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2019
Kehinde M, Barasa L. "Absorptive capacity, marketing capabilities and innovation commercialization in Nigeria." European Journal of Innovation Management. 2019;22(5):790-821.
HM M. "Academic Processes of postgraduate studies; from admission to graduation." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
Ismail LW, ZP Q, SB O. "The acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving post abortion care." South Sudan Medical Journal. 2019;12(3):101-105. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: In South Sudan few women have heard about the HIV. The prevalence of HIV infection in the country is 2.6%. Post abortion care (PAC) accounts for over 50% of all gynaecological admissions at the Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH). HIV testing is not routinely offered as part of PAC services.

Objective: To determine factors associated with acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving PAC at JTH.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted at the Gynaecological Unit of JTH. Three hundred and forty patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 24.7 years with 50.5% aged <25years, 31.5% were employed, and 31.8% had no formal education. Acceptability of HIV testing was 70.9% and the prevalence of HIV was 2.7%. The most common reason for not accepting, was the belief, based on previous results, that they were HIV negative. Patients aged ≥25 years and those with primary and secondary education were twice as likely to accept HIV testing than those <25 years and those with no formal education, respectively. Employment status, religion and marital status were not statistically associated with acceptability of HIV testing. Patients previously tested for HIV were more likely to accept testing.

Conclusion: Routine HIV testing should be integrated into PAC services with efforts to increase awareness of HIV and importance of testing

Key words: HIV, abortion, post-abortion care, South Sudan

"Access to Justice for Intra Familial Child Sexual Abuse Victims in Kenya: A Mirage?”." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research . 2019;4(7):4997.
Mbwika JM, wa Mberia K, Oduor JAN. "Adaptation Strategies in Rabai Loanwords." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS). 2019;46(ISSN 2466- 1821.).
Awori M, Mehta N, Kebba N, Makori. E. "Adding Blood to St Thomas Solution Does Not Improve Mortality in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery; A Meta-analysis of a Homogenous Population." Annals of African Surgery. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Background: Cardioplegia is the gold standard for providing ideal operating conditions while effecting myocardial protection. Some studies suggest that adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution improves efficacy; this is generally accepted as true. However, the few meta-analyses conducted on children have pooled heterogeneous populations; this raises concern about the validity of their conclusions. Methods: PUBMED, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched systematically until March 2019 using the search terms “cardioplegia”; “myocardial protection”; “pediatric” “pediatric”; “children”; “infants”; “neonates”. Full text articles were examined if abstracts revealed that the studies possibly contained a blood cardioplegia arm and a crystalloid cardioplegia arm. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they had a 4:1 blood cardioplegia arm and a St Thomas solution arm. Meta-analysis was performed using Meta-Mar software. Results: The search retrieved 423 articles; 5 were included in the meta-analysis, representing 324 patients. The risk ratio for operative mortality was 0.77(95% CI 0.24–2.5; p=0.66). Little evidence was seen of heterogeneity of the pooled patients. Conclusion: Adding blood to St Thomas cardioplegia solution did not improve in-hospital operative mortality; this may have implications for blood cardioplegia use.

Gathumbi JK, Kimani, J.M., Mutisya P, Kombe, Yeri, Wamunyokoli, Fred W, Mbakaya, Charles FL. "The Additive Effect of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 to Liver Disease Burden: A Case Study in Kitui, Makueni and Machakos Counties, Kenya." Journal of Health and Medical Sciences. 2019;2(3):312-331.
Kong'ani LNS, Ang'u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu County, Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019; 1(1):19-24.
Kong’ani LNS, Ang’u C, Muthama NJ. "Adoption of improved cookstoves in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi: Case of Magina area, Kiambu county, Kenya. ." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):19-20.
Mwaniki JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions and Wastewater using Water Hyacinth Powder ." International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) . 2019;4(1):1-5.
Mwaniki JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions and Wastewater using Water Hyacinth Powder." Adsorption. 2019;4(1). AbstractAdsorption Journal

ABSTRACT
The adsorption of heavy metals on water hyacinth powder from both
wastewater and aqueous solution was studied using batch experiments. The
adsorption efficiency of water hyacinth powder was evaluated in this study.
The levels of heavy metals in wastewater were in the range of: 1.2-75.3 ppm
for lead, 0.4-87.6 ppm for chromium, 0.1-63.5 ppm for nickel, 0.5-95.5 ppm for
zinc and 0.8-52.7 ppm for cadmium. The levels of zinc, lead and cadmium were
above the limits set by the write NEMA in full then bracket (NEMA) for
discharge into the environment (0.01 ppm for cadmium and lead, 0.5 ppm for
zinc). The adsorption efficiency of hyacinth powder was higher in aqueous
solution than in wastewater while at low metal concentrations (0.1-3.2 ppm),
the adsorption efficiency of water hyacinth powder was 100% in both
wastewater and aqueous solution. The study showed that water hyacinth
powder is a low cost adsorbent which could be used to remove heavy metals
from wastewater and aqueous solution.

Opanga L, Mulaku MN, Opanga SA, Godman B, Kurdi A. "Adverse effects of chemotherapy and their management in Pediatric patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Kenya: A descriptive, situation analysis study." Expert Review of anticancer therapy. 2019;19(5):423-430.
Makunda CS. "African Development and Management: 6A - Development in Nairobi: Three Into One Does Not Go!". In: Intrinsic Capability: Implementing Intrinsic Sustainable Development for an Ecological Civilisation. London: World Scientific; 2019.
Park J, Michira JN, Yun SY. "African hip hop as a rhizomic art form articulating urban youth identity and resistance with reference to Kenyan genge and Ghanaian hiplife." Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa. 2019;Vol. 16(No. 1-2):99-118.
Amugune BK, Otieno-Omutoko L. "An African Perspective of Benefits in Social Science Research.". In: Social Science Research Ethics in Africa.Research Ethics Forum, vol 7. Nortjé N., Visagie R., Wessels J. (eds). Cham : Springer; 2019.
OLUOCH M F. "Age And Effective Human Resource Management." European Scientific Journal. 2019;15(34):ISSN: 1857-7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857-7431.
DN Kareithi, Salifu D, N Owuor, Subramanian S, Tonnang EZH. "An algorithm for data reconstruction from published articles–Application on insect life tables." Cogent Mathematics & Statistics. 2019;6(1):1701377. AbstractWebsite

Data collection in life table experiments is generally time-consuming and costly such that data reconstruction of published information provides an avenue to access the original data for purposes of further investigation. In this paper, we present an algorithm that reconstructs life table raw data using a summary of results from published articles. We present the steps of the development and implementation (in the R computer language) of the algorithm, its scope of application, assumptions, and limitations. Statistical background of the algorithm is also presented. The developed algorithm was then applied to reconstruction of life table data of two insect species, Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca, from published information. Welch’s two-sample t-test was applied to test the difference between the original and reconstructed data of the insect life stages. C. Partellus results were not significantly different, but, for B. fusca, pupa development time, and larva and pupa development rate were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. It is concluded that the algorithm could be used to reconstruct original data sets from cohort life table data sets of insects, given published information and sample sizes.

Alionja Asali na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2019.
Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Ondiek MA, Moturi CA. "An An assessment of the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya." Innovation & Management Review. 2019;16(4):391-403. Abstract10-1108_inmr-08-2018-0058.pdf

Purpose – There has been a high rate of failure among the Living Labs in Kenya resulting in the expected
outcomes not fully realized. This paper aims to assess the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on the four capital method of sustainable development evaluation framework, data were collected through interviews and questionnaires from innovators, users and employees among the 25 living labs in Kenya.
Findings – The research found that some innovators are not familiar with the living labs, the living labs are innovative and prepared to survive in future, some labs have strategic plans on how to pursue future environment and have developed ways of choosing right people to incubate, inability to get enough funding from the host organizations and limited knowledge on the supervision level of the operations. A model is proposed that can be generalized to other living labs in developing countries.
Research limitations/implications – The study was done in Nairobi where most of the living labs are situated.
Practical implications – The study concludes by emphasizing on the user involvement during innovation process. There is need to expand the capacities of living labs to accommodate more people to ensure more innovations are supported at a time. The senior managers in charge of the living labs should increase the level of supervision to ensure that the labs are effective in their incubation efforts and institutionalize support of the host organization to the labs to ensure continued growth and expansion.
Originality/value – The findings of this study are of value to research community, the decision and policymakers as it seeks to document the current status of the living labs in the Kenya
Keywords Sustainableinnovation,Livinglabs,Innovationecosystem,Innovationlab, Innovation space, User-driven innovation

KJ G, AM M, GO A’. "ANAEMIA AMONG BREASTFEEDING INFANTS (0-6 MONTHS) AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN A LOW INCOME URBAN SETTING OF KENYA." African Journal of Food , Agriculture,Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(2):14303-14319.
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, KK GC. "Analysis of Average Annual Rainfall and Average Maximum Annual Temperature for a Period of 30 years to Establish Trends in Kieni, Central." Journal of Climatol Weather Forecasting. 2019;7:249. Abstractwww.longdom.org

The aim of the study was to analyze average annual rainfall and average maximum annual temperature records for
30 years in the study area to establish trends hence confirm the presence or absence of climate change. The analysis
was accomplished with the use of MS Excel spreadsheets. The meteorological datasets were 1984-2013 records for
rainfall and 1981-2012 for temperature. The rainfall climatological standard normal was computed for a 25-year
period between 1989 and 2012 which was used to compute the average annual rainfall anomaly. The temperature
provisional normal was computed for a period of 10 years due to lack of adequate data. The average annual rainfall
anomaly for 1984-2013 periods was -8.8 mm an indication of a declining rainfall trend while the annual maximum
temperature for 1981-2012 period was 0.5°C a positive trend showing that the annual maximum temperatures
are rising in the study area. Therefore, the declining average annual rainfall accompanied with rising maximum
temperatures were indicators of the presence of climate change.

Keywords: Average annual rainfall; Average maximum temperature; Trends; Climatological standard normal;
Datasets; Climate change

Susan Gachau, Nelson Owuor, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, Ayieko P, English M. "Analysis of Hierarchical Routine Data With Covariate Missingness: Effects of Audit & Feedback on Clinicians' Prescribed Pediatric Pneumonia Care in Kenyan Hospitals." Frontiers in public health. 2019;7( ):198. AbstractWebsite

Background:
Routine clinical data are widely used in many countries to monitor quality of care. A limitation of routine data is missing information which occur due to lack of documentation of care processes by health care providers, poor record keeping or limited health care technology at facility level. Our objective was to address missing covariates while properly accounting for hierarchical structure in routine paediatric pneumonia care.
Methods:
We analysed routine data collected during a cluster randomized trial to investigating the effect of audit and feedback (A&F) over time on inpatient pneumonia care among children admitted in 12 Kenyan hospitals between March and November 2016. Six hospitals in the intervention arm received enhance A&F on classification and treatment of pneumonia cases in addition to a standard A&F report on general inpatient paediatric care. The remaining six in control arm received standard A&F alone. We derived and analysed a composite outcome known as Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (PAQC) score. In our analysis, we adjusted for patients, clinician and hospital level factors. Missing data occurred in patient and clinician level variables. We did multiple imputation of missing covariates within the joint model imputation framework. We fitted proportion odds random effects model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to the data before and after multilevel multiple imputation.

and I DKECM. "An Analysis of Internal Efficiency in Primary School Education in Western Equatoria State of South Sudan between 2009 and 2013." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 2019;9(1).
Olali T, Karani R. "Analyzing the Perspectives and Strategies in Localizing Software in Kiswahili." International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation. . 2019;5(1):15-20.
T A, L O, I O, I O, J O’o. "Anatomical Pattern of Dorsal Metatarsal Arteries in a black Kenyan Population." J Morphol Sci. 2019. Abstract

Introduction Knowledge of anatomical variations in the origin and in the course of the dorsal metatarsal arteries (DMTAs) is valuable for many procedures, including reconstructive surgeries and flap selection. However, there is a paucity of data on these arteries among black Africans. Materials and Methods The present study studied the origin and the location of DMTAs in 30 formalin-fixed cadaveric feet of adult black Kenyans at the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Results Dorsal metatarsal arteries were present in all of the cases. Of the right dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the 2nd to 4th DMTAs were given off as branches from the arcuate artery (AA). On the left feet, in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the rest were given off as branches from the AA. In relation to the dorsal interossei muscles, all of the the arteries were either within the muscle fibers (53%) or beneath them (47%), on the right side. On the left side, the 1st DMTA was above the muscles in 40% of the cases; within the muscles in 53%; and beneath the muscles in 7%. The 2nd and 3rd DMTAs were above the muscles in 57% and in 53% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion These results reveal that the DMTAs show variation in their origin and position relative to the dorsal interossei muscles. These variations display bilateral asymmetry.

Ogeng’o J, Amuti T, Rwegasira E, Ouko I, Ongeti K. "THE ANATOMICAL PATTERN OF THE DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2019;8(1):1444-1451. Abstract

Knowledge of the anatomical pattern of dorsalis pedis artery is important during evaluation of peripheral
circulation, peripheral vascular disease, microvascular flap, ankle and foot surgery. Reports from other
populations on the pattern show wide disparity suggesting ethnic and geographical differences. Data
from black African populations is scanty. This study therefore examined the anatomical pattern of dorsalis
pedis artery among adult black Kenyans. The cadaveric dissection study on 30 formalin fixed specimens
evaluated the origin, position, course and branching pattern of the dorsalis pedis artery. The data were
analysed using SPSS for means, frequency and standard deviation. Student t – test was used to determine
side differences at 95% confidence interval where P – Value of <5% was taken as statistically significant.
The artery was consistently present, as a continuation of the anterior tibial artery. It ran 4.6 mm ± 2.1
mm from the medial malleolus, and about 2.5 ± 0.3mm from the medial border of the base of the first
metatarsal bone. The mean was 4.76 mm on the right, and 4.56 mm on the left. The difference was
statistically significant (P<0.05). Three branching patterns were observed. The conventional pattern was
observed in only 47% of cases. The extensor hallucis longus tendon most frequently crossed the artery
above the ankle joint. There were no cases of crossing below the ankle. These observations reveal that
the dorsalis pedis artery is consistently present, high, relatively medialised, and displays an atypical
branching pattern. Due care should be taken during surgery. Preoperative ultrasound evaluation is
recommended.

Kenanda EO, Omosa LK. "Anti-leishmanial activity of some surface compounds of Tarchonanthus camphoratus." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology. 2019;2 (2):30.kenanda_et_al_05082019.pdf
Nyaga SN, Mathiu PM, Onyango CM, Areba GO. "Antidiabetic properties of Solanum villosum and Solanum nigrum var.sarrachoides in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2019;8(11):2396-2402.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Oriko RO, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):96-99. AbstractJournal article

Description
Introduction: Plants of the genus Garcinia are traditionally used treat a range of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Garcinia species are reported to have been shown to have a range of biological activities including cytotoxicity antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antimalarial and HIV-1 protease inhibitory activity among others. Methods: Solvent extraction was done using CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1). Isolation was done using column chromatography with silica gel as the stationery phase and ethyl acetate and n-hexane used as mobile phase in increasing polarity. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the isolation. Structure elucidation was done using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic techniques. Chloroquine resistant (W2) and chloroquine sensitive (D6) P. falciparum strains were used for antiplasmodial assay. Results: Further bioassay guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2: MeOH (1: 1) extract of Garcinia buchananii led to the isolation of two already reported biflavanones, isogarcinol (1) and guttiferone (2) with promising antiplasmodial activity against a chloroquine resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum strain with an IC50 of 2.8
±0.90 µg/mL for compound 1 and IC50 of 3.94±0.38 µg/mL for compound 2. Compounds 1 and 2 also exhibited moderate activity against the chloroquine sensitive (D6) Plasmodium falciparum strain with IC50 of 7.03±0.60 and 10.64±4.50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results provide proof to support the use of G. buchananii by the indigenous community for antimalarial therapy.
Scholar articles
Antiplasmodial Biflavanones from the Stem Bark of Garcinia buchananii Engl.
RA Omole, MJ Moshi, M Heydenreich, HM Malebo… - Pharmacognosy Communications, 2019
All 4 versions

Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW. "AORTIC ARCH ORIGIN OF THE VERTEBRAL ARTERY MAY HAVE CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2019;8(2):1484-1485.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. AbstractJournal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Wanjala G, L.P O. "Appraising Teacher Creativity and Collaborative Skills in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub- County, Kenya ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2019;7(6):207-218 .abstract-.pdf
Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Assessing Climate Change Trends within the Sondu Miriu River Basin and Impacts on Hydropower Generation, Kenya." International Journal for Innovative Research and Development. . 2019;8(2):18-28.
Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Mumma-Martinon CA, Ododa O. "Assessing the Defector Rehabilitation Programmes in Countering Violent Extremism in Somalia. Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue.". In: Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue. Nairobi: HIPSIR - Editor. Opongo E.O; 2019.
Mumma-Martinon CA, Ododa O. "Assessing the Defector Rehabilitation Programmes in Countering Violent Extremism in Somalia. Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue.". In: Religious Extremisim and Violence in Africa . Nairobi : Hekima Institute of Peace Studies and International Relations ; 2019.
Bebora L.C, Gitao CG, P.M M, Mobegi VA, Shumbusho B, Iraguha B. "Assessment of bacterial contamination and milk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in the North-Western region of Rwanda." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;13(29):640-648.abstract.pdf
Mpatswenumugabo, JP, Bebora LC, Gitao, C.G., Kamana, O, Mobegi, VA, Irahuga B, B S. "Assessment of Bacterial contaminations andmilk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in North-western region of Rwanda." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;13(29 ;http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2018.8919 ):640-648.second_paper_published-jean_pierre.pdf
Muraga JM, Wandiga SO, Abong'o DA. "Assessment Of Dissolved Ions And Microbial Coliforms In Water From Selected Sites Of The Upper Athi River Subcatchment Area, Kenya.". 2019. Abstracterepository.uonbi.ac.ke

The Upper Athi River sub-catchment area has experienced exponential growth of human population since the turn of the century. This has led to establishment of satellite towns such as Ngong, Kiserian, Ongata Rongai, Mlolongo, Kitengela and Ruai. These towns have either no or inadequate supply of water from the local governments, that is, Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi. Communities in this area of study have therefore resorted to obtaining ground water through drilling boreholes and digging shallow wells for their domestic needs. This is done without proper information on whether the water meets quality standards set out by Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). This study therefore sought to assess the water quality in this area to determine whether ground water meets these standards. It also compared these levels of dissolved ions and coliforms to those of river water in the recharge area of the Upper Athi sub-catchment area. Twenty one water samples comprising of eleven boreholes, five shallow wells and five river water samples were collected from the Upper Athi sub-catchment area in the months of December 2011 which was a dry month and in May 2012 which was a wet month. The samples were analysed for dissolved ions and microbial coliforms. The metal ions analysed included Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn while anions included Cl-, CO32-/HCO3-, F-, NO2-/NO3- and SO42- as well as faecal coliforms. Physical parameters analysed included pH, electrical conductivity (EC) turbidity, total dissolved solids and colour. The analysis of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while chlorides and total alkalinity were analysed using titrimetric method. Levels of fluoride and nitrate were analysed using ion selective electrodes, sulphate using gravimetric method and microbial coliforms using lactose broth methods. The results showed that levels of dissolved ions in ground water were higher than in surface water while surface water had higher number of faecal coliforms. The high levels of dissolved ions in ground water was attributed to the geology of area while high levels of iron and faecal coliforms in river water samples was attributed to anthropogenic activities The results from the samples analyzed show that pH of boreholes and shallow wells (ground water) water was higher than that of river water (surface water). pH levels ranged from 7.16±0.003 - 9.34±0.004 for ground water and 7.24±0.002-8.00±0.003 for surface water. Electrical conductivity was also higher in ground water ranging from 669±0.002μS/cm-1568±0.004μS/cm while that of surface water ranged from 382±0.003μS/cm-1202±0.002μS/cm at Magadi road. Turbidity was vi higher for surface water than that of ground water ranging from 74.3±0.004 NTU- 95.4±0.003 NTU and below detection limits (BDL) levels for ground water with the exception being borehole at Athi Primary school which had turbidity of 18.6±0.03 NTU. Colour was high for surface water ranging from 159±0.002 c.u to 343±.004 c.u while that of ground water ranged from 1.5±0.003 51.2±0.004 c.u in borehole 5 located at Athi Primary School. Total Dissolved Solids were higher in ground water ranging from 231.68.00±0.003mg/l - 1003.52±0.004mg/l in shallow well located at near Brookshine School, Kangundo road while that of surface water ranged from 244.48±0.002mg/l-769.28±0.003mg/l. From the chemical parameters analysis, fluorides were significantly higher in ground water ranging from 0.37±0.003 to 9.36±0.002 ppm at Mlolongo which exceeded the KEBS limits for drinking water of 1.5ppm. Iron levels were higher in river water samples ranging from 2.11±0.002 to 18.401±0.003 ppm at Kangundo Road Bridge. Even though ground water had lower levels of iron that river water, it ranged from <0.001ppm to 1.93ppm against the 0.3ppm recommended by KEBS. Lead levels in ground water ranged from <0.001ppm to 2.64ppm at borehole BH4 located at Brookshine School. This was way above the recommended levels of 0.03ppm by KEBS. The levels of microbial coliforms were higher in river water ranging from 140-294 c.f.u/100ml during the dry month of December 2011 and 156-309 c.f.u/100ml during the wet month of May 2012. Ground water recorded coliforms ranging from zero to 40 c.f.u/100ml. Within the ground water system shallow wells had a higher count of coliforms than in boreholes. The high levels of fluorides have led to increased cases of dental fluorosis especially among young children in the area of study. Adults are at risk on increased bone fractures in their lifetime. High levels of lead in some ground water could lead to mental retardation since lead is a very toxic metal even at very low levels. There is therefore need to develop a long-term plan of providing safe drinking water by the county governments. There is also the need to establish regulations that require private water vendors and water companies to invest in water treatment plants that reduce levels of dissolved ions in ground water before distributing the water to local communities

Muraga JM. Assessment Of Dissolved Ions And Microbial Coliforms In Water From Selected Sites Of The Upper Athi River Subcatchment Area, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019. Abstract

Description
The Upper Athi River sub-catchment area has experienced exponential growth of human population since the turn of the century. This has led to establishment of satellite towns such as Ngong, Kiserian, Ongata Rongai, Mlolongo, Kitengela and Ruai. These towns have either no or inadequate supply of water from the local governments, that is, Kajiado, Machakos and Nairobi. Communities in this area of study have therefore resorted to obtaining ground water through drilling boreholes and digging shallow wells for their domestic needs. This is done without proper information on whether the water meets quality standards set out by Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). This study therefore sought to assess the water quality in this area to determine whether ground water meets these standards. It also compared these levels of dissolved ions and coliforms to those of river water in the recharge area of the Upper Athi sub-catchment area. Twenty one water samples comprising of eleven boreholes, five shallow wells and five river water samples were collected from the Upper Athi sub-catchment area in the months of December 2011 which was a dry month and in May 2012 which was a wet month. The samples were analysed for dissolved ions and microbial coliforms. The metal ions analysed included Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb and Zn while anions included Cl-, CO32-/HCO3-, F-, NO2-/NO3- and SO42- as well as faecal coliforms. Physical parameters analysed included pH, electrical conductivity (EC) turbidity, total dissolved solids and colour. The analysis of cations was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometry while chlorides …

Ochungo EA, Ouma GO, Obiero JPO, Odero NA. "An Assessment of Groundwater Grab Syndrome in Langata Sub County, Nairobi City-Kenya." Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2019;11:651-673.
Obiewo, J.O. KWDKDN. "Assimilation of Pollution Loading on Sosiani River in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya, as a Wastewater Management Strategy." American Journal of Water Resources. 2019;7(4):155-162.
Wangaria WS, Okunya LO. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FORMAL CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG CLINICAL OFFICERS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Education and Social Science Research . 2019;2(2):43-67.
Mwaliwa HC. "Athari ya Kiswahili kwa Lugha Zingine za Kiafrika.". In: Kiswahili katika Elimu ya Juu. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Mwaniki JM, TIMAMMY RAYYA, Ndung'u MN. "Athari za Mtagusano Kati ya Jamii na Ekolojia Katika Ushairi wa Mberia: BaraJingine na Rangi ya Anga." East African Journal of Swahili Studies. 2019;Volume 4(1):23-34.
Virginia Ng’endo Kinuthia, Wahome RG. "Attitudes on land-use systems and social mindset transformations after group ranch subdivision in Kenya." Land Use Policy. 2019;87:104004.
Mwaura F. "An audit of environmental impact assessments for mining projects in Kenya." Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . 2019;119(5) :484-493.
Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, hir Moses M Manene, Kipchirc IC. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1): 29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga P, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.abstract.pdf
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Mwadime JM, Wanja DW, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.
D.W. W, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Bebora LC. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." international Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic studies . 2019;7(2):295-301.
Bidii ya Maria na Musa. . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2019.
Luvembe AM, Mutai H. "Big Data Framework for Kenya’s County Governments." Journal of Computer and Communications. 2019;07(01):1-9. AbstractFull Text Link

Digitalization is transforming governments across the globe. At the national level, down to regional and multiple departments in the public institutions, unprecedented change is occurring exponentially as a result of massive digitalization. Digitalization is compelling governments at all levels to embrace voluminous data and institute appropriate multi-channel platforms to support digital transformation. While this is the case, most governments have been caught unprepared thwarting maximum benefits spurred by digitalization. Inherently, the social media and e-participation tools for generating huge amount of data have convoluted most governments’ appetite in Big Data management. This situation is further compounded with the slow pace of adoption of these technological tools by citizens and the public sectors. For enhanced e-citizen satisfaction and engagement, as well as e-participation processes, public institutions need to promote engagement and collaboration. In view of advancing benefits to their citizens, public institutions need to institute appropriate measures to collect citizen’s data. The information collected is vital for public institutions in actualizing what services the citizens want. Using literature reviews and cases, the authors examine Big Data benefits in counties and propose a Big Data model to improve efficiency of e-governance services and productivity in county governments. The authors demonstrate Big Data framework has the aptitude of molding citizen’s opinion in county decision making process. Better use of e-technologies is shown in the proposed model which illustrates sharing resources among various data analytics sources. Our proposed framework based on Big Data analytics is a viable initiative to progress effectiveness and productivity, strengthen citizen engagement and participation and encourage decision-making in e-governance services delivery in the counties.

"Biochemical composition of pigeonpea genotypes in Kenya." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2019;13(11):1848-1855.juliana_cheboi_biochemical_paper.pdf
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Efferth T, Banerjee M, Abu-Darwish MS, Abdelfatah S, Böckers M, Bhakta-Guha D, Bolzani V, Daak S, Demirezer LÖmür, Dawood M, Efferth M, El-Seedi HR, Fischer N, Greten HJ, Hamdoun S, Hong C. "Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine–From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts." Phytomedicine. 2019;53:319-331. Abstract

Background
Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism.
Hypothesis
The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe.
Study design
Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of …

Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong'o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optional Conditions." Nanohybrids and Composites. 2019;25:32-45.
Ochieng JW, Ananga A. "Biotechnology in Agricultural Policies of Sub-Saharan Africa." Elem Bioeconomy. 2019.
Oredo J. "Blockchain as an Emerging Financial Trust Model." MANAGEMENT April (2019).
Atoh FO, Otieno S. "Bonface Mganga.". In: Bonface Mganga. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. BOOSTING INTERCON- TINENTAL RELATIONS _ LESSONS FROM BUILDING PHYSICS. Wilhelm Kempff house- Casa Orfeo, Positano -Italy,; 2019.
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
Chanzu HA, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM. "Brewers’ spent grain in adsorption of aqueous Congo Red and malachite Green dyes: Batch and continuous flow systems." Journal of hazardous materials. 2019;380:120897. Abstract

Abstract

Sorption of Congo Red (CR) and Malachite Green (MG) dyes currently used in pigments and clothing industries were investigated using brewers’ spent grain (BSG) from a local brewery. Adsorption increased with a higher adsorbent weight and lower colorant concentrations. Accumulation of CR and MG was optimal at acidic pH and neutral pH respectively. Sorption decreased with an increase in temperature signifying an exothermic process. Batch adsorption data fitted better to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Maximum monolayer coverage capacities (
were found to be 2.55 mg/g for MG and 36.5 mg/g for CR dye. Column studies using BSG were also conducted for both dyes. Fixed bed breakthrough was fast with an increase in dye concentration, adsorbent surface area, and flow rate and with a decrease in column depth. BSG are effective, simple in design and inexpensive adsorbing material from renewable sources.

Chanzu HA, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM. "Brewers’ spent grain in adsorption of aqueous Congo Red and malachite Green dyes: Batch and continuous flow systems." Journal of hazardous materials. 2019;380:120897. AbstractJournal article

Description

Abstract Sorption of Congo Red (CR) and Malachite Green (MG) dyes currently used in pigments and clothing industries were investigated using brewers’ spent grain (BSG) from a local brewery. Adsorption increased with a higher adsorbent weight and lower colorant concentrations. Accumulation of CR and MG was optimal at acidic pH and neutral pH respectively. Sorption decreased with an increase in temperature signifying an exothermic process. Batch adsorption data fitted better to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Maximum monolayer coverage capacities (Q O)) were found to be 2.55 mg/g for MG and 36.5 mg/g for CR dye. Column studies using BSG were also conducted for both dyes. Fixed bed breakthrough was fast with an increase in dye concentration, adsorbent surface area, and flow rate and with a decrease in column depth. BSG are effective, simple in design …

Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Jirstrom M. "Building pastoralists resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR). 2019;34(ISSN: 2212-4208):429-435.
NamayiMurichoa D, JakindaOtienoa D, WillisOluoch-Kosuraa, MagnusJirströmb. "Building pastoralists’ resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2019;Volume 34(ISSN):429-435.
Oredo J. "The Burgeoning e-Waste Burden." MANAGEMENT June (2019).
Odongo MA, Siriba DN. "Cadastral Data Model for an Informal Settlement: Case Study of Huruma, Nairobi – Kenya." African Journal of Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences. 2019;2(2):57-67.
Munene M, Maina SM. "Caregivers As Aids To People With Visual Mobility Disability In Interior Spaces In Kenya." Creativity and Innovation Journal / Revista Creativitate Şi Inovare. 2019;1(ISSN (print) 2537-5997 /ISSN (online) 2559-4524).
"challenges of Moral Development of Young Adults in Kenya: selected students of University of Nairobi." Egerton Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences and Education. 2019;xii(1):125-141.
Dulo. "Characterising of Leachate Pollution with Time." Journal of Application, or Innovation in Engineering & Management. 2019;7(10):031-039.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae DK, Jung'a JO, IshagAJour HZA. "Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected from Dairy Cow Feces and Rumen Fluid bacterial pathogens." Africa Journal of Microbial Research. 2019.
M.W. W, Hansted L, Gikungu M, G K, AS B. "Characterization of Kenyan Honeys Based on Their Physicochemical Properties, Botanical and Geographical Origin." International Journal of Food Science . 2019;2019(2932509):10.
Mary Wanjiru Warui 1, Lise Hansted 2, Mary Gikungu 3, John Mburu 4, Geoffrey Kironchi 1, Bosselmann5 AS. "Characterization of Kenyan honeys based on their physicochemical properties, botanical and geographical origin." International journal of food science. 2019.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2019;11(6):513-524. Abstractclimate_change_and_pastoralists_perceptions_and_adaptation_in_montane_kenya.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

HM M. "Climate Change as Driver of Migration, morbidity and Conflicts in Africa." Red Cross Headquarters, Nairobi; 2019.
Agesa BL, Onyango CM, M KV, Onwonga RN, GN K. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Climate Risks and Responses in Semi-Arid Kenya: Implications for Community-Based Adaptation." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;VI(IX):171-180.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Cloud Computing Adoption by Firms in Kenya: The Role of Institutional Forces." African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11(3).
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Mwaniki, S.W, Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Muthama, J.M. "Collaborative Governance for Sustainable Delivery of Public Open Spaces in Nairobi City, East African Journal of Science." Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2019.
Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Prisca J. "A Comparative Account of Possession Expression in Tugen and Kiswahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. . 2019;7(2):55-62.
Kinyanyi, Amwayi, Wamalwa, M;, Obiero, G.O. "Comparative in silico study of congocidine congeners as potential inhibitors of African swine fever virus." Plos One. 2019;14(8).
Muasya  D, Gitau G, Thaiyah G, Gakuya D, Vanleeuwen J, Mbatha P. "A comparison between indirect ELISA and tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Kenya.". 2019.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Ogacho A. "Comparison Of The Effectiveness Of Various Designs Of Ceramic Filter Membranes In Domestic Water Purification." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2019;6(Issue 1):70-73. Abstract

n/a

Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "Competence-Based Education: New Wine in Old Wine Skins?" Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research . 2019;3(4):60-74.
Ayuke FO, Kihara J, Ayaga G, Micheni AN. "Conservation agriculture enhances soil fauna richness and abundance in low input systems: examples from Kenya." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2019;7 :97.
Olago DO. "Constraints and solutions for groundwater development, supply and governance in urban areas in Kenya." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):1031-1050. Abstractolago2019_article_constraintsandsolutionsforgrou.pdfWebsite

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

“Bahemuka MJ”, “Kivuva J”, “Michuki G”. "Construction of Knowledge Societies: A Postscript.". In: Knowledge for Wealth Creation: A Kenyan Perspective. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2019.
H. NGUETTIJ, K. IJ, W. OM, S. MITEMAE, F. MBACHAMW, J. WANG’OMBE. "Consumer’s Awareness of the presence of pathogenic bacteria and pesticide Residues on tomatoes sold in Nairobi." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;14(35):2146-2158.
Shah P, Ayiemba E. "Convention on biological diversity and rural-urban connections with reference to Kenya." International Journal of Research in Environmental Studies. 2019;6:14-26.
Sewe S, Ngare P, Weke P. "Credit Scoring with Ego-Network Data." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(3):522-534. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates a stochastic filtering problem whereby the bor-rower’s hidden credit quality is estimated using ego-network signals. The hidden credit quality process is modeled as a mean reverting Ornstein-Ulehnbeck process. The lender observes the borrower’s behavior modeled as a continuous time diffusion process. The drift of the diffusion process is driven by the hidden credit quality. At discrete fixed times, the lender gets ego-network signals from the borrower and the borrower’s direct friends. The observation filtration thus contains continuous time borrower data augmented with discrete time ego-network signals. Combining the continuous time observation data and ego-network information, we derive filter equations for the hidden process and the properties of the conditional variance. Further, we study the asymptotic properties of the conditional variance when the frequency of arrival of ego-network signals is increased.

Otieno SP,(Sr.) MC. The Crutch and the Flute . (Mrs) JM, ed. Talent Empire; 2019.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ. "A cultural paradigm shift in Central Africa: Sociocultural determinants and cultural dimensions." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2019;14(1):83-99.
R. E, W. MR, Otieno DJ. "A Cultural Paradigm Shift in Central Africa: Sociocultural Determinants and Cultural Dimensions." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2019;14(1):19-37.
D.G OMAYIO, O. A’G, W. OM, K. GACHUIRIC, W MWANG’OMBEA. "Current status of guava (Psidium guajava L.) production, utilisation, processing and preservation in Kenya:A review." Current Agriculture Research Journal . 2019;7(3):318-331.
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang’ombe AW. "Current Status of Guava (Psidium Guajava L) Production, Utilization, Processing and Preservation in Kenya: A Review." Current Agriculture Research Journal. 2019;7(3):318.
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang’ombe AW. "Current Status of Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Production, Utilization, Processing and Preservation in Kenya." Current Agriculture Research Journal. 2019;Vol. 7,( No.(3) 2019, ):pg. 318-331.current_status_of_guava_psidium_guajava_l._production_utilization_processing_and_preservation_in_kenya.pdf
Fozia AA, Victor K, Armelle MT, Matthias H, Andreas K, Albert N, Beatrice I, Abiy Y, Thomas E. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural Product Research. 2019;33(18): 2609-2617 .
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural product research. 2019;33(18):2609-2617. AbstractNatural product research

Description
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 …

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Midiwo MHJO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of Fagaramide Derivative and Canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) Species against Multidrug Resistant Leukemia Cells." Natural Products Research. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1587424:1-8.omosa_et_al_2019 pdf
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia.

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152853. AbstractPhytomedicine

Description
Background
While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of isoflavones: osajin (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4ˈ-methoxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (2) and biflavonoids: chamaejasmin (3), 7,7″-di-O-methylchamaejasmin (4) and campylospermone A (5), a dimeric chromene [diphysin(6)] and an ester of ferullic acid with long alkyl chain [erythrinasinate (7)] isolated from the stem bark and roots of the Kenyan medicinal plant, Ormocarpum kirkii. The mode of action of compounds 2 and 4 was further investigated.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of compounds was determined based on the resazurin reduction assay. Caspases activation was evaluated using the caspase-Glo assay. Flow …

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract

The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).
Keywords: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, isoflavone, cytotoxicity.

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …
Scholar articles
Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells
V Kuete, LK Omosa, JO Midiwo, O Karaosmanoğlu… - Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 2019
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Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
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capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
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commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
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restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
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commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
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