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1875
1945
Garvie JM, Kemp FH. "The diagnosis of chronic intussusception in children." Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1945;20:73-80. AbstractWebsite

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1966
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Denudation Chronology of the Cannock Chase Area, Staffordshire.". In: The East Midland Geograper, Vol.4 pp.77-78, December, 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
1968
Mutungi OK. "Disparity of Sentences." L.L.M. Thesis at Columbia University Law School, U.S.A; 1968. Abstract
n/a
1969
1971
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Drainage Evolution in Kenya. Chapter 12 of Studies in East African Geography and Development Ed.S.H. Ominde Heinemann. Pp.137-145.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1971. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
1972
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Development in Practice Some reflections on Kenyas Experience. Working paper Nom 52 Institue for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1972. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Ascroft J, Ruigu G. "Does Extension Create Poverty in Kenya." East African Journal . 1972;9(3).
1973
Dossaji SF, Bell EA. "Distribution of alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid in Cycas." Phytochemistry. 1973;12:143-144. Abstract

alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid, previously isolated from seeds of Cycas circinalis, has
now been identified either free or bound in all the other nine species of this genus.

1974
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Dead,Joe (April).". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1974. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Demographic and Technological Variables in Kenya's Employment Scene Eastern African Economic Review.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the Provinces and Districts in Kenya. A Case Study of the Factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of Delinquency Rates, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Vol. 4, No.1, 1974, East .". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the provinces in Kenya. A case Study of the factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of delinquency rates, journal of eastern African research and development, Vol., No.1, 1974, east African Literatu.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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1975
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Drought in Africa:.". In: Read at Africa Week at the University of California, Los Angeles, May 20, 1975. University of Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Horty JF. "Denial of staff privileges upheld." Mod Healthc (Short Term Care). 1975;4(6):64-5.
Johnson HA. "The demise of the Hopewellian moundbuilders: a plausible conjecture." IMJ Ill Med J. 1975;148(5):528-30.
Greenwood RD. "Digitalis as treatment for pulmonary comsumption, 1799." IMJ Ill Med J. 1975;148(5):531.
Rajcáni J, Krobová J, Málková D. "Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus in the chick embryo." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):467-72. Abstract

Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus antigen (LVA) was followed by immunofluorescene (IF) in chick embryos inoculated into the yolk sacs. Positive fluorescence of LVA was observed in neurons and neuroblasts of the developing brain, spinal cord and spinal ganglia as well as in skeletal muscles, heart muscle, vascular endothelium and lung mesenchyma. In the yolk sac, foci of specific fluorescence were occasionally seen in endothelium cells of vessels and in islands of extraembryonic haematopoesis. At sites corresponding to the occurrence of LVA, extensive oedema was accompanied by extravazation of erythrocytes and accumulation of white blood cells. The nature of tissues in which the virus replicates was discussed from the point of view of LVA distribution and the morphological lesions observed.

Hirano H, Higashi K, Sakamoto Y. "DNA polymerase in nuceoli isolated from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;67(2):518-24.
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
1976
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule, 1976 Ph.D Thesis on characteristics of relief of Kilifi Area Kenya in relation to the study of Endogenetic Ore deposits.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1976. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Denudation surfaces and the Origina of Stone-lines in the Machakos Area of Kenya. Proceedings of the 23rd International Geographical Congress. International Geography 1976, Vol.1, Geomophology. Moscow.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1976. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Development Administration and Decentralization: Some Administrative and Political Consideration". IDS Working Paper No. 257 January 1976.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1976. Abstract
n/a
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Diffusion of Dissolved Oxygen through Concrete". Presented at the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Conference, Corrosion 76,.". In: Houston, Texas. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
     
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Discussant: Session on Urban Economics,.". In: 51st Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 24-27, 1976. University of Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Jacob JS, McDonald HS. "Diving bradycardia in four species of North American aquatic snakes." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(1):69-72.
Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

1977
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "The dead people of Njoro.". In: Reappraisal of Hromniks's Articles. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "The Debtors, Edited, Nairobi , East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1977. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Development Planning and Employment in Five West African Countries International Education Materials Exchange Geneva International Institute for Labour Studies,.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1977. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Discussant: Session on Urban Economics: Municipal Issues W.E.A.". In: 52nd Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 20-23, 1977, Anaheim, California. University of Nairobi.; 1977. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Ogana W, Spreiter JR. "Derivation of an integral equation for transonic flows." AIAA Journal. 1977;Vol. 15(No. 2):pp. 281-282.
Fisher JN, Shahshahani MN, Kitabchi AE. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: low-dose insulin therapy by various routes." The New England Journal of Medicine. 1977;297:238-241. Abstract

Since in normal persons the hypoglycemic effect of low-dose intramuscular exceeds that of subcutaneous insulin we studied the effect of routes of insulin therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis. Forty-five patients with diabetic ketoacidosis entered a randomized prospective protocol with insulin administered either intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Initial priming dose of insulin had to be repeated in two of 15, three of 15 and six of 15 of the intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular groups respectively. The intravenous group had a more rapid fall in plasma glucose (P less than 0.01) and ketone bodies (P less than 0.05) during the first two hours. Thereafter, there were no significant differences in the rate of decline of plasma glucose or ketones nor in the time required for glucose to reach 250 mg per deciliter or for complete recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis. The data confirm the efficacy of low-dose insulin therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis and indicate that the optimal route of insulin administration is by initial intravenous combined with subcutaneous or intramuscular.

McArdle CB, Dowling JE, Masland RH. "Development of outer segments and synapses in the rabbit retina." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1977;175:253-273. AbstractWebsite

The peripheral retina of rabbits aged 0 to 60 days was studied by electron microscopy. Ribbon and conventional synaptogenesis was studied with serial sections, and the density of synapses of the inner plexiform layer was measured on large (1,500μm2) montages. Photoreceptor and bipolar ribbon synapses seem to develop similarly in that processes of the prospective dyad or triad contact the presynaptic ribbon-containing terminal one at a time. No statistically significant difference in the lengths of ribbon lamellae was found at 11 and 30 days. Conventional synapses appear to result from the aggregation of synaptic vesicles on one side of junctions that first existed as symmetrical membrane densities without vesicles. The length of the synaptic membrane specialization remains constant between 0 and 30 days. The density of inner plexiform layer conventional synapses remains at a low and roughly constant level from 0 to 9 days, after which there is an abrupt increase to a plateau at about 20 days. After nine days the density of ribbon synapses also increases, with an initially steep time course similar to that of conventional synapses. All subcategories of synapse studied (amacrine-to-amacrine, amacrine-to-bipolar, serial, and reciprocal) participate in the general increase between 9 and 20 days. Functional circuits of the inner plexiform layer thus seem to be assembled primarily during the second and third weeks of life.

1978
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Description of some unknown phytoseiid mites from Brazil (Mestostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Acarologia, 20: 477 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1978. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Discovering New East African Poets, Busara II, 2 (1969), 43-45. An extended version of it in E. Gachukia and S.K. Akivaga (eds.), Teaching of African Literature in Schools, Nairobi [Kenya Literature Bureau, 1978], 77-90.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Discussant, Session on Urban Economics W.E.A.". In: 53 Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 22-26, 1978, Honolulu. Aloha, Hawa 11 islands. University of Nairobi.; 1978. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Distribution of trace elements and their petrogenetic significance in the Jombo Hill alkaline rocks, Kenya.". In: UUDMP Research Report No. 10. 14p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
n/a
Adholla M-, Ruigu G. "The Development of Coffee Production in K enya."; 1978.
Calder JF, Wasunna AE. "Diverticular disease of the colon in Kenyan Africans." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(12):579-81.
1979
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "The Development of the Solar Salt Industry in Kenya". A technical.". In: Kenya. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1979. Abstract
   
Ogana W. "Derivation of an integral equation for three-dimensional transonic flows." AIAA Journal. 1979;Vol. 17(No. 3):pp. 305-307.
D.C. Munasighe, A.H.S. Elbusaidy KMDNNB. "The development of the Solar Industry in Kenya.". 1979.
Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSW; W. Distributions, densities and trends of elephants and rhinoceros in Kenya, 1977-1978 from KREMU's aerial surveys.; 1979. Abstract

Baseline information on densities, distributions and population trends of the African elephant was obtained during KREMU's 1977 and 1978 aerial surveys of all pastoral rangelands in Kenya. It was estimated in 1978 that there were between 44,000 and 67,000 elephants in Kenya 73% of the estimated 1977 population. The ratio of live to dead elephants in 1978 has further decreased to 44:56 compared to 51:49 in 1977. Of the 5,000 to 10,000 located in the general agricultural zone, most were in the national parks and forest reserves.

Fisher LJ. "Development of retinal synaptic arrays in the inner plexiform layer of dark-reared mice." Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. 1979;54:219-227. Abstract

In the central area of the retina of mouse the rate of synaptogenesis in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) drops precipitously at about the time the eyes open. To determine if the visual input at eye opening provides a signal for the neurons to stop adding synapses, mice were raised in darkness during the period of maximal synaptogenesis and through eye opening. Retinal synaptic arrays of dark-reared and normally reared animals were compared quantitatively. The rate of synaptogenesis after eye opening in dark-reared mice indicated that the onset of visual stimulation was not the cue to stop synaptogenesis. However, the synaptic arrays of the IPL of dark-reared mice consistently had more conventional synapses than those of normally reared mice. It is concluded that the number of conventional synapses in the central retina was increased by dark-rearing.

Winter RJ, Harris CJ, Phillips LS, Green OC. "Diabetic ketoacidosis. {Induction} of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia by phosphate therapy." The American Journal of Medicine. 1979;67:897-900. Abstract
n/a
1980
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "David F. Sly, Lenoir Becky, Florida University. Elisha K. Muchunga & Zibeon Muganzi, University of Nairobi.Stability and change in Family size Preference among Rural Youth in Kenya Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980.". In: Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1980. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Diploma in Adult Education in Kenya, Adult Education and Development, No. 15, Sept. 1980, German Adult Education Association, Bonn.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Mungai DN, Sogomo, K.L.; Gatahi MMM; FN. "Detailed Soil Survey of the ADC/MoA Farm, Garissa (Garissa District) .". 1980.Website
Dossaji SF, Gitonga J, Bell EA. "Distribution and significance of amino acids in the leaves of Acacia and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)." Kenya J. of Science and Technology, 1, 19.. 1980;1:19-22. Abstract

Leaf extracts of 13 species of Acacia and 9 species of Crotalaria which are native to or estabhshed in Kenya were analysed by 2D paper chromatography and high voltage ionophoresis for their free protein and nonprotein amino acids. In addition to the presence of protein amino acids, both the genera contained nonprotein amino acids. Acacia species contained pipecolic acid, 4-OH pipecolic acid, 5-OH pipecolic
acid and homoarginine. They did not contain N-acetyldjenkolic which is found in the seeds of all but one of the species analysed. The leaf extracts of three species of Crotalaria contained the toxic amino acids, a-amino-p-oxalylaminopropionic acid and a-amino-y-oxalylaminobutyric acid.

Robertson TW, Hickey TL, Guillery RW. "Development of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in normal and visually deprived {Siamese} cats." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1980;191:573-579. Abstract

Neuronal cell bodies in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and of monocularly-deprived Siamese cats have been measured. Seventeen normally reared Siamese cats, ranging in age between 20 and 120 days, were used to determine rates of normal geniculate cell growth. A second group of five adult Siamese cats reared from bith with the lids of one eye closed were used to study the effects of monocular visual deprivation upon geniculate cell size. For each of the normal and visually deprived Siamese cats, the cross-sectional areas of 600 lateral geniculate cells were measured from camera lucida drawings of Nissl preparations. During normal development the geniculate cells rapidly increase in size during the first postnatal month of life and reach their adult size sometime between days 28 and 56. While this course of geniculate cell growth is similar to that seen in normally pigmented cats, the pattern of change seen after monocular deprivation is quite different in Siamese cats from that found in normally pigmented cats. In Siamese cats the regions of the nucleus receiving a contralateral projection from the deprived eye appear to be shielded from the effects of binocular competition. Cells throughout lamina A and in the abnormal, contralaterally innervated segment of lamina A1 show only about a 10% reduction in cell size. There are no noticeable differences between the parts of lamina A in the binocular and monocular segments of the nucleus. Cells in the ipsilaterally innervated segment of lamina A1, in contrast, show deprivation-induced changes that average 27.1%. Two mechanisms are proposed to explain why some geniculate cells in Siamese cats appear to be shielded from binocular competition: one depends on possible interactions between geniculo-cortical cells lying in adjacent parts of the same geniculate lamina, and the other depends on an anatomical segregation of the cell type ("Y-cells") most heavily affected by the binocular competition. Each proposed mechanism is related to earlier observations on monocularly deprived, normally pigmented cats.

1981
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "De Cock KM, Gatei DG, Shah MV. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of liver cancer. East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1981. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Decentralized Planning System in Kenya.". In: A Project paper writTen for ILO. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Devaluation - a few safeguids, Published in the Journal of Economics and Business, University of Zambia Business and Economic Association,.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1981. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Dissociation of the Urinary Excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase (AG) and B2 .". In: M.Journal of applied Toxicology Vol. 1 No. 4 1981, 44-45. University of Nairobi Press; 1981. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "DUNN, J.F., DAVISON, W., MALOIY, G.M.O., HOCHACHKA, P.W. and GUPPY, M.(1981) An ultrastructural and histochemical study of African lungfish axial musculature. Cell Tissue Research 220, 599-609.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Obel AO, EG M. "Double - blind placebo controlled trial of glafeinine in acute pain." East African Medical Journal. 1981;(58):226-30.
1982
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Daudi Nturibi: ed. Facilitating Adult Learning: A guide for Part Time Adult Educators. Institute of Adult Studies, University of Nairobi 1982. (Co-author).". In: Institute of Adult Studies, University of Nairobi 1982. (Co-author). Thought and Practice; 1982. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "De Cock, K., Bhatt, K. M., Bhatt, S. M., Rees, P. H.: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747.". In: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1982. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "De Cock, K., Bhatt, K. M., Bhatt, S. M., Rees, P. H.: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747.". In: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747. Taylor & Francis; 1982. Abstract
A prospective randomized trial of three dosage regimens of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam; Wellcome Foundation, London) to treat visceral leishmaniasis was conducted. Previously untreated patients were randomized to receive 31 doses of sodium stibogluconate (10 mg Sb/kg of body weight per dose) administered once daily for 31 days (group A), every 12 hr for 15 days (group B), or every 8 hr for 10 days (group C). Of the 29 patients who completed treatment, seven of 10 in group B and all of the patients in groups A and C responded to treatment and remained well for one year. One patient in group B failed to respond to treatment, and two others in group B initially responded to treatment but relapsed six weeks after discharge. None of the treatment regimens was toxic. Parasites disappeared from splenic aspirates most quickly and hemoglobin levels rose most rapidly in patients receiving sodium stibogluconate every 8 hr. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya with sodium stibogluconate at a dose of 10 mg Sb/kg every 8 hr for 10 days appears to be a safe alternative to conventional treatment. Its efficacy should be confirmed in a larger number of patients.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of Fluoride in Water and Tea Using Ion Selective Electrode and Calorimetric Methods'.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. UoN; 1982. Abstract
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N PROFGUANTAIA. "DISTRIBUTION OF CATHINONE AND D-NORPSEUDOEPHEDRINE IN CATHA EDULIS.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNA. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1982. Abstract
he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.
N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "The distribution of fluoride in Kenya waters.". In: Proceedings of the Environmental Chemistry Sub-region Workshop, National University of Lesotho, Roma, 32-6 (1982). UoN; 1982. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur (November 16.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1982. Abstract
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Karogi JK. Design of district centres with special reference to Kayole .; 1982. Abstract

The main intention of this thesis is to establish design principles and evolve a design for Kayole District Centre within the North Eastern part of Nairobi city region. The design of Kayole District Centre should be seen as an evolution of design principles which can also be applied in designing other district centres now that decentralization of Nairobi City Centre is imminent. The first chapter is a discussion of one of the major design determinants; the context within which Kayole district centre will grow. In this chapter the geographical placement of Kayole District Centre in respect to other surrounding urban centres has been analysed in an attempt to establish the catchment population it will serve at various strategic years. The first chapter also shows the correlation between the catchment population arid the planned infrastructure. In this way it has been established that the planned infrastructure can support both Kayole District Centre and its catchment population for various strategic years. Chapters two and three are case studies of two suburban centres, Westlands and Eastleigh. The intention in these two chapters is a critical study, in an attempt to discern the forces behind the functional zoning movement patterns, structure, and urban form of the two centres. Westlands and Eastleigh have been chosen because they cater for different income Chapter five is the design of Kayole District groups and evolved from different urban cultures. Thus Westlands serves a high income group and is western in outlook. Eastleigh on the other hand serves a low income group and was an Asian settlement at its inception. In their nature the two case studies constitute a spectrum of the urban reality in Nairobi City region. The design determinants discerned in chapters two and three have been embodied in chapter four which is a conclusion of the case studies. In the fourth chapter as in the design, the more sensory determinants have been given greater emphasis. Centre. As far as has been possible, the design incorporates what has been learned in the case studies. The centre is in two sectors. The main sector constitutes a majority of commercial, residential, social and administrative facilities. This sector is complete in itself and is the only sector, that the design goes into detail. The second sector to the East has some major institutions and future extensions of commercial and residential activities of the Centre. The institutions in this sector are so specialized that it is beyond the scope of this thesis to design them to any detail. Only the required amounts of land has been set aside. Although the future commercial and residential activities have pot been designed to any detail, the design principles used in the design of the first sector, to the West should apply.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "The determination of mercury in body beauty soaps and creams sold in Kenya and Norway.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (a) 3, 89-91. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

flame-less atomic absorption spcctropholometry technique lias been used to determine mercury concentrations in 14 skin-lightening creams and soaps commonly sold in the Kenyan market and 10 in the Norwegian market. The use of borohydride or stannous chloride as the reducing agents for mercuric salts gave different results. When slannous chloride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 222 to 4920 jjg/kg. When borohydride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 0.95 to 1121.86 |jg/kg. The difference in results has been attributed to the difference in digestion modes and the ability of the boric acid to encapsulate the mercuric salts. In general the Kenya products had slightly higher mercury content.

Isaac J, O. WS. "The determination of mercury in body beauty soaps and creams sold in Kenya and Norway.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (a) 3, 89-91. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1982. Abstract

flame-less atomic absorption spcctropholometry technique lias been used to determine mercury concentrations in 14 skin-lightening creams and soaps commonly sold in the Kenyan market and 10 in the Norwegian market. The use of borohydride or stannous chloride as the reducing agents for mercuric salts gave different results. When slannous chloride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 222 to 4920 jjg/kg. When borohydride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 0.95 to 1121.86 |jg/kg. The difference in results has been attributed to the difference in digestion modes and the ability of the boric acid to encapsulate the mercuric salts. In general the Kenya products had slightly higher mercury content.

H.M. Thairu KNDN & LW. "The distribution of fluoride in Kenya waters.". 1982.
C.K. M, W.M T, Wakori E., Wakori E., Wakori E. "Drug quality control in Kenya –preliminary observations." East Afr Med J.. 1982;59(6):399-403.
Gichaga FJ. "Distress Features of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Seminar on Maintenance and Drainage aspects of Road Pavements.Indian Road Congress. Bangalore - India; 1982.
1983
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""Dieu en Langage Luo" Vivant Universe No. 344, Biemestrel, April.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1983. Abstract
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"Drought and famine in Turkana: some human problems and attempted solutions." The Kenya Geographer, vol. 5. Nos. 1&2, pp. 175 ; 1983. Abstract
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W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". In: Fluorosis Research Strategies', Proceedings of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya; S.Likimani, (Ed.) , 32-6 (1983). UoN; 1983. Abstract

Analysis offluoride concentrations in Kenyan waters have been carried out using two methods: the fluoride ion selective electrode method and colorimetric method. Water samplesanalysed were taken from boreholes and rivers in Nairobi. Central and Rift Valley Provincesand from the Rift Valley lakes. The high levels of fluoride content present in the Rift Valley lakes and boreholes would pose a threat if the water is used for drinking or for irrigation purposes. However the fluoride concentrations for most potable waters (especially those derived from rivers) is less than the accepted limits of 0.7-1.8 ppm. In order to account for the high incidence of dental fluorosis in Kenya, it is necessary to determine the fluoride intakefrom the total diet. A method suitable for analyzing fluoride content in foods and plant materials is discussed. Preliminary survey of fluoride concentrations for various foods showed: bananas, 4.2ppm; potatoes, 5.6 ppm; cabbages, 0.3ppm; maize 0.7ppm. High levels of fluoride were found in tea leaves in the range 229-340 ppm per kg. which is quite equivalent to 4.4-7.3 ppm F per 125 c.c. cup of tea. Fluoride concentration in coffee beans is quite low – 6.6 ppm per kg. and sodas, beer, cow’s milk have less than 0.01 ppm.

D.N. Kariuki TNHM & LW. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". 1983.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "DO QCD CORRECTIONS DESTROY THE AMPLITUDE ZERO IN THE PROCESS q anti -q-gamma?". In: QCD WORKSHOP,OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY; 1983.
1984
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Description of some phytoseiid mites from Brazil. Acarologia, 25: 125 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1984. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
MALECHE MRZACHARIAH. "Development Plan 1984-88. In collaboration with the Ministry of Planning and National Development, Republic of Kenya, 1984.". In: KISE Bulletin, July 1987. Vol. 1 No. 2. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1984.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Dhananjaya G, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H. Urine as a transport medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis Vol. 1 1984.". In: Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis Vol. 1 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
Mbogoh SG. Dairy development and dairy marketing in sub-Saharan Africa Some preliminary indicators of policy impacts.; 1984. Abstract

OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, sub-Saharan Africa experienced relatively low growth rates in the production of dairy products compared with the average for all developing countries. Total consumption of dairy products grew relatively much faster during the same period. However, available data suggest that the consumption of goat and sheep milk declined in East Africa between 1963 and 1980 and that of camel's milk stagnated. Only the consumption of cow's milk increased fairly rapidly in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. During the 1970s the population of sub-Saharan Africa grew at a rate of 2.9% per annum. Over the same period dairy production grew at a rate of about 1.9% per annum, while the consumption of dairy products increased at a rate of 2.1 % per annum. The trade deficit in dairy products in sub-Saharan Africa increased alarmingly over the last two decades: while in 1963 the dairy trade deficit for the region was about US$ 39 million, the figure had risen to about US$ 81 million by 1970 and to US$ 575 million by 1980. The major components of the imports were milk and butter and to a lesser extent cheese. The systems of dairy development and dairy marketing in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have one common feature: the dairy economy is dominated by a relatively underdeveloped dairy marketing subsystem in the traditional livestock subsector. Most countries in the region have both a formal dairy marketing subsystem, which caters primarily for urban milk supplies, and an informal marketing subsystem, which operates especially in the rural areas. There is some evidence that the informal marketing subsystems tend to be low-cost operations and that they are in a position to pay higher prices to producers. With milk production in sub-Saharan Africa being well below the effective demand for milk and milk products, the region will continue to depend on dairy imports to close the dairy deficit in the foreseeable future. Measures to improve the marketing infrastructure in order to facilitate the distribution of recombined fluid milk derived mainly from imported milk powder and butter oil, will also be needed. The need to link rural and urban areas in a more efficient milk distribution network must therefore receive top priority. Most food policies in developing countries, and especially those in sub-Saharan Africa, appear to be aimed at providing cheap food to urban populations. A strategy of dairy development through the creation of producer incentives, with producer prices and price controls as the main policy instruments, is limited chiefly by the need to strike a balance between the producer price and the retail price. The pricing problem appears to be at the core of programmes for improving dairy development and dairy marketing. Governments are often sensitive to the level of food prices, particularly for the urban poor. Variations in the quality of the products offered for sale, whereby consumer prices are differentiated, could help achieve certain nutritional objectives. For instance, the introduction of 'toned' (more expensive) and 'double-toned' (less expensive) liquid milk in India has made it possible to sell pasteurized milk to both higher-income and lower-income groups in the metropolitan areas. Generally, sub-Saharan Africa could learn from the experience of dairy development in India, where petty milk traders have been integrated into the overall milk collection and distribution system, thus creating a complementary rather than a competitive relationship in the operations of the country's dairy industry.

Ogana W. Days of Glamour (2nd edition, Collection of short stories). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1984.
Onyango OW. "Development Policy .". 1984.Website
Barrett EJ, DeFronzo RA. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and treatment." Hospital Practice (Office Ed.). 1984;19:89-95, 99-104. Abstract
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1985
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "DEMOCRACY FOR THE FEW: EXAMPLES FROM THE BUKUSU COMMUNITY, A KENYAN COMMUNITY, in Writers Speak: Essays on Literature and Democracy, an essay on pages 76-83, edited with an introduction by Kitula Kingei and Henry Idangasi, Writer's Association of Kenya.". In: Published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor: MI 481061346 U.S.A. March 15, 1989. Publication No. 88-16, 106.; 1985. Abstract

This dissertation is a study of twentieth-century American novels which can be used in a course by Kenyan and other East African students and teachers. The selected novels can be studied as models for exemplification of the most significant developments and trends in longer American narrative fiction in the period covered by the study. Because of time limits and for purposes of presenting quality fictional works to be covered in one semester, eight novels were analyzed in this study. These are: Sister Carrie (1900) by Theodore Dreiser, The Great Gatsby (1925) by F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, Intruder in the Dust (1948)by J.D Salinger, Invisible Man(1952) by Ralph Ellison, Go Tell it On The Mountain(1953) by James Baldwin and Brown Girl, Brownstones(1959)by Paule Marshall. Each of the selected novels represents a component of significance in American literature during the era designated .Sister Carrie

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Desertification in Africa (abridged) in Chiri (Geography) Vol. 30, No. 12 pp. 22-30 (in Japanese).". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Development and the legal process in Kenya: an approach to the analysis of law in rural development administration"; International Journal of Sociology of Law 12(1).". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1985. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "The distribution and economic importance of the mangrove forests in Kenya.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1985. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
D. DRONGORE. "Draft Report The Apparent Prevalence of Human Brucellosis Among Patients Attending Health Facilities in Nairobi with Special Emphasis in Kibera .". In: Draft Report The Apparent Prevalence of Human Brucellosis Among Patients Attending Health Facilities in Nairobi with Special Emphasis in Kibera . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "Duirnal course of light interception by a groundnut crop in association with maize.". In: MIRCEN journal (1985) p. 4445 4454. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
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Yamoah CF;, Mulongoy K;, Agboola AA;, Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Decomposition and nitrogen contribution by prunings of selected legumes in alley cropping."; 1985.
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Patterns .". 1985.Website
Ikamari LDE. 'Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Kenya'. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi; 1985.
Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

Obel AO, W.M KT-, Ellison R.H MM. "Dietary sodium/potassium ratios in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension." East African Medical Journal. 1985;( 62):507-514.
Okeyo AM;, Kitlit JK;, Ahuya CO;, Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC. "Disease and prolificacy characteristics of the Galla and East African Breeds at Ol'Magog."; 1985.
"DESIGN ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUILDING MATERIALS VULNERABILITY. DURABILITY AND AVAILABILITY .". In: Regional Workshop on Construction Materials. Kampala, Uganda.; 1985.
Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. "Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine." Environ. Health Perspect.. 1985;62:105-8. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Kebler R, McDonald FD, Cadnapaphornchai P. "Dynamic changes in serum phosphorus levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1985;79:571-576. Abstract

The dynamic changes in serum phosphorus levels in 69 episodes of ketoacidosis in 48 diabetic patients were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age was 41 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SEM), and the duration of diabetes mellitus was 7 +/- 1 years. The serum phosphorus levels determined within the first six hours of admission were analyzed. Before initiation of therapy, the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was 94.7 percent. At the end of 12 hours, the mean serum phosphorus level fell from 9.2 +/- 0.6 to 2.8 +/- 0.3 mg/dl. Before therapy, the serum phosphorus level correlated positively with the serum glucose level, the effective plasma osmolality, and anion gaps, and correlated negatively with the serum chloride level. It is concluded that hyperphosphatemia is common in diabetic ketoacidosis before therapy. The increase in serum phosphorus is likely to be due to a transcellular shift. Potential factors responsible for the shift are serum glucose, through its osmotic effect, and the organic anions.

1986
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola Haase D, Fransen L, Nsanze H. Treatment of PPNG with Regimens involving Augmentin with or without Probenecid, and Penicillin + Probenecid with or without a small dose of Augmentin. Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986.". In: Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E Kapule and J.G. Wandera, 1986. Crop Production in Samburu District. Republic of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-Cultural profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule 1986 Physico-geographical characteristics of Samburu District Republic of Kenya. Samburu District of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule and J.G. Wandera, 1986, Livestock Production in Samburu District. Republic of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ODHIAMBO MRLUTHEROTIENO. "Decomposition analysis in analysing small fire performance Univerity of Stirling Library.". In: Accountant. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Desertification in Africa with special references to East Africa. GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS OF TOKYO Metropolitan University, No.21. The memorial volume of Prof. Hiroshi Toya. Pp. 23-34.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63:311 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya II. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63: 318 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Diffusion of Dissolved Oxygen through Concrete". Material Performance, 12,39-44 (December ).". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1986.
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Characteristics .". 1986.Website
Gichaga FJ. "Design Standards, Performance and Maintenance of Roads in Kenya." Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nairobi; 1986.
"DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF LOW COST BUILDING MATERAILS IN KENYA." ARCHITECTURE, the official journal of the Architectural Association of Kenya. 1986:63.
Coles GC, Bruce JI, Kinoti GK, Mutahi WT, Dias EP, & Katz N. "Drug Resistance in schitosomiasis." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. . 1986;80:347.
Adrogué HJ, Lederer ED, Suki WN, Eknoyan G. "Determinants of plasma potassium levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." Medicine. 1986;65:163-172. Abstract

The classic proposal of intracellular K+ for extracellular H+ exchange as responsible for the hyperkalemia of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been questioned because experimentally induced organic anion acidosis fails to produce hyperkalemia. It has been suggested, instead, that the elevated serum [K+] of DKA might be the result of the compromised renal function, secondary to volume depletion, that usually accompanies DKA. However, several metabolic derangements other than volume depletion and acidosis, which are known to alter potassium metabolism, also develop in DKA. This study of 142 admissions for DKA examines the possible role of alterations in plasma pH, bicarbonate, glucose (G), osmolality, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma anion gap (AG) on the levels of [K+]p on admission. Significant (p less than 0.01) correlations of [K+]p with each of these parameters were found that could individually account for 8 to 15 percent of the observed variance in the plasma potassium levels; however, the effects of some or all of these parameters on the [K+]p could be independent and therefore physiologically additive. Since the parameters under study are themselves interrelated, having statistically significant correlations with each other, their possible independent role on [K+]p was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Only plasma pH, glucose and AG emerged as having a definite independent effect on [K+]p, with no independent role found for bicarbonate, BUN and osmolality. The equation that best describes [K+]p on admission for DKA was: [K+]p = 25.4 - 3.02 pH + 0.001 G + 0.028 AG, (r = 0.515). These results indicate that the endogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia observed in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased [K+]p. Since exogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia in the otherwise normal experimental animal do not increase [K+]p, it is postulated that insulin deficit itself may be the major initiating cause of the hyperkalemia that develops in DKA. Renal dysfunction by enhancing hyperglycemia and reducing potassium excretion also contributes to hyperkalemia.

1987
O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "D O Koteng.". In: 22-24 April 1987, Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 81-83. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Dannecker, R., Baldin, G.O., and Imungi, J.K. 1987. Evaluation of Department of Food Technology and Nutrition: Suitability of the Food Technology graduate to the needs of the Kenyan Food Industry. Report prepared for Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC), B.". In: Report prepared for Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC), Bern, Switzerland. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Davilla J Mbugua P M and Acosta D (1987): Cytotoxic actions of Dendroaspis venoms in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Tissue Culture Ass. Manual 38 : 74.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712. The cardiotoxic actions of Kenyan green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom have been investigated using primary myocardial cell cultures isolated from neonatal rat hearts. The cardiotoxic actions of the whole venom and its fractionated components were evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, decreases in viability and inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused time- and concentration-dependent arrest of myocardial contraction, leakage of LDH, extensive disruption of cell monolayer, and decreases in viability. The venom was separated into 6 (DaI to DaVI) fractions by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Spontaneous beating activity was abolished by DaI to DaVI at high concentrations, while at lower doses they induced progressive depression of beating frequency after a 3-h treatment period. DaI to DaIV caused significant leakage of LDH, morphological damage, and decreases in viability after a 6-h incubation period. The most cardiotoxic fraction (DaIV), which also contains about 54% of the total protein of the whole venom, was fractionated into 18 polypeptides (Da1 to Da18) by ion exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. On the basis of their ability to abolish myocardial contractility, release LDH, alter cellular structure, lyse cell membranes and reduce viability, the 18 fractions have been divided into 4 arbitrary subgroups of cytotoxins: cardiotoxins, Da1 to Da3; cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da4 to Da12, Da14; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Da13, Da15 to Da17; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Da18. Marked synergistic cell membrane lysis occurred in myocardial cell cultures treated simultaneously with 2 cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da7 and Da11. It is suggested that the additive and synergistic cardiotoxic effects of high molecular weight cytotoxic proteins (DaI to DaIII), very low molecular weight cholinomimetic substances (DaV to DaVI) and the 4 subgroups of cardiotoxins may directly contribute to the pronounced cardiovascular problems observed in victims of green mamba bites. PMID: 3188032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Dental fluorosis: a review of literature with comments on tropical characteristics. East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):493-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):493-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "DETECTION OF BEEF AND PORK IN FRESH AND HEAT TREATED MEAT PRODUCTS USING ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
Raw and heat-treated pork and beef products were purchased from the outlets of two leading Kenyan manufacturing firms. Pure beef and pork sausages and pork sausages containing 1, 5 and 10% beef were prepared in the laboratory. Antigens from these products were extracted with phosphate buffered saline. The presence of beef and pork in these products was determined using absorbed goat antisera to cattle and pig thermostable muscle antigens in an enzyme immunoassay. The assay was able to detect beef in pork sausages at the level of 10% and 5% but not at 1%. Of the 44 commercial beef products labelled as containing only beef, 23 (52.3%) were shown to contain pork and 23 (50%) of the 46 pork products were shown to contain beef. Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens proved to be of great value in species identification not only of fresh unheated meats but also of heated (cooked, pasteurized and autoclaved) meat products in an enzyme immunoassay.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Detection of outliers in geodetic networks using principal component analysis and bias parameter estimation.". In: Technical Report No. 2, Institute of Geodesy, University of Stuttgart, 1987, 104pp. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Developing a cost-effective strategy for PHC implementation at the district level (with J. Maneno and C. Thube) paper presented at the WHO meeting on Strengthening of District Health Systems Harare, July-August 1987.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Development of Kenya.". In: Development Trends and Prospects for 1985-2000. Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi,Kenya, September, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
"DEALING EFFECTIVELY WITH MICRO-INEQUITIES IN THE PROFESSIONAL SETTING.". In: University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.; 1987.
Oucho JO. "Demography and Resource Development.". In: Socio-cultural Profiles: Siaya District. Nairobi: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1987.
Michieka RW;, Kinyanjui FK. "Deparment of Crop Science University of Nairobi."; 1987.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. Development of Scientific and Technical terminology with special reference to African Languages. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Academy of Ethiopian Languages; 1987.
Waeni N. Dictionnaire pour l’Afrique . Paris, France.: Larousse Publishing House; 1987.
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) among under fives in the paediatric observation ward (POW), Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 1987;64(4):263-9.
Gichaga FJ, Murunga PA, Atibu FS. "Design and Performance Of Flexible Pavements under Tropical Environment.". In: 9th Africa Regional Conference. Lagos, Nigeria.; 1987.
1988
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Datta P, Laga M, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Piot P, Maitha G, Ronald AR, Brunham RC.Infection and disease after perinatal exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis in Nairobi, Kenya. J. Infect. Dis 158(3) 524 - 528, 1988.". In: J. Infect. Dis 158(3) 524 - 528, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Democractic Myth in African Traditional Societies in Theory and Practice of Democracy in Africa ed.". In: By W. Oyugi et all, Heinemann, Nairobi. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1988. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Democractic Myth in African Traditional Societies in Theory and Practice of Democracy in Africa ed.". In: By W. Oyugi et all, Heinemann, Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract

n/a

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Determination of_-BHC (Lindane) in Breast Milk of Kenyan women.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia. 2(1), 39-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract
n/a
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Distribution and diagnosis of hydatid disease in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 12: 53 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Distribution of Lipids in the Young Shoots of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), TEA, 9 (2), 7.". In: Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
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N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Akong'a J., Mungai, D.N., Muturi, H.R. and Porter, H.L., 1988. Introduction to the Kenya case study. Part II (pp. 129-148), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Mungai, D.N. and Muturi, H.R., 1988. Drought climatology and development of the climatic scenarios. Part II (pp. 149-173), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2:.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Kimani M, Makoteku O. "Demographic Models Applied at the Population Studies and Research Institute .". In: Kenya's Population Growth and Development. Nairobi: Heinman; 1988.
MUTAYOBA, B.M., GOMBE, S., Waindi EN, KAAYA GP. "Depression of ovarian function and plasma progesterone and oestradiol - 17B in female goats chronically- infected with Trypanosoma congolense." Acta Endocrinologica (Copenh) . 1988;117:477-484.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of total fluoride in vegetables and plants by open-flame ashing and microdiffusion: comparison with furnace ashing and oxygen-flask combustion'.". In: Analytical Chemical Acta 212 (1988) 133-143. UoN; 1988. Abstract

The sample is ashed in a nickel crucible over an open flame with calcium hydroxide as thefixative; fluoride is separated by micro-diffusion and measured with a fluoride-selective electrode.The calcium hydroxide fixative permits a temperature of 800—850°C during the final ashing, sothat insoluble silicates are decomposed and fluoride is converted to an acid-soluble form. Otheradvantages over furnace ashing at 600°C are less contamination and more rapid ashing (20 mincompared to 6 h). The interference of aluminium and silica on microdiffusion was studied: per-chloric acid was found to be preferable to sulphuric acid as medium. A new way for preparingcalcium hydroxide suspension, low in fluoride, is described. The values found by the proposedmethod generally compare well with those obtained by oxygen flask combustion. Direct diffusion(i.e. without ashing) gave much lower values than the ashing methods, except for tea leaves.

Amiga KK, Kola BO. Development of a computer graphics interface. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya National Association of Physicists; 1988.

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