrelationships and Management of Cancer Cases in the Era of COVID-19 “.A Review." . Journal of Chemistry. 2021;2021:1-10. Abstract

The COVID-19 global epidemic poses this generation’s biggest worldwide public health challenge probably since the 1918 influenza epidemic. Recent reports on two new variants have triggered a dramatic upsurge in research to understand the pandemic, primarily focussing on the virology, triggers, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic tests including the prevention and management of the novel coronavirus. Whilst such studies are important in managing the present medical emergency, there is a need for further work to include interdependencies between the epidemic and other illnesses. 'is will help in developing effective approaches to treat and manage associated diseases in both the short and the long term. In this regard, people living with cancer are a subgroup that is highly vulnerable to respiratory infections and acute pneumonitis similar to the one caused by the COVID19 virus. 'is is because the state of their immunity is compromised due to malignancy and the adverse effects of anticancer treatments. With annual cancer projections rising globally and an estimated 70 percent of all cancer-related deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries, the patient population with impaired immune systems that could be adversely impacted by COVID-19 is only anticipated to rise. In this review, we delve into the challenges and health risks facing cancer patients and cancer treatment in the COVID-19 context, with suggestions into viable measures which can be taken to minimize exposure to the risk of contracting COVID-19 for this vulnerable subgroup. New mutations and the prospects offered by vaccines development and how they relate to this class of patients are also discussed

Ondicho TG, Mwanyuli MM. "COVID-19 and Domestic Violence Against Men in Kenya: Issues and Policy Directions." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(2):81-83.
Ong’ech D, Olago D, Simeon D, Opondo M, Ouma G. "COVID-19 Impacts on Water Burden among Households in Turkana." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(1):57-58.
(eds) Harle J, Lamptey RB, Mwangi A, Nzegwu F, Okere O. "Creating digital content and delivering digital learning in African universities."; 2021. Abstract

n/a

Kithiia SM. "A Critical Analysis of the Water Quality Impacts on Water Resources in the Athi River Drainage Basin, Kenya.". In: Water Quaity-Factors and Impacts. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech Publishers; 2021.
Kiio, L., Mbui, Onyatta J, Dangili P, Oloo F. "Current Biosensors used for Early Detection of Lung Cancer Biomarkers." Journal of Cancer Research Reviews and Reports. 2021;3(3):1-8.
Obiero LM, Abong' GO, W OM, OMAYIO DUKEG, G OE, Villacampa M. "Current practices concerning the environmental management systems among horticultural processing MSMES in Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(special Issue):1-16.current_practices_of_msmes.pdf
R I, Mugambi M. The Curriculum in Perspective. Chisinau: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2021.
Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Mukavi J, Okoko BA, Nyaboke HO, Hashim I, Efferth T, Spiteller M. "Cytotoxic Alkaloids from the Root of Zanthoxylum paracanthum (Mildbr) Kokwaro." Natural Products Research. 2021:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1913586.omosa_et_al_2021_natural_products_research.pdf
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractView Website

Description
In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractNatural product research

Description
In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Derese S. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747.
Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Mutunga PK, Gichuhi W. "Decision-Making Power and Contraceptive Use among Couples of Child-Bearing Age in Kenya.". In: Gender Statistics for Evidence-Based Policies: Women’s Economic Empowerment, Health and Gender Based Violence. Nairobi: UN Women; 2021.
Muasya, Juliet N. "Decolonizing Religious Education to Enhance Sustainable Development in Africa: Evidence from Literature." East African Journal of Educational Studies. 2021;3(1):77-86.
Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module V): Advanced Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module V): Advanced Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2021.
Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Raspador for Simultaneous Extraction and Brushing of Sisal Fibers by Small-scale Sisal Farmers." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2021.1975597

Demand for natural fibers is on the rise as awareness of environmental protection keeps abreast. Sisal fibers, for instance, are largely utilized not only in the manufacture of mats, ropes, carpets, and sacks but also in the reinforcement of polymer composites. With the increased demand for sisal fibers, there is a need to equally increase the exploitation of sisal by small-scale farmers. UNIDO, for instance, recommended that appropriate small-scale machines that are accessible to small-scale holders should be developed. This research examines the progress in the development of small-scale machines and designs a raspador for simultaneous extraction and brushing of sisal fibers. This is to ensure that there is value and income addition for the small-scale farmers in East Africa and perhaps the rest of the world.

Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Determinants of distress sales of farmland in rural Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2021;8(1):317-345.
Lutta, A. I., Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Sircely J. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability, . 2021;23(5):7393-7411.
Ballesteros C, Mwasi A, Mungai E, Ibarahim A, Thuranina-McKeever C, Aboge GO, Onono JO, Alarcon P. "Developing and validating a rapid assessment tool for small ruminant reproduction and production in pastoralist flocks in Kajiado, Kenya." Veterinary and Animal Science. 2021;13.
Mwondu JM, Ombui JN, Kironchi G, Onyuka A. "Development of an Eco-friendly and Sustainable Method of Dechroming Leather Wastes." Textile and Leather Review. 2021;4:364-391.
Onyango G, Ondiek JO. "Digitalization and Integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) in Public Organizations in Kenya.". 2021. Abstract

This study mapped the role of ICT, digital platforms, the internet connectivity and skills of the personnel vis-à-vis implementation processes of SDGs in public organizations in Kenya. Findings show cross-cutting institutionalization and internalization deficits as a result of limited mastery of ICT skills and training of the personnel, insufficient ICT platforms, mainly, computers, poor internet connectivity and poor investment in digital platforms by the government institutions. An organizational culture that predisposes institutions to change resistance also constrained integration of SDG goals in public organizations. The article concludes by providing critical policy recommendations for addressing these problems.

Malembaka REB, Onwonga R, Jefwa J, Ayuke F, Nabahungu L. "Diversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in maize (Zea mays) cropping fields in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(4):604-617.
Muriungi MA, Kinoti M, Okiro K. "Dividend Signaling and Shareholder Monitoring Hypothesis: Empirical evidence from Nairobi Securities Exchange." African Development Finance Journal. 2021;5(1):145-159. Abstractdividend_signaling_and_shareholder_monitoring_hypothesis_empirical_evidence_from_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Most corporate governance studies have focused on the composition and effectiveness of board members, little attention has barely focused on the interaction between the identity of significant shareholders and the decisions they influence in the firm. Corporate governance literature is currently based on empirical studies in developed countries, but the efficiency of developed and developing markets corporate governance mechanisms is disparagingly different. This paper presents an ideal moment for examining the complementary effect of dividend policy and ownership concentration by shareholders at Nairobi Securities Exchange in a developing securities exchange. Previous studies examining the interaction between corporate governance and firm value have emphasized the significance of institutional shareholder concentration and dividend policy decisions as corporate control mechanisms that influence value creation in a firm. This study is supported by dividend signaling and institutional shareholder monitoring hypothesis. The study used longitudinal data for the period (2008-2017) and the target population is sixty-six companies trading securities at NSE 2008-2017. Empirical results reveal, firms listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange have a high level of ownership concentration and dividend payment has a significant positive effect on the firm value which is in line with the signaling hypothesis, the mediating effect of ownership concentration was negated therefore did not support shareholder monitoring hypothesis. The findings of this study have significant policy implication to policymakers, regulators should not rely on market mechanism as protection to minority owners. Firms should be encouraged to regularly pay dividends if profitable and investors should understand the ownership structure of listed firms they invest in.

FW N, Ouyang K AA, J O'o, GW A, D Z. "Does Keloid Histology Influence Recurrence?" Am J Dermatol. doi. 2021;10(PMID: 33464754.). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by high recurrence rates, with few factors known to influence the same. We conducted a study to determine whether keloid histology influences recurrence. This was a prospective longitudinal study to determine whether histopathological parameters of keloid influence recurrence. Patients with keloids managed by surgical excision were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital between August 2018 and July 2020. The excised keloids were processed for histology using hematoxylin,/eosin, Masson, and trichrome stains. The slides were analyzed for inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and capillary density using the hot spot technique and correlated to keloid recurrence. Postoperative follow-up was for a minimum of 1 year. A total of 90 patients with 104 keloids were recruited in the study. Overall keloid recurrence rate was 28.6%. There was a correlation between the absolute count of more than 50 per High power field of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages with recurrence of the disease. The sensitivity and specificity for the above parameters were lymphocytes 48% and 81%, macrophages 57% and 83%, mast cells 32% and 33%, and fibroblasts 41% and 91%, respectively. There was no correlation between mast cells and vascularity status with recurrence. Routine histology should, therefore, be performed to determine these parameters. Close monitoring and second-line therapy should be considered for patients with elevated macrophages and/or lymphocytes so as to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Ayonga, N J. R.W. R&(2021). "Dual Spatial Patterns, In-optimal Legal Framework and how they affect Land Use Planning in Kenya: Evidence from the Planning statutes. ." Journal of African Habitat Review. 2021; (15(4). (Forthcoming.).
MO F, MO O, M E-T, A K, OB A-B, B G, RJ S. "An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries; 2007-2017." AAS Open Res. 2021;2021; 4:39.(2021; 4:39.):2021; 4:39.
MO F, ME T, JI V, CA F, M R, AM K, R V, OB A‐B, R A, B G, SZ M, A A, H D, A V, RJ S, for the Group ECCA. "An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries." BMC Oral Health. 2021;2021; 21:126.(2021; 21:126.):2021; 21:126.
T.G O. "The Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women's Empowerment in Kenya." Pathways to African Feminism and Development. 2021;6(2):104-116.
Ondicho TG. "Editor's Note: Another Tough Year Comes to an End." African Journal of Gender, Society and Development. 2021;10(4):7-12.
Ondicho T. "Editorial Note." African Journal of Gender, Society and Development. 2021;10(3):7-12.
and Ndeke AN1, 3 MHM1 KCK2 MJK1. "Effect of Acetamınophen on Ovulation and Implantation in Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):141-143.141-143.pdf
F M, F. M, J. N. "Effect of Employee reward, on employee performance at the Kenya Police service." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
Mwinami T, Junga JO, Oduma JA, Chesire D, Musina J, Kioko E, Ayiemba W, Harper DM. "EFFECT OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON AVIAN SPECIES COMPOSITION, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN AN UPLAND TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM:.". 2021.
Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
Mutuli GP, Mbuge DO, Gitau AN. "Effect of humidity on Aflatoxin contamination on selected African leafy vegetables. ." Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2021.
Bone G, Parr T, Brameld J, Elmes M, Gonzalez-Carranza Z, Koech O. The effect of mezquite pod flour in a wheat-based diet on broiler chicken growth performance. University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK: Science Direct; 2021.
ADWATI SM, Edalia LG, Gathece L. "EFFECT OF PAST DENTAL EXPERIENCE ON PATIENTS ATTITUDES FOLLOW UP ORAL HEALTH CARE INTERVENTION." EAMJ. 2021;VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537:VOL 98 NO2 PG 3529-3537.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Mbega ER. "Effect of plant extracts on important fungal pathogens and germination of tomato seed." International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2021;18(4):77-92.
Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.
Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0246109.
Mandeep S, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial.". 2021.
D S, O OR, O OW, N MJ. "Effect of Waste Clay Brick Powder on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste." Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2021;Vol 15.
Judy Kimaru1*, Henry Mutembei2 JKM2. "Effectiveness of Drought Risk Reduction Policies: Case Study of Hay Production in Kajiado County, Kenya." American journal of Climate Change. 2021;(10):512-532.
Wang’ombe DN, Mose BR, Maranga SM, MBUYA TM. "Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded secondary aluminum 6061 alloy." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(3):270-278 . Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000094

Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and properties of recycled Aluminum 6061 alloy, whose alloy content varied from that of primary alloy. The alloy was processed at tool speed and feed ranges of 530 rev/min–1320 rev/min and 40 mm/min–100 mm/min respectively. Microstructure examination; tensile test and Vickers microhardness evaluation were carried out. Microstructure of the alloy was in four zones including: base metal, heat affected zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone and stirred zone. Average grain size of unprocessed material was 93 μm. Processing the alloy at 530 rev/min and 100 mm/min resulted in grains of average size 93 μm, 183 μm and 7 μm; in base metal, heat affected zone and stirred zone respectively. Tensile failure occurred in heat affected zone; that was exposed to high heat. The alloy hardness decreased to a minimum in heat affected zone, followed by a brief rise in thermo-mechanically affected zone, to another maximum in stirred zone. Processed zone hardness was inversely proportional to tool speed and directly proportional to feed rate. Increase in the speed and decrease in feed, increased heat which deteriorated the properties.

Jerop B, Segera DR. "An Efficient PCA-GA-HKSVM-Based Disease Diagnostic Assistant." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-10.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.. 2021;16(4):1-13.
Dabasso BH, Wasonga OV, Irungu P, Kaufmann B. "Emerging pastoralist practices for fulfilling market requirements under stratified cattle production systems in Kenya's drylands." Animal Production Science. Accepted 23 February 2021. 2021.
J. MMMNFFM. "Employee reward, work environment and employee performance at the Kenya Police service,." DBA Africa Management Review . 2021;11(1).
Makokha, Chepken C, Opiyo E. "End User Centric Quantitative Trust Model in Cloud Computing." American Journal of Computer Science and Engineering. 2021;7(1):1-7.
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Endometriosis Diagnosis correlation of Laparoscopic visualization and histopathology confirmation in low Resource setting." Open J Obs Gyne. 2021;11(7):845-852. Abstractojog_2021071515313873.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the location of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% of reproductive women. With limited resources in Africa, it is essential to assess whether diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization can be used as a substitute for histology. Objective: To correlate the diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization and the histological confirmation of the biopsy taken. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study with a sample size of 443 was undertaken in the diagnosis of endometriosis among Africans in Nairobi, Kenya from March 2019 to March 2021. Women undergoing laparoscopy were screened for endometriosis by visualization and a biopsy was taken for histopathology. Diagnosis of endometriosis by visualization was correlated with histological confirmed endometriosis. Results: Women with a diagnosis of endometriosis through laparoscopic visualization were found to be 77 (17.4%) and 30 (6.8%) had positive histology for endometriosis. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39%. Conclusion: Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39% and this did not correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. It is essential to perform biopsy with histopathology for the confirmation of endometriosis.

3. Onwonga RN, Chemining’wa GN, Jumbo MB. "Enhancing yellow maize production for sustainable food and nutrition security in African ." Journa Kenya. East l of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):00.
Chepkwony EC, Gitao GC, Muchemi GM, Sangula AK, Kairu-Wanyoike SW. "Epidemiological study on foot-and-mouth disease in small ruminants: Sero-prevalence and risk factor assessment in Kenya." PLOS ONE . 2021;16 ((8)):e0234286. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234286.goat_fmdplos_one.pdf
KathambiBE, N MUTHAMAJ, AnguC. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(2).
Kathambi EB, Muthama JN, Ang'u C. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2.
Murunga J, Muriithi MK, Wawire NW. "Estimating the size of the informal sector in Kenya, Cogent Economics & Finance." Cogent Economics & Finance. 2021;9(1):1-15.
S.I.Akaranga, Situma JW. "The Ethical dimensions of Entrepreneurial Practice in three traditions." East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion. 2021;3(1):23-34.east_african_journal_of_traditions_culture_and_religion_vol_3_no_1__23_34.pdf
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Vincent OM, Nyak DM. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):56-60 .
Omambia VM, Nguta JM, Mitema ES, Musila FM, Nyak DM, Ali HM, Gervason MA. "Ethnopharmacology, pharmacological activities, and chemistry of the Hypericum genus." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(2):105-113.
Siko I, Sola P, Mulwa, M R, Otieno P. "Evaluating charcoal producers’ preferences for improved production systems in Marigat sub county, Baringo County." Environmental Challenges. 2021;5(100275).
Mushori J, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM, Matu J. "Evaluating Contractors’ Safety Record and Its Influence on Performance of Road Infrastructural Projects." World Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2021;2021(9):203-228 .
Muigai DK, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Mohammed A. "Evaluating maize performance under varying water depletion levels in bura irrigation scheme." Kenya.Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. . 2021;18(1):19-29.
Namungu L, Mburu C, Were FH. "Evaluation of Occupational Lead Exposure in Informal Work Environment in Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal, . 2021;30(11):45-54.
Muhwezi MRL, Aseey A, Ondicho TG, Otieno MAC. "An evaluation of social and psychological effect of empowerment of women in Uganda through Technical and Vocational Education and Training participation." Journal of African Studies and Ethnographic Research. 2021;3(4):24-45.
Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "The evolving cultural values and their implications on the Maasai Pastoralists, Kajiado County, Kenya." Scientific African. 2021;13(ISSN 2468-2276).
A A Fabuyide, Cornish LA, Apata AO, Rading GO, Muobeni TN, Witcomb MJ, Jain PK, Borode JO. "Experimental Liquidus Surface Projection and Isothermal Section at 1000C of the V-Ni-C System, J of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion.". 2021.
R. Sungura, Onyambu C, Mpolya E, E. Sauli, Vianney J-M. "Extended scope of neuroimaging and prospects in brain atrophy mitigation: A systematic review." Interdisciplinary neurosurgery . 2021;23:100875.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma MJ, Ritho, N.C. "Farmer Empowerment in Agriculture and its Association with Smallholder Farm Incomes in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(4):355-369.
Okello, J.J., Nzuma, M.J., Otieno DJ, Kidoido, M., Tanga, C.M. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Commercial Insect-Based Feed for Sustainable Livestock Production in Kenya." Sustainability. 2021;13:53-59.
AM K, IA O. "A fatal case of infant oral mutilation." Contemp Clin Dent. 2021;2021; 12:76-80(2021; 12:76-80):2021; 12:76-80.
NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Abstract
Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact

NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact
of fibromyalgia

Ayieyo P, Rambo C, Ndiritu A. "Financial Effect of Labour Related Risks on Completion of PPP Projects. Advances in social sciences research journal.volume 7(10):122-130.". 2021. Abstract

Efficient management of construction works should focus its attention on utilizing labour, equipment, and raw materials in the right way. Besides, they claim that responsible parties should evaluate labour productivity continuously and that cost control measures should be developed. Low productivity witnessed in construction is linked to internal challenges including disputes, abandonment of projects, excess budget, and time overlaps. The objective of the study was to determine the financial effect of labour related risks on completion of PPP projects. A descriptive survey design was used with simple random sampling targeting 85 members of the management team at the completed Sondu-Miriu Power project. The participants were administered with questionnaire which were sent by mail (in some cases) and selected participants encouraged to respond. Data obtained was analysed through SPSS platform using descriptive statistics and Pearson Moment correlation as inferential statistics. The study found that labour related risks in construction PPP projects included failure by employees and experts to complete assigned tasks, injuries and deaths, changing labour demands during the project as well as cases of go slow. Construction labour related risks affected the financial cost, time and quality of work performed in the construction project. The study concludes that labour related risks have a financial effect on completion of PPP projects such that as the risks increase, the financial cost increases. The study recommends that more focus should be placed on the identification and recruitment of project staff as well task allocation.

Mengo WK, Munyasi MD, Mutuli MS, Mumenya WS. "Flexural Properties of Surface-Modified Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Resin Composites." Journal of Natural Fibres. 2021.
Othoo C, Dulo S, Olago D. "Flood-risk vulnerabilities of sanitation facilities in urban informal settlements: Lessons from Kisumu City, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(4).
MD Wanjere, Ogutu M, Kinoti M, Iraki XN. "Foreign Direct Investment and Local firm's Performance." Advances in Management and Applied Economics. 2021;11(3):57-73. Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of FDI on performance of manufacturing firms in
Kenya. Little is documented about the link between FDI variables of capital flow,
advanced production technology, marketing expertise and management know-how
and performance of firms. The study’s sought to establish the effect of each
individual FDI variables on firm’s performance. It also sought to established the
overall effect of the performance manufacturing firms in Kenya. The population of
study comprised 100 companies registered with Kenya Association Manufacturing
as at the time of data collection in 2019 and that had over 10 percent foreign
ownership. The respondents were the CEOs of organization. The study used a
structured questionnaire to collect primary data. Descriptive and inferential
statistics were both used to analyze the data. Data was pretested for normality,
linearity, multicollinearity, autocorrelation and homoscedasticity and the data found
to meet most of these preconditions. The Pearson correlation analysis was employed
to discern not only the strength but also the direction of the interrelationships
involving the variables. The researcher tested the effect of the components of FDI
on performance of manufacturing firms. The study developed one hypothesis and
four sub hypothesis. The results revealed that there was a statistically significant
relationship between FDI and firm performance. This imply that to achieve better
firm performance, the government need to come up with policies geared to
attracting more FDI into the key sectors of the economy.

Osaaji M, Odari M, Muchiri J. "From Alterity to Agency: Pathways of Subversion and Resistance in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Personal Essays." The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2021;12(1):1-16.
Maina, wanjiku. "From Vernacular to Modern: Transitioning East African Traditional House Design to Contemporary." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;14(3):2081-2093.
SS G, G A, P A, K B, R B, G C, KJ C, ACR C, T C, YO C, D D, ML F, MO F, A G, HH H, V J, A K, SC L, P L, VP M, T M, Y M, N P, A T-M, ECM L, CH C. "Global Oral Health Policies and Guidelines: Using Silver Diamine Fluoride for Caries Control. Front Oral Health." Front Oral Health. 2021;2021; 2:685557(2021; 2:685557):2021; 2:685557.
Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu: C. "Graduation of Term Assurance Data using Frailty Approach." Afrika Statistika. 2021;16(3):2805-2817.
Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO, Ezekiel NK. "Green bean biochemical attributes of Arabusta coffee hybrids from Kenya using HPLC and soxhlet extraction methods." Australian Journal of Crop Science . 2021;15(2):201-208 .
Mgalula ME, Wasonga OV, Hülsebusch C, and Hensel URO. "Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sink potential in Eastern Africa rangeland ecosystems: A review." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2021;11(19).
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and Histopathology of Goats Feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021(Article ID 8831996, 12 pages).
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and histopathology of goats feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8831996).
Maina, kiswili. "HAIR THEN, HAIR NOW: AFRICAN STYLING BECOMING LEISURE FOR ALL." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):112-146.
S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

Kieti RM, Ogolla W. "Hedonic valuation of apartments in Kenya." Property Management. 2021;39(1):34-53. Abstract

Emerald Publishing Limited, UK.

Peter M. F. Mbithi, Judith S. Mbau, Nzioka J. Muthama, Hellen Inyega JKM, Kala JM. "Higher education and skills development in Africa: An analytical paper on the role of higher learning Institutions on sustainable development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment & Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
P.M.F. M, Mbau SJ, N.J. Muthama, Inyega H, Kalai JM. "Higher Education and Skills Development in Africa: An Analytical Paper on the Role of Higher Learning Institutions on Sustainable Development. ." Journal of Sustainable Environment and Peace, . 2021;2:55-70.
C. M, F. M, M. M, m O. "Human Resources Management Practices and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2021;8(9).
C. M, F. M, M. MOM. "Human Resources Management Practices, Employee Competence and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
Kitonyi PM, Segera DR. "Hybrid Gradient Descent Grey Wolf Optimizer for Optimal Feature Selection." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-33.
Ondicho TG, Irandu E. "Impact of Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic and Implications on Tourism Sector: The Experience in Kenya." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies. 2021;5(6):31-44.
Otiang E, Thumbi SM, Campbell ZA, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Impact of routine Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken flock size in smallholder farms in western Kenya." PLoS. 2021;16(3).
Makinya KJ, Wagacha JM, Odhiambo JA, Likhayo P, Edoh-Ognakossan K, Tefera T, Abass A, Mutungi C. "The importance of store hygiene for reducing post-harvest losses in smallholder farmers’ stores: Evidence from a maize-based farming system in Kenya." Journal of Stored Products Research. 2021;90(DOI:10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101757):101757.
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Nyamweya NN, Lumb PN, Mujyarugamba JC, Abuga KO. "Inactive Ingredients used in Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area." PJK. 2021;25(1):17-20. Abstract

Background: Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have become widely used products since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus based COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to ethanol or isopropanol (the active ingredients of ABHS) and water, these products are formulated with a number of ingredients to optimize delivery, efficacy and safety as well as to provide consumer appeal. Despite the widespread use of ABHS, there is very limited information in the literature on the non-alcohol ingredients used in these products.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the inactive ingredients used in ABHS marketed in metropolitan Nairobi.
Methodology: ABHS products were randomly obtained from several locations at retail outlets within the Nairobi metropolitan region. The ingredients used in each ABHS were obtained from the product labels.
Results: The most common inactive ingredients based on percentage frequency of listing on product labels were glycerin (50%), fragrances (36%), carbomer (26%), triethanolamine (18%) and propylene glycol (17%). It was observed that some products incorporated additional antimicrobial agents and preservatives in the formulation. The fragrances and some of the preservatives used in the ABHS products are potential allergens. Incomplete or inadequate ingredient naming was noted for several products.
Conclusions: There is a need for ABHS manufacturers to fully disclose all raw materials used in ABHS products using standardized ingredient nomenclature. ABHS users need to be aware of potential allergens present in respective marketed products.

Li WM, Li Z, Luvembe AMO, Yang C. "Influence maximization algorithm based on Gaussian propagation model." Information Sciences. 2021;568:Pages 386-402. AbstractScience Direct

The influence of each entity in a network is a crucial index of the network information dissemination. Greedy influence maximization algorithms suffer from time efficiency and scalability issues. In contrast, heuristic influence maximization algorithms improve efficiency, but they cannot guarantee accurate results. Considering this, this paper proposes a Gaussian propagation model based on the social networks. Multi-dimensional space modeling is constructed by offset, motif, and degree dimensions for propagation simulation. This space’s circumstances are controlled by some influence diffusion parameters. An influence maximization algorithm is proposed under this model, and this paper uses an improved CELF algorithm to accelerate the influence maximization algorithm. Further, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the influence maximization algorithm based on the Gaussian propagation model supported by theoretical proofs. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of a series of influence maximization algorithms. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows significant improvement in both effectiveness and efficiency.

Nyandega IA, Gurong T, Okello P, Ongoma V. "Influence of Convective Coupled Equatorial Kelvin Waves on March-May Precipitation over East Africa." Geogrophica Pannonica. 2021;25(1):24-34.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi M, Kalai JM. "INFLUENCE OF ISO 9001 STANDARDS ON QUALITY OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES IN UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA: A CASE OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION PROGRAMME OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Wangai M M, Inyega JO, M M, JM. K. "Influence of ISO 9001 standards on quality of academic programmes in universities in Kenya: a case of bachelor of education programme of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2(2):34-48.. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of ISO 9001 standards on quality of academic programmes in universities in Kenya: a case of university of Nairobi." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Ndung'u M, Ngatia LW, Onwonga RN, Mucheru-Muna MW, Fu R, Moriasi DN, Ngetich KF. "The influence of organic and inorganic nutrient inputs on soil organic carbon functional groups content and maize yields." Heliyon. 2021;7(8):e07881.
T H, W KI, G. MR. "The Influence of Parental Incomes on Internal Efficiency of Public Primary Schools in Western Province-Rwanda." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2021;26(6):06-16.
Musyoki J, J.A O. "Influence of Principals Inspirational Influence on Students Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 2. 2021;26(2279-0837):10.9790/0837-2605094760.
Musyoki, J.M., Kalai JM, Okoth UA, Okumbe JA. "Influence of Principals’ Inspirational motivation on Students‟ Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP) . 2021;2(1):109-132.
Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Influence of Teacher delocalization policy on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya ." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):38-46.
Wangai MM, Inyega J, Mugambi M, Kalai J. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai M M, Inyega J, M M, J. K. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. . 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai, M.M., Inyega, H. N., Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of total quality management and knowledge management on quality of university academic programmes: a literature review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(1):1-14.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Influences of Community Participation on School Infrastructure Policy Implementation and Performance of Construction Projects. ." Open Journal of Social Sciences. 2021;2021(9):173-187.
Kaua CG, Thenya T, Mutheu JM. "Informal Microfinance and Rural Households’ Climate Variability Resilience: Analysis of their Contribution and Determinants in Tharaka South Sub-county, Kenya. ." Journal of the Kenya National Commission for UNESCO. . 2021;Vol. 1( (1) ):pp 109-144.
Makori EO, Connie B. "Information Profession in Digital Transformation and Development: Future Directions.". In: Handbook of Research on Knowledge and Organization Systems in Library and Information Science. Pennsylvania: IGI Global; 2021.
Owuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA. "Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;3(16):e0240771.
Karamshetty V, DeVries H, Wassenhove LVN, Dewilde S, Minnaard W, Ongarora D, Abuga K, Yadav P. "Inventory Management Practices in Private Healthcare Facilities in Nairobi County." Prod. Oper. Manag.. 2021;31(2):828-846. Abstract

Universal health coverage (UHC) is an integral part of the United Nations sustainable development goals. The private sector plays a prominent role in achieving UHC, being the primary source of essential medicines for many people. However, many private healthcare facilities in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) have insu_cient stocks of essential medicines. At the same time, these same facilities carry excessive quantities of certain drugs, leading to obsolescence. This suggests poor inventory control. To propose potential remedies it is vital to fully understand the underlying causes. In semi‐structured interviews with managers of private healthcare facilities in Nairobi, we asked them about their 1) inventory control systems, 2) inventory control skills, 3) time/human resource constraints, 4) budget constraints, 5) motivations for inventory control, and 6) suppliers. Our results suggest that the problems are driven by resource limitations (budget and time/human resources), managerial issues (relating to skills and systems), and market mechanisms that limit overage and underage costs. Unavailability at the supplier level and motivations for inventory control are relatively minor issues. We posit that the key causes are interlinked and stem from wider issues in the market and regulatory environment. Our results challenge prevalent beliefs about medicine supply chains in LMICs and lead to alternative hypotheses. Testing these hypotheses could improve our understanding of inventory management in private healthcare facilities and aid progress in achieving UHC.

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