Bio

PDF Upload: 

Publications


2017

  2017.  Genetics in retinoblastoma; Challenges in Kenya , 28 April 2017. Kenya paediatric Association. , Kisumugenetics_in_retinoblastoma.kpa_._njambi..pdf

2016

  2016.  Knowledge, attitude and practice among students attending public high schools in Nairobi County. joecsa- journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern central & southern africa. 20(1):33-39.kap_on_re_in_highschool_students.pdf

2015

  2015.  Solitary retinocytoma in a seven year old boy. joecsa- journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern central & southern africa. 19(2):88-90.solitary_retinocytoma-_joecsa_-_2015.pdf
  2015.  When to operate in strabismus, 25th August 2015. ollege of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa (COECSA. , Naivasha,Kenyawhen_to_operate_in_strabismus-_njambi-_coecsa_2015.pdf
  2015.   The blind and low vision child, 25th August 2015. ollege of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa (COECSA. , Naivasha,Kenyathe_blind_child-_njambi-_coecsa_-2015.pdf

2014

L, N.  2014.  Retinoblastoma: Promoting early diagnosis, 28 November 2014. 5th Kenya Ophthalmic Nurses Conference. , Jumuia Hotel,Nakuru, Kenyanjambi_l.retinoblastoma_promoting_early_diagnosis.pdf

2013

L, N, K K, Gallie B, Chan H, Dimaras H.  2013.  Kenya National Retinoblastoma Strategy: A model for developing countries, 5 November 2013. Canadian Cancer and Research Conference. , sheraton Hotel, Toronto, Canadanjambi_et_al_kenya_retinoblastoma_strategy-_a_model_for_developing_countries.pdf

2012

Njambi, L.  2012.  Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and barriers to uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening at Embu Provincial General Hospital, Central Kenya. East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 16(1):5-11. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The risk of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) to sight can be greatly reduced by good blood glucose
and blood pressure control, effective screening and laser treatment. Diabetic retinopathy remains
asymptomatic in its early stages. Substantial barriers to screening and achieving regular eye examinations
for people with diabetes include the belief that ‘nothing is wrong with my eyes’, not being told of the need
for eye examinations and being too busy.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, to describe the relationship between
diabetic retinopathy and the various risk factors and to identify the barriers to uptake of screening for
diabetic retinopathy in diabetic patients at Embu Provincial General Hospital, Central Kenya.
Study design: Cross sectional hospital based survey.
Subjects: Two hundred and fifty three type II Diabetics and type I diabetic patients aged twelve years and
above attending the diabetic clinic.
Results: The overall prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) was 41%. Moderate Non Proliferative Diabetic
Retinopathy (NPDR) was the most prevalent grade of DR (20%). Vision threatening DR (Proliferative
Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) and macular oedema) was found in 21 (8.3%) patients. Most of the patients
(74%) had hypertension. Duration of diabetes and systolic blood pressure had a significant association
with DR (p< 0.05). Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), mode of treatment and age were not significant. Only 29%
of the patients had prior eye examination, with majority (84%) citing lack of awareness as the main
hindrance.
Conclusion: The prevalence of DR was high. Most of the patients had not had prior eye examination and
were not aware of the need or the importance of the eye examination.
Recommendation: Reinforce the existing screening programmes through education and promotion and
provision of laser treatment for blinding diabetic retinopathy.

2009

Njambi, L, Kariuki M, S M.  2009.  Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 15(1):21-26. Abstract

Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: Cross sectional hospital based.
Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.
Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.
Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.
Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.

2008

Njeri, LN.  2008.  Ocular findings in children attending occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. Abstract

There is a high prevalence of ocular abnormalities in children with physical and mental
disabilities which are often overlooked due to the difficulties encountered while
examining them.
OBJECTIVES
To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical
disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational
therapy clinic at KNH.
STUDY DESIGN
Cross sectional hospital based study at the Occupational therapy clinic in KNH.A
hundred and eighty seven children were examined." from both the general paediatric unit
and the sensory integration unit.
RESULTS
A total of 187 children were examined, males were 109(58%) and females were 78(42%).
The mean age was 2.56 years. The youngest child was 0.25 years and the oldest patient
being 13 years with a range of 12.75 years .. The majority of the children were between
one and two years, representing 45.5% of the whole group. Majority of the patients had
cerebral palsy, 160(85.6%), while ADHD and autism had almost equal proportions,
20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Only one child had learning disability, which
represented 0.5%. Some patients had multiple diagnoses. Among the children, 62% had
ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to
the sensory integration deficit group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included
cortical visual impairment 48.7%, refractive errors 39% and squints 34.2%. Other less
frequent findings included strabismic amblopia13.4%, nystagmus 12.8%, and optic
atrophy 5.3%. Corneal scars, cataracts, maculopathy and eyelid anomalies comprised of
small proportion (5%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was
noted in patients with cerebral palsy compared with sensory integration group.
Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients
with cerebral palsy. Significant hyperopia was noted only in the cerebral palsy group.

There was no significant association noted between amblyopia, nystagmus and optic
atrophy and either of the physical disability. Some of the known risk factors for the
physical disabilities were observed to have an association with the ocular anomalies.
Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with
neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic
atrophy in patients with meningitis. No significant association was noted between
nystagmus, and amblyopia and any of the risk factors. Co-morbid conditions associated
with the physical conditions included speech (29.9%), epilepsy (18.7%), mental
retardation (MR) 8%, dental problems 8%, hearing loss 6.4% and breathing difficulties
4.3%.
CONCLUSION .•
Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual
impairment, refractive errors, squint and amblyopia, were seen in a large proportion of
these children. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the sensory
integration deficit group.
RECOMMENDATION
All Children with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits should be referred to
ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment as part of a broad
multidisciplinary approach to their management. The occupational, speech and hearing
therapists should work closely with the low vision specialists in co-ordinating the
physical and ocular rehabilitation. Low vision unit should be started at KNH and
specialist should be trained to provide the much needed services to these children. Follow
up of the patients for evaluation of long term outcome of the visual interventions to be
offered with the aim of improving the quality of treatment options.

UoN Websites Search