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"Carine Va n Malderen", Ogali" "I, Khasakhala" "A, Muchiri" "SN, Sparks" "C, Oyen" "HV, Speybroeck" "N. "Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization." International Journal for Equity in Health. 2013;12(3 ):14712-3.
"Kanyinga K". "Demystifying politics of land tenure: Okoth-Ogendo and the concept of land in Africa.". In: The Gallant Academic: Essays in Honour of H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
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(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Daniel, R.C.W., Kerr, D.R. and Mulei, C.M. (1990). Occurrence and effects of subclinical hypocalcaemia in dairy cows.". In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. 50: 261-263.; 1990.
co-authored with and(ed) DOLOOADAMSWOAB. "Domestic Terrorism in Kenya.". In: Domestic Terrorism in Africa; Defining, Adressing and Understanding It’s Impact on Human Security. SOUTH AFRICA: Institute for Security Studies; 2009.
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.Mony F. "Does the Hat Fit."; 2012.
.N O, J A. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstractomoro.pdf

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. I: Dewatering Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(702): 1975 - 1983.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Drying of Seed Maize. Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference. Nairobi, August 1-3.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dynamic Circumferential Wall Strains in Cylindrical Silos. International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 17 - 19.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Determination of Mechanical Properties of Fresh Avocado Fruits. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 6- 8 August, Milimani Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Development of an Equation/Model for Predicting Temperature in Stored Potatoes. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. II: Drying Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(703): 2003 - 2008.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Discussion on Constitutive Equation for Granular Materials En-masse. East African Journal of Engineering. 1(1): 27 - 38.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment, December, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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5. Kibwage I. O., J.K. Thuranira LGIMGNNK’ondJMJK. "Drug quality control work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observations during 1991 to 1995." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1999;2(2):32-36.
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7. Thenya T, Verburg P, Wassmann, Verchot L, Mungai, D. "Degradation of the riparian wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin - Yala swamp case study." Degradation of the riparian wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin - Yala swamp case study. 2006.
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9. Thenya T, Wassmann, R. M, Verchot L. "Dynamics of resource utilization in a tropical wetland." Indigenous strategies of wetland utilization. 2006.
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A K. Developmental Defects of Enamel. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co; 2011.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Daudi K. Langat(1), Pedro J. Morales(1), Charles O. Omwandho(2), Asgerally T. Fazleabas(3), Joan S. Hunt(1). Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells. In Proceedings of the 39th Meeting of the S.". In: Biology of Reproduction. Special Issue, July 2006, pp 73, Abstract No. 13.; 2006. Abstract

1. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas, KS 2. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 3. University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL The human leukocyte antigen-G(HLA-G), a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy, is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. Current evidence suggests that HLA-G programs immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface into immunosuppressive phenotypes, but definitive proof remains elusive since the vivo experiments in humans are not possible due to ethical concerns. In the search for an appropriate animal model, we have identified the olive baboon (Papio anubis) as a potential candidate. The primate expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG n the placenta. Preliminary data shows that Paan-AG gene shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including limited polymorphism, alternative splicing of the mRNA, and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Restricted tissue expression suggested that the two genes might share tissue-specific regulatory elements. We previously identified a number of two Paan-AG alleles, 5'UTAG-1(AG1) and 5'UTAG-2(AG2). The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF-kB to Paan-AG promoter activity. Both alleles contained two kB elements, kB1 and kB2. Binding was assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and functional activity using luciferase reporter assays. NF-kB bound both kB1 and kB2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only kB1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF-kB; kB2 did not bind. The AG2 kB1. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of kB1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggests that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies. Supported by NIH grant HD39878 (JSH)

A B, K KP, Nafula N, DK M. "The Decline in Primary School Enrolment in Kenya.". In: Economic reforms in developing countries.; 2008.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "D.E. Zavala, S. Bokongo, A.J Ime, I.M Senoga, R.E Mtonga, A.Z Mohammed, W.A. Odhiambo and P. Olupot Olupot; A Multinational Injury Surveillance System Pilot Project in Africa; 2007, 28: 4.431.". In: JPHP. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A D, D O, E O. "Development of the roadmap and guidelines for the prevention and management of high blood pressure in Africa: Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.". In: : Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.; 2014. Abstract

Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economic changes are associated with a health transition characterised by a rise in cardiovascular risk factors and complications, which tend to affect the African population at their age of maximum productivity. Recent data from Africa have highlighted the increasing importance of high blood pressure in this region of the world. This condition is largely underdiagnosed and poorly treated, and therefore leads to stroke, renal and heart failure, and death. Henceforth, African countries are taking steps to develop relevant policies and programmes to address the issue of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in response to a call by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by the year 2025 (25 × 25). The World Heart Federation (WHF) has developed a roadmap for global implementation of the prevention and management of raised blood pressure using a health system approach to help realise the 25 × 25 goal set by the WHO. As the leading continental organisation of cardiovascular professionals, the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) aims to contextualise the roadmap framework of the WHF to the African continent through the PASCAR Taskforce on Hypertension. The Taskforce held a workshop in Kenya on 27 October 2014 to discuss a process by which effective prevention and control of hypertension in Africa may be achieved. It was agreed that a set of clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension are needed in Africa. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a roadmap for implementation of the prevention and management of hypertension in Africa under the auspices of the WHF.

A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "D.E. Zavala, S. Bokongo, A.J Ime, I.M Senoga, R.E Mtonga, A.Z Mohammed, W.A. Odhiambo and P. Olupot Olupot; A Multinational Injury Surveillance System Pilot Project in Africa; 2007, 28: 4.431.". In: JPHP. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Daudi K Langat , Pedro J Morales , Charles O Omwandho , Asgerally T Fazleabas and Joan S Hunt, Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells.". In: The Journal of Immunology 2007, 178: 42.12.; 2007. Abstract

HLA-G is a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy. It is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. The baboon (Papio anubis) expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG in the placenta, and may serve as a model for HLA-G studies. Paan-AG shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including alternative splicing of the mRNA and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Our hypothesis is that the two genes share similar regulatory mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF- B to Paan-AG B elements and determine the effects of binding on Paan-AG promoter activity. We assessed two Paan-AG alleles each containing two B elements, B1 and B2. NF- B bound both B1 and B2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only B1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF- B; B2 did not bind. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two nucleotide differences in the 3' end of B1. The functional activity of the two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of B1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggest that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies.

A Kibet, Rose A, P Omusula, Takken W, M Geier, Mweresa CK, B Otieno, Mukabana WR. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control.". 2014.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in East Africa. Trends and Issues Affecting Development".". In: The Symposium on East Africa in Transition. Nairobi. Kenya. July 2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. FF, Kayima J, Otieno CF, WERE A, Ngare S. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):14-17.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Development Priorities for Malindi", a research report prepared for the Malindi Constituency Development Fund, March, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in East Africa. Trends and Issues Affecting Development".". In: The Symposium on East Africa in Transition. Nairobi. Kenya. July 2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The Decentralization Process in Kenya: The Place of Local Authorities - The African Centre for Technology Studies, (ACTOS), Nairobi, Research Memorandum Series.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1994. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in Kenya".". In: The 1 st Symposium on East Africa in Transition; Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi. Kenya. 4 - 7 th July 2000. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract
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A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in Kenya".". In: The 1 st Symposium on East Africa in Transition; Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi. Kenya. 4 - 7 th July 2000. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract

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Abade OE, Kaji K, Kawaguchi N. "Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Routing Engine for a multipoint communication protocol: XCAST6." International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security. 2011;11(5):200-209.
Abala DO. "Determinants of manufactured exports in Kenya:An application of control function approach." DBA Africa management review. 2013;Vol. 3 no.1(1):50-72. Abstract

This paper uses firm level survey panel data to estimate parameters of export propensity and intensity in Kenyan manufacturing. The effects of unobservable factors that would otherwise bias the estimated parameters are removed using a control function regression procedure. The key finding of the study is that export propensity and intensity are strongly responsive to total factor productivity. In particularly a 10% increase in total factor productivity increases export propensity by 54%, but export intensity rises less steeply by 18%. We also find that ownership structure of the firm and unobserved factors specific to firms strongly influence exports. Taken together, the estimation results provide insights into the policies
needed to promote entry and stay of firms in export markets. The findings suggest that policy measures to improve export performance of Kenyan firms should focus on improving total factor productivity, encouraging foreign direct investment and stimulating modernization of manufacturing capital.

Keywords: Exports, manufacturing firms, total factor productivity, control function approach, Kenya.

Abala DO, Mwabu G, Mwega FM. "Does Total Factor Productivity Matter For Exports? Kenyan Evidence." African Journal of Social Science. 2013;Vol. 3(Number 2):30-44.
Abala D, Mwabu G, Mwega F. ""Does Total Factor Productivity Matter for Exports? Kenyan Evidence"." African Journal of Social Sciences,. 2013;3(2):30-44.
Abdille AA, Kimani J, Wamunyokoli F, Bulimo W, Gavamukulya Y, Maina EN. "Dermaseptin B2’s Anti-Proliferative Activity and down Regulation of Anti-Proliferative, Angiogenic and Metastatic Genes in Rhabdomyosarcoma RD Cells in Vitro." Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology. 2021;12:337-359. Abstract
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ABDULHALIM DRHUSSEIN. "DESCRIPTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN NAIROBI ( A MASTERS THESIS).". In: A MASTERS THESIS. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
No abstracts available
ABDULLAH DRHASSANMOHAMMED. "Distributed Hydrological Modeling of a Mountainous Catchment in Kenya, Irons. Of Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Reclamation Engineering. JSIDRE. No. 221. pp. 49-55.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2002.
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN. "Diversity and Characteristics of Potato Flakes in Nairobi and Nakuru, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research (D). 2012;12(10):35-39.potato_flakes_survey_kenya.pdf
Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, G.N.Thoithi, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, King’ondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Drug quality control in Kenya: observations in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(2):33-43.
Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Opot. BH, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Osuna. F, Nyambura. JM, Ocholla. SO, Mitei. KM, Wurapa. EK. "Drastic decline of pandemic (2009) H1N1 Influenza cases in sentinel surveillance sites in Kenya; May 2011-May 2012.". In: International Society for Influenza and other respiratory virus diseases conference. Munich Germany.; 2012. Abstract
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ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a case report.East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract
A 27 year old female with AIDS and disseminated histoplasmosis is presented. The clinical features include fever, weight loss, productive cough, splenomegaly and moderate pallor. The initial working diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made terminally from bone marrow aspirate examination. Disseminated histoplasmosis with its varied clinical picture is likely to be missed in a patient with AIDS, and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. PIP: A 27-year old female from Nairobi was admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital in May 1991. She presented with a 4-week history of productive cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. She acknowledged a history of contact with a patient known to have pulmonary tuberculosis. She has never received a blood transfusion. She was single and para 3 + 0. Examination revealed a sick patient, with moderate pallor, fever of 38 degrees Celsius, and who was wasted with moderate dehydration and oral thrush. There was no finger clubbing, lymphadenopathy, or pedal edema. Chest examination revealed bilateral basal pneumonia. The spleen was palpable 4 cm below the costal margin; the liver was not enlarged. The rest of the examination was normal. On admission, complete blood count showed a haemoglobin of 5.4 g/dl, total white cells were 12.5 x 10-9/L, with 82% polymorphonuclear cells and 18% lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 85 mm/hour, and platelet count was normal. The anemia was normocytic, normochromic, and no malaria parasites were seen. Urea and electrolytes and liver function tests were normal. Sputum showed no acid fast bacilli on Ziel-Neelson Stain. HIV-1 antibodies were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Bone marrow aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow with reversed M:E ration, dyserythropoesis, reticulum cell hyperplasia, plentiful golden yellow pigment, and clumps of Histoplasma capsulatum. Chest X-ray showed bilateral basal pneumonia. She was treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, but she remained febrile, her general condition progressively deteriorated, and she died a week after admission. Treatment for histoplasmosis had not been commenced, and no postmortem examination was carried out.
Adholla M-, Ruigu G. "The Development of Coffee Production in K enya."; 1978.
Adoyo Laji, Fatuma Daudi JACM(2017). "The Dual Pathways In The Process of Urban development and Their Influence on Flood Damage In Kisumu City, Kenya. ." Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2017;7, (10)(ISSN 2250):PP 332-340.
Adrogué HJ, Lederer ED, Suki WN, Eknoyan G. "Determinants of plasma potassium levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." Medicine. 1986;65:163-172. Abstract

The classic proposal of intracellular K+ for extracellular H+ exchange as responsible for the hyperkalemia of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been questioned because experimentally induced organic anion acidosis fails to produce hyperkalemia. It has been suggested, instead, that the elevated serum [K+] of DKA might be the result of the compromised renal function, secondary to volume depletion, that usually accompanies DKA. However, several metabolic derangements other than volume depletion and acidosis, which are known to alter potassium metabolism, also develop in DKA. This study of 142 admissions for DKA examines the possible role of alterations in plasma pH, bicarbonate, glucose (G), osmolality, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma anion gap (AG) on the levels of [K+]p on admission. Significant (p less than 0.01) correlations of [K+]p with each of these parameters were found that could individually account for 8 to 15 percent of the observed variance in the plasma potassium levels; however, the effects of some or all of these parameters on the [K+]p could be independent and therefore physiologically additive. Since the parameters under study are themselves interrelated, having statistically significant correlations with each other, their possible independent role on [K+]p was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Only plasma pH, glucose and AG emerged as having a definite independent effect on [K+]p, with no independent role found for bicarbonate, BUN and osmolality. The equation that best describes [K+]p on admission for DKA was: [K+]p = 25.4 - 3.02 pH + 0.001 G + 0.028 AG, (r = 0.515). These results indicate that the endogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia observed in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased [K+]p. Since exogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia in the otherwise normal experimental animal do not increase [K+]p, it is postulated that insulin deficit itself may be the major initiating cause of the hyperkalemia that develops in DKA. Renal dysfunction by enhancing hyperglycemia and reducing potassium excretion also contributes to hyperkalemia.

ADUDA JO. "The Distribution of Financial Ratios of Companies Quoted at the Nairobi Stock Exchange: An Empirical Evidence.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agwanda AO. "Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Under review, International Family Planning Perspectives. E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A. Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception in Kenya. Dakar: Union of African Population Studies; 2000.
Agwata JF, Nyaoro W. "Drought Coping Strategies at the Local Level: The Case of Masinga Division of Machakos District, Kenya.". The KDSA Annual Conference Workshop, Egerton University, Njoro, 17th-19th Oct., 2007; 2007. Abstract
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Ahuya CO;, Okeyo AM;, Peacock C. "Development of dairy goat industry in Kenya: A case study."; 2004.
Akach JA, Michael K, Soderenko S, Mijthab M, Nicole F. DWSI Kenya Workshop Report.; 2017.
Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Determinants of Secondary school learners’ performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan sub county, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;7(5):125-130.
Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "The dynamics of religiosity and spirituality in Kenyan public Universities." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.6(6):63-80.ijern_vol_1_no.6_june_2013.pdf
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Development and Promotion of Community Based Sericulture. Annex XL pp 96.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Dying Lake Victoria, (1996) A community Based Prevention programme, OSIENALA/UNDP Publication (1996), ISBN Bo. 9966 - 42 - 046 -0.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Decentralization of Development Planning in Kenya, published PhD thesis University of Dortmund, Germany (1992).". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1992.
Akendo I.C.O., Gumbe LO, Gitau AN. "Dewatering and drying characteristics of water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) petiole. Part II: Drying characteristics. ." Agricultural engineering international the CIGR E-journal. 2008;X (Manuscript FP 07033.).
Akendo I.C.O., Gumbe LO, Gitau AN. "Dewatering and drying characteristics of water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) petiole. Part I: Dewatering characteristics. ." Agricultural engineering international the CIGR E-journal.. 2008;X(Manuscript FP 070).
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Development of Parametric Numbers in Filter-bed Flocculation.". In: JKUAT Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 7,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2002. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry . 2017;144(2017):1-8.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Alexandra Hiscox, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Martin Geier, Andreas Rose, Wolfgang R Mukabana, undefined. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):257.
Alice K. Charles, William M. Muiru DMJKW & W. "Distribution of Common Maize Diseases and Molecular Characterization of Maize Streak Virus in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(5).
Alphayo L, Wasonga OV, Odadi WO, Ngugi RK. "Differences of Soil Properties between Planned and Unplanned Grazing Sites in Semi-Arid Pastoral Rangelands of Northern Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211. 2016;5. Abstract
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Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups ." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya . 2018;23(3):89-94.
Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Alulu J, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Ochieng J. "Drivers of transformations in smallholder indigenous vegetable value chains in western Kenya: Evolution of contract farming." Journal of Business and Economics. 2020;22(6):151-165.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Development of an oral biosensor for salivary amylase using a monodispersed silver for signal amplification.". In: Analytical Biochemistry, 340(1), 136-144, (2005). Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch, A. O., Sadik, O. A., Bedi, G. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of protein amylase in human saliva is described. A novel design and the preparation of amylase antibodies and antigens, essential for the development of the biosensor, are reported. The biosensor sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary antibody (or antigen) self-assembled onto Au-electrode via covalent attachment. Molecular recognition between the immobilized antibody and the salivary amylase proteins was monitored via an electroactive indicator (e.g., K3Fe(CN)(6)) or a monodispersed silver layer present in solution or electrochemically deposited onto the solid electrode. This electroactive indicator was oxidized or reduced and the resulting current change provided the analytical information about the concentration of the salivary proteins. The limit of detection of 1.57 pg/ml was obtained, in comparison to detection limits of 4.95 pg/ml obtained using potassium ferrocyanide as the redox probe and 10 ng/ml obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was tested against cystatin antibodies and was found to be less than 2.26%.
Aluvaala J, Okello D, Murithi G, Wafula L, Wanjala L, Isika N, Wasunna A, Were F, Nyamai R, English M. "Delivery outcomes and patterns of morbidity and mortality for neonatal admissions in five Kenyan hospitals." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2015;(61):255-259. Abstractdelivery_outcomes_and_patterns_of_morbidity_and_mortality_for_neonatal_admissions_in_five_kenyan_hospitals.pdf

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in neonatal and maternity units of five Kenyan district public hospitals. Data for 1 year were obtained: 3999 maternal and 1836 neonatal records plus tallies of maternal deaths, deliveries and stillbirths. There were 40 maternal deaths [maternal mortality ratio: 276 per 100 000 live births, 95% confidence interval (CI): 197–376]. Fresh stillbirths ranged from 11 to 43 per 1000 births. A fifth (19%, 263 of 1384, 95% CI: 11–30%) of the admitted neonates died. Compared with normal birth weight, odds of death were significantly higher in all of the low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) categories, with the highest odds for the extremely LBW (<1000 g) category (odds ratio: 59, 95% CI: 21–158, p<0.01). The observed maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality call for implementation of the continuum of care approach to intervention delivery with particular emphasis on LBW babies.

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Ambrose SH, Kyule MD, Muia M, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Dating the MSA/ LSA transition in Southwest Kenya." Society for American Anthropology. 2000:33.
Amiga KK, Kola BO. Development of a computer graphics interface. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya National Association of Physicists; 1988.
Amimo JO, Saif LJ, Junga J, Vlasova AN, Okoth EA, Njahira MN, Ogara WO, Djikeng A. "Detection and molecular characterization of selected swine enteric viruses in smallholder farms in Kenya and Uganda.". In: 9th Biennial Conference and exhibition of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Upper Kabete Campus, Nairobi; 2014.detection_and_molecular_characterization_of_selected_swine_enteric_viruses_in_smallholder_farms_in_kenya_and_uganda__9thbiennial_jamimo-18-08-2014_final.pdf
Amimo JO, Junga JO, W. O. Ogara, Vlasova AN, Njahira MN, Maina S, Okoth EA, Bishop RP, Saif LJ, Djikeng A. "Detection and genetic characterization of porcine group A rotaviruses in asymptomatic pigs in smallholder farms in East Africa: Predominance of P[8] genotype resembling human strains." Veterinary Microbiology. 2015;175(2-4):195-210.
Amolo M. D ivination among the Luo community . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1997.
Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

and AA, Odipo G. "Drivers of migration in East African Community.". In: the Regional meting of The Research Consortium Migration out of Poverty.; 2011.
Andago A, Imungi J, Mwangi A, Lamuka P, Ruth Nduati. "Developemnt of a bovine blood enriched porridge flour for alleviation of anaemia among young children in Kenya." Food Science and Quality Management. 2015;39:73-83.
ANGELINE MRSCHEPHIRCHIR, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Dr. James Mwaura, Anne Mwikali Mawia, Angeline Chepchirchir Relationship Between Male Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. National Nurses Association of Kenya; 2008.
ANGELINE MRSCHEPHIRCHIR, JAMES DRMWAURA. "Dr. James Mwaura, Anne Mwikali Mawia, Angeline Chepchirchir Relationship Between Male Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. National Nurses Association of Kenya; 2008.
Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo DW, Dehayem-Massop A. "Developments in Medical Elementology and Spectral Diagnostics of Disease via Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Trace Spectroanalytics and Imaging Towards Applications in Nanomedicine.". In: First Pan-African Summer School in Nanomedicine. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki. "Development of Laser Education and Research Towards Biophotonics at Nairobi.". In: 12th International conference on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics. 22; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Angima C. "Do size and age affect performance of general insurance firms in East Africa?" International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(7):8-18.
Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Mburu J, Yazan E, Majaliwa MGJ, MacOpiyo L, Bamutaze Y. "Drivers of forage availability: An integration of remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:19. Abstract
n/a
Anyamba TJC, VDM V, Saarbrucken M. "Diverse Informalities."; 2008.
Apata(6) AO, Muobeleni TN, A A Fabuyide, Ogunmuyiwa EN, G.O.Rading, Jain PK, Witcomb WJ, Cornish LA. "Development of VC-Ni Eutectic Alloys for Wear Resistance." Advanced Materials Research, 1019. 2014:347-354.
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Ascroft J, Ruigu G. "Does Extension Create Poverty in Kenya." East African Journal . 1972;9(3).
Asfaw A;, Dauro D;, Kimani PM. "Decentralized participatory bean breeding in southern Ethiopia."; 2006. Abstract

In order to utilize farmers' knowledge on the crop and the environment, and to fit the crop to the specific needs and uses of farmers' communities, a four cycle decentralized participatory bean breeding was conducted in two locations in Sidama zone of the southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region. Forty four farmers selectors representing the community evaluated and then selected bean lines on-stations, the initial diverse germplasm pool of 147 lines at first selection cycle. In the following three cropping seasons, the farmers evaluated their selected lines on their farms and retained promising lines at the end of each selection cycle according to their own selection criteria. Their selections were evaluated by neighboring non-selector farmers (farmer-evaluators) using selection criteria set by farmer selectors. Group selection by selector farmers was attempted at cycle-4 on all individually selected lines grown on communal plots. The farmers effectively evaluated and selected bean lines that gave increased yield on their farm and met their specific preferences among large number of advanced lines. The farmers retained more large seeded beans as compared to small and medium seeded beans indicating that there is a shift in preference to large seeded beans in the region from their previously well-acquainted small red seed type. Bean lines selected by farmer following decentralized individual selection were farmer-specific except certain lines selected in common by some farmers. This lack of common selection to all farmers implies farmers' diverse preference for bean germplasm. In the selection process the farmers used growth habit, plant height, pod load, pod length, pod clearance from the base, early maturity, seed color, seed size and seed yield as selection criteria to retain or reject the bean lines. Seed color and seed yield were their decision making criteria whereas the rest were descriptor criteria to select good cultivars. The selection process indicated that farmers were capable of making significant contribution in identification of cultivars acceptable to them within a relatively short period. Moreover, the result suggests that conducting decentralized participatory individual selection and then participatory group selection with all farmer-selectors on all individually selection lines grown on communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their selection criteria can improve variety development and increase the chance of adoption of new varieties by other farmers in a community.

H
Hazan L, Hernández Rodriguez OA, Bhorat A'adE, Miyazaki K, Tao B, Heyrman R, group(EM Wafula AESOPS. "A double-blind, dose-response study of the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children and adolescents with hypertension." Hypertension. 2010;55(6):1323-30. Abstract

The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children with hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure measured at or above the 95th percentile (90th percentile for patients with diabetes, glomerular kidney disease, or family history of hypertension) for age, gender, and height while off any antihypertensive medication. The active treatment phase was conducted in 2 periods, with 2 cohorts in each period (cohort A, 62% white; cohort B, 100% Black). In period 1, patients stratified by weight received low-dose (2.5 or 5 mg) or high-dose (20 or 40 mg) olmesartan medoxomil daily for 3 weeks. In period 2, patients maintained their olmesartan medoxomil dose or initiated placebo washout for an additional 2 weeks. Period 1 efficacy results showed a dose-dependent, statistically significant reduction in seated trough systolic and diastolic blood pressure for both cohorts, with mean blood pressure reductions numerically smaller in cohort B than in cohort A. The olmesartan medoxomil dose response remained statistically significant when adjusted for body weight. In period 2, blood pressure control decreased in those patients switching to placebo, whereas patients continuing to receive olmesartan medoxomil therapy maintained consistent blood pressure reduction. Adverse events were generally mild and unrelated to study medication. Olmesartan medoxomil was safe and efficacious in children with hypertension, resulting in significant blood pressure reductions.

A
Atieno R, Onjala J, Jama M. "Do think tanks benefit from APRM work? Kenya’s Experience.". In: in Gruzd Steven (ed) Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Johannesburg: Jacana Media (Pty) and South African Institute of International Studies; 2010.
Atieno R, Jama M, Onjala J. ""Do Think Tanks Benefit from APRM Work? Kenya’s Experience”.". In: Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism,. SAIIA Occasional Paper No. 16; 2008.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Determinants of Poverty: Lessons from Kenya. Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal.". In: Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "District Focus for Rural Development in Kenya: Its Limitations as a Decentralization and participatory Planning Strategy and Prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.46.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Decentralization for rural development. In: African Administrative Studies, No.32 (Chitere, P.O. and Monya, J.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. "Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine." Environ. Health Perspect.. 1985;62:105-8. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Awad O, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA ON JUNCTIONAL AND LABYRINTHINE ZONES OF PLACENTA IN SPRAGUE DAWELY RAT." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(1):840-846. Abstractdifferential_effects_of_chronic_iron_deficiency.pdfWebsite

Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on
histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are
important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to describe the histomorphometric changes
associated with iron deficiency anaemia on placenta of albino rat. Fourty nine (49) Sprague – Dawely albino rats
were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was rendered anaemic by
removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days. Placentas were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and
21. Five cubic milimetre segments were fixed in 10 % buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and
embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut, deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and
Eosin. Micrographs were taken using Leica ICC 50 digital photomicrographic camera attached to a computer at
magnification x40 and the thickness of the labyrinth and junctional zones measured. Student t- test was used to
compare values for the experimental and control groups. The labyrinth in the chronic anaemia group was thinner
than in the control group at gestational days 17, 19 and 21. The junctional zone, on the other hand, was consistently
thicker in anaemic than in the control animals. The difference in thickness of junctional zone varied with gestational
age. At gestational day 17, the zone was significantly thicker in the anaemic group (628.9 μ) than in the control
(381 μ). On day 19 and 21, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the effects of
chronic iron deficiency anaemia on the labyrinth differ from those on the junctional zone of the placenta. This
differential effect appears to depend on the function and gestational age. The decrease in thickness of the labyrinth
may be designed to maintain placental diffusion capacity while increased thickness of the junctional zone constitutes
a compensatory physical and nutritional adaptation to hypoxia.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Digital Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

One of the most fundamental developments in the history of photogrammetry has been the transition from analytical to digital photogrammetry. This was realized in the early 1990s through softcopy-based systems or Digital Photogrammetric Workstations (DPWs). Today, on the one hand, initial applications of digital photogrammetry in performing routine and operational procedures, such as aerial triangulation and map revision, as well as in generating geospatial datasets, including digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital orthophotos, have been essentially standardized. On the other hand, system development in automated feature extraction for diverse geospatial features have been continually improved and refined.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Disaster Monitoring and Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Since time immemorial, natural disasters have continued to plague the history of mankind. They have varied in type, frequency, coverage and severity ranging from earthquakes, landslides, droughts, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc. Over the last century, the frequency, severity and impact of natural disasters has increased substantially.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Data Models and Structure.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

By convention, data in the real world is deemed to exist in a continuous or analogue form usually in three dimensional space as discussed in Sect. 2.1. Such data needs to be digitized or made discrete before it can be input and processed by a digital computer. A GIS database can be viewed as an abstraction of reality. To convert object features observed or measured in the real world into the digital realm in a GIS database it is necessary to structure the data appropriately. Four (4) different generic types of primitive object features can be distinguished, namely: point features (0-D), line features (1-D), area features/polygons (2-D), and surface features (3-D). Incidentally, when surface features are captured in a discrete or non-continuous manner, this is then referred to as 2.5D. In general, an object feature is defined by three (3) properties in GIS, namely: position, attributes and relationship with other features referred to as topology.

Awino ZB, Muchemi AW, Ogutu M. "Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):82-92 .
Awori K, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili. "Does The Pattern Of Innervation Of Brachialis By The Musculocutaneous Nerve Influence The Presence Or Absence Of The Radial Nerve Contribution?" Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):142-144. Abstract

The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution by the radial nerve however ranges from 30 to 100%. It is not clear if the presence or patterns of supply to this muscle by either nerve are interdependent. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of innervation of brachialis by the nusculocutaneous nerve and relate it to the presence and contribution from the radial nerve. Fifty seven arms (25 male and 4 female); 29 right and 28 left from formalin-fixed adult cadavers were used. The pattern of musculocutaneous branch to brachialis was recorded based on the classification by Yang et al. into either type I or II. The presence and number of branches by the radial nerve to the same muscle were determined and related to the pattern from brachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied brachialis in all (100%) of the cases while the radial nerve did so in 33 arms (57.9%). Type I was the predominant pattern in both left and right arms (91.2%) with no correlation between the type of innervation by musculocutaneous nerve and the radial nerve contribution.

Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Patterns .". 1985.Website
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Characteristics .". 1986.Website
Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Okello-Odongo W, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning." International Journal of Computer and Information Technology. 2014;Volume 03(Issue 02).
Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Odongo WO, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning.". 2014. Abstract
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Ayisi RK, Thuita FM, NJERU E, Wakoli AB. "Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding for six months in a peri urban settlement of Kangemi. A qualitative approach." European International Journal of Science and tecnology. 2013;2(10):53-60.
Ayonga, N J. R.W. R&(2021). "Dual Spatial Patterns, In-optimal Legal Framework and how they affect Land Use Planning in Kenya: Evidence from the Planning statutes. ." Journal of African Habitat Review. 2021; (15(4). (Forthcoming.).
Ayuke FO. Diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna in relation to quality of organic residues. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University; 2000. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used.
The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest.
A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out.
Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population.
Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role.
Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna and (4) high quality residues can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Diversity, abundance and function fauna in relation in relation to quality of organic residues.". In: Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) and African Research Network (AfNet) workshops. Kampala, Uganda; 1999. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used. The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out. Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population. Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna population hence activity.

Azer SA, Eizenberg N. "Do we need dissection in an integrated problem-based learning medical course? {Perceptions} of first- and second-year students." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:173-180. AbstractWebsite

Background The introduction of a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the School of Medicine of the University of Melbourne has necessitated a reduction in the number of lectures and limited the use of dissection in teaching anatomy. In the new curriculum, students learn the anatomy of different body systems using PBL tutorials, practical classes, pre-dissected specimens, computer-aided learning multimedia and a few dissection classes. The aims of this study are: (1) to assess the views of first- and second-year medical students on the importance of dissection in learning about the anatomy, (2) to assess if students’ views have been affected by demographic variables such as gender, academic background and being a local or an international student, and (3) to assess which educational tools helped them most in learning the anatomy and whether dissection sessions have helped them in better understanding anatomy. Methods First- and second-year students enrolled in the medical course participated in this study. Students were asked to fill out a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Data was analysed using Mann–Whitney’s U test, Wilcoxon’s signed-ranks or the calculation of the Chi-square value. Results The response rates were 89% for both first- and second-year students. Compared to second-year students, first-year students perceived dissection to be important for deep understanding of anatomy (P {\textless} 0.001), making learning interesting (P {\textless} 0.001) and introducing them to emergency procedures (P {\textless} 0.001). Further, they preferred dissection over any other approach (P {\textless} 0.001). First-year students ranked dissection (44%), textbooks (23%), computer-aided learning (CAL), multimedia (10%), self-directed learning (6%) and lectures (5%) as the most valuable resources for learning anatomy, whereas second-year students found textbooks (38%), dissection (18%), pre-dissected specimens (11%), self-directed learning (9%), lectures (7%) and CAL programs (7%) as most useful. Neither of the groups showed a significant preference for pre-dissected specimens, CAL multimedia or lectures over dissection. Conclusions Both first- and second-year students, regardless of their gender, academic background, or citizenship felt that the time devoted to dissection classes were not adequate. Students agreed that dissection deepened their understanding of anatomical structures, provided them with a three-dimensional perspective of structures and helped them recall what they learnt. Although their perception about the importance of dissection changed as they progressed in the course, good anatomy textbooks were perceived as an excellent resource for learning anatomy. Interestingly, innovations used in teaching anatomy, such as interactive multimedia resources, have not replaced students’ perceptions about the importance of dissection.

B
B R, M C, G.O.Oyoo. "Different techniques to assess microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):46-49. Abstractrheumatology_full_flow1.pdf

Blood perfusion
Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a connective
tissue disease with multifactorial
aetiology and autoimmune pathogenesis.
SSc is characterized by structural and
functional alterations of microcirculation,
with important clinical implications, such
as Raynaud Phenomenon (RP) and digital
ulcers1,2. For these reason, morphological
and functional assessment of the peripheral
microvasculature is a must for diagnosis,
prognosis and therapy in SSc patients 2.
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) is
the best safe and non-invasive method
to detect morphological microvascular
abnormalities. NVC allows to distinguish
secondary RP from both primary RP and
healthy subjects, identify morphological
patterns that are specific to various SSc
stages (‘Early’, ‘Active’ and ‘Late’ patterns
of microvascular damage) and calculate
the Microangiopathy Evolution Score
(MES) to follow disease evolution3,4.
The video-capillaroscope makes
use of a magnification system (from 50x
up to 500x magnification), and it has an
optical/digital probe which can be moved
over the surface of the finger nails from
the 2nd to the 5th finger of both hands2.
The normal NVC image is characterized
by normal skin transparency, morphology
of the capillary to “U” or “hairpin shape”,
morphological/structural homogeneity,
10-12 capillaries / linear millimetre, one
capillary inside dermal papilla, diameters
of capillary branches <20 μm, and lack of
morphological atypia2. Nailfold capillaries
are frequently normal in primary RP,
but it is possible to observe capillaries
with efferent branch enlargement or
tortuous capillaries. Therefore in normal
conditions, or in the presence of primary
RP, the NVC examination is characterized
by a regular array of capillary loops
along the nailfold bed, without abnormal
Different techniques to assess microvascular damage in
systemic sclerosis
Ruaro B1, Sulli A1, Smith V2, Paolino S1, Pizzorni C1, Cutolo M1
enlargements nor capillary loss2.
Conversely, secondary RP is characterized
by the morphological signs that represent
the microvascular damage: these include
giant capillaries, microhaemorrhages,
capillary loss, presence of avascular
areas and angiogenesis. These sequential
capillaroscopic changes are typical of the
microvascular involvement observed in
more than 95% of SSc patients and are
described by the term “SSc pattern”2,3.
NVC technique identifies
morphological patterns specific to
various stages of SSc (‘Early’, ‘Active’
and ‘Late’ patterns)3,4. The ‘Early’
SSc pattern is characterized by few
enlarged/giant capillaries, few capillary
microhaemorrhages, no evident capillary
loss and a relatively well preserved
capillary distribution. The ‘Active’ SSc
pattern, a marker of disease progression, is
characterized by frequent giant capillaries
(more than 66%), frequent capillary
microhaemorrhages, moderate (up to 33%)
capillary loss, absent or mild ramified
capillaries and a mild disorganization of
the capillary architecture. In the ‘Late’
SSc pattern there is irregular enlargement
of the capillaries, severe (>66%) capillary
loss with evident avascular areas,
ramified or bushy capillaries and a severe
disorganization of the normal capillary
array, although giant capillaries and
microhaemorrhages are almost absent3,4
(Figure 1). NVC is also used to make a
quantitative assessment (i.e. quantify
certain characteristics and make semiquantitative
scoring) of the microvascular
damage. The usual capillaroscopic
parameters (diagnostic parameters,
such as irregularly enlarged capillaries,
giant capillaries, microhaemorrhages;
and progression parameters, such as
reduced capillary number, capillary
ramifications and capillary architectural
disorganization) are evaluated by a semiquantitative
scale. Score 0-3 has been
adopted for all these parameters3

B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "De Vuyst H, Gichangi P, Estambale B, Njuguna E, Franceschi S, Temmerman M.Human papillomavirus types in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 1;122(1):244-6.". In: Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 1;122(1):244-6. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
To evaluate the fraction of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) that could be prevented in HIV-infected women by vaccines currently available against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, we conducted a cross-sectional study in women with ICC in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-one HIV-positive women were frequency-matched by age to 153 HIV-negative women. Cervical cells were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction-based assays (SPF10-INNO-LiPA). Comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity of HPV types. As expected, multiple-type infections were much more frequent in HIV-positive (37.2%) than in HIV-negative (13.7%) women, but the distribution of HPV types was similar. HPV16 was detected in 41.2% versus 43.8% and HPV16 and/or 18 in 64.7% versus 60.1% of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women, respectively. The only differences of borderline statistical significance were an excess of HPV52 (19.6% versus 5.2%) and a lack of HPV45 (7.8% versus 17.0%) in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women, respectively. We have been able to assess an unprecedented number of ICCs in HIV-positive women, but as we did not know the age of HIV acquisition, we cannot exclude that it had occurred too late in life to affect the type of HPV involved in cervical carcinogenesis. However, if our findings were confirmed, they would suggest that the efficacy of current vaccines against HPV16 and 18 to prevent ICC is similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, provided vaccination is administered before sexual debut, as recommended. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

Badamana MS. "Dairy cattle industry in Kenya.".; 1991.
Balew S, Agwata J, Anyango S. "Determinants of Adoption Choices of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Crop Production by Small Scale Farmers in Some Regions of Central Ethiopia." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2014;Vol.4, No.4. Abstract

In Sub-Saharan Africa, climate change is set to hit the agricultural sector the most and cause untold suffering
particularly for smallholder farmers. Adoption of climate change adaptation strategies aims to minimize adverse
effects of climate change on crop yields. However, the capacity of smallholder farmers to choose from
appropriate climate change adaptation strategies in SSA is limited. It is therefore imperative to identify and
analyze factors that determine the capacity of these farmers to choose appropriate climate change adaptation
strategies. Such effort will help policy makers and development practitioners design policies that would help to
tackle the problem of food insecurity and poverty afflicting majority of the local people in various regions in the
continent. In this study, household data on crop farming systems in central Ethiopia was used and binary and
multinomial logit models developed to analyze the data. The binary logit model was used to identify
determinants of farmers’ decision to adapt to climate change at all. The multinomial logit model was employed
to analyse factors that affect farmers’ adoption choices. Results indicate that farmers´ decisions to choose from
several climate change adaptation strategies are influenced by various factors such as access to information on
climate change, input and output market, credit facility, extension services and social capital. The implication is
that policy makers and development practitioners should focus on improving information flow, access to input
and output market, the education level of the household head, and informal social networks that can speed up the
adoption of adaptation strategies. The multinomial logit model also shows that farmers´ decision to choose
among climate change adaptation strategies is influenced by the type of risk factor they faced and the occurrence
of drought or flood. Accordingly, policy makers and development practitioners should play a significant role by
promoting adaptation methods appropriate for particular climate change risk factor such as drought or flood.

Ballesteros C, Mwasi A, Mungai E, Ibarahim A, Thuranina-McKeever C, Aboge GO, Onono JO, Alarcon P. "Developing and validating a rapid assessment tool for small ruminant reproduction and production in pastoralist flocks in Kajiado, Kenya." Veterinary and Animal Science. 2021;13.
Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Raspador for Simultaneous Extraction and Brushing of Sisal Fibers by Small-scale Sisal Farmers." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2021.1975597

Demand for natural fibers is on the rise as awareness of environmental protection keeps abreast. Sisal fibers, for instance, are largely utilized not only in the manufacture of mats, ropes, carpets, and sacks but also in the reinforcement of polymer composites. With the increased demand for sisal fibers, there is a need to equally increase the exploitation of sisal by small-scale farmers. UNIDO, for instance, recommended that appropriate small-scale machines that are accessible to small-scale holders should be developed. This research examines the progress in the development of small-scale machines and designs a raspador for simultaneous extraction and brushing of sisal fibers. This is to ensure that there is value and income addition for the small-scale farmers in East Africa and perhaps the rest of the world.

Barrett EJ, DeFronzo RA. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and treatment." Hospital Practice (Office Ed.). 1984;19:89-95, 99-104. Abstract
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Beatrice KA-, J KR. "Delayed cord clamping as routine treatment for HIV negative mothers.". In: Nutrition Conference. Naiberi River Campsite and resort, Eldoret; 2013.
Bedi, Kimalu A, K P, DK M, Nafula N. "The Decline in Primary School Enrolment in Kenya." Journal of African Economies . 2004;11(1).
Bergin, P. LFOO-MMOPLRBSG, and I. Mwangi, H. Coutinho CMMCFLGAPMJP. "Detection of Vaccine Induced Mucosal Antibodies in Phase I Hiv Preventative Vaccine Trials." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A187.
Berkley JA, Ngar M, JT, Mutai B, KA. "Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial ." Lancet Glob Health . 2016;4:464-73. Abstractdaily_cotrimoxazole_prophylaxis_to_prevent__mortality.pdf

Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality
from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital
are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM

Bett B;, Kitala J;, Gathuma J. "Developing a Frame Work for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of ‘Disease Free Zones’ in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.

Bett B;, Kitala J;, Gathuma J. "Developing a Frame Work for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of ‘Disease Free Zones’ in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.

Biermann O, Mwoka M, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Shawky S, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Mberu B, others. "Data, Social Determinants, and Better Decision-making for Health: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:4-14. Abstract
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Birech Z, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Tucson, Arizona United States; 2014.fio-2014-ftu1g.8_davydov_splitting.pdf
Birech Z, Schwoerer M, Pflaum J, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Optical Society of America; 2014:. Abstract
n/a
Birithia RL;, Subramanian S;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD. "Distribution Of The Tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus Infecting Onions In Kenya.".; 2010.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Distribution of the tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus infecting onions in Kenya.". In: Tenth Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics: Analysis of Production Chains of Ornamentals for the Local Market and For Export. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Juja, Kenya; 2010.
Birithia RL;, Subramanian S;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD. "Distribution Of The Tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus Infecting Onions In Kenya.".; 2010.
Birithia R;, Subramanian S;, Villinger J;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD;, Pappu HR. "Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya."; Submitted.
Bojana Boh, David N. Kariuki AKJMSWOO. "Development of New Products: International - Un iversity - Industry Cooperation: Camomile Project." UNESCO - ICCS ; Submitted.
Boleij JS, Brunekreef B, EM W, FE O, de Koning, A P. "Domestic pollution as a factor causing respiratory health effects." Chest. 1989;96(3 Suppl):368S-372S.
Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Nathan I. Danish national park process: chapter 3.3.; 2013. Abstract

document's citation: Boon, T. R. E., Lund, D. H., & Nathan, I. (2008). Danish national park process: chapter 3.3. Vienna: University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna.

Boscow OO, Abala DO, Kiriti-Ng'ang'a T. "Determinants Kenya’s Exports to the European Union (EU) (1960– 2010)." Regional Development Studies. 2013;17. Abstract

This paper examines the determinants of Kenya’s exports to the EU since 1960 to 2010 . The study uses ordinary least squares and two stage least square regression using exports values as the dependent variable. The independent variables are foreign aid, real gross fixed capital formation, terms of trade and consumption which is used as an instrument for real gross domestic product in the two stage least square as well as a dummy variable capturing the effect of reciprocity as a proxy for assessing the effect of the trade relation. The results show that during periods when there was reciprocity, Kenyan export values were stagnant and low, unlike periods when ACP states were given preferential treatment i.e. when there was no reciprocity. It is therefore evident that the proposed EPAs may worsen the current situation for Kenya’s exports.
Key Words: Kenya, ACP-EU, Exports, determinants, EPAs

Bowa O. "Distance Education." University of Nairobi Kikuyu Press. 2005.abstract_distance_education.pdf
Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm?" East Afr Med J. 1992;69(1):37-9. Abstract

To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age.

Brooks P, Spillane JJ, Dick K, Stuart-Shor E. "Developing a strategy to identify and treat older patients with postoperative delirium." AORN journal. 2014;99:256-276. Abstract
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Buregeya A, Buregeya A. "Dyslexia and dysgraphia in the reading and writing of English words by upper-primary pupils from select schools in Sabatia Sub-county in Kenya." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2017;6(Oct 2017):Oct 2017.
C
C O’, G WR, M. V, M. K, S. N, N. H, S. G. "Dairy cattle Management, Health and Welfare in Smallholder farms: An organic Farming Perspective." Journal of Organic 2(1). 2015;2(1):3-20.

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