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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K.; Submitted. Abstract

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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Local Authorities in Kenya (H.E.B.) . forthcoming.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "M.Sc. Project on Kenya's Domestic Export.". In: . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Magneto-hydrodynamic Steady Flow of Liquid Between Two Parallel Plates.". In: Proceedings of Kenya Mathematical Society. Materials Research Society; Submitted.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "Management of Instructional Resource in Teacher Colleges.". In: A paper presented in Ministry of Education Workshop for Principals of Teacher Colleges on Teacher Education Management. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K. "Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques", Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A., Dec. 1991.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Master of Medicine (in Pathology) dissertation entitled "Chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute leukaemia at K.N.H., Nairobi, Kenya.".". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Energy Needs in Africa", Proceedings: International Conference on Alternative Energy and the Offer of the Sun and the Sea, Milano, 18-20 April 1980.". In: International Conference on Alternative Energy and the Offer of the Sun and the Sea, Milano, 18-20. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Energy Use in Kenya", Proceedings: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980.". In: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "The Hydraulic Ram Pump in Kenya", ZDRC-MRl02e, Proceedings of a Workshop on Hydraulic Ram Pump (hydrant) Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, May 1984.". In: of a Workshop on Hydraulic Ram Pump (hydrant) Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, May 1984. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S. Snake bite in Kenya Dissertation presented in part fulfilment of MMed. in Surgery university of Nairobi.". In: MMed. in Surgery university of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S., Malibo, J. Some considerations in cases of fractures of he femur treated by intramedullary nailing. Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Mbindyo, B.S., Okelo, G.B.A. Common Venomous Bites and Stings in Kenya A book published by Health Education Division and audio-visual Centre, Serial No. 1/79.". In: A book published by Health Education Division and audio-visual Centre, Serial No. 1/79. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Microwave Route Surveying using Differential GPS.". In: Survey Review. Canadian Center of Science and Education; Submitted. Abstract
A microwave path survey is critical before any wireless communication infrastructure can be put into place. It is on the basis of this that the line of sight possibility between any pair of stations is established. This survey can also be used to determine whether there is sufficient space available on existing telecommunication towers, where additional telecommunication facilities can be hosted. This study has demonstrated that differential GPS techniques can successfully be used in microwave path surveys within the framework of telegeoinformatics. The adopted methodology simulated a levelling circuit for the defined observation network. This resulted in an acceptable misclosure of 0.039m which was distributed among the various stations in proportion to the relative length of each link. Natural and man-made obstacles (critical points) along the various telecommunication links were also determined.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Misingi Ya Hisabati1,2,3.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A model for the establishment of an integrated regional geodetic datum.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 32, No 250,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Moindi, S.K., Pokhariyal, G.P. and Nzimbi, B.M., W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold, Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS), accepted Feb 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS); Submitted.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Mr. Nicky Nzioki,Mrs.Catherine Kariuki: An Investigation into the process of Compulsory Acquisition and suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte THE ROLE OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES IN HIV INFECTION AMONG ANTENATAL MOTHERS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT HOSPITAL.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte; Submitted. Abstract

This study was done at Machakos District Hospital in the Eastern province of Kenya between May and August 2007.Aim was to find out the role of hormonal contraceptives in HIV infection among antennal mothers. Analytical cross- sectional study design was used. Methodology. The sample size consisted of 144 antenatal mothers visiting the MCH clinic for PMTCT services among other services. The simple random sampling technique included every 8th antenatal mother visiting the PMTCT clinic who had no history of consisted condom use. All antenatal mothers who had not used condoms consistedly both contraceptive and non-contraceptive users who fell in the sampling frame acted as study subjects. This was on condition that they consented to participate in the study. A self

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the work force. However mentoring relationships have been faced by challenges such as inadequate knowledge and negative attitude. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitude and perceived benefits on mentorship among the nursing students in Kenyan universities. The study was conducted in September, 2009.  A descriptive cross sectional survey  used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information. The study participants were students from University of Nairobi (U.O.N) and Kenya Methodist University (K.E.M.U). A sample of 188 students was selected from a total population of 403 in both universities. The data were coded, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Presentation of data was done in form of descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and graphs. Pearsons chi square tests were used to compare the two groups. The tests level of significance was set at 5%. Results showed that there was a significance difference between mentorship programmes in the two institutions ( χ 2= 17.02,  d.f=1 , p < 0.001)           . Fourty four (72%) of the students at K.E.M.U felt that the program had positive impact on students

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PLACEMENT ON KRCHN GRADUATES PERFORMANCE IN THE NCK REGISTRATION EXAMINATION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

The study sought to establish the factors affecting the diploma graduates performance in the Nursing registration examination. Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this study was aimed at seeking to establish the reasons why. This was a descriptive study. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study from lecturers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege IMPACT OF STUDENTS AND TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS ON PERFORMANCE OF DIPLOMA NURSE GRADUATES.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this descriptive study sought to establish the impact of students and teacher characteristics on performance in the Nursing registration examination. The study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study guide from lecturers

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Mungai T.C. Kisumbi B.K Wakiaga J.M and Ireri S.K : Patients.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Mutave R.J. and Kisumbi B.K: Attitude of urban Kenyan population towards replacement of teeth. Preliminary findings. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "National Standards and Environmental Pollution.". In: paper presented at a Seminar organized by Kenya Bureau of Standards on National Standards and Technology for Development. Hotel Oceanic, Mombasa , 1982. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Nduati R, and Mbori-Ngacha D. Prevention Of Breastmilk Transmission of HIV: Balancing the Benefits and the Risks In: Essex M, Mboup S, Kanki PJ, Kalengayi MR, (eds). AIDS in Africa. 2nd Ed.". In: Book. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); Submitted. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NJOROGE W, NDAVI PM, KARANJA JG, MATI JKG. The incidence of cervical extropion among women on contraceptive methods in two periurban areas in Nairobi. J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "A note on the Temperature Distribution of a Viscous Incompressible Fluid in a Channel Bounded by Two Parallel Plates.". In: J. of Scientific Research, B.H.U. (INDIA), Vol. XXIV (1-2). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference on 5th-7th Oct. 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College - Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

 Prof. Anna Karani on - Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Nyangena, E., Mutema, A. & Karani, A. Evaluation of clinical training in nursing in Kenya.". In: Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal - Dec. 2011 1(2) 22-30. Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal; Submitted. Abstract

 The  research evaluated clinical training provided by the academic institutions that offer Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) program. The purpose of the study was to describe the adequacy of clinical training and the graduates preparedness for nursing practice. The study was conducted from Sept. 2008 to March 2010. Design was cross sectional using questionnaires and focus group interviews (FGI) methods to collect data. The sample comprised of 232 subjects including pre-service BScN graduates and nursing supervisors at four teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Results revealed that clinical training provided by academic institutions was adequate but quality of training varied widely among the training institutions. The conclusion was that clinical training provided by BScN programs in Kenya was of high quality. The study recommends that urgent attention was required by nurse educators to address identified gaps in clinical training especially clinical instruction and supervision.   

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda, J. O., Oduori, E. A. C., Galun, R., Imbuga, O. M. and Mumcuoglu, K. Y. Partial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. Physiol. Entomol.". In: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "On outlier identification in geodetic networks using principal component analysis. International Conference on Influential Data Analysis,.". In: University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Effect of an External Magnetic Field on Dynamical Properties of the OCP.". In: In Three Dimension, Phys. Rev. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation of DDT(1,1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis)(4-Chlorophenyl) ethene by the white not fungus James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 16 Pleurotus Luteoalbus .". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
KIRETI DRVICTORN. "Osgood Schlatter disease: An Audit Profile of 35 Adolescents.". In: The Annals of African Surgery Volume 6 . Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; Submitted. Abstract
BackgroundOsgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of anterior knee pain inthe adolescent. Treatment is usually conservative with surgery reservedfor those who do not respond to this treatment. There is little publishedwork regarding the experience with the disease in our local set up. This series documents the experience with 35 adolescents treated for the disease.DesignCase seriesSubjectsThirty five adolescents with clinical and radiological diagnoses ofOsgood-Schlatter disease at Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospitals,between 2001and 2007.MethodPatients were evaluated for demographics, knee involvement, activitiesassociated with pain and treatment outcomeResultsThere were 28 males and 7 females, aged 10 to 16 years (mean 12.8years). Thirteen had bilateral knee involvement. Twenty two were involved in active sports while the rest had constant pain and unable to sit or kneel. A family history of the disease was documented in one case.Thirty adolescents responded well to the conservative treatment. Inthe five adolescents who underwent surgery, the patella tendon wasedematous with thickening of the tendon sheath and neovascularisation.All the operated adolescents returned to active sports with 6 weeks after the surgery.ConclusionOsgood-Schlatter disease is a self-limiting condition in majority ofadolescents. Surgery when indicated has an excellent outcome.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Contribution of Space Science in the Improvement of Quality of Life.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted.
JOHN DRYABS. "P.T.A - A Promising Market for Kenyan Manufactured Goods.". In: Business Journal, V.III No.12. SITE; Submitted. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Pathophysiology of {Diabetes} {Mellitus} : {Critical} {Care} {Nursing} {Quarterly}.; Submitted. Abstract

As we learn more about the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, we find that there is more yet to be learned. This may sound like a trite statement, but in reality it is true. The following article reviews the basic pathophysiology of both type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus as...

M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Peak Revision Mathematics.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "PhD RESEARCH ON: ."; Submitted. Abstract
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ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis {NEGATIVE} {FEEDBACK} {MECHANISMS} {Control} of body temperature.; Submitted. Abstract

Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS Control of body temperature

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Population policy Guidelines for the National Council on Population and Development (NCPD), GoK, April 1983 - (now Sessional Paper No. 4 of 1984) - was a Member of the Task Force.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available.
A. EO. "The Post-Colonial Historiography of Kenya." University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Preliminary Suggestions on the implementation of the Land Section of Chapter five of the Constitution of Kenya through Research and Training.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
The New Constitution of Kenya, Chapter five states that land in Kenya will be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. The construction also sets out a number of principles, which will be implemented through a national land policy that developed and reviewed regularly by the government and through legislation. The National Land Policy for Kenya is Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, it presents the issues and policy recommendations that were identified, analyzed and agreed by stakeholders. The sessional paper forms the foundation upon which administrative and legislative framework will be built. This is the framework that will drive the critically required land reforms for Kenya. This paper gives a detailed outline of the training and capacity building and research requirements in land management and administration. Its main emphasis being the setting up of a Land Policy research Centre in the light of the new institutional framework suggested in chapter 5 of the Constitution of Kenya and the Sessional paper No.3 of 2009. A suitable land policy centre will undertake research and training for the National Land Commission, in the light of the suggested functions. The paper concludes by suggesting the training and research programmes fro governments and individuals in Kenya and within the continent on land.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Preparation (with others) of an Urban Development Plan for Ruiru Town.". In: Winrock International, Morrilton, U.S.A. EAMJ; Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani ; Stephen Kainga; Prof. Simon Kangethe; Diana Mwarania - PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING.". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani RE - DISCOVERING THE CHRISTIAN NURSE.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

The old nurse was there during the colonial  era. They were trained mainly by missionaries who were Christians. Therefore, they had the discipline and the Christian foundation principles. The joy of a Christian institution like Kijabe is that it still has that foundation. So all is not lost. We have to make sure that the lost PASSION, LOVE & CARE are back in the nursing profession. We have to restore that passion. That idea or feeling

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna Karani Facing Today.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

A leader is one who has the  Vision to see, Faith to believe, Will to learn, Humility to serve, Courage to do, Resilience to rise up in times of knock downs. What  is leadership? The ability to get things done through people.  What challenges have you encountered in leadership as you work? How have you overcome these challenges? What sets you apart from everybody else? What is it that you do differently from the nurse of to-day? It is your leadership. The way you do things for the community you serve. The commitment to serve selflessly. The way you are disciplined. It is not just money.  We all want to learn how to become more effective leaders in providing health care to the  community. We have to prepare for many challenges with the advanced technology, rapid development, and fast changing health systems, emerging diseases, rising poverty, hard economic times, changing social systems, Education , political , environment, climate among many others that affect the communities we serve. Facing Today

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe, Mr. Johannes Njagi, Njoka ,Media Resources in Medical Education: Critical issues and factors to consider in instructional media development in the training of health professionals.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; Submitted. Abstract

 Media resources are critical component in teaching and learning process. Studies indicate that media resources provide the substitute for direct learning experiences during instruction and enable educators to present the learners with the requisite experience necessary for the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.The researchers set out to explore the philosophical, psychological and educational basis that provides guidelines on the development of media resources in the effective education and training of health professionals. Methodology was a historical critique of information from books, journals,magazines and internet on media resources in Medical education.  The findings indicate that the process of media resources development and administration is highly creative venture according to Mason (1977).plan, prepare, present, preview and follow up activities after use of equipment. Therefore educators must be able to demonstrate these issues when developing and administering them. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Karani Anna : NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

MWANIA MJM, GATARI MJ, MAINA MDM, KINYUA R. "Recycled waste plastics composite: Possible construction material for wind turbine blades." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Electrical power supply in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is expensive and very low, and most families have no chance of accessing clean lighting and cooking power. Off grid systems are the best viable solution in SSA and wind energy has a potential. However, the components …

JAMES DRMWAURA, JAMES DRMWAURA, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Relationship between Psychoactive Substance use and High-risk Sexual Practices of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal volume 33. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Religion and Societal Harmony in Africa: The case of Dialogue, Dialogue & Alliance, Vol. 2 No. 4.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; Submitted. Abstract
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Ndurumo MM. "Research Methods: A thesis building skills Approach." Nairobi: Longhorn; Submitted. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials For earthen Dams and Embankments.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; Submitted. Abstract
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OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Revenue Autonomy and Property Taxation in Anglophone East Africa: Opportunities, Emerging Trends and Challenges.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; Submitted.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "A Review of Spectral Line Shapes and Widths in Plasmas.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "River Pollution profile: A case Study of Thika River. Proceedings of National Seminar on Technological Solutions for Economic Development in Kenya now and in the 21st Century,.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

MULU NATHANIEL. "Rock art sites of Wajir and Laikipia Districts." For International News on Rock Art (INORA); Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal - KNJ Vol. 41(2) 65-67. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Medical Educators,  spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

NYABOKE DROBAEMOSOTIROSE. "Rose Mosoti-Obae, Achieving full enrolment in Kenya. A projection by Dr. Gravinir and R. Mosoti Obae.: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1.". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1. Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
Most economically developing countries, after having implemented the democratization of primary education, are now setting their sights on the goal of achieving full enrolment in countries a gradual approach of increasing enrolment annually into secondary schools is perhaps the only realistic option available. This study attempts to project, given this gradual approach, in how many years full enrolment will be achieved not only in each of the 6 provinces in Kenya but also in Kenya as a whole. The results obtained show two distinct categories of provinces: the educationally advantaged provinces which are likely to achieve full enrolment about twenty years before the group of educationally disadvantaged provinces do so.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A static dynamic model for densification of geodetic networks.". In: Allgemeine Vermessungs Nachrichten, International Edition, 1. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Stephen Moindi Kibet, G.P. Pokhariyal and B.M. Nzimbi, W_2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian manifold, Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS) accepted in May 2012. Paper under review.". In: Asynchronous Content Development Workshop,Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya,31st March 2004. Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(UMMS); Submitted.
OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. "Subversion of Patriarchal Ideology: A Case Study of Magdalene, a Woman Oral Narrative Performer from the Samburu of Kenya.". In: Research In African Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring 2009). Indiana University Press; Submitted. Abstract

This paper is based on narrative performances collected in research by students of the University of Nairobi under the guidance of their lecturers. The fieldwork was conducted in February 2005 among nomadic communities in northern Kenya. The main thrust of the paper is to explore how Magdalene, a woman narrator, subverts the dominant masculine ideology inherent in the structure and orientation of oral narratives. The paper identifies the discrete and subtle ways in which the narrator seeks to undermine the manifest inclination of oral narratives towards male dominance. Considering that oral literature is a crucial tool in shaping the world view of a community (especially children), and bearing in mind that women artists perform many of the oral narratives, the imperceptible but subversive potential of such narration becomes even clearer.

CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics Guides1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.E.A.E.P.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 E.AE.P.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of vernolamides from vrnonia galamensis oil under varied conditions and their anti-microbial activities.". In: Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. M.N. Mbugua, A.O. Yusuf, B.M Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES.". In: Journal. Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa; Submitted. Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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OTIENO DRJOWI. "Teaching in Communication.". In: Seminar paper presented at staff Development seminars at the Kenya Institute for Monetary Studies, Nairobi and organized by the University of Nairobi. The Kenya Medical Association; Submitted. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24).; Submitted. Abstract

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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Management of Inflation." This article discusses the effects of inflation in the process of making investment decisions, arranging for the required finances and formualting divided decisions. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.(Pages 16 - 18). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Management of Inflation." This article discusses the effects of inflation in the process of making investment decisions, arranging for the required finances and formualting divided decisions. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.(Pages 16 - 18).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Traditional Quantum Mechanics vs. Local Hidden vs, Local Hidden Variables.". In: Nuovo Cimento. 8. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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Mutua M, Kinuthia W, Otieno NE, Muriuki JM, Lange CN, Muchai M, Ingrisch S, Oyieke H, Lampe KH. "Type specimen of the insect order Coleoptera in the scientific collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.". Submitted. Abstract
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B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady Magneto-hydrodynamic Channel flow of a Dusty Rivlin Erictiuon fluid.". In: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Sofia, ,X, NO.3. Materials Research Society; Submitted.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady Magneto-hydrodynamic flow of Dusty fluid through a Channel.". In: International Symposia in Mathematics, B.H.U. (INDIA). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady Magneto-hydrodynamic fluid flow through a Channel.". In: J. of Scientific Research, B.H.U. (INDIA), Vol. XXVIII (2). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Unsteady motion of a conducting fluid through a square Channel under Transverse Magnetic field.". In: International Symposia in Mathematics, Banaras Hindu University (INDIA). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Upflow Filters in Flocculation and Direct Filtration of Waters of High Turbidity; Ph.D. Thesis,.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38 (1) 55-59. Dr. Onditi Elias G.D, Prof. Anna K. Karani & Prof. Simon Kangethe; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Utrasound  technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%.Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology. 

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
O. KG. "Water Resources.". Submitted. Abstract
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M DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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for History {C, Media} N. Zotero {Quick} {Start} {Guide}.; Submitted. Abstract
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WHO. {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness.; Submitted. Abstract

WHO fact sheet on blindness and visual impairment providing key facts, definitions, causes, who is at risk, global and WHO response.

In Press
S. Z, G. C, I. V, G. B, D.M. H, K.M. M, J.R. B. "Adaptive radiation of the endemic Alcolapia cichlids of the East African soda lakes: genetic and morphological perspectives." Journal of Evolutionary Biology. In Press.
Oloo CM, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Wabomba JN, Muinde VM. "Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. In Press. AbstractEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Description
Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution using dried bark powder of mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata was studied. Characterization of adsorbent was done using FTIR and SEM. Batch experiment was carried out to examine the viability of using mangrove bark for adsorption of CV dye from aqueous solutions under different process conditions. The result revealed that removal of CV increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and decreased with increased particle size and ionic strength. pH 7 was the optimum pH for CV dye removal. The adsorption equilibrium for CV dye by Rhizophora mucronata stem-bark was attained within 60 min with removal efficacy of up to 99.8%. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was best used to describe sorption kinetics while Freundlich isotherm model was appropriate for describing adsorption isotherm. The results demonstrated …

Oloo CM, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Wabomba JN, Muinde VM. "Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. In Press. AbstractEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Description
Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution using dried bark powder of mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata was studied. Characterization of adsorbent was done using FTIR and SEM. Batch experiment was carried out to examine the viability of using mangrove bark for adsorption of CV dye from aqueous solutions under different process conditions. The result revealed that removal of CV increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and decreased with increased particle size and ionic strength. pH 7 was the optimum pH for CV dye removal. The adsorption equilibrium for CV dye by Rhizophora mucronata stem-bark was attained within 60 min with removal efficacy of up to 99.8%. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was best used to describe sorption kinetics while Freundlich isotherm model was appropriate for describing adsorption isotherm. The results demonstrated …

Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
Etenyi JO, Okalebo FA, S.A. Opanga, K. A. Sinei, Osanjo GO, Kurdi A, Goodman B. Comparison of zidovudine and tenofovir based regimens with regard to quality of life and prevalence of syptoms in HIV patients in Kenya. Prague; In Press.
Kyule MD, Oyamo M. "Cultural resource management in Kenya: a case for legislation review.". In: Kenya from Independence to early 21st century. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; In Press. Abstract

This paper builds a case for a reconsideration of Kenya’s legislation that relates to cultural and societal heritage resources management by briefly revisiting the circumstances that informed the enactment of the related laws. We present the view that existing legislation has tended to serve corporate, multinational and foreign interests at the expense of local and national interests, and that although these Acts may have somewhat served the country in the past, the legislations have turned the cultural heritage management in Kenya into a lame duck framework of abstractions of policy matters, that are irrelevant and unresponsive to changing local and international circumstances. We highlight contradictions between and within varied Acts, and offer suggestions for remedy that are geared toward the development of a cultural management policy with local ownership and universal compatibility.

JP E, J K, LW I, F H. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi ." Journal of Insect Science . In Press.
Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology. In Press.
Kemoli AM. "Dilemma of managing multi-surface dental caries in the primary dentition using the atraumatic restorative treatment: renaissance or dimming hope." East Afr Med J . In Press. Abstract

Background: Alot of research work has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in the management of dental caries, but there are still unresolved issues surrounding the use of the technique particularly in very large carious lesions.
Objective: To determine the current survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations placed in the primary dentition and any consequences to the restored tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Study selection: Using a set of specific key words, a Pubmed/Medline search was carried out to retrieve all publications on ARTrestorations placed in primary teeth in the period January 2000 to December 2011. Only publications whose studies had multi-surface ARTrestorations as an item of study were retrieved and relevant data extracted.
Data synthesis: Twelve studies contained in 12 publications fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study. The selected publications were analysed by the author to establish the study follow-up period and the survival rate of the multi-surface ARTrestorations for the different follow-up periods. Further information was adduced on any other effects of restoration on the tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Results: The search findings indicated that the survival rate for most of the multi-surface restorations were generally very low. Further, there were indications that even after the premature loss of the ARTrestorations, most of the affected teeth survived for the period of the study with a number of them having shown no signs of secondary caries or associated dental abscessees.
Conclusion: While the survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations in the studies documenetd in the review were low, the ART restorations appeared to provide some beneficial effects to the retention-longevity of the restored tooth even after their premature loss.

Bundi A, Mburu J, Mbogoh S, Ambuko J. "Factors Influencing the Adoption of Pre-Harvest Practices among Mango Farmers in Embu and Machakos Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. In Press.
D.O. O, Mavuti KM, Aloo-Obudho P, Ojuok JE, Britton JR. "Fish habitat suitability and community structure in an equatorial Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ." Hydrobiologia . In Press.
Owino I, Omosa LK, Onyari JM, Mulaa F. "Improvement of Fastness of Tagetes minuta L (Tami) dye onto cotton fabric through functionalization." Journal of Natural Sciences Research Journal of Natural Sciences Research . In Press.
Sinei KA, Mwang JW. "An in vitro study on the oxytocic action action of Adenia Globosa Engl." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In Press.
Mueni J. Kenyan women in music videos. Nairobi: Nairobi Academic Press; In Press.
KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Maloiy, G.M.O., Rowe, M.F., Towett, P.K. and Kanui, T.I. Temperature regulation and evaporative water loss in the bat-eared fox (Otocyion megalotis). J. Zoology, London (in press).". In Press. AbstractWebsite

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.

Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Mwenda E. "On almost-similarity and metric equivalence of operators." Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS)-accepted June 14, 2016. In Press.
Nzimbi BM, Kiratu BN, Sitati IN, Kipkemoi ST. "Remarks on the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of projections." International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(IJPMAS)-accepted June 6, 2016. In Press.
"Revamping early childhood teacher education and professional development: Nuts and bolts for effective literacy and numeracy instruction." University of Dar es Salaam School of Education Journal of Education and Development. In Press.
"Six Ts for Effective and Efficient Early Grade Literacy Instruction.". In: Developing Languages in Africa: Social and Educational Perspectives. London: Cambridge University Press; In Press.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Six Ts for effective and efficient early grade literacy instruction. (Book Chapter) In Ross Graham (Eds.). Developing languages in Africa: Social and educational perspectives.". In: Developing languages in Africa: social and educational perspectives. London: Cambridge University Press; In Press.
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho COA, Mukhwana S. "STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. In Press.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold." Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). In Press. Abstract

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Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Intergrating forensic nursing science in nursing education in Kenya." Nurse education in practice. 2915.
2020
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness with TAM.". In: IST-Africa 2020. Uganda; 2020.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste- Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: Materials Research Society Advances. Cambridge; 2020. Abstract

This work reports on the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) waste and organic binder derived from Corchorus olitorius, locally known as “Mrenda” in the design of an efficient water filtration membranes. Charcoal powder was incorporated to enhance the porosity of the membrane. The firing was done at temperatures varying from 700.0 °C to 1150.0 °C. The DE waste samples comprised 79.0% silica (by mass) and 11.0% total flux content compared to porter's clay that had 50.0% silica, 28.8% AL2O3 and 7.0% total flux content. On the other hand, the “Mrenda” binder contained 6.5% total organic matter. The use of the plant- derived binder enhanced the mechanical strength of the greenware by 52.7% and the fired membranes by 152.2%. The fabricated DE waste-based membranes were 15.0% stronger than clay-based ceramic membranes prepared under similar conditions. A sintering temperature of 900.0 °C was optimal in producing porous membranes for filtering of 4.1 liters of water per hour. The pore diameter of the membranes fabricated from DE waste only ranged between 2.0 nm – 99.0 nm. On micro-organisms filtering efficacy, the DE waste-based membranes and those fabricated with 5.0% charcoal were 99.9% and 88.4% effective in the removal of E. coli and Rotavirus respectively.

M E. "​Is the building you are in safe to occupy?" Daily Nation, March 24, 2020:10.
Naidoo K, Kempen JH, Gichuhi S, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Leasher J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2015, compared with prior years, and to estimate expected values for 2020.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting distance visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18), and also near vision impairment (

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Nyaga NM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in comparative study of antiobesity influence of oxytocin and freeze-dried extracts of Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats." Journal of Raman SpectroscopyJournal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2020;51(3):398-405. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Obesity is a condition affecting a substantial number of people in the world. Obese people have increased risks of developing chronic metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, among others. Predicting potential development together with rapid diagnosis of the condition followed by early interventions is therefore necessary. This work investigated, first, utility of Raman spectroscopy in performing comparative antiobesity influence studies of oxytocin and a freeze-dried extract of a local herbal plant exhibiting oxytocin-like properties called Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) (UAV) on diet induced obesity in Sprague Dawley rat models. Second, we looked for obesity biomarker Raman spectral bands. The blood extracted from the rats were applied onto conductive silver paste smeared glass slides and excited using a 785-nm laser. Raman spectra of blood from oxytocin- and UAV-treated rats displayed similar profiles with low doses of UAV (100 mg/kg of body weight) being more similar to oxytocin than high doses (200 mg/kg of body weight) as revealed by cosine similarity value of 0.997. Their profiles were also different from blood of obese and nonobese (normal controls) animals. A prominent peak in spectra of treated rats centred at 401 cm?1 can be oxytocin's biomarker band in blood. Comparison of average intensity trend of fructose bands at around 638 and 812 cm?1 between prepared fructose solution and blood of treated rats revealed elevated levels of fructose in blood of rats intraperitoneally injected oxytocin and UAV extracts. The result implied upregulation of fructose in oxytocin- and UAV-treated animals. Principal component analysis confirmed that Raman spectral profiles from blood of obese rats were different from those of nonobese rats with bands ascribed to fructose (638, 812, and 1,217 cm?1) and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs; 478, 1,318, and 1,443 cm?1), being utilized in the segregation of the spectral data sets. It also showed that spectra from oxytocin-treated and UAV-treated rat's blood were similar implying identical influence of the drugs on the animals. The study showed potential of Raman spectroscopy as tool for quick obesity (or metabolic syndrome) screening with intensity of Raman bands associated with fructose and BCAAs as biomarkers. Besides, the same bands may be used in comparative efficacy studies of antiobesity drugs. The results reported here are rare in literature.

Gichuhi S, Arunga S. "HIV and the eye." Community Eye Health. 2020;33(108):76-78. AbstractWebsite

This article summarizes the presentation of ocular HIV in East Africa.
The main ocular effects of HIV are related to immune-suppression and impaired tumour-surveillance. HIV compromises cell-mediated immunity increasing the risk of infection with bacteria (e.g. tuberculosis and syphilis); fungi (e.g. candida and cryptococcus); parasites (e.g. toxoplasmosis); and viruses (e.g. herpes zoster, human papilloma virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus).
Patients with lower CD4 counts are more likely to have ocular manifestations1, however use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the epidemiology of ocular manifestations, and variations in the predominant subtype of HIV may also lead to geographical differences in ocular disease.

Birech Z, Ondieki AM, Opati RII, Mwangi PW. "Low cost Raman sample substrates from conductive silver paint smear for Raman spectroscopic screening of metabolic diseases in whole blood.". 2020;108:103063. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on a low cost, simple to prepare and chemically stable Raman substrates based on conductive silver paint smear. The substrates were characterized Raman spectroscopically and were found to be chemically stable within the first seven days when kept at room temperature as the spectroscopic profiles were unchanged. The substrates also suppressed the background signals emanating from glass centered around 750 cm−1 and 1370 cm−1 seen with 785 nm excitation and had negligible influence on Raman spectral profiles of rat’s blood samples applied onto them. The Raman spectral profiles of blood samples applied onto the substrates were found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.7 compared to those of thick blood smears on a clean microscope glass slide. The increased local field between the gaps formed by adjacent micron-sized silver solids in the paint smear were attributed to the observed intense signals observed from the blood samples applied onto them. The substrates were tried on Raman spectroscopic differentiation between blood from obese and normal; diabetic and normal Sprague Dawley rats. The prominent bands associated with fructose (638 and 812 cm−1), glucose (1127 cm−1) and branched chain amino acids (1033, 1217 and 1318 cm−1) were observed to vary in terms of intensity between the un-healthy (obese and diabetic) and healthy (normal) rats. The results reported here on the use of the easy to prepare, low cost Raman substrates have the potential of making surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy accessible to less resourced laboratories in developing countries. The substrates can be applied in rapid Raman spectroscopic screening of various metabolic diseases.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Kim M, Ng'ang'a M, Gichuhi S, Mutie D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Foster A. "Peer-support to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy: process evaluation of the DURE cluster randomized trial." Trop Med Health. 2020;48:1. AbstractWebsite

Background: There is limited evidence on how implementation of peer support interventions influences effectiveness, particularly for individuals with diabetes. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a peer-led health education package versus usual care to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: Our process evaluation used a mixed-method design to investigate the recruitment and retention, reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability, and context of implementation, and was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). We reviewed trial documents, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 10) and conducted four focus group discussions with participants in both arms of the trial. Three analysts undertook CFIR theory-driven content analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed to provide descriptive statistics relevant to the objectives of the process evaluation.

Results: The trial had positive implementation outcomes, 100% retention of clusters and 96% retention for participants, 83% adherence to delivery of content of group talks (fidelity), and 78% attendance (reach) to at least 50% (3/6) of the group talks (dose). The data revealed that intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, individual characteristics, and process (all the constructs of CFIR) influenced the implementation. There were more facilitators than barriers to the implementation. Facilitators included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics); awareness of the growing prioritization of diabetes in the national health policy framework (outer setting); tension for change due to the realization of the vulnerability to vision loss from DR (inner setting); a strong collective sense of accountability of peer supporters to implement the intervention (individual characteristics); and regular feedback on the progress with implementation (process). Potential barriers included the need to queue at the eye clinic (intervention characteristic), travel inconveniences (inner setting), and socio-political disruption (outer setting).

Conclusions: The intervention was implemented with high retention, reach, fidelity, and dose. The CFIR provided a valuable framework for evaluating contextual factors that influenced implementation and helped to understand what adaptations may be needed during scale up.

Gitao, C.G. Reviewer, Transboundary and Emerging diseases. Trsansboundary and Emerging Diseases; 2020.tbed_reviewer_certificate_1_1.pdf
Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. ") New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activit." ACS Omega . 2020;XXXX(XXXX):XXXX. Abstract

: New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1−C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1−C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and13C NMR, UV−vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1−L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0−8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, and PC-3) and noncancerous (MCF-12A) cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Apopercentage assays, respectively. C5 demonstrated strong DNA-binding affinity for calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with a binding constant of 8.049 × 104 M−1. C3 reduced cell viability of all the six cell lines, which included five cancerous cell lines, by more than 80%. The C5 complex also demonstrated remarkably high selectivity with no cytotoxic activity toward the noncancerous breast cell line but reduced the viability of the five cancerous cell lines, which included one breast cancer cell line, by more than 60%. Further studies are required to evaluate the selective toxicity of these two complexes and to fully understand their mechanism of action.

W K, A A, A K. ". Trends and factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception in Kenya." F1000Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: Kenya has 12 million female adolescents and youths aged 10-34 years whose reproductive behavior will determine the growth and size of its population for the next decade. The anticipated momentum of births can be slowed by the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods as they are more effective, need no user adherence, and hence have no risk of incorrect or inconsistent use. However, in spite of the many health and social benefits, LARC is underutilized because of myths and misconceptions. Kenya is in the ultimate decade towards Vision 2030 and investing in LARC can save costs of health care and accelerate the achievement of the development goal. The objective of this study was to establish factors associated with LARC use, with a view of establishing the potential for increasing demand.

Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Nunow A, Nzioka JM, Kinama JM. "Analysis of gender parity in climate change adaptation actions within Kajiado and Kiambu counties, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;1(2).
Derese S. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of natural products. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis
Richard Oriko Owor, Kibrom Gebreheiwot Bedane, Sebastian Zühlke, Solomon Derese, George Otieno Ong’amo, Albert Ndakala, Michael Spiteller
Abstract
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. Whereas compounds 1, 2, 4–8, 10–15, 17, and 18 decreased production of IL-6, compounds 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 13–15, and 17 inhibited the release of IL-1β. It is worth noting that most of the compounds tested showed a superior reduction in cytokines release compared to the reference drug ibuprofen.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo GO, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of Natural Products. 2020;83(4):996-1004. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and …

Babiaka SB, Nia R, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Nziko VN, Paper DH, Ntie-Kang F. "Antioxidant potential of flavonoid glycosides from Manniophyton fulvum Müll. (Euphorbiaceae): Identification and molecular modeling." Scientic African. 2020;8. Abstract

Chemical investigation of the leaves of Manniophyton fulvum led to the isolation of seven flavonoid glycosides: myricetin-3-O-β-Dd-rhamnoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-d-rhamnoside (4), quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside (5), rutin (6) and quercetin (7). The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analyses as well as by comparison with published data. Some of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity which validates the traditional use of the plant. An attempted correlation between the computed HOMO-LUMO energies and the measured antioxidant activities was established. We have also estimated the cardiotoxicity of the compounds by calculating the predicted logarithm of the human Ether-`a-go-go Related Gene (loghERG) using the QikProp program. These purified flavonoids are new potential lead compounds for the development of antioxidant drugs.

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Makori AO, Nyongesa AW, Odongo HO, Masai RJ. "Assessment of stress on serum estradiol and cortisol levels in female subordinate naked mole rats following isolation from natal colony." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:9-17.
S.Senda T, Lance W. Robinson, K.K.Gachene C, Kironchi G, Doyo J. "An assessment of the implications of alternative scales of communal land tenure formalization in pastoral systems." Land use Policy. 2020;94.
Chebet EB, Kibet JK, Mbui D. "The assessment of water quality in river Molo water basin, Kenya." Applied Water Science. 2020;10(4):1-10. AbstractApplied Water Science

Description
The monitoring of water quality for both domestic and commercial use is absolutely essential for policy formulation that affects both public and environmental health. This study investigates the quality of water of river Molo system which lies in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The river is considered a vital source of water for the residents and industrial activities in Nakuru and Baringo Counties. Six water samples were collected during the dry season of December 2017. Various physicochemical parameters were determined in situ by use of a portable pH meter. These parameters included pH, temperature, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS). Anions such as fluorides, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, carbonates and bicarbonates were determined using conventional methods such as titrimetry and (ultra-violet visible) UV–Vis techniques. The cations including sodium, potassium, calcium and …
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GO O, EK G, S N. "Audit on the management of early rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):22-25. Abstractaudit_on_the_management_of_early_rheumatoid_arthitis_in_nairobi.pdf

Background
: Clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis on patients over
the age of 18 years in Nairobi, Kenya within the first three months of referral to a specialist. Objective: The audit gives detailed
information on the following; access to care, quality of treatment and
care received by patients from their rheumatology team in these first 3 months and the early impact of arthritis on the patient’s life.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
survey. Results
: The audit included 100 patients referred to the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic between January and April 2018. A majority (54%) had symptoms for
more than 6 months before being referred to a rheumatologist. Most of
the patients (83%) were seen within 3 weeks of referral. Disease Modifiying
Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) were commenced in 90% within 6 weeks of
being seen at the clinic. Treatment to target was done in 98% of the patients
with a further 60% able to access the clinic within a day of flare of symptoms. Conclusion: The audit revealed the
need to improve on referral time to the rheumatologist. It was encouraging
to note that once they saw the rheumatologists the patients were
commenced on the proper treatment with the treat to target strategy. An area
that needs improvement is the time to access the rheumatologist in case of
side effect from the treatment or flare of the disease

OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.

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