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MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Side Chain Conformationally Restricted alpha-Amino Acids.". In: Methods of Organic Chemistry, Volume E 22c, 5-51. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Kamau FN. "Synthesis of Steroidal Indoxyl, and Derivatives from 3-ketosteroid.". 2005. Abstract

5&alpha-Androstan-17&beta-ol-3-one condenses with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde in alkaline conditions to give the steroidal indoxyl 17&beta-hydroxy-1-(3′-oxoindan-2′-yliden)-3-nor-1,2-secoandrostan-3-oic acid (I) which on refluxing with acetic anhydride affords the lactam 17&beta-acetoxy-3′-aza-4a-homoandrost-1-eno-(3,2-a)-indan-3′,4-dione (II). Reduction of I with sodium borohydride gives the indole 17&beta-hydroxy-1-(indol-2′-yl)-3-nor-1, 2-secoandrostan-3-oic acid (III). The results of this synthesis suggest that 3-ketosteroids saturated in ring A react in a similar manner to 17-ketosteroids, with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde.

Maina DSM. "Synthesis of the "eco" and product design." Design for all of india. 2015;10 No 2:91-112.
V B, Evans A, Bolo AZ. "A Synthesis of the Strategic Orientation and NGO Lgitimacy in the African Economic Setting." Journal of Business and Economics. 2014;5(8):1358-1373.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Vernolamides containing tertiary amino groups from Vernonia Galamensis oil and their biological activities, Bull, Chem, Soc.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1998. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Synthesis of Vernolamides containing tertiary amino groups from Vernonia Galamensis oil and their biological activities, Bull, Chem, Soc.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1998. Abstract
1) , V. J. Hruby, F. A. Muscio, W. Brown, and P. M. Gitu, 1972, 331.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Synthesis of vernolamides from vrnonia galamensis oil under varied conditions and their anti-microbial activities.". In: Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. M.N. Mbugua, A.O. Yusuf, B.M Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Hans RH, Guantai EM, Carmen L, Smith PJ, Baojie W, Gut J, Franzblau SG, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimalarial and antitubercular activity of acetylenic chalcones.". 2010. Abstract

A series of acetylenic chalcones were evaluated for antimalarial and antitubercular activity. The antimalarial data for this series suggests that growth inhibition of the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum can be imparted by the introduction of a methoxy group ortho to the acetylenic group. Most compounds were more active against non-replicating than replicating cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, an unusual pattern with respect to existing anti-TB agents

Mutai P, Pavadai E, Wiid I, Ngwane A, Baker B, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimycobacterial evaluation and pharmacophore modeling of analogues of the natural product formononetin." Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters . 2015;25(12):2510-2513.
Tacon C, M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Smith PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Mechanistic Studies of Totarol Amino Alcohol Derivatives as Potential Antimalarial Agents." Bioorg. Med. Chem.. 2012;20:893-902. Abstract

Herein we report on the semisynthesis and biological evaluation of b-amino alcohol derivatives of the natural product totarol and other simple aromatic systems. All beta-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol exhibited higher antiplasmodial activity than totarol [IC50: 11.69 microM (K1, chloroquine and multi-drug resistant strain), and 11.78 microM (D10, chloroquine sensitive strain)]—12e was the most active [IC50: 0.63 microM (K1), and 0.61 microM (D10)]. The phenyl and naphthyl b-amino alcohol derivatives were much less active than their corresponding totarol equivalents. The majority of the b-amino alcohol derivatives of totarol were more active against K1 than the D10 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, a trend similar to the inverse relationship observed with the established aryl-amino alcohol antimalarial mefloquine. Selected compounds were shown to affect erythrocyte morphology, inhibit erythrocyte invasion and trigger CQ accumulation.

Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanjac SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, characterisation and ion-binding properties of oxathiacrown ethers appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+. Selectivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+†." Journal of Royal Society of Chemistry. 2018;(8):3663-3672. Abstractwww.pubs.rsc.org

A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis absorbance with Hg2+ making it possible to detect mercury down to a detection limit of 68 ppm. The binding constants and limits of detection of the complexes have been calculated, with values ranging from 4.37 to 5.38 and 1.4 × 10−3 to 6.8 × 10−5 for log[thin space (1/6-em)]Ks and LOD respectively.

MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Synthesis, characterisation of novel polyaniline nanomaterials and applications in amperometric biosensors." Macromolecular Symposia, 2007, 255, 57-69.. 2007;255:36-49. AbstractWebsite

Summary: Anthracene sulfonic acid doped polyaniline nanomaterials were prepared through the chemical oxidative polymerisation process. Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) was employed as oxidant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show the resultant polyaniline (PANi) materials exhibited nanofibrillar morphology with diameter sizes less than 300 nm. Using the nanofibrillar PANI, amperometric biosensors for H2O2 and erythromycin were constructed through the drop-coating
technique. Anthracene sulfonic acid (ASA) doped PANi and the test enzymes horseradish peroxidase, (HRP), or cytochrome P450 3A4, (CYP4503A4) were mixed in phosphate buffer solution before drop coating onto the electrode. The resultant biosensors displayed typical Michaelis-Menten behaviour. The apparent Michaelis-
Menten constant obtained was 0.18-0.01 mM and 0.80-0.02 µM L-1 for the peroxide and erythromycin biosensor respectively. The sensitivity for the peroxide sensor was 3.3x10-3A .cm-2 mM-1, and the detection limit was found to be 1.2x10-2 mM respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity for the erythromycin sensor was
in the same order at 1.57x10-3 A . cm-2 mM-1 and detection limit was found to be 7.58x10-2 µM.

Michira IN, Richard A, Priscilla B, Immanuel I. "Synthesis, characterization and Application of Sulfonated polyaniline in Construction of a biosensor for Diazinon." International Journal of Polymeric Materials. 2011;60:469-489. AbstractWebsite

A series of sulfonated polyaniline=derivatized polyaniline nanocomposites was chemically synthesized in the presence of anthracene and naphthalene sulfonic acids. UV-vis and FTIR results indicated the emergence of new bands at 420 and 700nm and1100cm-1 in their spectra, respectively, meaning the dopant/polymer intercalations involved electronic interactions between dopant/polymer sub-lattices. The electroactive
composites displayed moderately fast electrode kinetics. A composite-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide reached a steady state current of 9.2 and 5.3 mA, and when fine-tuned for diazinon detection gave % inhibitions to be 41 and 81% for thepolyaniline and poly-o-methoxyaniline biosensors, respectively.

Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanja SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, Characterization and Ion-Binding Properties of Oxathiacrown Ethers Appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+: Selectivity Towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+." RSC advances. 2018;8(7):3663-3672. AbstractRSC Advances

Description
A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis …

Michira IN, Katithi DN, Guto PM, Kamau GN, Baker P, E. Iwuha E. "Synthesis, Characterization of Green Tea Stabilized Iron Nanoparticles and their Synergistic Effect on Polyaniline." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2014;13(2):63-76.
Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meye M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA-Binding Kinetics of New Pd(II) and Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, and Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry. 2020:1-17. AbstractJournal of Chemistry

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. 'e ligands (E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1), (E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2), and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 and L2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1 (C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2 (C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2), respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3 (C6H7Cl2N3PtS2), while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4 (C24H21BrClN3PPtS2). 'e structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1 H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. 'e compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1 and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020((5409)):1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Michira IN. Synthesis, Electrodynamics and Biosensor Applications of Novel Sulphonated Polyaniline Nanocomposites . Iwuoha PI, Baker PP-L, eds. CapeTown: University of the Western Cape; 2007. Abstract

The overall aim of this thesis was to prepare nanostructured more processable heteronuclear sulphonated polyanyline nanocomposites with electroconductive properties suitable for applications in biosensors. The sulphonated self-assembled polyaniline and derivatised polyaniline nanocomposites (SPAHs) were prepared by chemical oxidative polymerisation or electrical decomposition. The SPAHs prepared include those of polyaniline (PANi), poly-o-methoxyaniline (POMA) and poly-2.5 dimethoxyaniline (PDMA). Two types of sulphonic acids of heteronuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were used in the production of sulphonated SPAH composites. These were anthracene sulphonic acid (ASA) and naphthalene sulphonic acids (NSA) wich played both doping and surfactant roles.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Takken W, AF Hiscox, R Smallegange, Mukabana WR, Collins Mweresa. "Synthetic odour blends for sampling of malaria mosquitoes." Antenna: Bulletin of the Royal Entomological Society. 2014;(Special Edition 2014):92-93.
Mwaniki JM. "SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SELECTED FLAVONOIDS.". In: 12th NAPRECA SYMPOSIUM, Hotel Africana, Kampala Uganda, Tuesday 24th July 2007. Napreca; 2007. Abstract

Chalcones, flavanones and other flavonoids have been shown to have varied anti-plasmodium activity. In this work, chalcones were synthesized from corresponding flavanones  extracted from Senecio roseiflorus, Erythina abysinica and Polygonum senegalense, using conventional organic reagents and green chemistry approach.Dihydrochalcones were converted to homoisoflavones using the Kostanecki reaction. Characterization and bioassay on the synthetic derivatives was also undertaken.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Syphilis control during pregnancy: effectiveness and sustainability of a decentralized program. Fonck K, Claeys P, Bashir F, Bwayo J, Fransen L, Temmerman M. Am J Public Health. 2001 May;91(5):705-7.". In: Am J Public Health. 2001 May;91(5):705-7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Awuondo CO. Syracuse memos.; 1995.Website
Kivuti-Bitok LW, McDonnell G, Abdul R, Pokhariyal GP. "System dynamics model of cervical cancer vaccination and screening interventions in Kenya." Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2014;12(26):1-19.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "System Overflow/Blocking Transients For Queues with Batch Arrivals Using a Family of Polynomials Resembling Chebyshev Polynomials, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No. 2, pp.102-1.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "Systematic creativity methods in engineering education: a learning styles perspective." International Journal of Engineering Education. 2007;22:566. Abstract

The traditional approach to creativity (using methods such as brainstorming, C-sketch, morphological charts, scamper, etc.) calls upon the designer to look inward for inspiration. TRIZ, on other hand, invites the designer to use a ready pool of knowledge for inspiration. TRIZ does not discount the use of the traditional approaches. On the contrary, TRIZ ensures that design teams use these traditional methods in a systematically directed manner by carrying out intelligent idea generation in areas where other people have solved a similar general design problem. The main focus of this paper is to look at systematic creativity methods, such as TRIZ, from a learning styles perspective. Three learning styles dominant in the engineering education literature are explored: MBTI, Kolb and Felder-Silverman. For each it was found that the tasks required of each of the TRIZ steps matches a broader range of engineering student learning styles, than the sole use of brainstorming.

Gachene CKK, GichukiDN; Gachene CKK, FN; Mungai. Systematic gully evaluation as a precondition for control..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines some of the reasons for the low success rate in gully control and argues that a more careful examination of each situation and a greater understanding of the processes at work could lead to more successful interventions. It outlines a systematic evaluation of a gully erosion problem and analysis of the options for control or reclamation. Evaluation should involve assessment of the causes of gully formation, gully morphology, gully erosion/sedimentation processes, soil characteristics, land use in the vicinity, and catchment characteristics.

Ngugi EN, Bonell C, Rhodes T, Jolley E, Sorhaindo A, Fletcher A, Grenfell P, Platt L. "Systematic review examining differences in HIV, sexually transmitted infections and health-related harms between migrant and non-migrant female sex workers.". 2010. Abstract

I have picked this evaluation because it focuses on the special needs of migrant female sex workers (FSWs), in particular those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STls) and HIV is high and the health infrastructure is insufficient to respond to these problems. In addition, migrant FSWs might initially be too afraid to immediately seek medical help in the 'new country' due to the fear of being apprehended for real or perceived reasons. By the same token, they might not have access to male or female condoms, but may have a high incidence of partner change and unprotected sex. Fear of stigma and discrimination might also keep them away from appropriate services.

Willy E Mwangi, Eddy M Mogoa JMPMSMNGW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World. 2018;11:1725-1735. Abstract
n/a
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary world. 2018;11:1725. Abstract
n/a
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World . 2018;11(12):1725.
Nanyingi MO, Munyua P, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Bitek AO, Bett B, Muriithi RM, Njenga MK. "A systematic Review of Rift Valley Fever Epidemiology 1931-2014." Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. 2015;5:28024.
MO N, P M, SG K, M MG, M TS, AO B, B B, RM M, MK N. "A Systematic Review of Rift Valley Fever Epidemiology 1931-2014." Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2015;5:28024.
Opanga SA, Mulaku MN, Okalebo FA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Kuria KAM. "Systematic review, meta-analysis and grading of evidence on the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis for neurosurgical site infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):1-13.
Mitema A. Systematics of Aspergillus species from maize and ground nuts in Kenya.. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town; 2015.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Systemes Photosynthetiques Arficiels.". In: Conference. CEAER - UNR; 1983.
Awori M, Mohamed A, Mohammed N. "Systemic Arterial-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Utilization." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14(2):96-98.shunts-sapas-utilisation_at_knh-awori-2017.pdf
Lehman DA, Ronen K BCABJMJ-LJMRBAMCRSOZWK. "Systemic cytokine levels show limited correlation with risk of HIV-1 acquisition." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . 2014;66(2):135-9.
DN K, TA N, JK W, C BL. "Systemic porcine salmonellosis: A potential zoonosis and cause of mortality in small-holder pig farm in Kenya." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2013;28(1):8-13.
Sherr K, Gimbel S, Rustagi A, Ruth Nduati, Cuembelo F, Farquhar C, Wasserheit J, Gloyd S. "Systems analysis and improvement to optimize pMTCT (SAIA): a cluster randomized trial." Implement Sci. 2014;9:55. Abstract

Despite significant increases in global health investment and the availability of low-cost, efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden, the translation of scientific advances into effective delivery strategies has been slow, uneven and incomplete. As a result, pediatric HIV infection remains largely uncontrolled. A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and prioritization of low-cost workflow modifications (step two: value stream mapping), and iteratively testing and redesigning these modifications (steps three through five). This protocol describes the SAIA intervention and methods to evaluate the intervention's impact on reducing drop-offs along the pMTCT cascade.

ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "A Systems Approach in the Study of Environmental Factors.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 1998. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Kithinji NB. Systems approach to building project management: experience from Kenya .; 1988. Abstract

This report is an attempt to impress on managers of building projects the relevance and importance of the systems approach to management in their field. To achieve this aim the report has started by examining some common theoretical models of management and their inherent shortcomings in the management of complex problems such as building projects. The complexity of building projects is demonstrated throuqh a discussion of their resource markets which are found to be highly differentiated yet interdependent. The building process itself is made up of different activities which often require different skills, materials and facilities. As a consequence, a wide range of participants are involved in building projects. This raises the need to coordinate their inputs. The systems approach and its concepts which are most relevant to building project management is discussed. Its place in project management is illustrated with parallels drawn from districts which form the case studies for the research. ~. Among" the most important concepts discussed is the environment. It is the framework of forces within which construction activity takes place. The extent of the environment of a project depends on its resources requirements. Various aspects of the environment affect the execution of building projects. The environment is usually turbulent and projects are vulnerable to the turbulence. The functions of the managerial system of a project are considered in detail. They include the planning; securing and bringing together various inputs in amounts and modes which best suit the requirements of a project. It resolves disputes among project participants and controls the interaction between the project and its environment. In so doing the project is shielded from harmful environmental effects while the environment is protected from the harmful products of a project. Two case studies reveal that project management in districts is disjointed and suffers from technical, managerial, and logistic problems. There is poor coordination between and among participants and projects. Resources are not adequately planned and controlled. Procedures are constrained by bureaucracy and shortage of facilities. A major conclusion of the study is that the organization structure within which building projects are managed is not suitable for the tasks involved in building. The inappropriateness-is largely, the result of Iack of channels for speedy communciation within the structure and the rigidity of the structure especially with regard to the expenditure of authority. The recommendations that are given aim to make the authority structure more flexible to allow a faster rate of discharging duties while at the same time disallowing wasteful operations which result from poor planning and control.

Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Afendi FM, Kiboi SK, Kanaya S. "Systems biology in the context of big data and networks." BioMed research international. 2014;2014.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "A Systems Thinking Framework for Quality Assurance in Transnational Education - The Case of Kenya.". In: The Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, May 28 . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

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