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1985
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS OF THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN SPECIATION OF COOKED AND FRESH ANIMAL MEATS.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS OF THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN SPECIATION OF COOKED AND FRESH ANIMAL MEATS.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
Omara-Opuene AI, Varma S. "Immunotherapy of Bovine Squamous Cell Carcinoma." Kenya Veterianarian. 1985;9:25-28. Abstract
n/a
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Impact of Depenence and under development on Foreign Policy in Kenya, The National Food Policy.". In: Paper Presented at the annual meeting of the African Studies Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 23-26.; 1985. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Imungi, J.K. 1985. Nutritional and sensory properties of cooked, canned and stored cowpea leaves. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, USA.". In: Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, USA. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "In 1985, collaborated with the Italian Cultural Institute in Nairobi on the issue of the Magazine Sinchron, dedicted to Africa and Kenya in particular.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1985. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Pupil's Book I. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1985.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Integrated English: Teacher's Guide Book I. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1985.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "International Art and design Exhibition.". In: Lodz, Poland. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Iron Age Archaeology in East Africa: The state of the discipline. In African Archaeology. B.W. Andah and C.A. Folorunso (Eds.).". In: University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Is Price Control Necessary in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Kenmya Economic Association Monthly Seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "J. M. Khalagai, "On the Operator Equation TST* = S. Unitary Solutions.". In: Kenya J. Science Technology Series A 6(2): 157-163. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 1985. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Socio-Anthropological Survey of Small-Scale Agriculture in Western Kenya, Ministry of Agriculture, GOK, 1985.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Nyaga and P.N. Nyaga. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. (1985) 33: 249-251.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, A.N. Guantai and Gichuru Muriuki (1985) Eucalyptus citriodora .". In: E. Africa Agric. For. J. 46: 89-96. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1985.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, A.N. Guantai and Gichuru Muriuki (1985) Eucalyptus citriodora .". In: E. Africa Agric. For. J. 46: 89-96. The Kenya Medical Association; 1985. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1985). The Pathology Of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in the dog. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.33 (2): 89-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1985). The Pathology Of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in the dog. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.33 (2): 89-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT.The origins of bad breath (fetor oris) from the oral cavity and its management.East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 4042945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). Is every paper presented on oral health research worth reading? Nairobi University Journal of Dentistry 2:42-46.". In: Nairobi University Journal of Dentistry 2:42-46. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). Motivation, a must for all dental patients. Medicus 4:2-5.". In: Medicus 4:2-5. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). Pregnancy gingivitis .". In: Africa Health 7:13-14. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T. (1985). The origins of bad breathe (fetor oris) from the oral cavity and its management. East African Medical Journal 62:360-362.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kamanga-Sollo, E.I.P., Lindqvist, K.J. and Gathuma, J.M. (1985). Bovine serum components in Cysticercus bovis. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol. 33 (1) 1 .". In: journal. FARA; 1985. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kamanga-Sollo, E.I.P., Lindqvist, K.J. and Gathuma, J.M. (1985). Bovine serum components in Cysticercus bovis. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol. 33 (1) 1 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "KAMAU, J.M.Z. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) Thermoregulation and heat balance in the dik-dik antelope(Rhynchotragus kirkii): a field and laboratory study. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 81A, 335-340.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Kanui, T.I. Responses of spinal cord neurones to noxious and non-noxious stimulation of the skin and testicle of the rat. Neuroscience Letters, 58 (1985) 315-319.". In: Proceedings of the 1st East African Conference on laboratory Animal Science Nairobi, 1989 pp. 63-65. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Kanui, T.I. Thermal analgesia: Analgesia of the present, future and the past. Paper presented during an IBRO/UNESCO Workshop on Neuroscience in Africa, Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the 1st East African Conference on laboratory Animal Science Nairobi, 1989 pp. 63-65. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Kanui, T.I. Thermal inhibition of nociceptor-driven spinal cord neurones in the rat. Pain, 21 (1985) 234-240.". In: Proceedings of the 1st East African Conference on laboratory Animal Science Nairobi, 1989 pp. 63-65. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kar P, Sethubabu P, Sharma MP, Acharya SK.Acute pancreatitis: review of 32 cases.J Assoc Physicians India. 1985 Jun;33(6):401-2.". In: J Assoc Physicians India. 1985 Jun;33(6):401-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Wood, M. 1985. Selecting suitable reference crop for estimating Nfixation by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using 15N Isotope Dilution Technique. Agric. and For. J. 56 (4).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
M. PROFKITONYIJOSEPHK. "Kariuki J.K. and Kitonyi J.M.K An unusual intra-renal A-V fistula East Afr Med J. 1986 Apr;63(4):281-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1986 Apr;63(4):281-4. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract

While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Karlsson E Mbugua P M and Rodriguez-Ithurralde D (1985): Anticholinesterase toxins. Pharm. Ther. 30 : 259.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Kenya's Parliamentary Elections: Toward Understanding the Role of Ethnicity in Modern Politics, Paper presented to the 1985 Western Political Science Association, Las Vegas, USA, March 1985.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1985. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Kenyan Economy: An Overview.". In: The Wall Street Journal. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Keya's Coastline. Chapter 94, pp. 691-701. In The World's Coastline, 1071 pp. (Eds. E.C./F. Bird and M.L. Schwartz). Van Nostrand Reinhold.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe, M.K., Bidwell, D.E., Turp, P. and Smith, G.R. (1985). Demonstration of cross-reactive antigens in F38 and related Mycoplasmas by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. Journal of Hygiene (Camb), 95: 95-106.". In: Journal of Hygiene (Camb), 95: 95-106. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
The ELISA and an immunoblotting technique were used to study F38-type mycoplasmas - an important cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia - and a number of related mycoplasma species, subspecies, types or serogroups. Two-way ELISA cross-reactivity was demonstrated between five mycoplasmas, namely strain F38, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC strain), M. equigenitalium, M. primatum and bovine serogroup 7. In addition one-way cross-reactivity was demonstrated between F38 and each of the following mycoplasmas: M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (two SC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri, and bovine serogroup L. F38 and M. capricolum did not cross-react. Immunoblot analysis, unlike ELISA, revealed that F38 and M. capricolum were closely related. At least four major protein antigens were shared between F38, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC and LC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri and bovine serogroup 7. The ELISA cross-reactions (above) shown by M. equigenitalium and M. primatum with each other, with F38 and with other mycoplasmas were not apparent by immunoblotting.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kibunguchy W., Mbugua S.E., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Mati J.K.G. Carcinoma of the cervix and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Screening a high risk group. J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:29, 1985.". In: J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:29, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kinoti SN, Anabwani G, Esamai FO, Kyambi JM.Congenital diaphragmatic hernia at Kenyatta National Hospital. Case studies and appraisal of clinical features and management.East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):823-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):823-9. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1985. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Kinoti SN, Maggwa AB, Turkish J, Wasunna A. Management of acute childhood diarrhoea with oral rehydration therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jan;62(1):5-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jan;62(1):5-11. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract
PIP: A study of 125 children aged 0-6 months who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital for acute diarrhea was conducted between 1982-1983 to determine the benefits of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in treatment of diarrheal illness. At admission, specimens of stool, blood and urine were collected and examine for bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents (including malaria), serum electrolytes, urea, white cell counts and hematocrit. Children were started on oral rehydration solution (ORS) unless severly dehydrated, in which case intravenous therapy was initiated. 84% of the children were successfully treated with ORS alone regardless of etiological agent found; 15% required IV therapy initially, then were placed on ORS. Average hospital stay was 56.2 hours. Cost of treatment by ORT is less than 20% the cost of IV therapy. When investigators surveyed other health institutions, they found that ORT was used alone in less than 10% of all children seen with diarrhea. A side benefit of ORT is the utilization of mothers in preparation and administration of solution, reducing the demand on hospital staff. Since 20% of all pediatric admissions at Kenyatta are due to acute diarrheal disease, use of ORT would reduce costs tremendously. Initiation of ORT at home may prevent development of dehydration altogether.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Kiptoon J.C. and Muraguri J.M. (1985): A survey of the Bacterial agents associated with Acute Enteritis in adult cattle in Kabete. Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian vol. 8 p.7-8.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1985.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Klauss V. and Bhatt S.M.: Lipaemia retinales: A case report E. Afr. Med. J. 1985 Vol 62. 8: 608 .". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1985 Vol 62. 8: 608 . Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "La Litteratura Dopo L'Independenza, in Synchron Numero 5 - Anno 4 Decembre 1985, 53-65.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1985. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Labour Utilization and the Employment Problem in Africa in P. Ndegwa L>P. Mureithi and R.H Green Development Options for Africa in the 1980 and Beyond Nairobi Oxford University Press.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1985. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Leadership in Community Projects".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Leadership in Community Projects".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract

 

 

KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "Livestock price policy in Kenya: case of beef,.". In: paper presented in a workshop on Africa price policy and (published as a document of Economic Development Institute of the World Bank,1985). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM. Hypertension over a 4-year-period at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). East Afr Med J. 1985 Jun;62(6):365-71. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jun;62(6):365-71. test; 1985. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Wankya BM. Duodenal ulcer disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. test; 1985. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "M. Sc. Thesis entitled: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SELF-OPTIMIZING COUPLING FOR A WINDPUMP. University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1985. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Common nearly best linear estimates of location and scale parameters of normal and logistic distributions, which are based on complete samples, are considered. Here the population from which the samples are drawn is either normal or logistic population or a fusion of both distributions and the estimates are computed when it is not yet known which of the two populations (between the normal and logistic) is true. The problem discussed in this paper involves two possible population types in a given sample. Samples of sizes  and  are used to validate these estimates and a comparison of their variances is made with those of the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for normal and logistic distributions.
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., 1985: Future Strategies in Surveying and Mapping.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
KANYUGA MRMACOCODAVID. "Macoco, DK., Musuva, J. K.; Maleche, Z.; Kingoriah, G. K., 1985: Report on the Guidelines for Appointments of Academic Staff in the College of Architecture and Engineering.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1985. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maina P.W., G.M Mugera, J.M. Maribei, and P.N Nyaga. (1985). The control and prevention of subclinical mastitis in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 9(2) 6-8.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) The morphology of the respiratory organs of the African air-breathing catfish (Clarias mossambicus). Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress, Book Production Consultants, Cambridge, p. 426.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MAINA, J.N. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) The morphometry of the lungs of the African lungfish (Propterus aethiopicus): its structural functional correlations. Proceedings of Royal Society of London B. 224, 399-420.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Tropical Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Kenya P. 63 .". In: Proc. symposium commonwealth science council, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 3 . African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW. A comparative study of two antispasmodic products: Buscopan and NO-Spa. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):480-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):480-5. African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) Adaptation of pastoral Turkana nomads to the desert heat and aridity. National Geographic Society Research Reports 18, 501-504.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) Olpayian Kitok S.S. Ole Pasha: Maasai Senior Chief (1904-1985):an appreciation. The Standard.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O.(1985) Studies in Comparative Physiology, D.Sc. Thesis, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei J.M., (1985). The efficacy of .". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
ONYALO PROFYAMBOMAURI. "Mauri Yambo, "Demand-Supply Linkages for Scientific and Technical Skills in Kenya: Constraints, Opportunities and Discontinuities" (pp. 389-403). In a book by Denise Weiner (ed.), The Role of Scientific and Engineering Societies in Development. Washington.". In: In POST (A journal of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences) Volume XI Number 1 of 1986. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1985. Abstract
{ This paper proposes a new theory, a theory of the memetic sphere; and outlines its main features, based on library research. In Dawkinsian parlance, memes are ideas, phrases and sentences with a gene-like capacity to replicate. The theory maps the chain-reaction in the form of which this replication becomes what we know as the information explosion, and attempts to show what lies beyond the explosion. No known study has highlighted the similitudes between the memetic sphere and the physical universe. The theory is summarized in an Einsteinian equation
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The flow and structure of foreign news and programmes in Kenyan Mass Media".". In: In Teichert, W. (Ed.) Image, Communication Manual. Media and Communication Department; Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung, Bonn. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The role of mass media in national development".". In: A paper presented at the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Management Course. Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M (1985): Anticholinesterase toxins in mamba venoms. PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M and Karlsson (1985): Fasciculins from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom and their effects on cholinesterases. Toxicon 23 : 595.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N., R. E. Austic and D. Cunningham (1985): Effect of feed restriction on growth and metabolism of replacement pullets: Poultry science 69: 1950-?". In: In proceedings: Animal production society of Kenya conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O: Haemodialysis - The experience at Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective and Prospective Study. (A dessertation for the Master of Medicine Degreee in Internal Medicine, 1985, University of Nairobi).". In: (A dessertation for the Master of Medicine Degreee in Internal Medicine, 1985, University of Nairobi). University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. ""Methodological Problems in the Study of Culture Process and Change in East African Archaeology", Journal of East African Research and Development, Vol. 12, pp. 161-173.". In: Journal of East African Research and Development, Vol. 12, pp. 161-173. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
MITEMA PROFSEO. "Mitema, E.S. & Maribei, J.M. (1985). Quinuronium induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Toxicol. Lett. 24: 53-58.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
MITEMA PROFSEO. "Mitema, E.S. (1985). Comparative studies on the effect of Quinuronium and diminazene on biochemical parameters in sheep. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 27: 539-543.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
MITEMA PROFSEO. "Mitema, E.S. (1985). Quinuronium levels in ovine plasma as determined by in vitro / in vivo model system using Babesia rodhaini. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 276: 12-16.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Mitema, E.S. and J.M. Maribei, (1985). Quinuronium Induced hepatotoxicity in Rats. Toxicology letters 24, 53058.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Mitema, E.S. and Maribei, J.M. Quinuronium induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Lett. 1985 Jan;24(1):53-8.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Modern Kenyan Art.". In: University of Lodz. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Molecular Structure Calculations Based on Many Body Scattering Theory II.". In: Proc.International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1985. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Morphological studies of Varroa jacobsoni from Apis cerana and A. mellifera in different geographical locations (Acarina : Mesostigmata). Bull. Zool. Soc. Egypt, 35: 13-22.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M. Hashimoto, M., Nishiura, K., and Okabe, M. (1985). A potential radioimmunoassay system for the detection of HD type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids. Journal of Immunological Methods 80: 97 .". In: Journal of Immunological Methods 80: 97 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1985. Abstract

A specific, relatively sensitive, quantitative and standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure was developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies which are occasionally elevated in pathologic human sera. The HD antigen-active molecule used for the assay was a ganglioside (N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide, abbreviated as NeuGc-LacCer) previously purified from horse erythrocyte membranes. The test used antigen-coated plastic microtiter plates and anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG, Fab fragment) conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. Fifty-four normal human sera gave ELISA values ranging from -2 to 2%. Random sera from hospitalized patients were first screened by the horse erythrocyte hemagglutination (HA) test, whereby 5.7% (76 cases) gave abnormal HA titers of 128-4096 compared to titers in normal sera equal to or less than 64. Ninety-seven % of the patients' sera gave abnormal ELISA values (3-200%). They were classified into 3 groups: cancer (42 cases), infection (10 cases), and others (24 cases). The potential value of this ELISA method is discussed.

WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1985): Serum aminotransferase activities in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Primmer and Bradford, 1899). Kenya Veterinarian 9(1): 14- 17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1985): Serum aminotransferase activities in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Primmer and Bradford, 1899). Kenya Veterinarian 9(1): 14- 17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1985. Abstract
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B MISSREGOASSUMPTA. "Muthoka, M. and Rego, A.B., 1985, Environmental Education Module for In-Service Training of Social Science Teachers and Supervisors for Secondary Schools, UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme, No.10, UNESCO, Paris, Division of Scien.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W., D.M. Mukunya and S.O. Keya, 1985, Biological control of Fusarium yellow on beans caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F.sp phaseolus Kendrick and Snyder using organic amendments. ACTA HORT. 218:267 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1985. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W., D.M. Mukunya and S.O. Keya, 1985, Biological control of Fusarium yellow on beans caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F.sp phaseolus Kendrick and Snyder using organic amendments. ACTA HORT. 218:267 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p.; 1985. Abstract
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A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Mechanical drying of Arabien Coffee . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Eldoret, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Small holder Coffee Processing in Kenya . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Meru, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. et al. (1985) The joint GOK/IDA/CDC/Smallholder Coffee Improvement Project supervision and review mission report. Report of findings submitted to the project steering committee.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Mwamba, D.K. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. The influence of phosphorus fertilization and spacing on growth and fruiting of bell peppers (Capsicum annum L.) (Abstract). Acta Horticulturae, 152: 161.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1985). Geographical distribution and biological characteristics of Apis mellifera varieties in Kenya.". In: Proc. xxxth Int. Apic. Congress. p. 56. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli Monica "THE BEST SLEEPER.". In: Kisumu: Kenya Women Writers Foundation ( FEMART -.; 1985. Abstract
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O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N .O Bwibo Tuberculosis: Chapter 14 In: child Health in Tropics Editor: D B Jelliffee, fifth Edition pp 135-147. Edward Arnold Publishers, 1985.". In: Edward Arnold Publishers. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

No abstract available

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Naiki, M., Ramasamy., J.O. Ochanda and G.Maina: Lipid composition of Schistosoma mansoni and surface labelling of glycolipids. Jpn. J.Vet. Sci. 47, 777- 786.". In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Medical Scientific Conference page, 189. Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Ndolo, I.J. (1985): Water Balance and Rice Yields in a Tropical Environment: A Case Study of Mwea Irrigation Settlement, M.Sc. Thesis.". In: Agric. Jour. Vol. 41: (81-90). Association of Africa Universities; 1985. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Ndungu T K Kofi-Tsekpo W M and Mbugua P M (1985): Irradiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and other medicinal products: Methods and approach for Kenya Proc. 6 th Ann. Med. Sci. Conf., KEMRI/KETRI .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "a new approach to .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "New Technological and Developing Countries. Paper read at the International Framework. A report to UNCTC, June.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1985. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Non-Conventional Vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya", Bio-Energy-84.". In: Proceedings, (H. Egneus and A. Ellegard, Eds) 166-169, Elsevier, London (1985). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Kofi-Tsekpo, Ellison RH, Mugambi M. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Kofi-Tsekpo, Ellison RH, Mugambi M. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Odwako DB. Practical therapeutics: the use of carbamazepine in affective disorders. East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Odwako DB. Practical therapeutics: the use of carbamazepine in affective disorders. East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of antithyroid drugs. East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Dec;62(12):905-10. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Obukosia, S.D., Gupta, V.K. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. In vitro interspecific hybridization between the Kenyan Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. acutifolia. L. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 221-230.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "ODHIAMBO, J. W. & OWINO, J. (1985): .". In: Kenya j. Sci & Tech Vol., 6 (1) pp 59-67. 1999; 1985. Abstract
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ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1985). Ultrastructural observations on the choriallantoic placenta of the golden-rumped elephant shrew, (Rhynchocyon chrysopygus). Afric. J.Ecol. 23: 155-166.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O., Patel, J.H. Kiere, S.M. and Mwangi, L. (1985).Massive obstructive urothiasis in a bull used for Artificial Insemination. Vet. Rec.117, 664 - 666.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1985. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1985. Veterinary Sanitary expertise and assessment of market value of saiga meat under .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1985. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N; Some Aspects of Dilated Cardiolomyopathy as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital with Emphasis on Echocardiographic features. M.med. Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: M.med. Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1985. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ogutu G.W., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Njoroge J.K. Mati J.K.G. A prospective study of dysfunctional uterine bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 4 : 23, 1985.". In: E. Afr. Med. J., 64 (7) 442, 1987. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Oils of Local Plants that may Substitute Imported Ones".". In: POST (Kenya), X, 16-22 (1985). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Management of pain in patients with advanced gynaecological cancer. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 817-819.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Management of pain in patients with advanced gynaecological cancer. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 817-819.". In: WHO Workshop in Mombasa. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Some aspects of cervical cancer in young African women in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Some aspects of cervical cancer in young African women in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "OKOTH, M.W. & WILLIAMS, A. A potential use for solar energy in the Kenyan food processing industry. ." University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. and Standa E. (Ed.) 1985. Reports of The Kenya Non-Governmental Organization Committee Workshops.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. People\.". In: People\. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1985. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ong'are, J.O., Munyua, W.K., Wilson, A.J. and Rinkanya, F.G.R. (1985): Survey of tick resistance in Kiambu District of Kenya. A comparison of two resistance test methods. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33 (2): 89-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
D. DRONGORE. "Ongore D., 1985 Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of A Rural Population on malaria and the Mosquito Vector. MPH Thesis University of Nairobi.". In: MPH Thesis University of Nairobi. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. A Proposal of American Studies Program at University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University. American Studies in Africa, Vol. 1 No. 2 1985 (pp 21-25).". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol.IV No.1, pp. 43-58.; 1985. Abstract
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P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. Some Analysis of Marx's Interactionist Theory of De-alienation. Thought and Practice.". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol. IV, No. 1 (pp43-58).; 1985. Abstract
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EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Ontogenetical studies of the obligatory parasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni (Acarina : Mesostigmata). Bull. Zool. Soc. Egypt, 66: 5 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Orinda DAO, Ojwang SBO, Shiramba TL, Kiungu A. A clinical biochemical and histological study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hosptial. E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Orinda DAO, Ojwang SBO, Shiramba TL, Kiungu A. A clinical biochemical and histological study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hosptial. E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "OWITI, G.E.O., ODUOR-OKELO, D. & GOMBE, S. (1985). Ultrastructure of the choriallantoic placenta of the spring hare (Pedetes capensis larvallis Hollister). Afic.J. Ecol. 23: 145-152.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora and J.S. Kaminjolo. Occurence of Shigella dysenteriae - 3 in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. (1985) 33: 173-174.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.W. Maina, G.M. Mugera, J.M. Maribei and P.N. Nyaga. The control and prevention of sub-clinical mastitis in Kenya (1985). Kenya Vet. Vol. 9(2): 6-8.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N.KANYARI (1985). "Studies in goat coccidiosis: Effects of corticosteroids on natural and experimental infections". Australian Society for Parasitologists.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1985. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
B MISSREGOASSUMPTA. "Peters, F.A and Rego, A.B 19985, Geography Fieldwork 2. A Guide for Upper Forms, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Ph.D. Thesis entitled Fifth Order Rotatable Designs submitted to the University of Nairobi.". In: Kenya. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation and Access to Basic Needs in Kenya," in Franklyn Lisk, (ed.), Popular Participation in Planning for Basic Needs (Aldershot: Gower Publishing Co.).". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The potential of utilization of coffee pulp for animal feed. .". In: Symposium, Animal production Society of Kenya, Naivasha Dairy Training School. 2nd May 1985, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Primary Hyperparathytodism at KNH Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available yet
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Procedure of R.E. Curriculum Development in Kenya, Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. I No. 1.".; 1985. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "A Proposal of American Studies Program at University of Nairobi and Kenyatta University. American Studies in Africa, Vol.1, No.2 1985, pp.21-25.". In: Quarterly of Religious Studies Vol. 1 No. 3 March 1986 (pp 15-17.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Protestant christina attitudes to other religions," Christiian muslim relations: Report of a workshop held from 3rd to 5th, December 1985 at Limuru Conference & Training Centre (Nairobi, NCCK,) pp. 6-14.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1985. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Quertin - 3 -Neohesperidoside (Rutin) and other flavonoids as the active hypoglycaemic agents of Bridela ferruginea) (Addae-Mensah, Rahab W. Munenge (Fitoterapia Vol. LX, No. 4 - 1985).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Ranitidine in the treatment of peptic ulceration in Kenyans.East Afr Med J. 1985 Oct;62(10):752-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Oct;62(10):752-4. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Reshid, Kedir, and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. The influence of nutrient concentration in vines of sweet potato on dry matter accumulation in vines and tuberous roots. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 213-220.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "A Review of Structural Adjustment Programmes in Developing Countries: The Case of Kenya - under publication by International Institue for Development Studies, Perth Australia.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Ritho E.K., Bwibo N.O. and Pamba H.O.: A Survey of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in the Low Cost and High Cost Nursery Schools in Nairobi, Kenya Medcom 7: 7, 1985.". In: Kenya Medcom 7: 7, 1985. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1985. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Roche AF, Abdel Malek AK, Mukherjee D. 1985. New approaches to the clinical assessment of adipose tissue. 6th Rose Conf Med Research. Ross Lab, Columbus, OH, USA. Pp:14-19.". In: Ross Lab, Columbus, OH, USA. Pp:14-19. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rogo K.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Ojwang P.J., Mati J.K.G., Njoroge J.K. The effects of Tropical conditions on male fertility indices. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:45, 1985.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:45, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The role for biotechnology in the context of food Industrial development in Kenya.". In: 28th annual conference, Food links for progress, Canadian Institute of Food Science 7 Technology (CIFost) June 23 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Said, A.N. and P. N. Mbugua (1985). Present situation of compounded feed industry in Kenya and perspectives for use of local feed resources.". In: In proceedings: FAO experts consultative meeting on animal feeds in the tropics, Bangkok, Thailand. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Section on Population Education: Social Ethics and Education Syllabus, Kenya Institute of Education 1985.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., Thuo S.J., Mati J.K.G. The use of pregnopost sticks in the detection and monitoring for treatment of Trophoblastic tumors in Kenya. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:41, 1985.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 4:41, 1985. uon press; 1985. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Service Centres and Rural Development in Kenya: Paper written lor the Overseas Development Agency. 1985.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1985. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Simple Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Methods for the Separation of Catechins from Fresh Tea Leaves", J.Sci.". In: Technol. (Kenya), 6, series A 119-126 (1985). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Smith, G.R., Turner, A. and Kibe, M.K. (1985). Immunogenicity of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii.". In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Some Analysis on Marx's Intertionist Theory of de-Alienation. Thought and Practice.". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol.IV No.1, pp. 43-58.; 1985. Abstract
n/a
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Structures Defined by a Tensor Field of type (1,1) satisfying f - f = 0.". In: Tensor (N.S.) Vol.42 No.1, pp97-100. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1985. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "A study of Cottage Industries in the Urban Informal Sector: A Case of Gikomba-Belt Neighbourhood of Nairobi, M.A.(Planning), Thesis Project Research, University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1985. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "Survey of Farming Systems in Rongai Division, Nakuru District, Kenya, 1984/85. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Wheat Production Trials in Timau, Kenya, 1984/85.". In: paper presented in Harare, Zimbambwe, June, 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Susceptibility of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici in Egypt to the organo-phosphate, methamidophos and pyridaphenthion, the synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, the chlorinated hydrocarbon, dicofol and the systemic fungicide, fenarimol (Acari : .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. 1. Abou-Awad, B. A. and El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J, Syuto B, Ochanda JO, Kubo S.Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7.". In: Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7. East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813 (C-6813) was purified 1,009-fold from the culture supernatant in an overall yield of 30%. The specific toxicity was 1.1 X 10(7) mouse minimum lethal doses per mg of protein. The toxin had a molecular weight of 144,000, composed of the light and heavy chains with molecular weights of 52,000 and 92,000, respectively, linked by one or two disulfide bond(s). The purified C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains reacted strongly with anti-type D heavy chain immunoglobulin G and anti-type C1 light chain immunoglobulin G, respectively. The amino acid compositions of C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains were more similar to those of type D heavy chain and type C1 light chain than to those of type C1 heavy chain and type D light chain, respectively. These results suggest that in the toxin produced by the type C strain at least two subtypes exist.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J., B. Syuto and S. Kubo: Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect. Immun. 48, 312-317.". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. ""The 8-4-4 Getting Down to the Real Business".". In: The Sunday Times,(Nairobi:January 13,1985),p.4. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1985. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. ""The Spatial Distribution of the Mijikenda Kaya Settlements on the Hinterland Kenya Coast", TransAfrican Journal of History. Vol.14, 1985, pp. 78-100.". In: TransAfrican Journal of History. Vol.14, 1985, pp. 78-100. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "THOUGHT AND TECHNIQUE IN THE POETRY OF OKOT P'BITEK. 1994, New York: Vintage Press, Inc. For reviews see Peter Nazareth in World Literature Today; A Literary Quarterly of the University of Oklahoma (U.S.A); Books Abroad, Summer 1984 Issue; Sammy Kwichini .". In: Published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor: MI 481061346 U.S.A. March 15, 1989. Publication No. 88-16, 106.; 1985. Abstract

This dissertation is a study of twentieth-century American novels which can be used in a course by Kenyan and other East African students and teachers. The selected novels can be studied as models for exemplification of the most significant developments and trends in longer American narrative fiction in the period covered by the study. Because of time limits and for purposes of presenting quality fictional works to be covered in one semester, eight novels were analyzed in this study. These are: Sister Carrie (1900) by Theodore Dreiser, The Great Gatsby (1925) by F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, Intruder in the Dust (1948)by J.D Salinger, Invisible Man(1952) by Ralph Ellison, Go Tell it On The Mountain(1953) by James Baldwin and Brown Girl, Brownstones(1959)by Paule Marshall. Each of the selected novels represents a component of significance in American literature during the era designated .Sister Carrie

W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Transfer of Technology in Africa: Existing Policy, Legal and Institutional Framework. A report to UNCTC, June.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1985. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Two and a half year Review of some aspects of twin delivery at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Two and a half year Review of some aspects of twin delivery at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "The use of fine needle aspiration in urological practice Medicom 1985.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1985. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1985. Abstract
No abstract yet
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "vi. The African charcoal Stove: It.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1985. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "W2-Curvature Tensor in Almost Product and Almost Decomposable Space.". In: Africa Matematika, Vol.VIII pp. 37-42. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1985. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Application of tissue culture biotechnology in horticultural production. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 131-140.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Flower bulb forcing in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae,177:255-259.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "WANAKHAMUNA AND WANANGWE A short story-Oral narrative in THE SURVIVORS edited by A.B Odaga and Hebel Andati Shiloli. Kisumu: Kenya Women Writers. Foundation ( FEMART -K), December REFEREED BY ASENATH BOLE ODAGA.". In: Published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor: MI 481061346 U.S.A. March 15, 1989. Publication No. 88-16, 106.; 1985. Abstract

This dissertation is a study of twentieth-century American novels which can be used in a course by Kenyan and other East African students and teachers. The selected novels can be studied as models for exemplification of the most significant developments and trends in longer American narrative fiction in the period covered by the study. Because of time limits and for purposes of presenting quality fictional works to be covered in one semester, eight novels were analyzed in this study. These are: Sister Carrie (1900) by Theodore Dreiser, The Great Gatsby (1925) by F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, Intruder in the Dust (1948)by J.D Salinger, Invisible Man(1952) by Ralph Ellison, Go Tell it On The Mountain(1953) by James Baldwin and Brown Girl, Brownstones(1959)by Paule Marshall. Each of the selected novels represents a component of significance in American literature during the era designated .Sister Carrie

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S., Murugu NM, Mati JKG 1985 Mortality due to Abortions at Kenyatta National Hospital 1974-1983 Abortion: Medical Progress and Social Implications Pitman, London (CIBA Foundation Symposium 115) 41-53.". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Quantitative observations on the structural characteristics of the avian kidney. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool (England).". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Stereological observations on the kidneys of 16 avian species.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N., and King, A.S. (1985. Stereological observations on the kidney of the domestic fowl. J. Anat. 142: 129-139.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. FARA; 1985. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "With D. K. Leonard, "Procedures for Decentralised Programming, Budgeting and Work Planning: Lessons from Kenya.". In: Agricultural Administration (Essex) Vol. 19, No. 3,pp. 123-137. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "With J. Barbour (Eds.) Kenyan pots and potters. Nairobi.". In: Oxford University Press. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Writing a Project Proposal".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Writing a Project Proposal".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract

 

 

Varma S. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Nairobi: Kenya Veterinary Association; 1985. Abstract
n/a
1984
Sahu BK, Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Red Coffee Soils of Nairobi.". In: 2nd International ANSTI Seminar in Civil Engineering. University of Lagos, Nigeria.; 1984.

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