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C N. "The social meanings of death from HIV /AIDS: an African interpretative view ." Culture, Health and Society. 2000;2(2):1-14.
Ngugi J, Kimotho S, Muturi S. "Social Media Use By The Deaf In Business At Nairobi, Kenya." AJBUMA JOURNAL. 2018;4(3). Abstractdeaf_use_of_social_media_in_21st_century_business.pdfWebsite

Social media for business is the new frontier for deaf Kenyans, due to the information gap they often experience as they navigate a largely speaking and hearing world. This case studyon the use of social media platforms for business by the deaf in Nairobi includes a special emphasis on the convergence of their natural visual language, sign language with video technology. The research is important to boost socio economic livelihoods of deaf Kenyans for equality in development as well as integrate the Kenyan business industry with the innovation and creativity introduced by the signing „genre‟ of business communication. The results of the study indicate that the dialectical gap between the deaf and hearing is significantly reduced as sign language users can informally interact and exchange ideas, information and updates on business. In addition, the general boost in vocabulary originating from deaf people‟ interest in on-line communication in Kenya is highlighted. It is recommended that the recent immersion of the Kenyan deaf community in the use of smartphones and dissemination of instant messaging needs to be enhanced, as it may yield answers to societal inclusion, while also highlighting deaf cultural pride proponents of the deaf business people‟ creativity.
KeyWords:Deaf, social media, business, Kenya

Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Jocelyn Davies PKSGEOYMSBMMA. "Social Network Analysis provides insight in the Epidemiolgy of African Swine Fever." Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2016;2016.
Mbugua, M., Nzuma, M.J., Muange, J. "Social networks and Ex-post risk management among smallholder farmers in Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):30-39.
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Mbugua M, Nzuma J, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social networks and household food consumption smoothing in the presence of idiosyncratic shocks: insights from rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;30(3):383-393.
Muhingi WN, Mutavi T, Kokonya D, Simiyu NV, Musungu B, Obondo A, Kuria MW. "Social Networks and Students’ Performance in Secondary Schools: Lessons from an Open Learning Centre, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;6(21):171-177.
E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. Social Philosophy. Nairobi: The Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2009. AbstractWebsite

An instruction manual for teaching Social philosophy to third year students in the department of philosophy.

Maclure R;, Gakuru O;, Sotelo M. "Social policies and marginalized urban youth: centrist prescriptions and divergent practices .". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Although conditions of risk confronting urban youth are most visible in the immediate contexts of family and community, the degree to which specific social policies affect the status of adolescence is less understood. Between 1999 and 2002, with support from the International Development Research Centre, a team of researchers in Canada, Kenya and Nicaragua undertook a comparative inquiry into policy changes designed to influence social services impinging on the welfare of marginalized urban youth. Qualitative case studies focused on three stages of policy: a) the politics and macro-level forces underlying the formulation of social policies that affect urban youth; b) the institutional dynamics of policy implementation within selected urban sites and corresponding relations between units of local government and civil society organizations; and c) the actions and perspectives of groups of individuals who have been engaged in, and affected by, these policy processes. Despite the diversity of contexts and policies examined, case study findings revealed how the formulation of youth-oriented policies are shaped by dominant discourses that rarely accommodate the perspectives of youth themselves. Likewise, the implementation of such policies constitutes a complex set of practices that are subject to negotiation and different forms of appropriation, and therefore often exacerbate the marginalization of urban youth. In keeping with the qualitative and collaborative design of the project, the research helped to generate inter organizational dialogue within the communities that were the sites of inquiry. It also fostered insights regarding the role of collaborative international research as a catalyst for cross-national dialogue and a knowledge base for grassroots rights-oriented social change.

R.M O. "Social Policy and the role of the Individual in regulating Business Crime.". In: BEN - Africa International Convention. the BEN - Africa International Convention held at the Fair View Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2000.
Ocharo RM, Mukami KL. "Social Predictors of Food Insecurity: The Case of Yatta Constituency, Machakos County, Kenya. ." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences.. 2020;3(1):86-95.
C.M K, I.W M. Social Problems and Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi-ODEL; 2012.
Kahigi CM, Muasya IW. "Social Problems and Education.". 2012. Abstract
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Irungu, Patrick; Ndirangu L; OJ. Social Protection and Agricultural Development in Kenya.; 2009. Abstract

This paper focuses on social protection programs in Kenya’s agriculture. A case study approach was used where three cases were examined: (a) emergency seed distribution in the arid and semi-arid lands and remote areas which are inadequately served by the formal seed sector, (b) hunger and safety net programme in northern Kenya, and (c) Njaa Marufuku Kenya. The study found that while social protection programs/strategies are necessary to cushion vulnerable groups from covariate risk, these have not been properly domesticated in the Kenyan policy and legal frameworks. In fact, the national response to shocks and stresses among the vulnerable groups has largely been ad hoc. Emergency interventions have been implemented in rather haphazard and knee-jerk approach with minimal strategic policy focus. And even where social safety nets have been implemented, these have largely been untargeted, uncoordinated and humanitarian in nature. Hence, although some efforts have been made in the past to entrench social protection in the Kenyan society (e.g., the Equity Bill, the Affirmative Action Bill and the Constitutional Review), these initiatives have suffered from lack of political goodwill, ethnic and class chauvinism and political patronage. There is therefore need to for the Kenyan society as a whole to re-define its strategic direction with regard to empowering poor households to enable them cope with shocks. The starting point would be to design a comprehensive social protection policy which is now in progress.

Bahemuka. MJ. "Social Protection and The Rule of Law. The Emerging Challenges for the African Region." Institute of Social Studies, Havana, Cuba; 2007.
Wairire GG, Mwabeyo Z. "Social protection policies for orphaned and vulnerable children in East Africa.". In: World Conference for Social Work themed ‘Social Work and Social Development 2012: Action and Impact. Stockholm - Sweden; 2012.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Social Provision in Low-Income Countries: New Patterns and Emerging Trends (editor), with Cecilia Ugaz and Gordon White, Oxford: Oxford University Press, May 2001.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Mwabu GM;, Nganda BM;, Masai WS;, Gakuru ON;, Kirimi JB. "Social Provisioning in Kenya: Towards a Pluralistic System .". 2000.Website
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of Knowledge, Thought and Practice - A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1974, East African Literature Bureau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Social Reality and Sociology of knowledge, thought and Practice-A Journal of the philosophical Association of kenya,Vol.1,No.2, 19784, east African literature Bereau.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Social Science Research for Paralegal Workers.". In: Chapter 3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Mulwa AS. Social Sciences Research. Nairobi, Kenya: Downtown; 2012.
W. MATHUG. "Social Studies ."; 1969. Abstract
n/a
Ganira KL, Odundo P, Gatumu, Jane C, Muasya, Juliet N. "Social Studies Curriculum and Cooperation among Preschool Learners in Nairobi County, Kenya: Addressing Effectiveness of Instructional Methods." American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 2019;4(1):86-97.
Ganira K, Odundo, Paul O, Gatumu, Jane C, Muasya, Juliet N. "Social Studies Curriculum Content, and Respect among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya: Focusing on Relevance." International Journal of social studies and humanities invention. 2018;5(7):4842-4848.
Wandibba S, Thuranira J, Baya D. Social Studies STD 6.; 2003.Website
Mulwa AS. Social Studies: Teaching Techniques and Map Reading. Nairobi, Kenya: Kingtech Pubishers; 2007.
Wairire GG. "Social Work and the Metamorphosis of Participatory Development in Kenya; the Case of Constituency Development Fund.". In: the 7th Pan African Social Work Conference. Africana Hotel, Kampala - Uganda; 2007.
Wairire GG. "Social Work In Post Traumatic Stress Related Scenarios In Kenya.". In: A paper presented in a guest lecture. Alpen Adria University - Klugenfurt , Austria; 2012.
Maina, mwihaki. "Social-Cultural Impact of Bead work in East Africa: the Nexus between the Dinka, Samburu & Masaai Ethnicities." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2020;9(7):87-94.
Kilungo JK, McDermott JJ, Oluoch WK, Omore AO. "Social-economics of smallholder dairy production in Kiambu district, Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Assesses socio-economic features of smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district, Kenya. Emphasises input use by farmers and compares average milk production and prices. It is also reported in this study that more detailed analysis of the profitability of milk production on these farms is in progress

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Social-Historical Structures of Racism in Denton Lotz, Ed., Baptists Against Racism, McLean, Birginia, USA: Baptist World Allicance.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Socializing the Young in The Nairobi Journal of Literature. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press." Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS. Socially responsible investments and portfolio performance: A critical literature review. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1970s, socially responsible investment (SRI) has gained prominence as both a rival and a complement to conventional investment. SRI is the philosophy and practice of making strategic investment decisions by integrating financial and non-financial considerations, including personal values, societal demands, environmental concerns and corporate governance issues. One of the major concerns in socially responsible investing is whether there is a difference between the performance of socially screened portfolios and that of conventional funds.

This study is a literature review of socially responsible investment and portfolio performance. The objectives of the study are to establish the documented relationship between socially responsible investment (SRI) and portfolio performance; to investigate, from the literature, whether investor demographic characteristics moderate the relationship between socially responsible investment and portfolio performance, to examine whether the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance is intervened by portfolio management process, to identify and document research gaps in socially responsible investment and lastly to establish researchable issues in socially responsible investment. The study presents a conceptual model guided by the modern portfolio theory, the stakeholders’ theory, the institutional theory and the new social movement theory.

Literature reviewed on the performance of SRI mutual funds has been inconclusive with three schools of thought emerging: SRI under-performs, over-performs or performs as well as conventional mutual funds. The paper concludes that the conflicting results are caused by the fact that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances is not direct but is intervened by other variables such as the portfolio management process. Five factors in the portfolio management process that are affected by SRI have been identified (Havemann and Webster, 1999). These are the portfolio diversification process, the size and structure of the investable universe, concentration and the research costs incurred in monitoring the investee companies. Another explanation into the conflicting results is that the relationship between SRI and portfolio performances may be moderated by the investors’ demographic characteristics such age, gender, level of education and amount of funds under management (Nilsson, 2008; Nilsson, 2009; Junkus and Berry, 2010).

A number of research gaps arise from the analysis of the issues examined in this paper. These include: Firstly, lack of consensus on why SRI occurs even when empirical evidence on the impact of SRI on portfolio performance is inconclusive. Secondly, difficulties in assessment of non-financial risk and return created by SRI especially given the inability to quantify social, ethical, governance, moral and environmental issues. Thirdly, most studies have not controlled for any intervening or moderating variable affecting the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance. Variables such as differences in demographic characteristics of the fund managers and portfolio management process may affect the relationship between SRI and portfolio performance.

Arising from the research gaps identified, several areas of further study have been suggested. These include: Firstly, a research instrument be developed to empirically test the variables that impact on socially responsible investment including the moderating and intervening variables. Secondly, a study can be undertaken to investigate the heterogeneity among investor clienteles and its implications for understanding the effects of social values on asset prices. Thirdly, given that investors have different reasons for investing in SRI profiled mutual funds, future research with regard to this segmentation would be to find out the reasons why investors belong to certain groups. Fourthly, further research can be done focusing on the type of mutual funds that could be marketed to the different investors’ segments and finally, an index can be developed to quantify the non-financial risk and returns existing in SRI mutual funds.

H.M K, Z. O, R. T, K. M. "The Societal Construction of Femininity as Depicted in the Metaphor of Chicken in Swahili Proverbs." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2021;6/1(April 2021):19-26.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Societal Marketing: Concept, Problems and Opportunities. In Marketing Review. University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
Wairire G, Okemwa P, Akinyi M. "Society and Successful Transition: Female Genital Mutilation." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):19-24.
Rambo CM, Paul A. Odundo. "Socio - E co nomic Empowerment of Women through Micro - Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and U nfunded W omen in Kisumu District, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster M anagement and Risk Reduction. 2010;2(2):92-107.
Mutiso SK, Obara DA, Muchunga EK, Nyangena W, Chege AM, Munene FM. "Socio - Economic and Land Use Indicators.". In: National Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping in Kenya.; 1997.
Manda DK. "Socio - economic Impact of K - REP Programme on Women Activities at the Coast Province (TOTOTO).". In: A report for K - REP. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1992.
Migosi JA. "Socio Economic Status of Students at Higher Education Level in Kenya: A Case of Moi University." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2018;6(8):333-347.
Ayiemba EHO. "Socio Strata and Categories .". 1985.Website
Odundo P. "Socio- Economic Empowerment of Women through Micro-Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and unfunded women in Kisumu District, Kenya. ." International Journal of Disaster Managment and Risk Reduction. 2010;2(2):92-107.
Theuri DW, Wairire, G.G., Mwangi SW. "Socio- economic hazards of plastic paper bags litter in peri- urban centers of Kenya: A case study of Ongata Rongai Township - Kajiado County." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(5).
Businge MS, Maina I, Ayiemba E, M.Odongo, Maingi P, Nderitu P, Ngweyo S. "Socio- Economic Status, Poverty, Gender and Environment.". In: Supporting the Development of Vision 2030. Malta: Progress Press; 2012.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-Cultural Analysis of Childhood Malnutrition in Embu District". In Social Behaviour and Health Monograph No. 2, March,1996. Co-authored with Dr. W.M. Macharia. .". In: University of Nairobi: IFCP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "The socio-cultural and economic context of pottery production in Kenya.". In: MILA (N.S.), 2:52-60. Taylor & Francis; 1997. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
K MRKIRAGUFRANCIS. "Socio-Cultural and Socio-Economic Impact on African Family Today.". In: Held at the Third Pan African Association of Anthropologists Conference Yaounde Cameroon. 1983; 1992. Abstract
n/a
K'Oyugi BO, Team CR. Socio-cultural Factors and HIV Transmission: A Case Study of Mwingi and Homa Bay Districts. Nairobi: UNDP Kenya Country Office; 2001.
Kasyoka LA, Mutavi T, Muhingi WN, Ondicho T, Gitau C. "Socio-Cultural Factors Associated with Gender-Based Violence Survivors Accessing Legal Services in Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Research Innovation and Implications in Education. 2021;5(1):30-41.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Socio-cultural practices of deciduous canine tooth bud removal among Maasai children. J.Mutai, E.Muniu, J.Sawe, J.Hassanali, P.Kibet, P.Wanzala. International Dental Journal, 60 : 94-98 (2010).". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. International Dental Journal, 60 : 94-98 (2010); 2010. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
Owino BO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "Socio-demographic and clinical aspects of rheumatoid arthritis.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the socio-demographic profiles and some clinical aspects of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ambulatory out- patient clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a public national and referral hospital. SUBJECTS: Out of 180 patients interviewed and examined, 60 met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria of RA. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients recruited 52 (87%) were females with male: female ratio of 1: 6.5. The mean age of patients was 41.38(+/- 16.8) years. There were two peaks of age of occurrence, 20-29 and 40-49 years. In 75% of the study patients, one or more of metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand were involved in the disease. Other frequently involved sites were--wrists, elbows, knees, ankles and glenohumeral joints of shoulders in a symmetrical manner. Serum rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.9% while rheumatoid nodules were present in 13.3% of the study patients. A large majority of patients (88%) had active disease with 18% having mild disease, 38% moderate activity and 32% having severe disease. Only 12% of patients had disease in remission. Forty six point seven per cent (46.7%) of the study patients were on at least one Disease Modifying anti Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) from a selection of methotrexate, sulphasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and leflunamide. The most frequent drug combination was methotrexate plus prednisolone at 30% of the study population; while 66.7% were on oral prednisolone with 25% of the study patients taking only Non-Steroidal anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). CONCLUSION: A large majority of ambulatory patients with RA had active disease. Most of them were sub-optimally treated, especially the use of DMARDS. About two thirds were on oral steroids. Sub-optimal therapy in relatively young patients, peak 20-29 and 40-49 years is likely to impact negatively on their disease control and quality of life.

Owino BO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "Socio-demographic and clinical aspects of rheumatoid arthritis.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the socio-demographic profiles and some clinical aspects of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ambulatory out- patient clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a public national and referral hospital. SUBJECTS: Out of 180 patients interviewed and examined, 60 met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria of RA. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients recruited 52 (87%) were females with male: female ratio of 1: 6.5. The mean age of patients was 41.38(+/- 16.8) years. There were two peaks of age of occurrence, 20-29 and 40-49 years. In 75% of the study patients, one or more of metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand were involved in the disease. Other frequently involved sites were--wrists, elbows, knees, ankles and glenohumeral joints of shoulders in a symmetrical manner. Serum rheumatoid factor was positive in 78.9% while rheumatoid nodules were present in 13.3% of the study patients. A large majority of patients (88%) had active disease with 18% having mild disease, 38% moderate activity and 32% having severe disease. Only 12% of patients had disease in remission. Forty six point seven per cent (46.7%) of the study patients were on at least one Disease Modifying anti Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) from a selection of methotrexate, sulphasalazine, hydroxychloroquine and leflunamide. The most frequent drug combination was methotrexate plus prednisolone at 30% of the study population; while 66.7% were on oral prednisolone with 25% of the study patients taking only Non-Steroidal anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). CONCLUSION: A large majority of ambulatory patients with RA had active disease. Most of them were sub-optimally treated, especially the use of DMARDS. About two thirds were on oral steroids. Sub-optimal therapy in relatively young patients, peak 20-29 and 40-49 years is likely to impact negatively on their disease control and quality of life.

Nagata JM, Fiorella KJ, Young SL, Otieno OD, Kapule I, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. "Socio-demographic and health associations with body mass index at the time of enrollment in HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Low body mass index (BMI) at the time of enrollment into HIV care has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality independent of CD4 count. This study investigated socio-demographic associations with underweight (BMI < 18.5) among adults in Nyanza Province, Kenya, upon enrollment into HIV care. BMI, socio-demographic, and health data from a cross-sectional sample of 8254 women and 3533 men were gathered upon enrollment in the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) program in Nyanza Province, Kenya, between January 2005 and March 2010. Overall, 27.4% of adults were underweight upon enrollment in HIV care. Among each women [W] and men [M], being underweight was associated with younger age (W: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85-4.55; M: AOR, 5.87; 95% CI, 2.80-12.32 for those aged 15-19 compared to ≥50 years old), less education (W: AOR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.83-4.65; M: AOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.31 for primary education compared to some college/university), low CD4 count (W: AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.50-3.03; M: AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.76-2.70 for 0-250 compared to ≥750 cells/mm3), and poor self-reported health status (W: AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.89-3.33; M: AOR, 9.78; 95% CI, 1.26-75.73 for poor compared to excellent). Among all enrollees to HIV care, low BMI was associated with male gender, lower educational attainment, younger age, and poor self-reported health. HIV care and treatment programs should consider using socio-demographic and health risk factors associated with low BMI to target and recruit patients with the goal of preventing late enrollment into care.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, the referral hospital for Western Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred patients admitted at the gynaecological wards during the period 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2002. RESULTS: In this study 80% of gynaecological patients admitted at PGH Kakamega were of an emergency nature with 45% being teenagers. The mean age was 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD). The majority had primary level of education or below (69%), unemployed (87%) and were rural residents (71%). Patients with abortion formed about 43% of the study group while those with inflammatory disease, pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy formed about 24%, 10% and 8% respectively. CONCLUSION: Most gynaecological admissions in PGH Kakamega are of acute nature, with abortion being the most common diagnosis. Hence, trained staff, equipment, supplies and drugs for management of acute gynaecological conditions should be available in hospitals in Western Kenya.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Provincial General Hospital Kakamega, the referral hospital for Western Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Four hundred patients admitted at the gynaecological wards during the period 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2002. RESULTS: In this study 80% of gynaecological patients admitted at PGH Kakamega were of an emergency nature with 45% being teenagers. The mean age was 17 +/- 3 (mean +/- SD). The majority had primary level of education or below (69%), unemployed (87%) and were rural residents (71%). Patients with abortion formed about 43% of the study group while those with inflammatory disease, pelvic abscess and ectopic pregnancy formed about 24%, 10% and 8% respectively. CONCLUSION: Most gynaecological admissions in PGH Kakamega are of acute nature, with abortion being the most common diagnosis. Hence, trained staff, equipment, supplies and drugs for management of acute gynaecological conditions should be available in hospitals in Western Kenya.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2006;83(12):659-65. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK).

Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Amusa LO. "Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol consumption among university athletes." African Journal of Physical Heath Education Sports and Dance. 2012;18(4:2):939-954.
Agwanda" "A, Bocquier' "P, Khasakhala" "A, Owuor" "S. A Socio-Demographic Survey of Nairobi. Dakar, Senegal: CODESSRIA; 2009.
Agwanda, A; Bocquier KOP; A; S. "A Socio-Demographic Survey Of Nairobi."; 2009.
M G, D A, M.O R, N.O S, M.K C. "Socio-ecological influences of attitudes toward disability among Kenyan undergraduate students." Journal of Psychology in Africa. 2015;25(3):216-223.
Omuga DB. "Socio-Economic And Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Reproductive Health Decision Making Among Mothers Delivered in Pumwani Maternity and Kenyatta National Hospital." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2006;35(1):33-39. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used.

The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry.

The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Farah KO, Nyariki DM, Noor AA;, Ngugi RK, Musimba1 NK. "The Socio-economic and Ecological Impacts of Small-scale Irrigation Schemes on Pastoralists and Drylands in Northern Kenya."; 2001. Abstract

ABSTRACT Northern Kenya, as in other sub-Saharan arid and semi-arid regions, has faced challenges related to the prevailing socio-economy, ecology and polity in the last quarter of last century. In some of these areas, pastoralists have been settled on the peri-urban fringes of towns and have been exposed to flood-retreat cultivation; a culture that has been traditionally practised by the riverine Bantu communities. From the late 1960s these pastoralists started irrigation agriculture with assistance from the government and nongovernmental organisations. The outcome has been the mushrooming of irrigation schemes along rivers. This paper looks at the development of small-scale irrigation schemes and their sustainability. It also analyses their socio-economic and ecological effects on pastoral households and the drylands, taking Garissa District as a case. Interviews, a questionnaire and existing literature on irrigation schemes were used to collect data. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the socio-economic effects of irrigation on the pastoral households. The results show that irrigation farming plays a supplementary role in pastoral economies, takes away child labour from pastoralism and reduces pastoral mobility. The implication is that irrigation farming in arid areas does not seem to offer a long-term sustainable economic livelihood.

Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Gweyi-Onyango JP, Kimenju JW. "Socio-economic and Institutional Factors Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2019:1-11.
Muia JM, Wainaina G. "SOCIO-ECONOMIC ATTRIBUTES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WEALTH PORTFOLIOS OF SALARIED MIDDLE AND UPPER INCOME EMPLOYEES IN KENYA." ORSEA. 2013. Abstract

Personal wealth as denoted by accumulated net assets is a key ingredient of a people’s standards of living. This is because wealth facilitates consumption, especially in old age, cushions people against adversities such as illness and unemployment as well as enables further wealth creation through access to bank credit. The assets that comprise wealth include cash and bank balances, properties, shares in cooperatives and listed companies, life assurance policies, accrued pension benefits, corporate bonds, and treasury bills and bonds.
This paper examines the sizes and composition of the wealth portfolios of salaried middle and upper income employees in Kenya in order to find out which personal attributes are key determinants of the portfolios. Primary data was obtained from questionnaires that were administered on a stratified random sample of 1,067 salaried middle and upper income employees in Kenya in mid 2010, the time of survey. The preliminary tests employed the use of Kaiser Mayer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test based on correlation and partial correlation as well as the results of Bartlett’s Test of sphericity to test for the presence of correlations among variables. For this paper, the results KMO measure of sampling adequacy of 0.758 was acceptable, since it was higher than the recommended minimum of 0.50. Additionally, the Bartlett’s Test of sphericity recorded an acceptable p-value of 0.000, which was lower than the test value of 0.05 percent, thereby indicating that there is correlation between the variables To establish the determinants of the wealth portfolios of employees in Kenya, 21variables were used. These variables were analyzed using factor analysis procedure and in order to achieve a simple and meaningful structure, that is, have a nonzero loading of the explained variance for each individual factors, varimax rotation was done. As a result, six critical factors were established as the determinants of wealth portfolios of salaried middle and upper income employees, which include earning capacity, life cycle factors, investment objective, employee’s cultural background, employees’ risk taking behavior and savings. The findings largely conform to theory and corroborate evidence from prior studies.
Key Words: assets, attributes, characteristics, salaried middle and upper income employees, socio-economic, wealth portf

Thumbi S, Amimo JO, Inyangala BO, Junga JO, Mosi RO. "Socio-economic characteristics and perceptions of cattle keepers and constraints to cattle production in Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A cross-sectional survey was done in two Districts in Western Kenya to determine the socio-economic characteristics and perceptions of the cattle types kept. This involved socio-economic profiles of households, herd structure, reasons for keeping specific types of cattle and production and marketing constraints together with desired policy interventions to address the constraints. A total of 210 farmers randomly selected were interviewed. The data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System program. The majority of farmers (84%) were males. The households surveyed had an average family size of 8 (± 4.7) members. The mean land holding was 7.8 acres, with 98% of them owning the land. Most of the farmers (64%) in the two districts were literate and were involved in farming (95%) as the primary livelihood. The majority (80%) of the households preferred keeping indigenous zebu cattle over the exotic cattle. The first three reasons for keeping zebu cattle were, in that order, work, especially ploughing (91%), milk (74%) and as a repository for wealth (32%), which accounted for about 62% of the respondents. Diseases (86%), inadequate and low quality feed (12%) and high cost of drugs (2%) were the major constraints to livestock productivity. The farmers also identified lack of market (48%), poor infrastructure (39%) and misuse by the middlemen traders (12%) as main marketing constraints. The survey showed that there is need for the effective implementation of policies on adequate financial aid and regulation of farm input prices to the farmers as well as improved livestock extension services to enhance the production of ruminant livestock.

Mbogoh SG. Socio-economic considerations in smallholder irrigation development and experiences in Kenya.; 1990. AbstractWebsite

The paper describes Kenyan experience with smallholder irrigation, and draws from: (i) an evaluation of socio-economic aspects of smallholder irrigation rice schemes in Nyanza Province; (ii) a survey of the role of irrigation in a smallholder farming system in Baringo District; and (iii) a performance-monitoring survey of some smallholder irrigation schemes, also in Baringo District. Policy implications concerning the need for suitable evaluation before intervening in irrigation development are drawn from examination of the various socio-economic factors which may have led to the success or failure of the selected smallholder irrigation schemes in Kenya. These results could form part of the basis for a checklist of socio-economic factors appropriate to the design of sustainable smallholder irrigation schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS TO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN KIAMBU DISTRICT.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Sustainability in agriculture requires a better understanding of interactions within the production syatem. Diverse factors such as social structure, knowledge and information flow all as well as other bio[hyscical afctors interact with each other to determine agricultural productivity and sustainability. Researchers and extension agents find that they need to deal with issues that may be outside their area of specialization. An interdisciplinary approach provides a framework through which such support can be provided.
Ikamari LDE, Odwe G. Socio-economic determinants of unwanted pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre; 2010.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Socio-economic Development and its consequences on Health Indicators: A comparison of two districts in Kenya, a paper presented at the workshop on Intersectoral Cooperation in National Strategies of Health, Brazzaville, 17th to 20th Nov., 1987.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K'Oyugi BO. "Socio-economic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality in Kenya: Application of a Hazards Model,pp. 89-98.". In: “Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Nairobi: Population Studies and Research Institute University; 2001.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Socio-Economic Dimensions of Biodiversity Conservation in Kenya.". In: paper presented for the Country Biodiversity study. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Dimba E, Aden A, Ndolo U, Chindia ML. "Socio-Economic effects of Khat (Catha edulis) chewing.". 2006. Abstract
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Aden A, Dimba EAO, Ndolo UM, Chindia ML. "Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in north eastern Kenya." East African medical journal. 2006;83:69. Abstract
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Odundo P, Rambo C. "Socio-Economic Empowerment of Women Through Micro-Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and unfunded Women in Kisumu District, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction . 2010;2(2).
Verbeek E, Kanis E, Bett RC, Kosgey IS. "Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept both species. Goats were generally ranked lower in popularity. The most represented breeds in the households were the indigenous East African goat and the Red Maasai sheep, and crossbred genotypes of goats and sheep. However, according to the farmers, the pure breeds were more popular than the crossbreeds. The households owned the majority of the used land for small ruminant production. In many cases, male household members were in control of the land. Animals were in most cases owned by the household head only or by both the household head and the spouse. The most important water source for animals was the river with the frequency of watering in the dry season in some cases being as low as once a day. Both males and females made most decisions in smallholder households. Women in the pastoral/ extensive systems participated less significantly in decision making than those in smallholder households, although they were responsible to many animal production related activities. In general, it is important to take into consideration socio-economic factors that influence small ruminant breeding programs to enhance their success.

Rodrigues AJ, Oyoo WS, Odundo FO, Wambu EW. "Socio-economic factors influencing the spread of drinking water diseases in rural Africa: case study of Bondo sub-county, Kenya." Journal of Water and Health. 2015;13(2):500-509. Abstract

Socio-economic and medical information on Bondo sub-county community was studied to help establish the relationship between the water quality challenges, community health and water rights conditions. Health challenges have been linked to water quality and household income. A total of 1,510 households/respondents were studied by means of a questionnaire. About 69% of the households have no access to treated water. Although 92% of the respondents appear to be aware that treatment of water prevents waterborne diseases, the lowest income group and children share a high burden of waterborne diseases requiring hospitalization and causing mortality. Open defecation (12.3%) in these study areas contributes to a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The community’s constitutional rights to quality water in adequate quantities are greatly infringed. The source of low-quality water is not a significant determinant of waterborne disease. The differences in poverty level in the sub-county are statistically insignificant and contribute less than other factors. Increased investment in water provision across regions, improved sanitation and availability of affordable point-of-use water purification systems will have major positive impacts on the health and economic well-being of the community.

Wanjiku J;, Ackello – Ogutu C;, Kimenye LN;, Place F. "Socio-economic Factors Influencing Use Of Improved Fallows In Crop Production By Small-scale Farmers In Western Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Abstract This study analysed the factors influencing the intensity of adoption of improved fallows in Western Kenya. Three hundred farmers were interviewed. Descriptive results showed the adopters to be older, more educated and had more contact with technology promoters than the non-adopters. Partial budgets were constructed and marginal rates of returns (MRR) showed that the technology is profitable. Based on the censored Tobit, the results indicate that the intensity of adoption was significantly influenced by age, experience of the household head and spouse, total land area, contact with technology promoters, technology profitability and use of other soil fertility replenishment options. It is recommended that education efforts be intensified. There is need to strengthen contact with the technology promoters. In order to ensure information flow to all, there is need for improvement in the approach and methods employed in on-farm research. Further, there is need to establish and strengthen networks of information exchange among relevant and interested organisation

Ikamari LDE. "'Socio-economic Impact of AIDS at Malaba Border Township, Kenya’.". In: AIDS Workshop . Nairobi; 1992.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Socio-economic Impact of Biotechnology Applications: Some Lessons from the Pilot Tissue-Culture (tc) Banana Production Project in Kenya, 1997-2002.". In: 25th International Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Durban, South Africa. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2003. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
Mbogo SG;, Wambugu F;, Wakhusama S. "Socio-economic impact of biotechnology applications: some lessons from the pilot tissue-culture (TC) banana production promotion project in Kenya, 1997-2002."; 2003. Abstract

This article is based on a socio-economic impact study of the introduction and adoption of tissue-culture (tc) technology in banana production in Kenya. It attempts to demonstrate that a prudent introduction and promotion of a new biotechnological innovation in farming can make a positive contribution to the socio-economic status of resource poor farmers in a developing country, such as Kenya. Adoption of tc technology in banana production in Kenya is considered a good example of biotechnological applications in agriculture. Hence the article hopes to make a contribution to recent debates at international levels as to whether biotechnology can make a difference in uplifting the living standards of people in the third world (Qaim, 1999; Graff, et al 2002; Qaim, et al 2002) by showing that it actually does so, using experiences from Kenya. The study utilizes both primary and secondary data sources. The results show that tc-banana production is relatively more capital intensive than non-tc banana production (re: about 70% fixed costs for tc banana versus about 49% fixed costs for non-tc banana). However, tc-banana production is found to offer relatively much higher financial returns than non-tc banana production. The high profitability of tc-banana production relative to traditional (non-tc) banana production and other farm enterprises in the pilot tc-banana project area in Kenya demonstrates the importance of biotechnological applications in rural development and shows that biotechnology can make a difference in uplifting the living standards of people in the third world. Therefore, efforts to promote tc-banana production in Kenya are justifiable from both food security and economic criteria.

M DRKITALAPHILIP, O DROGARAWILLIAM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "The Socio-economic Impact of Important Camel Diseases as Perceived by a Pastoralist Community in Kenya.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the  participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (p<0.05) between the informant groups on the losses incurred as a result of the diseases for all the selected loss indicators. Surra and mange were given high median scores on all the indicators while non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations, and haemorrhagic septicaemia received moderate median scores. Based on the study findings it is concluded that the camel plays a central role in the lives of Turkana pastoralists and that surra has a devastating social and economic impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.   Keywords:      Camel trypanosomosis, participatory approach, surra, Turkana pastoralists
M DRKITALAPHILIP, O DROGARAWILLIAM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "The Socio-economic Impact of Important Camel Diseases as Perceived by a Pastoralist Community in Kenya.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2006. Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the  participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (p<0.05) between the informant groups on the losses incurred as a result of the diseases for all the selected loss indicators. Surra and mange were given high median scores on all the indicators while non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations, and haemorrhagic septicaemia received moderate median scores. Based on the study findings it is concluded that the camel plays a central role in the lives of Turkana pastoralists and that surra has a devastating social and economic impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.   Keywords:      Camel trypanosomosis, participatory approach, surra, Turkana pastoralists
M DRKITALAPHILIP, O DROGARAWILLIAM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "The Socio-economic Impact of Important Camel Diseases as Perceived by a Pastoralist Community in Kenya.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2006. Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using participatory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the  participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in order of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (p<0.05) between the informant groups on the losses incurred as a result of the diseases for all the selected loss indicators. Surra and mange were given high median scores on all the indicators while non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations, and haemorrhagic septicaemia received moderate median scores. Based on the study findings it is concluded that the camel plays a central role in the lives of Turkana pastoralists and that surra has a devastating social and economic impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.   Keywords:      Camel trypanosomosis, participatory approach, surra, Turkana pastoralists
K MMO, M KP, PB G, WO O, EM E, TD K, A C. "The socio-economic impact of important camel diseases as perceived by a pastoralist community in Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Research. 2006;73(4):269-274.
Mochabo MOK, Gathura PB, Ogara WO, Eregae EM, Kaitho TO, Catley A. "Socio-economic impacts of smallholder irrigation schemes among the Borana nomads of Isiolo district, Kenya.". 1996. Abstractabstract10.pdfWebsite

This paper presents the results of a study conducted in a pastoral community in Kenya using partici¬patory appraisal approaches. The objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of camel trypanosomosis (surra) according to the perceptions of the pastoralists. Four livestock grazing units were conveniently selected and in each of them, three groups of key informants comprising five to eight persons were selected for the participatory exercises. Five camel diseases were listed in or¬der of importance according to their severity and frequency of occurrence including trypanosomosis, mange, non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations and haemorrhagic septicaemia. The losses listed as incurred due to the five diseases were: losses in milk, meat, blood, fats and hides, dowry payments, and depreciation in sale of animals, losses due to infertility and abortions, and losses due to the cost of treatment. There was good agreement (P < 0.05) between the informant groups on the losses in¬curred as a result of the diseases for all the selected loss indicators. Surra and mange were given high median scores on all the indicators while non-specific diarrhoea, tick infestations, and haemor¬rhagic septicaemia received moderate median scores. Based on the study findings it is concluded that the camel plays a central role in the lives of Turkana pastoralists and that surra has a devastating social and economic impact. There is a need for veterinary and policy decision-makers to focus more attention on the control of surra in this arid and semi-arid area of Kenya.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-economic Implications of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise for the Tourist and Hotel Industry.".". In: Nairobi: UNEP/IGBP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Socio-economic Implications of Climate Change and Sea Level Rise for the Tourist and Hotel Industry.".". In: Nairobi: UNEP/IGBP. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Socio-Economic Problems of the Ahero Pilot Resettlement Scheme in the Kano Plains in Western Kenya, The African Scientist, Volume 2, June 1970 East African Publishing House, also paper read in proceedings of the 5th Annual University of East Africa So.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1969. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Socio-Economic Problems of thr Ahero Pilot Resettlement Scheme in the Kano Plains in Western kenya, The African Scientist, Volume 2,June 1970, West African publishing House, also paper read in proceedings of the 5th Annual University of East Africa So.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1969. Abstract
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Juma GS, Mutai BK, Ngaina JN. "Socio-Economic Valuation of Information for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: A Case of Farmers’ Responses in Kakamega County ." BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2015;3(12):89-104.
Terer T, Nderitu GG, Gichuki NN. "Socio-economic values and traditional strategies of managing wetland resources in lower tana River, Kenya." Hydrobiologica. 2004;(527):3-14.
MWIMALI DBUSALILEJACK. "Socio-Legal Perspective of HIV/AIDS in Media Discourses, In Katiambo D., HIV/AIDS and the Media." Nairobi: Moi University Press.; Forthcoming.
Odhiambo T. "Socio-Sexual Experiences of Black South African Men in K. Sello Duiker’s Thirteen Cents and The Quiet Violence of Dreams.". In: The End of Unheard Narratives: Contemporary Perspectives on Southern African Literatures. Heidelberg: Kalliope Paperbacks; 2004.
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Sociodemographic characteristics, care, feeding practices, and growth of cohorts of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sherry B, Embree JE, Mei Z, Ndinya-Achola JO, Njenga S, Muchunga ER, Bett J, Plummer FA. Tr.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Oct;5(10):678-86. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Agwata JF, Abwao P. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Concerns of Water Resources Management in Kenya with Particular focus on the Tana Basin.". Waswa, F., Otor, S., Olukoye, G. & Mugendi, D. (Editors), Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Higher Education in Kenya, Volume II, School of Environmental Studies and Human Sciences, Kenyatta University. PP 209-223, ISBN 9966-776-34-6; 2007. Abstract
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Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Manene MM. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk Factors for Respiratory Infections Prevalence in Kenya: An Observational Study (In Press)." Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2017.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Gweyi-Onyango JP, Kimenju JW. "Socioeconomic and Institutional Factors Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2019;2(1):DOI: 10.1080/00128325.2019.1597568.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Family Size in Nyeri District of Rural Kenya.". In: Regional Development Studies, Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. UNCRD; 2011.
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Family Size in Nyeri District of Rural Kenya.". In: Regional Development Studies (RDS), Vol. 14, pp. 29-44. UNCRD; 2010.
SOCIOLINGUISTIC CHANGE IN ELMOLO AS A DYING LANGUAGE BY ERICK OMONDI ODERO (PhD). Nairobi: Univeersity of Nairobi; 2013. Abstractabstract_dr._odero.docxsociolinguistic_change_in_elmolo_as_a_dying_language.pdf

This study investigated the sociolinguistic status of the Elmolo language considering its apparent condition as a language threatened by death and extinction from the onslaught of the neighbouring dominant Samburu language. Cross-cultural marriages, migration and other social and economic factors were also seen to influence the observed sociolinguistic changes. The Elmolo people reside in the south east shores of Lake Turkana in Loiyangalani division, Laisamis district, Samburu County of the Eastern province of Kenya. With a total population of about 700 people (BTL, 2007, 2008), the Elmolo are considered as one of Kenya’s smallest communities. The Elmolo language is classified in the larger Eastern Cushitic group of languages and is closely related to the Albore, Somali, Bran, Rendille, and Dasaanach languages (Sasse, 1974). The study investigated the sociolinguistic changes evidenced by shift in domain use and decrease in the number of users, and their possible contributions to the threatened status of the Elmolo language. The study also investigated the relevance of gender, geography, poverty levels, and age to the observed sociolinguistic changes. While the study recognized that the death of a language could be a consequence of multiple factors, it was delimited to the sociolinguistic factors that contributed to the threatened status of Elmolo. The Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS) proposed by Fishman (1990, 1991) and the Indicators of Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory (EVT) proposed by Landweer (2000) are the main theoretical approaches used in the study. The eclectic approach was informed by the individual contributions of each of the theories in addressing the objectives of the study. The GIDS was used to determine the sociolinguistic status of the Elmolo language given its explicit description of characteristics of languages in its typology. The EVT was used to explain what was happening to the Elmolo community and how it influenced the language use patterns among the Elmolo people. Although not used in the study, the researcher was aware of many other relevant theories such as the Gaelic-Arvantika Model of Language Death (GAM), proposed by Sasse (1992). This model provides tools to determine the influence that the External Settings (ES) have on the Speech Behaviour (SB) of a community resulting in particular Structural Consequences (SC) affecting their language(s). An integrated approach using both quantitative and qualitative data was adopted in the study. The analysed data indicate that Elmolo is demonstrably in an acute path of death that may also subsequently lead to its extinction. It was observed that there was lack of intergenerational transfer of the language from the older to the younger generations, lack of documented materials in the language and a very low prestige value of the language among its would be speakers and the neighbouring communities. The study recommends detailed phonological, morphological and syntactic studies of the Elmolo language. These are viewed as having the capacity to enhance possible reconstruction and documentation of the language coupled with advocacy for revitalization and maintenance.

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ, and Herausgegeben Von Ulttich Ammon, Norbert Dittmur KM(ed.)J. "A Sociolinguistics Profile of East Africa.". In: Sociolinguistics. Berlin: Water de Gruyter; 1988.
Nyabuga G. "The Sociological Impact of New Media.". In: 21st Century Media: New Frontiers, New Barriers. Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Mutie PM, Mutsotso B. "Sociological Theory II." teaching module for Open and Distance Learning students, University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi; 2009. Abstract
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Ngesu L. Sociology of Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
Matula PD, KYALO DN, Mulwa AS. Sociology of Education: Issues, Theories, Application, Revision Questions and Answers. Nairobi: Downtown Printing Works Ltd; 2015.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "The Sociology of Language Modernization with reference to Lexicographical Work.". In: conference on Lexicography. Eastern African Centre for Research on Oral Traditions and African National Languages, Zanzibar, Tanzania; 1982.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "The Sociology of Private Tuition. Indeje Wanyama & Enos H.N. Njeru, 41p. ISBN 9966-948-87-2.". In: Discussion Paper No.037/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
MUHIA DRLILLIANWANGECHIWAIBOCI. "SOCS-1 mimetics protect mice against lethal poxvirus infection: identification of a novel endogenous antiviral system.". In: Journal of Virology. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
MUHIA DRLILLIANWANGECHIWAIBOCI. "SOCS-1 mimetics protect mice against lethal poxvirus infection: identification of a novel endogenous antiviral system.". In: Journal of Virology. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract
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Lever E, Jaspan JB. "Sodium bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1983;75:263-268. Abstract

Rates of recovery of plasma glucose and bicarbonate levels, arterial pH, and level of consciousness were determined in a retrospective analysis of 95 episodes of severe diabetic ketoacidosis in patients treated with conventional regimens including low-dose insulin, saline, and potassium administration. No significant differences were found between 73 episodes in 52 patients treated with sodium bicarbonate and 22 episodes in 21 patients not undergoing such treatment. In view of these observations, the potential hazards of sodium bicarbonate replacement therapy, and the fact that sodium bicarbonate is still frequently given, the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate treatment in patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis requires reevaluation.

Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA. "Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(10):591-5. Abstract

Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism.

N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis. East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Oct; 69 ( 10 ): 591-5 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism. PMID: 1473517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mukabi M. "Sodium Thiosulphate, a Novel Electrocatalyst in the Electro-synthesis of Electronically Conducting Polymer-Polythiophene." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):73-85. Abstract

In this paper we report on the electrosynthesis of polythiophene from aqueous media with sulphuric acid as the supporting electrolyte. The redox features of polythiophene on a bare carbon graphite working electrode and on a clay montmorillonite host matrix is also reported. Co-polymerisation of polythiophene and polyaniline from an electrolyte media containing both aniline and thiophene monomers reveal that, the redox centres of the two polymers are independent, hence suggesting the formation of a bilayer, even though no charge rectification is observed.The role of sodium thiosulphate as a novel electrocatalyst which has led to a tremendous improvement in the polythiophene faradaic /redox process is also reported.
Key Words:Polythiophene, electronically conducting, clay montmorillonite (bentonite), electrocatalyst.

Orata D, Njenga H, Mukabi M, Yusuf A. "Sodium Thiosulphate, a Novel Electrocatalyst in the Electro-synthesis of Electronically Conducting Polymer-Polythiophene." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IORS-JAC). 2014;7(5 Ver. III). Abstract

Description
In this paper we report on the electrosynthesis of polythiophene from aqueous media with sulphuric acid as the supporting electrolyte. The redox features of polythiophene on a bare carbon graphite working electrode and on a clay montmorillonite host matrix is also reported. Co-polymerisation of polythiophene and polyaniline from an electrolyte media containing both aniline and thiophene monomers reveal that, the redox centres of the two polymers are independent, hence suggesting the formation of a bilayer, even though no charge rectification is observed. The role of sodium thiosulphate as a novel electrocatalyst which has led to a tremendous improvement in the polythiophene faradaic/redox process is also reported.

HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Sofia Mzimuni. Longhorn Publishers; 2007.
Hamu HJ. Sofia mzimuni.; 2008.Website
Olwal TO, Van Wyk MA, Chatelain D, Van Wyk BJ. "Soft information-based timing phase recognition in asynchronous digital receivers."; 2005.
Olwal TO, Van Wyk MA, Chatelain D, Odhiambo M, Van Wyk BJ. "Soft Timing Phase Estimation for Wireless Mobile Systems."; 2006.
Olwal TO, Van Wyk MA, Chatelain D, Odhiambo M, Van Wyk BJ. "Soft Timing Recovery Framework for Cellular Receivers."; 2006.

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