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Smith JS, Moses S HMGPCBAMN-AJOSPJMCJBRCKI. "Increased risk of HIV acquisition among Kenyan men with human papillomavirus infection." J Infect Dis. . 2010;201(11):1677-85.
and SO OJMW. "Distribution of Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn in Lake Victoria sediments, East Africa,." Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., . 1989;42:807-813.
SO N, GA M, K MMO, KB W. "Conflict minimizing strategies on natural resource management and use: the case of managing and coping with conflicts between wildlife and agro-pastoral production resources in Transmara District, Kenya.". 2007:ECAPAPA report http://www.ilri.org/Link/Publications /Publications/Theme%201/Pastoral%20conference/Papers/NRMU.
SO ML. "Herpes zoster in HIV/AIDS–a little recognised opportunistic infection with important clinical and cost implications. .". In: East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [ADPKB] is one of the commonest genetic diseases. Apart from the involvement of the kidneys, several other organs, viz. the liver, the central nervous system, the pancreas, the spleen, the ovaries and the gut, amongst others, are also sometimes involved. This makes ADFKD more of a systemic rather than an isolated renal disorder. This becomes more so considering that the involvement of the other organs contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of ADPKD. This review looks at the pattern and prevalence of involvement of other organs, apart from the kidney in ADPKD.

SO ML. "Smoking–an emerging risk factor for renal diseases. .". In: East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

The health, economic and social costs of smoking are enormous and well known to physicians. Smoking results in a lot of morbidity and mortality mainly related to cardiovascular disease, cancer and pulmonary disease. The effect of smoking on the kidneys is little appreciated. It is the purpose of this review article to give evidence from available literature that smoking is indeed deleterious to the kidneys and may result in progression of chronic renal failure to end stage renal disease. It is concluded that nephrologists, and indeed all physicians, should make a concerted effort to save their patients from this vice.

SO Gunga, LM Ngesu AKK’OEMMLNW. "ODel-Teacher Education: Philosophical Implications of Work-Play-Study Triad." international Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2013.
SO Khainga, RK Tenge PWK. "Restoration of Anal Sphincter Tone by Graciloplasty: A Report of Five Cases ." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88(1). AbstractWebsite

Stool incontinence can be as a result of congenital or acquired anal sphincter problems. It is a devastating state for a patient not to be able to control stools resulting into continued feacal soiling. It reduces an individual to a dejected and depressed person who becomes a social misfit. Hence any procedure that can alleviate this state is normally highly appreciated. Various techniques have been quoted in literature and use of gracilis muscle to form a neosphincter is one of them. Dynamic graciloplasty, is a technique whereby electrodes have been implanted into gracilis muscle and is connected to an implantable pulse generator which provides progressive levels of stimulation to convert the fast twitch, fatigue prone muscle fibres to a slow twitch, fatigue resistant firbres over eight week training period (1,2,3). This has shown improved efficacy over the static graciloplasty (3). In this case report, five patients with stool incontinence from different aetiologies are presented, all having been managed by static graciloplasty and intense physiotherapy with good outcomes reported.

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector).

SO. ML. "Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease - a systemic disorder. .". In: East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [ADPKB] is one of the commonest genetic diseases. Apart from the involvement of the kidneys, several other organs, viz. the liver, the central nervous system, the pancreas, the spleen, the ovaries and the gut, amongst others, are also sometimes involved. This makes ADFKD more of a systemic rather than an isolated renal disorder. This becomes more so considering that the involvement of the other organs contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of ADPKD. This review looks at the pattern and prevalence of involvement of other organs, apart from the kidney in ADPKD.

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural Product Communications. 2017;12(5):763-769. AbstractFull text

A set of seven diterpenes, three kauranes and four trachylobanes, isolated from the African plant Psiadia punctulata were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reached activity comparable with cycloserine, a second line drug used to treat tuberculosis (TB). Several structural properties of those diterpenes, such as lipophilicity, HOMO and LUMO energies, charge density, and intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation, were obtained by theoretical calculations and compared with their activities. Peculiar correlations were observed, especially between activity, lipophilicity and IHB formation.

Study of anti-tuberculosis activity behaviour of natural kaurane and trachylobane diterpenes compared with structural properties obtained by theoretical calculations (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317750342_Study_of_anti-tuberculosis_activity_behaviour_of_natural_kaurane_and_trachylobane_diterpenes_compared_with_structural_properties_obtained_by_theoretical_calculations [accessed Sep 25, 2017].

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural product communications. 2017;12(5):1934578X1701200521. AbstractJournal article

Abstract
A set of seven diterpenes, three kauranes and four trachylobanes, isolated from the African plant Psiadia punctulata were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reached activity comparable with cycloserine, a second line drug used to treat tuberculosis (TB). Several structural properties of those diterpenes, such as lipophilicity, HOMO and LUMO energies, charge density, and intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation, were obtained by theoretical calculations and compared with their activities. Peculiar correlations were observed, especially between activity, lipophilicity and IHB formation.

Keywords Diterpenes, Kauranes, Trachylobanes, Psiadia punctulata, Structure-activity relationship, Lipophilicity, Computational study

Soares ACF, Cabral MMW, Martins CHG, Ferreira AE, Bergamo PAS, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Parreira RLT, Heleno VCG. "Study of Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Behaviour of Natural Kaurane and Trachylobane Diterpenes Compared with Structural Properties Obtained by Theoretical Calculations." Natural Products Communications . 2017;12(5):763-769.
Sobania WN. "The Truth be Told." Stereoscopic Photographs, Interview and Oral Tradition from Mount Kenya,” Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2007;Vo.1, 1-15.
Sobry A, Kizito W, Van den Bergh R, Tayler-Smith K, Isaakidis P, Cheti E, Kosgei RJ, Vandenbulcke A, Ndegwa Z, Reid T. "Caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus in a primary health care programme in an informal setting." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(1):47-57. Abstractcaseload_management_and_treatment_outcomes_of_patients_with_hypertension_andor_diabetes_mellitus_in_a_primary_health_care_programme_in_an_informal_setting_.pdf

In three primary health care clinics run by Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, we describe the caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension (HT) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) receiving care from January 2010 to June 2012.

Söderbom M, Teal F, Wambugu A, Kahyarara G. "Dynamics of returns to education: Evidence from two developing countries." Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 2006; 68(3):261-288.
and Sofia Gruskin, Kelly Safreed-Harmon TEAGJCPK-M. "ACCESS TO JUSTICE: EVALUATING LAW, HEALTH AND HUMAN RIGHTS PROGRAMMES IN KENYA." Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013;1(16):2-16.
Sogoni, H. M. GMDKJN. "Postgraduate in Educational Studies in African Public Universities." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;6(1).
Soh J, Rositch AF, Koutsky L, Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire RK, Gatuguta A, Smith JS, Kiarie J, Lohman-Payne B, Farquhar C. "Individual and partner risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships." Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25(5):315-24. Abstract

Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase the risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Male herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p < 0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (p > 0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p = 0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner.

Sojitra NA, Sojitra NA, Patel RK, Dixit BC. "Classical and microwave assisted synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives and their antimicrobial activities." Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2016;20(1). Abstract

A simple and efficient methodology was developed for the synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives 10a–10j in good amount of yields. They have been prepared using 2-acetamidobenzoic acid derivatives 2a–2j via intermediates benzenesulfonamide substituted quinazolinone derivatives 8a–8j, and its corresponding hydrazono derivatives 9a–9j. Entitled compounds (10a–10j) were also obtained using microwave heating in good amount of yields. The structures of all the new compounds have been evaluated on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. Entitle compounds have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and all these compounds displayed excellent to moderate activities, which were found to be significantly potent against bacteria compared to fungal.

Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Sokwala, A; Shah MV; DYS; G. "Helicobacter pylori eradication: A randomised comparative trial of 7-day versus 14-day triple therapy.". 2012. Abstract

Background. Helicobacter pylori is associated with several upper gastrointestinal conditions including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancy. Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies are considered the standard regimens for H. pylori eradication, but the optimal duration of therapy is controversial. To prevent infection and complications, local studies should be undertaken to evaluate H. pylori eradication rates in a country. Objectives. We compared 7-day and 14-day regimens to determine the optimum duration of triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Methods. We undertook a prospective randomised comparative trial of 7-day and 14-day triple therapy regimen for H. pylori eradication at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi; 120 patients with dyspepsia and H. pylori infection were randomised to receive esomeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for either 7 days (EAC 7) or 14 days (EAC 14). Compliance and side-effects were assessed 2 weeks after the start of therapy and H. pylori eradication was assessed by stool antigen tests 4 weeks after treatment. Results. Both the intention-to-treat (ITT; N=120) and per protocol (PP; N=97) analyses showed no significant differences between the eradication rates of EAC 7 (ITT 76.7%; PP 92%) and EAC 14 (ITT 73.3%; PP 93.6%) (ITT p=0.67; PP p=0.76). Poor compliance was reported in one patient in the EAC 14 group. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in the two groups. Conclusion. One-week and 2-week triple treatments for H. pylori eradication are similar in terms of efficacy, safety and patient compliance.

Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Sölkner J, Mulindwa H, Galukande E;, Wurzinger M, Ojango J;, Okeyo AM. "Stochastic simulation model of Ankole pastoral production system: Model development and evaluation.". 2011. Abstract

In the Ankole pastoral production system animals are grazed on pasture all year round. The cattle are not supplemented with conserved pasture or commercial feed except minerals. The large number of factors that influence production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of a pastoral production system was developed to provide a tool for developing and testing the system; for example, drying off animals early and supplement them for quick return on heat, testing the economic and ecological viability of the different stocking rates. The model links climate information, on a monthly basis, with dynamic, stochastic component-models for pasture growth and animal production, as well as management policies. Some of the component models were developed and published by other authors but are modified to suit the Ankole pastoral conditions. The model outputs were compared with on-farm data collected over 3 years and data collected for other on-farm studies in the region. The relative prediction error (RPE) values for body weight after weaning across both breeds ranged from 3% to 12% which is below the acceptable 20% and means that the model predicts post weaning growth with an average error of 7.5%. The model predicted pasture production and milk yield across seasons with relative prediction errors of 17.6% and 3.33%, respectively. The graph shapes of actual and predicted average daily milk yield as influenced by season (month of the year) were similar. Because pasture growth and milk production predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the model to test different management options such as seasonal breeding, alterations in lactation length and determination of appropriate off-takes and evaluation of economic viability of various stocking rates.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antimicrobial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii." Fitoterapia. 2005;76(5):469-72. AbstractWebsite

Antimicrobial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii.

Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Bii CC, Heydenreich M, Peter MG.

Abstract

The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Erythrina burttii showed antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disk diffusion method. Flavonoids were identified as the active principles. Activities were observed against fungi and Gram(+) bacteria, but the Gram(-) bacteria Escherichia coli was resistant.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Education as a Process of Growth: An Examination of the Problems of the Theory and it.". In: Hekima:Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. II, No. 1 pp. 57-66. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2006;67:988-91. AbstractWebsite

Abiy Yenesew; John T Kiplagat; Solomon Derese; Jacob O Midiwo; Jacques M Kabaru; Matthias Heydenreich; Martin G Peter

The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "The Initiates.". In: J. S. Akama and R. Maxon (eds.), Vanishing Cultural Heritage and Ethnography of an African Community: The Gusii of Western Kenya (New York, The Edwin Mellen Press). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2006.
SOLOMON ANDG, KAAYA GP. "Prevalence of camel ticks and haemoparasites in Southern rangelands of Ethiopia." Discovery and Innovation. 2008;20:10-13.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antimicrobial and antiparasitic abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Clerodendrum eriophyllum." Natural Products Communication. 2010;5(6):853-858. AbstractWebsite

Machumi F, Samoylenko V, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Wiggers FT, Jacob MR, Tekwani BL, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I.; Nat Prod Commun. 2010 5(6), pp. 853-8.

Chromatographic separation of the roots of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Clerodendrum eriophyllum, led to the isolation of ten abietane diterpenoids (1-10), one of which (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Using spectroscopic data, the structure of 1 was determined to be 12-hydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-3,11,14-trione. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the stereochemistry of compounds 1, 3, and 6-8 belongs to the normal series of abietane diterpenes, which confirmed the absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 3 and 7 exhibited potent antifungal activity (IC50/MIC 0.58/1.25 and 0.96/2.5 microg/mL, respectively) against C. neoformans, whereas 3, 6 and 7 showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with IC50/MIC values between 1.33-1.75/2.5-5 and 0.96-1.56/2.5 microg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 9 exhibited potent antileishmanial activity (IC50 0.08 and 0.20 microg/mL, respectively) against L. donovani, while 3 and 7 displayed weak antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, but 9 was inactive.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Anti-plasmodial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica." Phytochemistry. 2004;65(22):3029-32. AbstractWebsite

Phytochemistry. 2004 Nov;65(22):3029-32.

Anti-plasmodial flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica.

Yenesew A, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Peter MG, Akala H, Wangui J, Liyala P, Waters NC.

The ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica showed anti-plasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50) values of 7.9+/-1.1 and 5.3+/-0.7 microg/ml, respectively. From this extract, a new chalcone, 2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxy-5-prenylchalcone (trivial name 5-prenylbutein) and a new flavanone, 4',7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy-5'-prenylflavanone (trivial name, 5-deoxyabyssinin II) along with known flavonoids have been isolated as the anti-plasmodial principles. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

Solomon MM, Onyango JF, Nyabola LO, Opiyo A, Chindia ML. "Treatment interruption among head and neck cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy.". 2009. Abstracttreatment_interruption_among_head_and_neck_cancer_patients.pdf

To determine the incidence of treatment interruption among head and neck cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. Design: Prospective study Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi. Subjects: Twenty six (M=16, F=10) patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer between March and June 2006. Main outcome measures: Frequency of radiation morbidities and treatment interuptions. Results: There were 26 patients consisting of 16 males and 10 females aged between 21 and 70 years (mean = 49.6 years). Among these patients 12 (46.2%) had tumours in the oral cavity, six (23.1%) had nasopharyngeal tumours, two (7.7%) had pharyngeal tumours, and six (23.1%) had laryngeal tumours. All tumours were primary carcinomas except two pharyngeal tumours which were metastatic. Among the 26 patients, 13(50%) completed the course of radiotherapy within the prescribed duration while another 13(50%) had treatment interruption. Of the 13 patients who had treatment interruption, one patient had a treatment gap of four days, seven patients had treatment gaps ranging between six and ten days, and five patients had treatment gaps of over ten days. The duration of treatment gaps ranged between four and 30 days. At the time of treatment interruption the cumulative radiation dose ranged from 22 to 58 Grey with a mean of 38 Grey (Mode = 44 Grey). The most common side effect was xerostomia (92%). This was closely followed by mucositis (88.5%), skin reactions (88.5%) dysphagia (84.5%) pain and suffering (76.9%). Loss of taste (61.5%), trismus (34.6%) and voice change (30.89%) were relatively less common. Conclusion: Our findings show that the probability of cancer control and cure among head and neck cancer patients treated at KNH could be severely eroded by treatment interruptions as a result of severe radiation morbidity.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. ""The 8-4-4 Getting Down to the Real Business".". In: The Sunday Times,(Nairobi:January 13,1985),p.4. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1985. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Effect of Rotenoids from the seeds of Millettia dura on Larvae of Aedes aegypti.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

A crude chloroform extract of seeds of Millettia dura Dunn (Leguminosae) showed high activity (LC50 = 3.5 microg ml(-1) at 24 h) against second-instar larvae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae). The rotenoids, deguelin and tephrosin, isolated from the seeds of this plant also showed potent activities, with LC50 values of 1.6 and 1.4 microg ml(-1) at 24 h, respectively. The related rotenoids millettone and millettosin were inactive at 20 microg ml(-1). Saturation at the B/C ring junction and the presence of methoxy groups at C-2 and/or C-3 in deguelin and tephrosin appear to be important for the observed larvicidal activity.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "African Legal Systems Need African Ethical Base.". In: The Standard (Nairobi: July 1, 1988), p. 14. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "A new isoflavones from the stem bark of Millettia dura." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop.. 2003;17(1):113-115. AbstractWebsite

Solomon Derese, Abiy Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Matthias Heydenreich and Martin G. Peter. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 2003, 17(1), pp. 113-115.

A new isoflavone (7,3’-dimethoxy-4’,5’-methylenedioxyisoflavone) and three known isoflavones [isoerythrinin A 4’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, isojamaicin and nordurlettone] were isolated from the stem bark of Millettia dura (Leguminosae). The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.

KEY WORDS: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, Isoflavone, 7,3’-Dimethoxy-4’,5’-

methylenedioxyisoflavone, Isoerythrinin A 4’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, Isojamaicin,

Nordurlettone_

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Rites of Passage, Old and New: The Role of Indigenous Initiation Ceremonies and the Modern Education System, with special Reference to Abagusii Community of South Western Kenya.". In: Gail Presbey et al. (eds.), Thought and Practice in African Philosophy. Nairobi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, pp. 191-204. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2002. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial activities of flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii." Planta Medica. 2006;72(2):187-9. AbstractWebsite

Andrew .W. Andayi, A. Yenesew, Solomon Derese, Jacob O. Midiwo, Peter M. Gitu, Ogoche I. Jondiko, Norman Waters, Pamela Liyala, Hosea Akala, Matthias Heydenreich, Martin G Peter. (2006): Planta medica, 72 (2), pp. 187-189.

The acetone extracts of the root bark and stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii showed antiplasmodial activities against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the acetone extract of the root bark afforded a new isoflavone, 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-prenylisoflavone (trivial name 5-deoxy-3'-prenylbiochanin A) along with known isoflavonoids as the antiplasmodial principles. Flavonoids and isoflavonoids isolated from the stem bark of E. sacleuxii were also tested and showed antiplasmodial activities. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Education and the Development of Nationhood in Kenya.". In: Ruth Bett (ed.), Re-invigorating the University Mandate in a Globalising Environment: Challenges, Obstacles and Way Forward (Nairobi, DAAD, 2005), pp. 326-342. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2010;3(4):217-220. AbstractWebsite

Leonidah K. Omosa, Jacob O. Midiwo, Solomon Derese, Abiy Yenesew, Martin G. Peter, Matthias Heydenreich.

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica. 2012; 78:31-35. AbstractWebsite

Milkyas Endale, John Patrick Alao, Hoseah M. Akala, Nelson K. Rono, Fredrick L. Eyase, Solomon Derese,
Albert Ndakala, Martin Mbugua, Douglas S.Walsh, Per Sunnerhagen, Mate Erdelyi, Abiy Yenesew

Planta Med 2012; 78: 31–35

The dichloromethane/methanol (1 :1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC50 = 0.9–3 μg/mL) in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquineresistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract of Pentas longiflora led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC50 values below 1 μg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones (4–11, IC50 = 5–31 μg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three – nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10) – are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Indoctrination and Children.". In: The SundayTimes,(Nairobi:September9,1984), p. 4. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1984. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Flavonoids and isoflavonoids with anti-plasmodial activities from the roots of Erythrina abyssinica.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

From the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica a new pterocarpene [3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-dimethylallyl)pterocarpene] and a new isoflav-3-ene [7,4'-dihydroxy-2',5'-dimethoxyisoflav-3-ene] were isolated. In addition, the known compounds erycristagallin, licoagrochalcone A, octacosyl ferulate and triacontyl 4-hydroxycinnamate were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The crude extract and the flavonoids and isoflavonoids obtained from the roots of this plant showed antiplasmodial activities.

Solomon MM, Onyango JF, Nyabola LO, Opiyo A, Chindia ML. "Treatment interruption among head and neck cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the incidence of treatment interruption among head and neck cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. Design: Prospective study Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi. Subjects: Twenty six (M=16, F=10) patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer between March and June 2006. Main outcome measures: Frequency of radiation morbidities and treatment interuptions. Results: There were 26 patients consisting of 16 males and 10 females aged between 21 and 70 years (mean = 49.6 years). Among these patients 12 (46.2%) had tumours in the oral cavity, six (23.1%) had nasopharyngeal tumours, two (7.7%) had pharyngeal tumours, and six (23.1%) had laryngeal tumours. All tumours were primary carcinomas except two pharyngeal tumours which were metastatic. Among the 26 patients, 13(50%) completed the course of radiotherapy within the prescribed duration while another 13(50%) had treatment interruption. Of the 13 patients who had treatment interruption, one patient had a treatment gap of four days, seven patients had treatment gaps ranging between six and ten days, and five patients had treatment gaps of over ten days. The duration of treatment gaps ranged between four and 30 days. At the time of treatment interruption the cumulative radiation dose ranged from 22 to 58 Grey with a mean of 38 Grey (Mode = 44 Grey). The most common side effect was xerostomia (92%). This was closely followed by mucositis (88.5%), skin reactions (88.5%) dysphagia (84.5%) pain and suffering (76.9%). Loss of taste (61.5%), trismus (34.6%) and voice change (30.89%) were relatively less common. Conclusion: Our findings show that the probability of cancer control and cure among head and neck cancer patients treated at KNH could be severely eroded by treatment interruptions as a result of severe radiation morbidity.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Why African Surrogate Concept is Most Ideal.". In: The Standard (Nairobi: June 27, 1988), p. 14. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii." Phytochemistry. 2003;63(4):445-8. AbstractWebsite

Phytochemistry. 2003 Jun;63(4):445-8.

Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii.

Yenesew A, Irungu B, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Peter MG.

From the stem bark of Erythrina burttii, a new isoflavone, 5,2',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavone (trivial name, 7-O-methylluteone) and a new flavanone, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-(3-methylbutadienyl)-5'-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone (trivial name, burttinonedehydrate) along with three known isoflavonoids (8-prenylluteone, 3-O-methylcalopocarpin and genistein) were isolated. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "How stiff Thought Colors Viewpoint.". In: The Standard, (Nairobi: July 29, 1988), p. 21. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "7a-O-Methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2005;66:653-657. AbstractWebsite

Phytochemistry. 2005 Mar;66(6):653-7.

7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata.

Yenesew A, Mushibe EK, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Kabaru JM, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Peter MG.

From the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata an isoflavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isoflavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid), was isolated and characterised. In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and alpha-toxicarol, were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Rotenone and deguelin were identified as the larvicidal principles of the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Rites of Passage: Controversy Over the Role of Initiation Ceremonies for Cultural Identity Among Some Kenyan Societies: The Case of the Abagusii Community of South Western Kenya.". In: Bahemuka, Judith M and Joseph L. Brockington (ed.), East Africa in Transition: Images, Institutions and Identities (Nairobi, University of Nairobi Press, 2004), pp.245-265. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2004. Abstract
Many communities mark transition from childhood to adulthood with elaborate rites of passages. For some of these communities, these rites involve circumcision for boys and clitoridectomy for girls. There is now a worldwide outcry against such practices, the loudest being that against clitoridectomy. This article attempts to show: (a) that the communities which perform such rites still continue to believe that these rites bestow upon the individual a certain specific social identity without which the individual cannot be allowed to perform certain specific roles as a member of that community, (b) why the practice of bestowing this identity is attracting controversy in modern societies and, finally, (c) how the controversy could be resolved by identifying the educational role such rites of passage are meant to perform among the communities that practise them. 
SOLOMON G, KAAYA GP. "Comparison of resistance in three breeds of cattle against African Ixodid ticks." Experimental and Applied Acarology. 1996;20:223-230.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Antiplasmodial β-hydroxydihydrochalcone from seedpods of Tephrosiaelata." Phytochemistry Letters. 2009;2(3):99-102. AbstractWebsite

Muiva, L.M. Yenesew, A., Solomon Derese, Heydenreich, M., Peter, M.G., Akala, H.M., F. Eyase, Waters, N.C., Mutai, C., Keriko, J.M., Walsh, D. Phytochemistry Letters, 2009, pp. 99-102.

From the seedpods of Tephrosia elata, a new β-hydroxydihydrochalcone named (S)-elatadihydrochalcone was isolated. In addition, the known flavonoids obovatachalcone, obovatin, obovatin methyl ether and deguelin were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The crude extract and the flavonoids obtained from the seedpods of this plant showed antiplasmodial activities. The literature NMR data on β-hydroxydihydrochalcones is reviewed and the identity of some of the compounds assigned β-hydroxydihydrochalcone skeleton is questioned.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Gusii Circumcision Ceremonies.". In: J. S. Akama and R. Maxon (eds.), Vanishing Cultural Heritage and Ethnography of an African Community: The Gusii of Western Kenya (New York, The Edwin Mellen Press). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2006.
SOLOMON, G., KAAYA, G.P., GEBREAB, F., GEMETCHU T, TILAHUN G. "Population studies on ticks feeding on indigenous cattle and incidence of tick-borne parasites in Didtuyura ranch in southern Ethiopia." Insect Science and Its Application. 1998;18:59-66.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Investigation of some medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of malaria in Kenya as potential sources of antimalarial drugs." Experimental Parasitology. 2011;127(2):609-626. AbstractScienceDirect

Malaria is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries and the burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for discovery of new antimalarial agents. Herbal medicines for the treatment of various diseases including malaria are an important part of the cultural diversity and traditions of which Kenya′s biodiversity has been an integral part. Two major antimalarial drugs widely used today came originally from indigenous medical systems, that is quinine and artemisinin, from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments, respectively. Thus ethnopharmacology is a very important resource in which new therapies may be discovered. The present review is an analysis of ethnopharmacological publications on antimalarial therapies from some Kenyan medicinal plants.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Four isoflavanones from the stem bark of Platycelphium voense." Phytochemistry Letters. 2012; 5(1):150-154. AbstractScienceDirect

From the stem bark of Platycelphium voënse (Leguminosae) four new isoflavanones were isolated and characterized as (S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2′,4′-dimethoxy-3′-(3″-methylbut-2″-enyl)-isoflavanone (trivial name platyisoflavanone A), (±)-5,7,2′-trihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′-(3″-methylbut-2″-enyl)-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone B), 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-2″-(2‴-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano-[4″,5″:3′,2′]-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone C) and 5,7,2′,3″-tetrahydroxy-2″,2″-dimethyldihydropyrano-[5″,6″:3′,4′]-isoflavanone (platyisoflavanone D). In addition, the known isoflavanones, sophoraisoflavanone A and glyasperin F; the isoflavone, formononetin; two flavones, kumatakenin and isokaempferide; as well as two triterpenes, betulin and β-amyrin were identified. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Platyisoflavanone A showed antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) with MIC = 23.7 μM, but also showed cytotoxicity (IC50 = 21.1 μM) in the vero cell test.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Bioactive Compounds from Some Kenyan Ethno-medicinal Plants: Myrsinaceae, Polygonaceae and Psiadia punctulata.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract

There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2′-glucosyl-6′-hydroxy-4′-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found.

Solomon MM, Onyango JF, Nyabola LO, Opiyo A, Chindia ML. "Treatment interruption among head and neck cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy.". 2009. Abstracttreatment_interruption_among_head_and_neck_cancer_patients.pdf

To determine the incidence of treatment interruption among head and neck cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. Design: Prospective study Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi. Subjects: Twenty six (M=16, F=10) patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer between March and June 2006. Main outcome measures: Frequency of radiation morbidities and treatment interuptions. Results: There were 26 patients consisting of 16 males and 10 females aged between 21 and 70 years (mean = 49.6 years). Among these patients 12 (46.2%) had tumours in the oral cavity, six (23.1%) had nasopharyngeal tumours, two (7.7%) had pharyngeal tumours, and six (23.1%) had laryngeal tumours. All tumours were primary carcinomas except two pharyngeal tumours which were metastatic. Among the 26 patients, 13(50%) completed the course of radiotherapy within the prescribed duration while another 13(50%) had treatment interruption. Of the 13 patients who had treatment interruption, one patient had a treatment gap of four days, seven patients had treatment gaps ranging between six and ten days, and five patients had treatment gaps of over ten days. The duration of treatment gaps ranged between four and 30 days. At the time of treatment interruption the cumulative radiation dose ranged from 22 to 58 Grey with a mean of 38 Grey (Mode = 44 Grey). The most common side effect was xerostomia (92%). This was closely followed by mucositis (88.5%), skin reactions (88.5%) dysphagia (84.5%) pain and suffering (76.9%). Loss of taste (61.5%), trismus (34.6%) and voice change (30.89%) were relatively less common. Conclusion: Our findings show that the probability of cancer control and cure among head and neck cancer patients treated at KNH could be severely eroded by treatment interruptions as a result of severe radiation morbidity.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Philosophy Belongs to You.". In: The Standard, (Nairobi: June 24, 1988), p. 14. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Anti-plasmodial activities and X-ray crystal structures of rotenoids from Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis .". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

The dichloromethane extract of the stem bark of Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis showed anti-plasmodial activity against the chloroquine sensitive (D6) and chloroquine resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the identification of a new rotenoid, (6aR,12aS)-2,3-methylenedioxy-9-methoxy-8-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-12a-hydroxyrotenoid (trivial name, usararotenoid C) along with known flavonoids (usararotenoid A, 12a-epimillettosin, 6a,12a-dehydromillettone, barbigerone and 4′-O-geranylisoliquiritigenin) as the anti-plasmodial principles. The structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. CD and X-ray analyses established absolute configurations.

SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "The Moral Dilemmas.". In: The Standard, (Nairobi: July 4, 1988), p. 44. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
Solomon Mwanjele Mwagha MM. "Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather lore for seasonal weather forecasting over east and Southern Africa." Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. 2017;1(16):1-30. AbstractFull text link

The creation of scientific weather forecasts is troubled by many technological challenges while their utilization is dismal. Consequently, the majority of small-scale farmers in Africa continue to consult weather lore to reach various cropping decisions. Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with the prediction of the weather based on indigenous knowledge and human observation of the environment. As such, it tends to be more holistic and more localized to the farmers’ context. However, weather lore has limitations such as inability to offer forecasts beyond a season. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous societies to come up with weather predictions. Further, meteorologists continue to treat weather lore knowledge as superstition partly because there is no means to scientifically evaluate and validate it. The visualization and characterization of visual sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars, rainbow, etc) in forecasting weather is a significant subject of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to represent and scientifically substantiate weather lore. This article is aimed at coming up with a method of organizing the weather lore from the visual perspective of humans. To achieve this objective, we used fuzzy cognitive mapping to model and represent causal relationships between weather lore concepts and weather outcomes. The results demonstrated that FCMs are efficient for matrix representation of selected weather outcome scenarios caused visual weather lore concepts. Based on these results the recommendation of this study is to use this approach as a preliminary processing task towards verifying weather lore.

Songa CMM, Ndeda JHO, Ouma G. "Statistical Study of Solar Forcing of Total Column Ozone Variation Over Three Cities in Kenya." Applied Physics Research. 2016;8(3):77-89. Abstractstatistical_study_of_solar_forcing_of_total_column_ozone_variation_over_three_cities_in_kenya.pdfApplied Physics Research

In this study, a statistical analysis between three solar activity indices (SAI) namely; sunspot number (ssn), F10.7
index (sf) and Mg II index (mg) and total column ozone (TCO) time series over three cities in Kenya namely;
Nairobi (1.17º S; 36.46º E), Kisumu (0.03º S; 34.45º E) and Mombasa (4.02º S; 39.43º E) for the period 1985 -
2011 are considered. Pearson and cross correlations, linear and multiple regression analyses are performed. All
the statistical analyses are based on 95% confidence level. SAI show decreasing trend at significant levels with
highest decrease in international sunspot number and least in Mg II index. TCO are highly correlated with each
other at (0.936< r < 0.955, p < 0.001). SAI are also highly correlated with each other at (0.941< r < 0.976, p <
0.001) and are significantly positively correlated with TCO over the study period except Mg II index at Kisumu.
TCO and SAI have correlations at both long and short lags. At all the cities, F10.7 index has an immediate
impact and Mg II index has a delayed impact on TCO. A linear relationship exists between the two variables in
all the cities. An increase in TCO of about 2 – 3 % (Nairobi), 1 – 2% (Kisumu) and 3 – 4 % (Mombasa) is
attributed to solar activity indices. The multiple correlation coefficients and significant levels obtained show that 3
– 5% of the TCO at Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa can be predicted by the SAI.

Keywords: correlation, F10.7 index, Mg II index, regression, solar activity indices, sunspot number, time series,
total column ozone

Songur A, Gonul Y, Ozen OA, Kucuker H, Uzun I, Bas O, Toktas M. "Variations in the intracranial vertebrobasilar system." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2008;30:257-264. AbstractWebsite
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Soni S, Whittington J, Holland AJ, Webb T, Maina E, Boer H, Clarke D. "The course and outcome of psychiatric illness in people with Prader-Willi syndrome: implications for management and treatment." J Intellect Disabil Res. 2007;51(Pt 1):32-42. Abstract

This study is part of a larger UK-wide study investigating psychiatric illness in people with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and describes the longitudinal aspect of psychiatric illness, in particular psychotic illness, and examines the use and role of psychotropic medication.

Soni S, Whittington J, Holland AJ, Webb T, Maina E, Boer H, Clarke D. "An investigation into psychiatric illness in people with Prader-Willi syndrome: Evidence for a genetic basis for affective psychotic illness.". In: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities. Vol. 19. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 9600 GARSINGTON RD, OXFORD OX4 2DQ, OXON, ENGLAND; 2006:. Abstract
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Soni S, Whittington J, Holland AJ, Webb T, Maina E, Boer H, Clarke D. "The course and outcome of psychiatric illness in people with Prader–Willi syndrome: implications for management and treatment." Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2007;51:32-42. Abstract
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Soni S, Whittington J, Holland AJ, Webb T, Maina EN, Boer H, Clarke D. "The phenomenology and diagnosis of psychiatric illness in people with Prader–Willi syndrome." Psychological Medicine. 2008;38:1505-1514. Abstract
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Sorensen, Olago, D. O., Dulo, Kanoti, Gaye, Faye, Pouye, Owor. "Real-time indication of faecally contaminated drinking water with fluorescence spectroscopy: towards understanding the causation.". In: 10th International Groundwater Quality Conference (GQ 2019). Liège, Belgium; 2019.
Sorensen JPR, Carr AF, Nayebare J, Diongue DML, Pouye A, Roffo R, Gwengweya G, Ward JST, Kanoti J, Okotto-Okotto J, van der Marel L, Ciric L, Faye SC, Gaye CB, Goodall T, Kulabako R, Lapworth DJ, MacDonald AM, Monjerezi M, Olago D, Owor M, Read DS, Taylor RG. "Tryptophan-like and humic-like fluorophores are extracellular in groundwater: implications as real-time faecal indicators.". 2020;10(1):15379. AbstractWebsite

Fluorescent natural organic matter at tryptophan-like (TLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF) peaks is associated with the presence and enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater. We hypothesise, however, that it is predominantly extracellular material that fluoresces at these wavelengths, not bacterial cells. We quantified total (unfiltered) and extracellular (filtered at < 0.22 µm) TLF and HLF in 140 groundwater sources across a range of urban population densities in Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. Where changes in fluorescence occurred following filtration they were correlated with potential controlling variables. A significant reduction in TLF following filtration (ΔTLF) was observed across the entire dataset, although the majority of the signal remained and thus considered extracellular (median 96.9%). ΔTLF was only significant in more urbanised study areas where TLF was greatest. Beneath Dakar, Senegal, ΔTLF was significantly correlated to total bacterial cells (ρs 0.51). No significant change in HLF following filtration across all data indicates these fluorophores are extracellular. Our results suggest that TLF and HLF are more mobile than faecal indicator bacteria and larger pathogens in groundwater, as the predominantly extracellular fluorophores are less prone to straining. Consequently, TLF/HLF are more precautionary indicators of microbial risks than faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater-derived drinking water.

Sosula L, Glow PH. "Increase in number of synapses in the inner plexiform layer of light deprived rat retinae: {Quantitative} electron microscopy." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1971;141:427-451. AbstractWebsite

One eye in each of five adult Wistar hooded rats was covered with opaque contact occluders for three or nine months. The rat retinae were studied with light and electron microscopy. No changes in retinal thickness or in gross structure were seen. However, quantitative differences in synaptic organisation were found.(1) First comparison. A montage of a normal retina was compared with a similar montage of a three month lighted-deprived retina. Taking equal areas of inner plexiform layer, the number of amacrine (conventional) synapses in the light-deprived montage was larger by a factor of about 2.4 relative to the normal one. No significant difference in the number of bipolar (ribbon) synapses was found.(2) Second comparison. Samples were compared from five normal and five light-deprived retinae. The light-deprived retinae showed a significantly larger number of amacrine synapses compared with the normal mean (p{\textless}0.02).It was not possible to determine if the changes in synaptic number are related to changes in vesicle dimensions reported herein.The increased number of conventional synapses seems evidence that central nervous tissue is capable of forming new synapses without changing the organisation of neural processes.

Sottas B, King'oriah GK, Betschart CE, Ndegwa EN. "Dilemmas of deciding stakeholders: governance and open access to common property.". 1998.Website
Soukoulis CM, Zhu H, Li J, Ni G, Xu K, Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, others. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, alpha-arsenene and aW-antimonene.". 2018. Abstract
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Souza JP, Widmer M, Gülmezoglu AM, Lawrie TA, Adejuyigbe EA, Carroli G, Crowther C, Currie SM, Dowswell T, Hofmeyr J, Lavender T, Lawn J, Mader S, Martinez FE, Mugerwa K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Silvestre MA, Soltani H, Torloni MR, Tsigas EZ, Vowles Z, Ouedraogo L, Serruya S, Al-Raiby J, Awin N, Obara H, Mathai M, Bahl R, Martines J, Ganatra B, Phillips SJ, Johnson BR, Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Temmerman M. "Maternal and perinatal health research priorities beyond 2015: an international survey and prioritization exercise." Reprod Health. 2014;11:61. Abstract

Maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990, but over a quarter million women still die every year of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-health related targets are falling short of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals and a post-2015 Development Agenda is emerging. In connection with this, setting global research priorities for the next decade is now required.

Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-1755. Abstract

Summary

Background: We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Methods: In our cross-sectional study, we included women attending health facilities in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East that dealt with at least 1000 childbirths per year and had the capacity to provide caesarean section. We obtained data from analysis of hospital records for all women giving birth and all women who had a severe maternal outcome (SMO; ie, maternal death or maternal near miss). We regarded coverage of key maternal health interventions as the proportion of the target population who received an indicated intervention (eg, the proportion of women with eclampsia who received magnesium sulphate). We used areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROC) with 95% CI to externally validate a previously reported MSI as an indicator of severity. We assessed the overall performance of care (ie, the ability to produce a positive effect on health outcomes) through standardised mortality ratios.

Results: From May 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2011, we included 314 623 women attending 357 health facilities in 29 countries (2538 had a maternal near miss and 486 maternal deaths occurred). The mean period of data collection in each health facility was 89 days (SD 21). 23 015 (7•3%) women had potentially life-threatening disorders and 3024 (1•0%) developed an SMO. 808 (26•7%) women with an SMO had post-partum haemorrhage and 784 (25•9%) had preeclampsia or eclampsia. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and coagulation dysfunctions were the most frequent organ dysfunctions in women who had an SMO. Reported mortality in countries with a high or very high maternal mortality ratio was two-to-three-times higher than that expected for the assessed severity despite a high coverage of essential interventions. The MSI had good accuracy for maternal death prediction in women with markers of organ dysfunction (AUROC 0•826 [95% CI 0•802–0•851]).

Interpretation: High coverage of essential interventions did not imply reduced maternal mortality in the health-care facilities we studied. If substantial reductions in maternal mortality are to be achieved, universal coverage of lifesaving interventions need to be matched with comprehensive emergency care and overall improvements in the quality of maternal health care. The MSI could be used to assess the performance of health facilities providing care to women with complications related to pregnancy.

Funding: UNDP–UNFPA–UNICEF–WHO–World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP); WHO; USAID; Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; Gynuity Health Projects.

Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Costa MJ, Fawole B, Mugerwa Y, Nafiou I, Neves I, Wolomby-Molondo J-J, Bang HT, Cheang K, Chuyun K, Jayaratne K, Jayathilaka CA, Mazhar SB, Mori R, Mustafa ML, Pathak LR, Perera D, Rathavy T, Recidoro Z, Roy M, Ruyan P, Shrestha N, Taneepanichsku S, Tien NV, Ganchimeg T, Wehbe M, Yadamsuren B, Yan W, Yunis K, Bataglia V, Cecatti JG, Hernandez-Prado B, Nardin JM, Narváez A, Ortiz-Panozo E, Pérez-Cuevas R, Valladares E, Zavaleta N, Armson A, Crowther C, Hogue C, Lindmark G, Mittal S, Pattinson R, Stanton ME, Campodonico L, Cuesta C, Giordano D, Intarut N, Laopaiboon M, Bahl R, Martines J, Mathai M, Merialdi M, Say L. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-55. Abstract

We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Sparrow JR, Hicks D, Hamel CP. "The retinal pigment epithelium in health and disease." Current molecular medicine. 2010;10:802-823. Abstract

Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) constitute a simple layer of cuboidal cells that are strategically situated behind the photoreceptor (PR) cells. The inconspicuousness of this monolayer contrasts sharply with its importance [1]. The relationship between the RPE and PR cells is crucial to sight; this is evident from basic and clinical studies demonstrating that primary dysfunctioning of the RPE can result in visual cell death and blindness. RPE cells carry out many functions including the conversion and storage of retinoid, the phagocytosis of shed PR outer segment membrane, the absorption of scattered light, ion and fluid transport and RPE-PR apposition. The magnitude of the demands imposed on this single layer of cells in order to execute these tasks, will become apparent to the reader of this review as will the number of clinical disorders that take origin from these cells.

Sparrow JR, Hicks D, Hamel CP. "The retinal pigment epithelium in health and disease." Current molecular medicine. 2010;10:802-823. Abstract

Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) constitute a simple layer of cuboidal cells that are strategically situated behind the photoreceptor (PR) cells. The inconspicuousness of this monolayer contrasts sharply with its importance [1]. The relationship between the RPE and PR cells is crucial to sight; this is evident from basic and clinical studies demonstrating that primary dysfunctioning of the RPE can result in visual cell death and blindness. RPE cells carry out many functions including the conversion and storage of retinoid, the phagocytosis of shed PR outer segment membrane, the absorption of scattered light, ion and fluid transport and RPE-PR apposition. The magnitude of the demands imposed on this single layer of cells in order to execute these tasks, will become apparent to the reader of this review as will the number of clinical disorders that take origin from these cells.

Sparrrow J, Hicks D, P. Hamel C. "The {Retinal} {Pigment} {Epithelium} in {Health} and {Disease}." Current Molecular Medicine. 2010;10:802-823. AbstractWebsite
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Späth A, Le Roex AP, Opiyo-Akech N. "Plume-lithosphere Interaction and the Origin of Continental Rift-related Alkaline Volcanism - the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, Southern Kenya.". 1999. AbstractPlume-lithosphere Interaction and the Origin of Continental Rift-related Alkaline Volcanism - the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province

Geochemical data are presented for primitive alkaline lavas from the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province of southern Kenya, situated some 100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley. In addition to their primitive compositions, a striking and ubiquitous feature is a strong but variable depletion in K relative to other highly incompatible elements when normalized to primitive mantle values. Semi-quantitative models are developed that best explain the petrogenesis of these lavas in terms of partial melting of a source that contained residual amphibole (but not phlogopite). The presence of amphibole implies a source in the subcontinental lithosphere rather than the asthenosphere. It is suggested that the amphibole is of metasomatic origin and was precipitated in the lithospheric mantle by infiltrating fluids and/or melts derived from rising mantle plume material. A raised geotherm as a consequence of the continued ascent of the plume material led to dehydration melting of the metasomatized mantle and generation of the Chyulu Hills lavas. It is proposed that the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province represents an analogue for the earliest stages of continental rift initiation, during which interaction between a plume and initially refractory lithosphere may lead to the generation of lithospheric melts.

Späth A, Le Roex AP, Opiyo-Akech N. "The petrology of the Chyulu Hills volcanic province, southern Kenya.". 2000. AbstractThe petrology of the Chyulu Hills volcanic province, southern Kenya

The Quaternary Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province is located more than 100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley. It consists of a large number of free-standing and coalesced volcanoes and cinder cones and numerous lava flows ranging in composition from nepheline-normative nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts and hawaiites to orthopyroxene-normative subalkali basalts. In this paper, the authors briefly outline the geological setting of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, present a classification scheme for its lavas and describe their petrography. Mineral chemistry data for selected olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts are presented together with the bulk rock major element compositions of selected samples. The petrography, phenocryst chemistry and bulk rock composition of the typically primitive Chyulu Hills lavas are consistent with a differentiation history dominated by olivine control. A process of delayed olivine fractionation, combined with limited mantle olivine accumulation, is proposed to explain the considerable compositional variability observed among olivine phenocryst cores. A trend of decreasing degree of silica-undersaturation from the oldest lavas, erupted in the northern Chyulu Hills, to progressively younger lavas in the southern part of the province is explained as a result of an age progressive decrease in the depth of melt generation and a coincident increase in the degree of melting.

Spear PD, Hou V. "Retinal ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes are unaffected by long-term monocular deprivation in the cat." Brain research. 1990;522:354-358. Abstract

Three cats were raised with monocular deprivation for 5.2-7.2 years, and ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes were measured in their flat-mounted retinae. The retinae were Nissl-stained so that ganglion cells could be measured whether or not they maintained normal central projections. Measurements were made in the area centralis, peripheral binocular segment, and monocular segment of the retinae. There were no significant differences between the deprived and non-deprived retinae in the densities or soma-sizes of alpha cells or other (non-alpha) ganglion cells at any of these retinal locations. These results support the view that the most distal effects of monocular deprivation occur at the retino-geniculate contact, and they suggest that even after long-term monocular deprivation, effects in the lateral geniculate nucleus do not produce secondary, retrograde changes in the retina.

Spear PD, Hou V. "Retinal ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes are unaffected by long-term monocular deprivation in the cat." Brain research. 1990;522:354-358. Abstract

Three cats were raised with monocular deprivation for 5.2-7.2 years, and ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes were measured in their flat-mounted retinae. The retinae were Nissl-stained so that ganglion cells could be measured whether or not they maintained normal central projections. Measurements were made in the area centralis, peripheral binocular segment, and monocular segment of the retinae. There were no significant differences between the deprived and non-deprived retinae in the densities or soma-sizes of alpha cells or other (non-alpha) ganglion cells at any of these retinal locations. These results support the view that the most distal effects of monocular deprivation occur at the retino-geniculate contact, and they suggest that even after long-term monocular deprivation, effects in the lateral geniculate nucleus do not produce secondary, retrograde changes in the retina.

Spear PD, Hou V. "Retinal ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes are unaffected by long-term monocular deprivation in the cat." Brain research. 1990;522:354-358. Abstract

Three cats were raised with monocular deprivation for 5.2-7.2 years, and ganglion-cell densities and soma sizes were measured in their flat-mounted retinae. The retinae were Nissl-stained so that ganglion cells could be measured whether or not they maintained normal central projections. Measurements were made in the area centralis, peripheral binocular segment, and monocular segment of the retinae. There were no significant differences between the deprived and non-deprived retinae in the densities or soma-sizes of alpha cells or other (non-alpha) ganglion cells at any of these retinal locations. These results support the view that the most distal effects of monocular deprivation occur at the retino-geniculate contact, and they suggest that even after long-term monocular deprivation, effects in the lateral geniculate nucleus do not produce secondary, retrograde changes in the retina.

Speicher DJ, Wanzala P, D'Lima M, Njiru A, Chindia M, Dimba E, Johnson NW. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings." Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2015;44:842-849. Abstract
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Spranger J, Osterhoff M, Reimann M, Möhlig M, Ristow M, Francis MK, Cristofalo V, Hammes H-P, Smith G, Boulton M. "Loss of the antiangiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor in patients with angiogenic eye disease." Diabetes. 2001;50:2641-2645. AbstractWebsite
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Sprenger KJ, Chouler CA. "The GP dilemma. Recommendations and synopsis of a student conference." S. Afr. Med. J.. 1975;49(49):2059-60. Abstract

The proceedings of a conference organised by students are reported. The present standing of the general practitioner and his need in different societies are equated and the obvious deficiencies are considered. Such themes as maldistribution, service and education are discussed. Resolutions derived from the conference are reported in full.

Sprung CL, Rackow EC, Fein IA. "Pulmonary edema; a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1980;77:687-688. Abstract

Hemodynamic evaluation in two patients and analysis of pulmonary edema fluid in one patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pulmonary edema were performed. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in both patients were low or normal (1 and 9 mm Hg). In one patient the colloid osmotic pressure of the pulmonary edema fluid was 68 percent of the value of the serum. The serum colloid osmotic pressure-pulmonary arterial wedge pressure gradient in the second patient was markedly reduced. Pulmonary edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis may be the result of increased permeability of pulmonary capillary membranes and altered intravascular colloid-hydrostatic forces.

SS G, G A, P A, K B, R B, G C, KJ C, ACR C, T C, YO C, D D, ML F, MO F, A G, HH H, V J, A K, SC L, P L, VP M, T M, Y M, N P, A T-M, ECM L, CH C. "Global Oral Health Policies and Guidelines: Using Silver Diamine Fluoride for Caries Control. Front Oral Health." Front Oral Health. 2021;2021; 2:685557(2021; 2:685557):2021; 2:685557.
Ssali H, Keya SO. "The effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer level on nodulation, growth and dinitrogen fixation of three bean cultivars.". 1986. Abstract

Application of P (150 kg P/ha) increased nodulation, dry matter yield, P uptake, tissue N yield, dinitrogen fixation and seed yield of the three bean cultivars (Rose Coco, Canadian Wonder and Mwezi moja) at both N levels (10 and 100 kg N/ha). A high dose of N severely reduced nodulation only where P was not applied but severely reduced dinitrogen fixation at both P levels. Where P was applied cultivars fixed comparable quantities of dinitrogen. At no P + 10 kg N/ha cultivar Rose Coco nodulated well early in the growth stages and fixed substantial dinitrogen

Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Biological nitrogen fixation in Africa."; 1984.
Ssebugere P, Kiremire BT, Kishimba M, Wandiga SO, Nyanzi SA, Wasswa J. "DDT and metabolites in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda.". 2009.Website
Ssekandi J, Mburu J, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Charles F. "Effects of Post Eviction Resettlement on Land-Use and Cover Change in Uganda.". 2017. Abstract
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Sserumaga JP, Makumbi D, Ji H, Njoroge K, Muthomi JW, Chemining’wa GN, Si-myung L, Asea G, Kim H. "Molecular characterization of tropical maize inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers." Maydica . 2014;59:267-274.
Sserumaga JP, Makumbi D, Simyung L, Njoroge K, Muthomi JW, Chemining’wa GN, Asea G, Waswa M, Bomet DK. "Incidence and severity of potentially toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in maize (Zea mays L.) from different major maize growing regions of Uganda." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015;10(11):1244-1250.
Ssozi, J; Akundabweni LSM; NA. Verifying the premium value of selected African indigenous vegetables in target sites of the Lake Victoria basin.; 2012. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to verify the premium value in terms of nutritional and economic potential of selected African indigenous vegetable plants (AIVPs) along the Lake Victoria basin. Partial findings of this study being reported are on the smallholder farmer indigenous knowledge of vegetable production and utilisation in Jinja (Uganda) and Vihiga (Kenya). A survey was conducted to establish the status and level of utilisation of indigenous vegetable plants. whereby total of 163 households in each site were interviewed. Vegetables selected by smallholder farmers for production trials and nutrient quality analysis were Cleome gyandra (Saga, Eiyobyo/Ejobyo), Amaranthus lividus (Booga, Doodo), Solanum scarbrum (nakati) as indigenous vegetables. Solanum melongena (egg plant), Daucus carota (carrot), Capsicum spp. (pepper) were selected as the exotic vegetables. Laboratory analysis of these vegetables for phyto-nutrient characterisation is ongoing. The survey revealed that most farmers (90%) engaged indigenous vegetable farming for both food consumption and income generation. Most farmers regarded exotic vegetable farming as an income generation venture rather than home consumption. Most farmers were knowledgeable of the health and medicinal benefits of the indigenous vegetables.

Staal S, McDermott JJ, Kang'ethe EK, Arimi SM. "Analysis of milk-borne public health risks in milk markets in Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

The major role played by informal milk markets in Kenya and the benefits to those associated with it are now widely acknowledged. The benefits include higher prices for farmers, income generation for the market agents and convenient delivery and lower prices for poor consumers. However, in spite of these benefits, regulations governing informal marketing of milk continue to be unfavourable and do not reflect local realities of milk marketing, having been based on models derived from industrialised countries where virtually all milk destined for the market is pasteurised and packaged. Results of risk assessment, including HACCP analysis, of milk quality and handling practices of informal milk market agents and consumers in central and southern Kenya show variable apparent prevalence of zoonotic health hazards in marketed milk, high bacterial counts especially in outlets associated with longer market chains. Notably, the ineffectiveness of current regulations was reflected in the lack of difference in the quality of milk sold by licensed and non-licensed traders. The study shows that health risks from the bacterial hazards identified are mitigated by the common consumer practice of boiling milk before consumption. The most important health risks were judged to be from two main sources: (i) anti-microbial residues found in up to 15% of milk samples tested and (ii) consumption of naturally fermented milk. Proposals for management of these health risks and the engagement of stakeholders and key players in the process to achieve more favourable policy environment policy are presented and discussed.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stanback J, Qureshi ZP, Sekkade-Kigondu C. "Advance provision of oral contraceptives to family planning clients in Kenya.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients.

Prospective observational study.

Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya.

Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics.

Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately.

Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy.

Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit.

Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

Standring S. Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. 40th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008. Abstract
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Stanek EJ, Wafula EM, Onyango FE, Musia J. "Characteristics related to the incidence and prevalence of acute respiratory tract infection in young children in Kenya." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 1994;18(4):639-47. Abstract

Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children is a prevalent condition that results in substantial morbidity and consumes large portions of health care resources in developing countries. We examined factors associated with the reported incidence and prevalence of ARI in a 3-year longitudinal study of 485 children < 5 years of age in rural Kenya. A large number of environmental factors, household and family characteristics, and child-specific factors were examined with use of multivariable methods. Few variables that may play a role in the incidence and prevalence of ARI (e.g., household tobacco use and weight z-score) were found to be related to such rates. Several factors related to ARI incidence and prevalence (e.g., mother's age, number of children, and community) were found to be associated with only mild ARI episodes. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that these factors are related to differential reporting of mild ARI episodes. The impact of such differential reporting on health care utilization and health education is discussed.

Stankovic T, Taylor M, Falciani F, Kearns P, Lawson S, Powell JE, Sameith K, Mapp K, Skowronska A, Agathanggelou A, others. "Stratification of pediatric ALL by in vitro cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical response.". 2009. Abstract
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Stanlaus Kivai Mulu, Afework Bekele PKM, Oguge N. "Feeding ecology of Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi, Oustalet 1882) on Samburu pastoral lands, Kenya." Discovery and Innovations (Special Edition No. 2) 19: S 177-185; 2007. Abstract
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Stary HC. "Composition and classification of human atherosclerotic lesions." Virchows Archiv A. 1992;421:277-290. AbstractWebsite

Human atherosclerotic disease can be resolved into eight types of lesion, each characterized by its composition and structure and the absence or degree of intimal injury. The eight types have been arranged in the sequence in which they may progress in complexity from the initial change in childhood or youth to the clinical endpoints in older persons. While lesions at first increase primarily by intra- and extracellular accumulation of lipid, this in itself rarely accounts for symptomatic obstruction. Lipidic lesions become symptomatic primarily by means of successively superimposed deposits of thrombotic material. Non-homogeneity of hemodynamic forces within the length of an artery account for local differences in intima thickness (adaptive intimal thickening) and, in persons with risk factors, differences in susceptibility to lesion formation. According to the degree to which they can accumulate or retain lipid and bring about secondary mechanisms, specific locations of the arterial tree have been designated asatherosclerosisresistant, atherosclerosis-prone and progression-prone.

Stary HC. "Composition and classification of human atherosclerotic lesions." Virchows Archiv A. 1992;421:277-290. AbstractWebsite

Human atherosclerotic disease can be resolved into eight types of lesion, each characterized by its composition and structure and the absence or degree of intimal injury. The eight types have been arranged in the sequence in which they may progress in complexity from the initial change in childhood or youth to the clinical endpoints in older persons. While lesions at first increase primarily by intra- and extracellular accumulation of lipid, this in itself rarely accounts for symptomatic obstruction. Lipidic lesions become symptomatic primarily by means of successively superimposed deposits of thrombotic material. Non-homogeneity of hemodynamic forces within the length of an artery account for local differences in intima thickness (adaptive intimal thickening) and, in persons with risk factors, differences in susceptibility to lesion formation. According to the degree to which they can accumulate or retain lipid and bring about secondary mechanisms, specific locations of the arterial tree have been designated asatherosclerosisresistant, atherosclerosis-prone and progression-prone.

Stasiewicz MJ, Falade TDO, Mutuma M, Mutiga SK, Harvey JJW, Fox G, Pearson TC, Muthomi JW, Nelson RJ. "Multi-spectral kernel sorting to reduce aflatoxins and fumonisins in Kenyan maize." Food Control. 2017;(78):203-214.
Steel CM, Ennis M, Levin AG, Wasunna A. "The mitogenic response of cryopreserved human lymphocytes in a microculture system." Cytobios. 1977;18(70):89-99. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSPDW; W; G. Livestock and wild herbivore populations in the Kenya rangelands in 1977 compared with 1978.; 1979. Abstract

Compares wild herbivore and livestock poulation data collected during the aerial suveys throughout the rangelands areas during 1977 and 1978. rangelands which were flown in straight line belt transects the first year at l0km spacing and the second at 5km apart. Elephant population estimates according to the ecoregions were: Northern Rift Valley 1,600 in 1977 but not included in 1978; Northern volcanics 1,600 in 1977 and 110 in 1978; Northern Central 4,170 in 1977 and 1,930 in 1978; North East 9,500 in 1977 and 3,060 in 1978; South Central 2,800 in 1977 and 4,130 in 1978, East Central-Coastal 13,900 in 1977 and 8,450 in 1978; South East 25,500 in 1977 and 21,900 in 1978; South West 1,800 in 1977 and 3,180 in 1978 providing a total estimate for 1977 of 59,800 and for 1978 of 42,800.

Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSW; W. Distributions, densities and trends of elephants and rhinoceros in Kenya, 1977-1978 from KREMU's aerial surveys.; 1979. Abstract

Baseline information on densities, distributions and population trends of the African elephant was obtained during KREMU's 1977 and 1978 aerial surveys of all pastoral rangelands in Kenya. It was estimated in 1978 that there were between 44,000 and 67,000 elephants in Kenya 73% of the estimated 1977 population. The ratio of live to dead elephants in 1978 has further decreased to 44:56 compared to 51:49 in 1977. Of the 5,000 to 10,000 located in the general agricultural zone, most were in the national parks and forest reserves.

Stella Omari PD, Peter K'Obonyo PD, Harriet Kidombo PD. "The Moderating Role of Organizational Justice on the Relationship Between Age, Locus of Control and Employee Outcomes." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;2(3):42-54. Abstract

ABSTRACT

The Public sector in Kenya is the single largest employer whose employees are scattered
among the local government, the civil service, the judiciary, various government
ministries and parastatals (public corporations). This study was done among select
public corporations with representation from the eight sectors which comprise the
public corporations. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the moderating
effect of organizational justice on the relationship between employee age, locus of
control and employee outcomes. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used in
conducting the study. The data for this study were taken from a total of thirteen public
sector organizations which are engaged in service provision and manufacturing. 384
respondents were selected and issued with questionnaires, 181 were returned and used
for the analyses. In general, the results of the study indicated that organizational justice
moderated this relationship. When employees perceived fairness in the organization
they were more satisfied, committed and trusting towards the employer. Employers
need to take into consideration issues of fairness in distribution and procedures when
dealing with their employees. A practical contribution of this study is the implications
that locus of control is significantly related to organizational justice and knowing an
employee’s personality can help managers understand implications for decisions
impinging on justice in the organization.

Key Words: Public Sector, Age, Organizational Justice, Locus of Control, Job satisfaction,
Commitment, Organization Citizenship Behaviours and Trust.

STELLAH NEKESA WANYONYI, EVANS MUNGAI MWANGI NATHANGICHUKI. "Effect of habitat disturbance on distribution and abundance of Papyrus endemic birds in Sio Port Swamp, Western Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(2):51-62.
StellaKiambi, Onono JO, Kang’ethe E, Aboge GO, Murungi MK, Muinde P, Akoko J, Momanyi K, Rushton J, Fevre EM, Alarcon P. "Investigation of the governance structure of Nairobi dairy value chain and its influence on food safety." . Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2020;28(4).
StellaKiambi, Onono JO, Kang’ethe E, O.Aboge G, K.Murungi M, Muinde P, Akoko J, Momanyi K, Rushton J, M.Fèvre E, Alarcon P. "Investigation of the governance structure of the Nairobi dairy value chain and its influence on food safety." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2020;179:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105009.
Stellwagen E, Babul J. "Stabilization of the globular structure of ferricytochrome c by chloride in acidic solvents." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5135-40. Abstract

Increasing concentrations of chloride were found to increase the resolution between two visible absorbance spectral transitions associated with acidification of ferricytochrome c. Analysis of a variety of spectral and viscosity measurements indicates that protonation of a single group having an apparent pK of 2.1 +/- 0.2 and an intrinsic pK of about 5.3 displaces the methionine ligand without significantly perturbing the native globular conformation. Analysis of methylated ferricytochrome c suggests that protonation of a carboxylate ion, most likely a heme propionate residue, is responsible for displacement of the methionine ligand. Addition of a proton to a second group having an apparent pK of 1.2 +/- 0.1 displaces the histidine ligand and unfolds the protein from a globular conformation into a random coil. It is most likely that the second protonation occurs on the imidazole ring of the histidine ligand itself. Chloride is proposed to perturb these transitions by ligation in the fifth coordination position of the heme ion. Such ligation stabilizes a globular conformation of ferricytochrome c at pH 0.0 and 25 degrees.

Stenmark KR, Yeager ME, El Kasmi KC, Nozik-Grayck E, Gerasimovskaya EV, Li M, Riddle SR, Frid MG. "The {Adventitia}: {Essential} {Regulator} of {Vascular} {Wall} {Structure} and {Function}." Annual Review of Physiology. 2013;75:23-47. AbstractWebsite

The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is composed of a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to influence the tone and structure of the vessel wall; to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation; and to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the outside in.

Stenmark KR, Yeager M, Riddle S, El Kasmi KC, Frid MG, Li M, McKinsey T. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary Circulation. 2012;2:3. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Stenmark KR, Frid MG, Yeager M, Li M, Riddle S, McKinsey T, El Kasmi KC. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary circulation. 2012;2:3-14. Abstract

Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "S. Gichuhi, K. H. M. Kollmann, P.V. Choksey The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in black diabetics East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Nairobi (2000).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Nairobi (2000). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Interventions for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18; (2):CD005643. Review. PMID: 17443606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Gichuhi S, Irlam JJ." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. . 2007;18(2):CD005643. AbstractWebsite

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, W5010, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. sgichuhi@jhsph.edu BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years off age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events. SEARCH STRATEGY: Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; Medline/PubMed, CENTRAL, AIDSearch, EMBASE, LILACS, African Healthline, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialised Register, and the Cochrane Cancer Network Specialised Register. We searched the clinical trial register of the US National Institutes of Health, searched the international conference proceedings of AIDS and AIDS-related cancers, and contacted individual researchers, research organisations, and pharmaceutical companies that manufacture the drugs used as interventions. Searches were done between September 2005 and June 2006. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. MAIN RESULTS: No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Implications for practice:Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports.Implications for research:Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour. PMID: 17443606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Stephen AO, Joyce KGN, Hellen N, Alex WN, Jared N’auO. "CHARACTERISATION AND ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT FROM PAINT AND COATING INDUSTRIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 2019;4(5):41-46. Abstractabstract.pdfInternational Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology

Description
A study was conducted to estimate current status of physico-chemical characteristics of effluents emanating from three paint factories within the main industrial area of Nairobi County. The effluents were analysed for temperature, pH, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total sulphur and heavy metal ions and compared to Kenyan effluent discharge standards. The results were as follows: pH 6.48-6.89, temperature 28.07-28.30 oC, COD 916.77-1881.20 mg/L, total phosphorus 145.00-149.32 mg/L, TSS 6382.33-7395.33 mg/L, oil and grease 3525.00-6374.33 mg/L, total sulphur 72.62-73.41 mg/L, total nitrogen 1586.67-4442.67 mg/L. Heavy metal concentrations were 3.03-4.18 mg/L, 2.07-3.04 mg/L and 5.38-17.21 mg/L respectively for cadmium, chromium and lead. Adsorbent was made from waste rubber tyres and tested for its suitability in removing three heavy metal ions namely cadmium, lead and chromium from the effluent samples by varying adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Nderi GJ, Gichuhi S, Kollman M, Matende I. Outcome of glaucoma surgery at Mombasa Lighthouse for Christ Eye Center .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to evaluate the outcome of glaucoma surgeries in a centre for eye care in Kenya.   DESIGN: Retrospective case series.   SETTING: The study was conducted at Mombasa Light House for Christ Eye Centre- Kenya.   SUBJECTS: All patients diagnosed to have glaucoma and managed by surgery between 2004-2007.   MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved and data collected on the surgeries done using a structured questionnaire. 2008 was left for follow up to avail a one year minimum follow up time. Analysis was done using SPSS version 13.   RESULTS: 265 operations were recorded in this period. 213 were retrieved and the outcomes analysed. There was good IOP control over the follow up period with a gradual rise post operation, though the pressures remained within normal. Most of the patients were controlled with no need for medications, or much less medication use.   The average intra-ocular pressure at two year follow up was 15.0mmHg against a baseline of 28.7mmHg (p< 0.001). 29 eyes (13.6%) required medication for intra-ocular pressure control. One type of medication was able to control the pressures post operatively. Surgery reduced topical antiglaucoma medication use by 72%.     CONCLUSION: Intra-ocular pressure was well controlled surgically for the two year follow up.   RECOMENDATIONS: Surgical intervention can be taken as a first option for glaucoma control in our set up, especially as most of our patients present late.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Does prospective monitoring improve cataract surgery outcomes in Africa? ." Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 May;86(5):543-7.. 2002. AbstractWebsite

Department of Epidemiology and International Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. dhyorston@enterprise.net AIMS: To determine if prospective monitoring influences cataract surgical outcomes in east Africa. METHODS: A prospective observational study of all routine extracapsular cataract extractions with posterior chamber lens implants carried out at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya, between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. RESULTS: Out of 1845 eligible eyes 1800 were included in the study. Two months' follow up was available in 67.2% of patients. The proportion achieving a good outcome increased steadily from 77.1% in the first quarter to 89.4% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.001). There was no change in the incidence of operative complications; however, the proportion of patients achieving a good visual outcome following vitreous loss increased from 47.2% in the first 6 months to 71.0% in the last 6 months (chi(2) p<0.05). Of the eyes with poor outcome (best corrected acuity <6/60 at 2 months) half were due to pre-existing eye diseases. The proportion of patients with known ocular comorbidity decreased from 10.2% in the first quarter to 5.9% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.05). Poor outcome was associated with age over 80 years, known diabetes, preoperative bilateral blindness, any ocular comorbidity, and intraoperative vitreous loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates improvement in visual outcome results after cataract surgery over a 1 year period. Monitoring of outcomes appears to be associated with a change in surgeons' attitudes, leading to greater emphasis on appropriate case selection, better management of surgical complications, and improved visual outcomes. PMID: 11973251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1771115

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Gichuhi S. A new millennium through new eyes; 15 corneal grafts in a day! EAJ Ophthalmol 2000; 10: 40.". In: (Letter to the Editor). EAJ Ophthalmol 2000; 10: 40. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract

Department of Epidemiology and International Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. dhyorston@enterprise.net AIMS: To determine if prospective monitoring influences cataract surgical outcomes in east Africa. METHODS: A prospective observational study of all routine extracapsular cataract extractions with posterior chamber lens implants carried out at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya, between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. RESULTS: Out of 1845 eligible eyes 1800 were included in the study. Two months' follow up was available in 67.2% of patients. The proportion achieving a good outcome increased steadily from 77.1% in the first quarter to 89.4% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.001). There was no change in the incidence of operative complications; however, the proportion of patients achieving a good visual outcome following vitreous loss increased from 47.2% in the first 6 months to 71.0% in the last 6 months (chi(2) p<0.05). Of the eyes with poor outcome (best corrected acuity <6/60 at 2 months) half were due to pre-existing eye diseases. The proportion of patients with known ocular comorbidity decreased from 10.2% in the first quarter to 5.9% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.05). Poor outcome was associated with age over 80 years, known diabetes, preoperative bilateral blindness, any ocular comorbidity, and intraoperative vitreous loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates improvement in visual outcome results after cataract surgery over a 1 year period. Monitoring of outcomes appears to be associated with a change in surgeons' attitudes, leading to greater emphasis on appropriate case selection, better management of surgical complications, and improved visual outcomes. PMID: 11973251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1771115

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
Stephen F Omondi, George O Ongamo, James I Kanya DKP. "Genetic consequences of anthropogenic disturbances and population fragmentation in Acacia senegal." Conservation genetics. 2016;17(6):1235-1244.
Stephen F Omondi, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New Forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
Stephen F Omondi, Ongamo GO, Khasa DP. "Mating patterns of the gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal synonym Senegalia senegal) in two different habitats." New forests. 2018;49(1):53-65.
Stephen Gichuhi, Rose Bosire DM-N, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Farquhar C, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart. "Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009 ; 16(6): 337–345. doi:10.3109/09286580903144746. 2009. Abstractrisk_factors_for_neonatal_conjunctivitis_in_babies_of_hiv-1.pdf

Abstract
Purpose—To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born
to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers.
Methods—This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1
seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after
delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth.
Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida)
were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections
diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular
prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine
cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status.
Results—Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal
conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR)
and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis
(adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91,
95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95%
CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis.
Conclusions—Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal
conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a
need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis,
birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of
neonatal conjunctivitis in this population.

Stephen Juma Ndombi, Xu Jia-yu QT. "Epidemiology and control of lymphatic filariasis in Kwale district, Kenya: A review." Chinese Journal of Parasitology. 1994;14:133-138.
Stephen Kainga, Margaret Chege MWSK. "Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus attending Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. Nairobi; 2012.
and Stephen Karekezi, Bereket Kebede JKNO. "Bridging Research and Policy: Influencing Policy in the African Energy Sector." GDN Research Monitor. 2006;1(1):12-14. AbstractWebsite

In this study, AFREPREN/FWD examined the research- policy link in the energy sectors of five Eastern and Southern Africa countries - Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The study focused on the preparation of the national energy policy documents in the five countries with the central objective of assessing the impact of research on energy policy and proposing options for enhancing its impact.
The study identified researches that had significantly influenced policy, specifically, the national energy policy
documents. Thereafter, the characteristics of influential research were examined to establish the critical features that made them potent in influencing policy.

and Stephen Karekezi, John Kimani BBNOKM. Energy Technology Policy and the Domestication of Renewable Energy Technologies in Africa". Nairobi: AFREPREN/FWD; 2009. AbstractWebsite

It is now widely recognized that the availability of affordable and reliable energy services is key to unlocking the economic growth potential especially in the African sub-region. However, the energy sector remains one of the key challenging areas in Africa, largely lacking in necessary infrastructural investment. The sector is characterized by lack of access to modern energy services (especially in rural areas), poor infrastructure, lack of expertise, low purchasing power, limited investments, lack of local manufacturing capacity and over-dependence on the traditional biomass to meet basic energy needs.

In most parts of Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), energy has been supplied in insufficient quantity, at a cost, form and quality that has limited its consumption by the majority of Africa’s population, making the continent the lowest per capita consumer averaging about 0.66 toe. Only 25% of SSA’s population has access to electricity and electrification is as low as 5% in some countries while per capita electricity consumption is below 50kWh in parts of the region (World Bank 2007).

The entire generation capacity of the 47 countries of SSA (excluding South Africa) is mere 28 GW (equal to that of Argentina). Capacity utilization and availability is poor, typically in the range of 30% - 40% of the installed capacities. Consequently, supplies are erratic and intermittent, with attendant frequent power cuts, load shedding and at-times outright grid collapses. An increasingly common response to the crisis has been short-term leases for emergency power generation by a handful of global operators. Though this capacity can be put in place within a few weeks, it is expensive. The costs of small-scale diesel units, for example, are typically about US$0.35/kWh. In eastern and western Africa, about one-third of installed capacity is diesel-based generators (IMF, 2008).

Over the past four decades, the gap between energy supply and demand in Africa has actually widened. Unless drastic interventions are made, recent trends indicate that this gap continues to grow, and the majority in Africa will continue to lack access to basic energy services and consequently will have limited chances of realizing any meaningful social and economic development. One form of intervention would be to promote renewable energy development.

The World Bank estimates that about USD 11 billion would be required annually for Africa to achieve 100% electrification by 2030. The IEA estimates that the African power sector infrastructure requires a cumulative investment of USD 485 billion to 2030. Most African countries have largely failed to attract investment in the power sector despite sectoral reforms which attempt to attract private investment. For example, total external capital flows to the power sector in SSA amount to no more than 0.1% of the region’s GDP (IMF, 2008).

Africa continues to face these energy problems despite the fact that the region has significant conventional and renewable energy potential. Renewable energy technologies (RETs) have especially the potential to play a key role in addressing many of the challenges in the energy sector including improving energy security, saving on foreign exchange outflows, availing decentralised energy to remote areas and promoting rural economic >development. Despite these apparent benefits, existing policies and regulatory frameworks have provided little resources to stimulate market growth. Except for hydropower and wind energy, most RETs in Africa are still in transition and therefore demand continuing research, development and demonstration efforts.

There is growing consensus among policy makers that efforts to deploy renewables in Africa have fallen short of expectations; renewables have not attracted the requisite level of investment or policy commitment they deserve. Needless to say, marginal successes have been attained by some countries. Past studies in Africa have identified number of barriers to renewable energy deployment which can generally be summarized into the following:

Lack of a level playing field for renewable energy technologies (due to continued subsidies for conventional technologies; externalities are not internalised in energy/fuel prices and unduly disadvantaging RETs; and poor feed-in tariffs offered for renewable electricity generation discourages investment)

Insufficient incentives for governments and private companies to support renewable energy development

Lack of affordable financing and access to finance for renewable energy technologies (Financial institutions are hesitant to finance RET projects)

Technology standards are lacking for renewable energy technologies

Energy markets are not prepared for renewable energy (difficulties in integration of intermittent energy sources; grid connection and access is not fairly provided)

Renewable energy skills and awareness is insufficient (lack of knowledge and acceptance of RETs; lack of training and education).

In order to overcome the above barriers a number of innovative renewable energy technology programmes have been established. For example, the Cogen for Africa project – an innovative and first-of-its-kind regional initiative was recently launched by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and UNEP/GEF and executed by AFREPREN/FWD. This initiative seeks to significantly scale up the use of efficient cogeneration technology options in seven eastern and southern African countries, namely: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Swaziland and Sudan.

The Cogen for Africa project will build on the success of cogeneration in Mauritius and plans to replicate this technological success in other countries of the region as well as in other key agro-processing sectors found in eastern and southern Africa. The initiative will also take on board relevant elements of the European Commission- supported regional cogeneration programme in south-east Asia, which has been successful in promoting numerous efficient cogeneration installations.

Another notable cogeneration initiative is the Eskom South Africa Cogeneration programme, which was launched in 2007 with a Call for Expression of Interest (EOI) in developing cogeneration. The original target was 900 MW. The call included a standard PPA, and a feed-in tariff to be based on avoided cost of thermal power units. The call received an overwhelming response, with 5000MW worth of EOIs received by end of September 2007 – which is approx. 10% of South Africa’s current installed capacity. A significant portion of the EOIs were from sugar and agro-industries. The South African Government and Eskom were so impressed by the response that a second phase of the cogeneration bids is planned with the aim of mobilizing investment totalling 5000MW [Karekezi, et al, 2007].

The important role to be played by the aforementioned cogeneration initiatives is underscored by the fact that, with regard to renewable energy investment, Africa is doing poorly when compared to other developing countries. However, there is promising large-scale solar development in North Africa and signs of change in South Africa, where targets for renewable energy have been set and the country’s first wind farm commissioned. Development of renewable energy continues to focus on North and South Africa, with the vast mass of SSA largely unexploited. Overall, investment volumes remain very low.

For most of Sub-Saharan Africa, small hydro holds a most near term potential in Africa with several mini-hydro projects in planning stages. There are also many opportunities for medium to largescale biomass-based cogeneration within the agro-industries. With regard to geothermal, Kenya is likely to see some investment in the expansion of its geothermal resources, e.g. the 60 MW Olkaria phase IV project already has secured funding from the Kenyan Government and KfW, but is still at the planning stage (UNEP, 2007).

Based on development plans tabled to date, significant investment in renewables is likely to occur in South Africa from a variety of technologies including cogeneration, wind, tidal, and solar energy. As Africa’s largest economy, South Africa has significant technological and financial capacity to implement large scale RETs development. Furthermore, by having a proactive utility - Eskom - South Africa is poised to become the region’s renewable energy investment hub in the short to medium term.

RETs development in North Africa is mainly centred on Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt, particularly in solar and wind energy. By the end of 2007, Egypt had a cumulative wind installed capacity of 310 MW, while Morocco had 124 MW (El-Khayati, 2008). North Africa is also attracting interest from large-scale solar developers, especially in Tunisia. In Algeria, there are also plans to build a 25 MW parabolic trough solar energy plant as well as a 130 MW combined cycle gas power plant (UNEP 2008).

It is particularly important to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature and ensure that local expertise is available to handle the technology. In addition, it makes economic sense to piggyback RETs development on existing industries, institutions and technology developers. A number of demonstration programmes featuring RETs which are not yet mature have failed as outstanding design features hinder the technology’s full deployment. Examples include gasification trials in various African countries. Other technologies are still economically unattractive and still need to several years of learning experience before they are disseminated in large numbers. It is also critical that technology selection takes into account the capabilities of a country in terms of expertise to implement, operate and maintain. Africa has relied for too long on external technical expertise and this is demonstrated by the numerous disused small hydro plants in the region, many of them set up in the pre-independence era.

Investments in RETs need to take into account some key practical aspects which can contribute the effective deployment of the/domestication of renewable energy technologies. Especially important is the need to deploy technologies that are technologically and economically mature, cost competitive, can be operated and maintained by local expertise, and has potential for piggybacking on existing industries, institutions and technology developers.

Specific skills and institutional capacity are required for implementing, operating, modifying, adapting and continuously improving RETs in order to establish national systems of energy technological innovation. Both productive and innovative skills are required to scale-up RETs application in Africa. Many of these skills can be acquired in a technology incubator, which is also useful for commercialization of technologies. Policies that are required to domestic RETs include fostering technology transfer and also build human resource base with specialised skills and expertise. They also include policies that promote and strengthen domestic knowledge base, stimulate learning and innovation and the support structures to sustain these processes.

From projects implemented in various countries in Africa and elsewhere, several factors have been found to be central to the adaptation of RETs. They include educational drive to create awareness and impact, promotion of the utilisation of local raw materials, training of personnel on requisite techniques for equipment operation and maintenance and the emergence of private sector participation. A high political commitment and engaged local NGOs that support such initiatives are also key success factors in the adaptation of the technologies to local conditions.

This report concludes that appropriate energy technological has been recognised as the key driving force in economic development. The acquisition and progressive mastering of technologies has also been a central aspect of Newly Industrialised Countries, mainly in the East, that have grown so rapidly over the last half-century. However, Africa is presently faced with inadequate capacity to independently generate technological knowledge; undertake R&D, and modernize technology used in the industries. Nevertheless, technologies such as renewable energy can be promoted by having specific and targeted technology policies/strategies.These policies can be subdivided into two: Policies for the establishment of an enabling environment; and, Strategies for domestication of RETs.

In order to promote renewables for electricity supply, it is imperative that enabling policies are in place first.The aim of such policies would be to enhance investor confidence as well as ensure that renewable energy projects are sustainable in the long-term.These policies would serve as the foundation on which an energy technology policy would be based on, and they include:

1.Setting of national renewable energy targets

2.Feed-in tariffs for renewables

3.Standard PPAs for renewable energy technologies

Having established an enabling environment for promoting renewables, an energy policy could serve to provide guidelines to investors on various aspects of mature and priority technologies. More importantly, such an energy policy would guide the region towards domestication of renewable energy technologies. The key strategies for the successful domestication of renewables include:

Piggyback on existing industries
Promote mature technology
Capacity building in relevant technical skills
Identify and promote “local champions”

Stephen M Mureithi, Ann Verdoodt CKKGJNVWSDNEMEVRTO. "Impact of enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya." Journal of Arid Land. 2014. Abstract
n/a
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "A preliminary report of the contemporary ceramic industry of Babukusu.". In: In the Petrological investigations of Prehistoric pottery in Kenya. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "Material culture.". In: Micro- and Macro-level interactions Among Babukusu in Bungoma District. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "The dead people of Njoro.". In: Reappraisal of Hromniks's Articles. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
Steven Awino, Afullo A. "Analytic BER of OFDM Powerline Communication at different IAT of Impulsive Noise.". In: SAUPEC. StellenBosch, South Africa; 2017.
Stevens KA, Paruk F, Bachani AM, Wesson HHK, Wekesa JM, Mburu J, Mwangi JM, Saidi H, Hyder AA. "Establishing hospital-based trauma registry systems: lessons from Kenya." Injury. 2013;44 Suppl 4:S70-4. Abstract

In the developing world, data about the burden of injury, injury outcomes, and complications of care are limited. Hospital-based trauma registries are a data source that can help define this burden. Under the trauma care component of the Bloomberg Global Road Safety Partnership, trauma registries have been implemented at three sites in Kenya. We describe the challenges and lessons learned from this effort.

Steyn P, Cordero J, P G, Smit J, Nkole T, Kiarie J, Temmerman M. "Participatory interventions involving both community and health care providers for family planning and contraceptive services: a scoping." The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care . 2016;21(Supplement 1):97.
Stigter CJ;, Coulson CL;, Mungai DN;, Kainkwa RMR;, El-Tayeb A;, Ibrahim MAA;, Mpelasoka FS;, Abdulai BI. "Some examples of quantification in tropical agrometeorology for low-resource agriculture in Africa: instruments and on-farm research conditions .". 1989.Website
Stigter CJ, den Van B, Daane JRV, Adam HS, Mohammed AE, Ng'ang'a JK, Mungai DN. "The “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison.". 1998. AbstractThe “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison

What distinguishes the “Picnic” model for research training at African universities from more classical models is reviewed and it is shown how the “Picnic” model deals with remaining drawbacks from the now popular “Sandwich” model. Starting with managerial experiences, criteria guiding this evaluation are used as sub-headings: realistic planning; adequate resource provision; partnership instead of aid; long term impact; high quality supervision; quality and quantity of student input; open and interactive communication; willingness to adapt to local circumstances; ongoing critical reflection; gradual expatriate withdrawal. The training output of the “Picnic” model tests in the four TTMI-countries is assessed after the actual and prospective jobs of its former students. The on-farm quantification of protecting systems/structures led in many TTMI PhD-research cases to improved design criteria for such systems/structures, with direct increases of yield or its preservation. In comparison with the “Sandwich” model, the “Picnic” model particularly incorporates institutional strengthening in the aim that the southern countries will become able to provide adequate education at the postgraduate level, teaching their students how to apply knowledge in their own environment. Degrees obtained at southern universities, therefore, have distinct advantages but joint responsibilities of universities for such degrees are difficult to organize, given the presently existing modes of output-related financing of Dutch universities. In a situation of institutional deterioration, such as Africa is experiencing, the best hope probably lies in strengthening networks of individuals and a collective sense of academic commitment, pending the revival of universities themselves. Emergency research related to the protection of the African agricultural environment by African universities, training NARS staff, must in the long run contribute to restoring an agricultural basis for part of the economies of the many poor African countries. Knowledge developed locally remains the most powerful vehicle for change from within.

Stites DP, Caldwell J, Carr MC, Fudenberg HH. "Ontogeny of immunity in humans." Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol.. 1975;4(4):519-27.
Stokx J, Dochez C, Ochieng P, Bahl J, Were F. "Evaluation of a Training DVD on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine for Kenyan EPI Healthcare Workers." Education for Health. 2016;29(1). Abstractevaluation_of_a_training_dvd_on_pneumococcal_conjugate_vaccine_for_kenyan_epi_healthcare_workers.pdf

Background: The Kenyan Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation was the first in Africa to introduce the new 10‑valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, PCV‑10, in 2011. For successful implementation and to avoid adverse events following immunisation, specific training on handling and storage of the PCV‑10 vaccine was required. Therefore, a training DVD was recorded in English and partly in Kiswahili to be used in combination with in‑classroom training. Since the Kenyan Immunisation Programme was the first to use a DVD for training healthcare workers, an evaluation was done to obtain feedback on content, format and use, and propose suggestions to improve quality and uptake of the DVD. Methods: Feedback was obtained from nurses and vaccinology course participants through the completion of a questionnaire. Nurses also participated in focus group discussions and trainers in key informant interviews. Results: Twelve trainers, 72 nurses and 26 international vaccinology course participants provided feedback, with so e notable differences between the three study groups. The survey results confirmed the acceptability of the content and format, and the feasibility of using the DVD in combination with in‑classroom teaching. To improve the quality and adoption of the DVD, key suggestions were: Inclusion of all EPI vaccines and other important health issues; broad geographic distribution of the DVD; and bilingual English/Kiswahili use of languages or subtitles. Discussion: The Kenyan DVD is appreciated by a heterogeneous and international audience rendering the DVD suitable for other Anglophone African countries. Differences between feedback from nurses and vaccinology course participants can be explained by the practical approach of the DVD and the higher education and service level of the latter. A drawback is the use of DVD players and televisions due to lack of electricity, but it is a matter of time before all rural health facilities in Africa will have access to electricity and modern technology.

Stolberg HO, Norman G, Trop I. "Randomized {Controlled} {Trials}." American Journal of Roentgenology. 2004;183:1539-1544. AbstractWebsite
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Stomeo F;, Wamalwa, M;,, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A;. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa M;, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Stone DM, Wessel T, Joh TH, Baker H. "Decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase, but not aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, messenger {RNA} in rat olfactory bulb following neonatal, unilateral odor deprivation." Molecular Brain Research. 1990;8:291-300. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral naris cauterization in rats results in occlusion of the affected naris and blockade of odorant access to ipsilateral olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory. These receptor cells project exclusively to the olfactory bubl (OB) and appear to regulate expression of the dopaminergic phenotype in a population of OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Unilateral odor deprivation results in a loss of normal stimulatory input to the OB and a marked and specific decrease in ipsilateral OB tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression. The expression of co-localized aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is not similarly affected. We have used this procedure in neonatal rats to examine the effect of stimulation deprivation on OB TH and AADC mRNA levels. Both Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed a pronounced decrease in ipsilateral as compared to contralateral OB TH mRNA levels 40 days after naris closure. In contrast, the levels of OB AADC mRNA were unaltered by naris closure. By in situ hybridization histochemistry, both TH and AADC mRNAs were localized to OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Odor deprivation was associated with an apparent region-specific reduction in TH mRNA within the ipsilateral OB glomerular layer. By densitometric analysis, the loss of TH-specific message was quantitatively consistent with the decrease in TH activity, suggesting that the observed plasticity of OB dopaminergic neurons following functional deafferentiation can be attributed to a selective, transneuronally-mediated down regulation of TH gene transcription.

Stoof KR, Junginger A, Olaka LA, Tiedemann R, Trauth MH. "Natural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record over the last two centuries." Journal of Paleolimnology. 2011;45:353-367.
Stoof-Leichsenring KR, Junginger A, Olaka LA, Tiedemann R, Trauth MH. "Natural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record over the last two centuries.". 2012. AbstractNatural environmental variability and anthropogenic overprint in the Lake Naivasha Basin Central Kenya Rift: A diatom record ove

Lake Naivasha, Kenya, is one of a number of freshwater lakes in the East African Rift System. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, it has experienced greater anthropogenic influence as a result of increasingly intensive farming of coffee, tea, flowers, and other horticultural crops within its catchment. The water-level history of Lake Naivasha over the past 200years was derived from a combination of instrumental records and sediment data. In this study, we analysed diatoms in a lake sediment core to infer past lacustrine conductivity and total phosphorus concentrations. We also measured total nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the sediments. Core chronology was established by 210Pb dating and covered a ~186-year history of natural (climatic) and human-induced environmental changes. Three stratigraphic zones in the core were identified using diatom assemblages. There was a change from littoral/epiphytic diatoms such as Gomphonema gracile and Cymbella muelleri, which occurred during a prolonged dry period from ca. 1820 to 1896 AD, through a transition period, to the present planktonic Aulacoseira sp. that favors nutrient-rich waters. This marked change in the diatom assemblage was caused by climate change, and later a strong anthropogenic overprint on the lake system. Increases in sediment accumulation rates since 1928, from 0.01 to 0.08gcm−2year−1 correlate with an increase in diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations since the beginning of the twentieth century. The increase in phosphorus accumulation suggests increasing eutrophication of freshwater Lake Naivasha. This study identified two major periods in the lake’s history: (1) the period from 1820 to 1950 AD, during which the lake was affected mainly by natural climate variations, and (2) the period since 1950, during which the effects of anthropogenic activity overprinted those of natural climate variation.

Storz JF. "Hemoglobin function and physiological adaptation to hypoxia in high-altitude mammals." Journal of Mammalogy. 2007;88:24-31. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Understanding the biochemical mechanisms that enable high-altitude animals to survive and function under conditions of hypoxic stress can provide important insights into the nature of physiological adaptation. Evidence from a number of high-altitude vertebrates indicates that modifications of hemoglobin function typically play a key role in mediating an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia. Because much is known about structure–function relationships of mammalian hemoglobins and their physiological role in oxygen transport, the study of hemoglobin variation in high-altitude mammals holds much promise for understanding the nature of adaptation to hypoxia from the level of blood biochemistry to the level of whole-organism physiology. In this review I 1st discuss basic biochemical principles of hemoglobin function and the nature of physiological adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in mammals. I then discuss a case study involving a complex hemoglobin polymorphism in North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that illustrates how integrative studies of protein function and fitness-related physiological performance can be used to obtain evolutionary insights into genetic mechanisms of adaptation.

Stoute JA, Aluoch JR, Gondi SMO, Odera MM, Estambale BBA, Otieno W. "Sickle Cell Trait (HbAS) is Associated with Increased Expression of Erythrocyte Complement Regulatory Proteins CR1 and CD55 Levels in Children.". 2013. Abstractbenson_b._a._estambale.pdfAbstractAbstract

Erythrocyte complement regulatory proteins, complement receptor 1 (CR1) and decay accelerating factor (CD55) protect red blood cells (RBCs) from complement mediated damage by controlling complement activation cascade and potentially protect RBCs from complement mediated damage that may occur when immune complexes are formed following malaria infection. Given the important role of RBCs in regulation of complement activation, we considered the competence of sickle cell trait RBCs in these functions. Methods: Children (age 0-192 months; n=116) were enrolled in a nested case controlled study conducted in Kombewa Division, Kisumu west District between October and December 2004. Based on hemoglobin (Hb) type, children were stratified into those with HbAS (n=47) and HbAA (n=69). The 47 HbAS individuals were matched to the 69 HbAA individuals of similar age (± 2 months or ± 24 months for those below or more than 192 months, respectively) at a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2. Circulating CR1 levels and CD levels were quantified using a FACScan cytometer under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Results: The mean CR1 copy numbers per RBC was comparable in the two groups. However, between the ages of 49-192 months, the mean CR1 copy numbers per erythrocyte was significantly higher in children who had HbAS compared to those with HbAA (P=0.0332). The mean CD55 levels were comparable between the two groups but after deoxygenation, the mean CD levels in RBCs of individuals with HbAS was significantly higher than in the HbAA (P=0.011). Conclusion: The mean CR1 and CD55 copy numbers per RBC were comparable between the two groups under normal and reduced oxygen saturation. Beyond the age of 49 months, the CR1 copy numbers was higher in the HbAS compared to HbAA and this was also true for CD55 levels under deoxygenated conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in the younger age groups, the protection afforded by HbAS against severe manifestations of malaria may be due to other factors other than complement regulatory proteins but beyond the age of 49 months, this protection may be partly due to the high CR1 copy numbers in the HbAS individuals.

Stover J, Achia T, Mohamed BF, Oyugi FJO, Mutua GN, Anzala O. "What impact would an HIV/AIDS vaccine have on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kenya?". 2012. Abstract

To estimate the potential impact of an HIV/AIDS Vaccine in Kenya. Design: The Kenyan HIV/AIDS epidemic was modeled using the most current data from national sources including epidemiology and behavioral surveillance. The model’s baseline projection was validated against adult HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics and ge- neral population surveys. The model was used to analyze the effects of scaling up current pre- vention programs and adding potential HIV vac- cines with varying levels of effectiveness and coverage. Results: Even with full scale-up of currently available prevention, care and treat- ment programs, new infections will continue to burden Kenya. The introduction of a partially ef- fective AIDS vaccine could significantly alter the trajectory of the epidemic. Conclusion: The game changing impact that an AIDS vaccine could have on the AIDS epidemic in Kenya under- scores the importance of sustaining political support and financial investment to accelerate HIV/AIDS vaccine research and development.

Stover J, Achia T, Mohamed BF, Oyugi FJO, Mutua GN, Anzala O. "What impact would an HIV/AIDS vaccine have on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kenya?". 2012. Abstract

To estimate the potential impact of an HIV/AIDS Vaccine in Kenya. Design: The Kenyan HIV/AIDS epidemic was modeled using the most current data from national sources including epidemiology and behavioral surveillance. The model’s baseline projection was validated against adult HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics and ge- neral population surveys. The model was used to analyze the effects of scaling up current pre- vention programs and adding potential HIV vac- cines with varying levels of effectiveness and coverage. Results: Even with full scale-up of currently available prevention, care and treat- ment programs, new infections will continue to burden Kenya. The introduction of a partially ef- fective AIDS vaccine could significantly alter the trajectory of the epidemic. Conclusion: The game changing impact that an AIDS vaccine could have on the AIDS epidemic in Kenya under- scores the importance of sustaining political support and financial investment to accelerate HIV/AIDS vaccine research and development.

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