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1997
Lewa AK;, Munyua W k;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi N;, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis In Donkeys In Kiambu District Of Kenya."; 1997.
Lewa AK;, Munyua W k;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi N;, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis In Donkeys In Kiambu District Of Kenya."; 1997.
Midiwo OJ, Owuor FAO, Juma BF, Waterman PG. "Diterpenes from the leaf exudate of Psiadia punctulata.". 1997.Website
Munyua SJM;, Mutiga ER;, Agumbah GJO;, Ogaa JS;, Mwangi WM. "Does the improved Bull have a place?".; 1997.
Munyua SJM;, Mutiga ER;, Agumbah GJO;, Ogaa JS;, Mwangi WM. "Does the improved Bull have a place?".; 1997.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among trucking company workers in Kenya: results of a behavioural risk-reduction programme. Jackson DJ; Rakwar JP; Richardson BA; Mandaliya K Chohan BH; Bwayo JJ; Ndinya-Achola JO; Martin HL Jr; Moses S.". In: AIDS. 1997 Jun;11(7):903-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Detection of HIV infection during window period using polyclonal. B-cell activation test [letter] Jehuda-Cohen T; Mumo JM; Bwayo JJ; Pezzella M. AIDS. 1997 Jan;11(1):124-5.". In: 1997 Jan;11(1):124-5. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Determination of Mechanical Properties of Fresh Avocado Fruits. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 6- 8 August, Milimani Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Architecture Syllabi and Regulations.". In: Kenya Institute of Education. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Psiada punctulata .". In: Phytochemistry Vol 45, (1) 117-120.; 1997. Abstract
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1996
Ogana W, Wainaina G. Data analysis of the mineral status of Lake Nakuru National Park and implications for the health of the waterbuck (Kobus ellypsiprymnus defassa). Nairobi: Report of a project carried out on behalf of Multiscope Consultants Limited, for Dr. R. Kock of the Kenya Wildlife Service; 1996.
LITONDO KO. ""Data Processing and Computers - Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective" edited by Prof. F.N. Kibera.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1996. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Lelei JK, LITONDO KO. "Data Processing and Computers: in F.N. Kibera (Ed) Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Lelei JK. "Data processing and computers: In F.N. Kibera (Ed). Introductiont to Business: A Kenyan perspective, Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Management.Vol. 13 No.2,. Nairobi: Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R, Njau LN, Mukolwe EA, Maina DM. "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in Kenya.". 1996.Website
Lelei JK. "Determining Safety Stock with an Electronic Spreadsheet: A Simulation Approach.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Management Vol.2, Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Lelei JK. "Determinng safety stock with an electronics spreadsheet: A simulation approach. .". In: The Nairobi Journal Management Vol. 4 No October. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Ngugi M. "Development Communication: A Clarification of Constructs,” in Okigbo, C (ed).". In: Development Communication Principles. Nairobi: ACCE; 1996.
Legge PL, Barongo JO, Opiyo-Aketch N, Mathu EM, Nyambok IO. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
Nyambok IO, Mathu EM, Opiyo-Aketch N, Barongo JO, Legge PL. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
Legge PL, Barongo JO, Opiyo-Aketch N, Mathu EM, Nyambok IO. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Diversification and Performance: A Case Study of the Kenyan Insurance Industry.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 2.; 1996.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dayal S, Patti HP, Acharya SK.Polycythemia vera: overt to latent form in a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996 Jan;22(1):76-7.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996 Jan;22(1):76-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract

The average estimated carrier rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India is 4%, with a total pool of approximately 36 million carriers. Wide variations in social, economic, and health factors in different regions may explain variations in carrier rates from one part of the country to another. Professional blood donors constitute the major high risk group for HBV infection in India, with a hepatitis B surface antigen positivity rate of 14%. Blood transfusions represent the most important route of HBV transmission among adults. However, most of India's carrier pool is established in early childhood, predominantly by horizontal spread due to crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Acute and subacute liver failure are common complications of viral hepatitis in India and HBV is reckoned to be the aetiological agent in 42% and 45% of adult cases, respectively. HBV is reported to be responsible for 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis and 80% of cases of cirrhosis of the liver. About 60% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are HBV marker positive. Small numbers of patients have been reported to be infected with the pre-core mutant virus but none with the S mutant. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis delta virus is comparatively uncommon. In conclusion, hepatitis B is a major public health problem in India and will continue to be until appropriate nationwide vaccination programmes and other control measures are established.

M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Ndetei DM,Richter P, Kathuku DM,Sandermann S, Othieno C, Mundt Ch (1996): Symptomatology of Depression - Results from a Kenyan Population. 10th. World Congress of Psychiatry, S. 172, Madrid (A).". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Design of Micro-Geothermal Power Plant. A Technical Report, 1996. (Revised 1998).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1996. Abstract
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GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R,... "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in kenya." … of Radioanalytical and …. 1996. AbstractWebsite

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of aerosol samples in Nairobi is presented. Results show that elemental concentrations are of the order of 10− 4 to 10− 6 μg/m 3 for most elements analyzed. The total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was …

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Development and Promotion of Community Based Sericulture. Annex XL pp 96.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "Discovery and Innovation Vol 8:181-188 [1996] A Comparison of Ultrastructural aspects of macrogametogenic Stages of Two Eimeria Species of Goats( capra hircus) PWN Kanyari, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; Kenya.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Distribution and dissipation of Carbofuran in a paddy field in the Kano Plain of Kenya.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxic. 56 (4).pg. 584. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
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PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Dolphin Bycatches in Tuna Fisheries: A Smokescreen Hiding the Real Issues? 27 Ocean Development & International Law p.333 (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1996. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Dying Lake Victoria, (1996) A community Based Prevention programme, OSIENALA/UNDP Publication (1996), ISBN Bo. 9966 - 42 - 046 -0.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
1995
Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howland HC. "Differences in eye growth and the response to visual deprivation in different strains of chicken." Vision research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract

Several laboratories studying visual deprivation myopia in the domestic chick report varying degrees of axial elongation and myopia induced by similar visual deprivation techniques. In this study we tested the hypothesis that in different strains of chick the eyes respond differently to visual deprivation. We compared under identical conditions two strains of White Leghorn chick commonly used in ocular development research–the Cornell-K strain (K) and Washington H & N Strain (H/N). The normal development of the eye was found to vary significantly between these strains of White Leghorn chicks. The K strain normally develops flatter corneas, thicker lenses, and larger eyes than the H/N strain. The response to visual deprivation also varies significantly between strains. For example, we find that 2 weeks of visual deprivation in the K strain results in less elongation of the vitreous chamber and flattening of the cornea yielding lower levels of induced myopia compared to the H/N strain. Our results show that while visual experience clearly affects normal ocular development in both strains of chick, the nature of the effect depends upon not only the type and duration of the experience but the genetics of the subject population as well.

Oketch H, Abaga A, Manda DK. "Demand and Supply of Micro and Small Enterprise Finance in Kenya.". In: K - REP working paper, K - REP. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1995.
H. A, T. T. A Detection Of Human Eyes by Window-Pair Chasing. Nairobi, Kenya; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "D O Koteng.". In: Third Sub-Regional Workshop on Natural Disaster Prevention. 19-23 June 1995, United Nations Conference Center, Nairobi, Kenya. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""David G. Maillu." In DBL 157: Twentieth Century Caribbean and Black African Writers. Vol. 3. Eds. Bernth Lindfors and Reinhard Sander. Columbia: Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1995. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Richter P, Sanderman S, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M, Ndetei D M & Mundt C (1995). Trans-cultural research on depression .". In: European Psychiatric Journal. European Psychiatric Journal; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H., Richter P., Sanderman S., Othieno C. J. Kathuku D. M., Detei D. M. and Mundt C (1995). Transcultural research on depression 0- study concept and preliminary results vortrag. World psychiatric Association .". In: World psychiatric Association . Curare; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "A Derrailed Democtratic Transition.". In: Elections in Multiparty Context in Kenya.; 1995. Abstract
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. I: Dewatering Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(702): 1975 - 1983.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. II: Drying Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(703): 2003 - 2008.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howlandi H. "Differences in {Eye} {Growth} and the {Response} to {Visual} {Deprivation} in {Different} {Strains} of {Chicken}." Vision Research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract
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Kisumbi B, Wakiaga J, Chindia ML. "Discolouration of Teeth.". 1995. Abstract
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Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B, Chindia ML. "Discolouration of teeth: an overview of the diagnosis and management." East African medical journal. 1995;72:213-216. Abstract
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JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection among HIV-infected patients in Kenya. Gilks CF; Brindle RJ; Mwachari C; Batchelor B; Bwayo JJ; Kimari J; Arbeit RD; von Reyn CF. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Feb 1;8(2):195-8.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Feb 1;8(2):195-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection among HIV-infected patients in Kenya.Gilks-CF; Brindle-RJ; Mwachari-C; Batchelor-B;Bwayo JJ; Kimari-J; Arbeit-RD; von-Reyn-CF J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr-Hum-Retrovirol.1995 Feb 1; 8(2): 195-8.". In: J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr-Hum-Retrovirol.1995 Feb 1; 8(2): 195-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Distance Education Practice and Prospects of the Faculty of External.". In: UNESCO/ICDE Seminar on Multi Channel Learning Base at Mount Clear Nyanga, Zimbabwe. Thought and Practice; 1995. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Do Kenyan Households choose between child schooling and family size? Application of Becker.". In: Masters in Education, Thesis submitted to Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1995.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Drama in East Africa' in Encyclopaedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1995. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
1994
Maingi N. "Developing genetic resistance to internal parasites (helminths) in goats and cattle in Kenya.". In: Teleconference on Biotechnology and Agriculture at the University of Nairobi. CEES, Kikuyu Campus; 1994.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.O. Kihurani, V.M. Nantulya, S.M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P.M.F. Mbithi (1994). Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolese and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth., Prod. 26 95-101.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1994. Abstract

The ease of cast breakage, the extent of cast wearing at the foot, the ability to bear weight on the cast limb, athe severity of lameness and cast related complications were compared clinically in three groups of six calves each, cast with three different plaster of Paris bandages namely Plasrun-gyps, Veronese and Salvagyps, and oberstaions made over the next 21 days. The casts were applied following aseptic joint surgery for immobilization. Cast breakage was seen in only one case in which Plasrun-gyps was used but observed most of the cases cast with Salvagyps and Veronese. Cast breakage was most often seen at the foot, in all plaster casts. All casts enables weight bearing in all calves and when lameness was seen to be severe this was due to broken casts whose edges impinged on soft tissue causing pain. On the basis of its having minimal breakages on clinical application, Plasrun-gyps was the most suitable for use on the limbs of calves.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Datta P., Embree J.E., Kreiss J.K., Ndinya-Achola J.O., Braddick M., Temmerman M., Nagelkerke N.J.D., Maitha G., Holmes K.K., Piot P., Pamba H.O. and Plummer F.A.: Mother-to-child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Report from the Nairob.". In: J. Inf. Diseas. 170 (5): 1134, 1994. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1994. Abstractmother_to_child_transmission_of_human_immunodefficiency_virus_type1.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

Kimata, M.D., Makawiti, D.W., Tengekyon, K.M., Dadzie S, Waindi EN. "Delayed Recovery of Adrenocortical and Testicular Function after Chemotherapy of Human Trypanosomiasis. ." Acta Tropica . 1994;57:69-74 .
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of labile fluoride in soils: An Intercomparison of Different Extracting Medias'.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 3, 18 - 22. UoN; 1994. Abstract

Labile fluoride in soil samples was extracted using sodium citrate - EDTA, sodium citrate - TISAB II, ammonium lactate, IMhydrochloric acid and water. Hydrochloric acid was found to give the highest fluoride level while water gave the lowest fluoride level.Shaking time andamount of sample showed that 1 1/2 hours shaking and lgm sample gave the best results with ammonium lactateextracting media Recovery of fluoride using ammonium lactate was found to be 90-100% efficient while medium clay samples gaveless than 90% fluoride.

M. MK. "Do You Know Anybody.". In: The Winner and Other Stories. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau ; 1994.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Daily guide - illustration and cover design.". In: Scripture Union Publication. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Datta P, Embree J, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola Braddick M, Temmerman M, Nagelkerke NJD, Maitha G, Holmes KK, Piot P, Pamba HO, Plummer FA. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1: Report from the Nairobi study. J. Infect. Dis. 170:1134.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 170:1134 -40, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Datta, P., Frost E., Peeling, R., Masinde, M. S., Deslandes, S., Echelu, C., Wamola, I., Brunham, R.C. Ophthalmia neonatorum in a trachoma Endemic area. Sex Transm Dis. 21 (1): 1 .". In: Sex Transm Dis. 21 (1): 1 .; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Davies MH, Ngong JM, Yucesoy M, Acharya SK, Mills CO, Weaver JB, Waring RH, Elias E.The adverse influence of pregnancy upon sulphation: a clue to the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy?J Hepatol. 1994 Dec;21(6):1127-34.". In: J Hepatol. 1994 Dec;21(6):1127-34. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Sulphation of oestrogens and monohydroxy bile acids is important in attenuating their cholestatic potential. Thus, impairment of sulphation could lead to retention of cholestatic compounds and precipitate intrahepatic cholestasis in susceptible individuals. We tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism may be involved in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. In vivo and in vitro assessment of sulphation capacity was performed in patients with cholestasis of pregnancy, compared with control females on and off the oestrogen-containing oral contraceptive pill and control individuals during normal pregnancy and post partum, to assess the influence of high oestrogen states upon this metabolic pathway. During in vivo studies utilising paracetamol as a metabolic probe, the proportion of paracetamol sulphate and sulphate: glucuronide ratio were decreased in those with elevated oestrogens, whether the rise in oestrogens was endogenous, in pregnancy (paracetamol sulphate p < 0.05; paracetamol sulphate:glucuronide ratio p < 0.01), or exogenous, with the contraceptive pill (paracetamol sulphate p = 0.2; paracetamol sulphate:glucuronide ratio p < 0.001). In vitro, platelet sulphotransferase activity was measured, utilising phenol as substrate. Sulphotransferase activity decreased during pregnancy compared with repeat measurements post partum (p < 0.005) and compared with non-pregnant individuals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we have shown that elevated oestrogens are associated with significant impairment in sulphation capacity. An imbalance of sulphation with glucuronidation provoked by high circulating oestrogen levels may be contributory in the pathogenesis of cholestasis of pregnancy.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The Decentralization Process in Kenya: The Place of Local Authorities - The African Centre for Technology Studies, (ACTOS), Nairobi, Research Memorandum Series.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1994. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Delusions: Essays on Social Construction of Gender, Ed. Kabira W. Masheti M. and Mbugua W.: African Womens Communication and Development Network, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Production of Corporate Brochure for Family Planning Private Sector.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Design of Micro-Hydropower System for use in Small Rivers. A Technical Report, 1990 (Revised in 1992, 1994).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1994. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Common nearly best linear estimates of location and scale parameters of normal and logistic distributions, which are based on complete samples, are considered. Here the population from which the samples are drawn is either normal or logistic population or a fusion of both distributions and the estimates are computed when it is not yet known which of the two populations (between the normal and logistic) is true. The problem discussed in this paper involves two possible population types in a given sample. Samples of sizes  and  are used to validate these estimates and a comparison of their variances is made with those of the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for normal and logistic distributions.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in heel prick blood on filter paper from children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Nov;32(11):2858-60.". In: J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Nov;32(11):2858-60. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 7911092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Development of an Equation/Model for Predicting Temperature in Stored Potatoes. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Development of early maturing fusarium wilt resistant pigeonpeas. African J. Crop Sci. 2: 35 - 41.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
K MRGAKERIJACOB. ""Development of International Law relating to the protection of the Stratospheric Ozone layer" (1994) University of Nairobi Law Journal Page 44.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1994. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Devouassoux G, Heyraud JD, Gontier C. Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory infections in hospitalized patients. Rev Mal Respir. 1994;11(5):473-7.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1994;11(5):473-7. uon press; 1994. Abstract

Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgennettes, Lyon. We report a study of 8 patients with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection of the respiratory tract admitted to the Army Hospital Desgenettes over a 10 months period. Our clinical observations are compared with a review of the literature. We observed a seasonal outbreak in spring and autumn. This infection was encountered mainly in young people. The two most common clinical findings were cough and fever. Our report describes mild forms of this disease. Definitive etiological diagnosis is based on a four-fold or higher rise in titers. The macrolides or tetracyclines remain the most effective antibiotics.

DeFronzo RA, Matzuda M, Barret E. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: a combined metabolic-nephrologic approach to therapy." Diabetes Rev.. 1994;2:209. Abstract
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J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Graphic Design, Textile Design, Painting and Sculpture.". In: Buruburu Institute of Fine Arts. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Distance Learning and Telecommunication in Kenya. Paper presented at Satelite Education Demonstration at Kikuyu Campus, University of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at Satelite Education Demonstration at Kikuyu Campus, University of Nairobi. Thought and Practice; 1994. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Duprat C, Mohammed Z, Datta P, Stackiw W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Holmes KK, Plummer FA, Embree J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IgA antibody in breast milk and serum. Paediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13: 603 - 608, 1994.". In: Infect. Dis. J. 13: 603 - 608, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dynamic Circumferential Wall Strains in Cylindrical Silos. International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 17 - 19.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
1993
Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Reichelt E, Osborne NN, Fritzsche B, Puls A, Richter U, Friedrich A, Knothe A-K, Schober W, Timmermann U. "Development of the rabbit retina, {III}: {Differential} retinal growth, and density of projection neurons and interneurons." Visual Neuroscience. 1993;10:479-498. AbstractWebsite

To provide a quantitative description of postnatal retinal expansion in rabbits, a new procedure was developed to map the retinae, which cover the inner surface of hemispheres or parts of rotation ellipsoids, in situ, onto a single plane. This method, as well as the known distribution of Müller cells per unit retinal surface area, were used to estimate the redistribution of specific subpopulations of Müller cells within different topographic regions of the retinae. Müller cells are known to exist as a stable population of cells 1 week after birth and can therefore be used as “markers” for determining tissue expansion. Our results show that differential retinal expansion occurs during development. Peripheral retinal regions expand at least twice as much as the central ones. Furthermore, there is a greater vertical than horizontal expansion. This differential retinal expansion leads to a corresponding redistribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accumulating amacrine cells. Differential retinal expansion, however, does not account for all of the changes in the centro-peripheral density gradient of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) — mostly retinal ganglion cells — during postnatal development. The changes in the ganglion cell layer were evaluated in Nissl-stained wholemount retinal preparations. Additionally, the difference between expansion-related redistribution of cells in the GCL and Müller cells was confirmed in wholemount preparations where Müller cells (identified as vimentin positive) and cells in the GCL (identified by fluorescent supravital dyes) were simultaneously labeled. It is assumed that many of the ganglion cells within the retinal center are not translocated during retinal expansion, possibly because their axons are fixed. In contrast, 5-HT accumulating amacrine cells — which are interneurons without a retinofugal axon — display a passive redistribution together with the surrounding retinal tissue.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D. O. Kihurani, V. M. Nantulya, S. M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P. M. F. Mbithi. Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

Nzomo M, Adhiambo-Oduol J, Kabira WM. Democratic Change in Africa: Women's Perspective.; 1993.Website
C.P.K. Basalirwa, L.J. Ogallo MF. "The Design of a Regional Minimum Raingauge Network." Water Resources Development. 1993;9(4):411-424.
Jaoko W. Detection of circulating immune complex associated parasite antigen in human loiasis: A new approach to diagnosis.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Machuka JS;, Waithaka K;, Gopalan HNB. "Discovery and Innovation, 5(1): 75-80."; 1993.
Joel O. Dissemination of Agricultural Information : a case study of KADOC. Nairobi: Technical University ; 1993.
Gaciri SJ, Altherr R, Nyamai CM, Mathu EM. Distribution of elements in mineral pairs from Mozambique belt rocks of Matuu a rea, central Kenya. Nairobi - Kenya: UNEP/UNESCO; 1993.
Ogallo LA. "Dynamics of the East African Climate ." Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.(Earth planet. sci.). 1993;102(1):203-217.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Nitric oxide: significance for the gastroenterologists.Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Apr-Jun;14(2):41-3.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Apr-Jun;14(2):41-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of the interferon stimulator named Stronger Neo Minophagen-C (SNMC) derived form the plant G. glabra was studied at a dose of 40 or 100 ml daily for 30 days followed by thrice weekly intravenously for 8 wk in 18 patients of subacute hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis. The survival rate amongst these patients was 72.2 per cent, as compared to the earlier reported rate of 31.1 per cent in 98 patients who received supportive therapy (P < 0.01). Death in four of the five patients was due to associated infections leading to hepatorenal failure and terminal coma. Further studies are necessary to standardize the dose and duration of therapy with SNMC in subacute hepatic failure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Ursodeoxycholic acid–new drug for liver diseases.Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):1-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):1-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

Pancreatic abscess is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis and non-operative management has been reported to carry a mortality of nearly 100%. We present five patients with pancreatic abscess, who were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. All 5 patients had acute pancreatitis followed by prolonged fever and development of an abdominal mass. The diagnosis was confirmed in each of them by a contrast enhanced CT scan and an ultrasound guided aspiration of pus from the pancreatic mass. The choice of antibiotics was decided by the culture reports in two cases and by Gram's staining in the remaining three patients. We attribute the success of antibiotic therapy in our patients to early diagnosis by CT scan and guided aspiration as well as the absence of any unfavourable risk factors. This study suggests that a select group of patients with pancreatic abscess may be managed conservatively with antibiotics.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Buch P, Saraya A, Acharya SK, Tandon RK. Pancreatic abscess: is there a role for conservative therapy?Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):28-32.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):28-32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

Pancreatic abscess is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis and non-operative management has been reported to carry a mortality of nearly 100%. We present five patients with pancreatic abscess, who were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. All 5 patients had acute pancreatitis followed by prolonged fever and development of an abdominal mass. The diagnosis was confirmed in each of them by a contrast enhanced CT scan and an ultrasound guided aspiration of pus from the pancreatic mass. The choice of antibiotics was decided by the culture reports in two cases and by Gram's staining in the remaining three patients. We attribute the success of antibiotic therapy in our patients to early diagnosis by CT scan and guided aspiration as well as the absence of any unfavourable risk factors. This study suggests that a select group of patients with pancreatic abscess may be managed conservatively with antibiotics.

M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Democratic Change in Africa: Ed Kabira, Odoul and Nzomo; AAWORD/Acts Publication, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "Design of a Regional Minimum Raingauge Network.". In: Water Resources Dev. Vol. 9 No.4. International Journal of Climatology; 1993. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Mwangi J. "Determinants of Private Sector Investment in Kenya.". In: Conference Proceedings Silver Springs Hotel Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
n/a
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and the Environment in Africa: Policy Initiatives (Nairobi: ACTS Press, Ecopolicy Series No. 5, 1993.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Development of Rice Husk Ash based alternative cements in Kenya", Proceedings:.". In: Inaugral conference of the Kenya Chemical Society, Nairobi, June 1993. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Development Priorities for Malindi", a research report prepared for the Malindi Constituency Development Fund, March, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Discussion on Constitutive Equation for Granular Materials En-masse. East African Journal of Engineering. 1(1): 27 - 38.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a case report.East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract
A 27 year old female with AIDS and disseminated histoplasmosis is presented. The clinical features include fever, weight loss, productive cough, splenomegaly and moderate pallor. The initial working diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made terminally from bone marrow aspirate examination. Disseminated histoplasmosis with its varied clinical picture is likely to be missed in a patient with AIDS, and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. PIP: A 27-year old female from Nairobi was admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital in May 1991. She presented with a 4-week history of productive cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. She acknowledged a history of contact with a patient known to have pulmonary tuberculosis. She has never received a blood transfusion. She was single and para 3 + 0. Examination revealed a sick patient, with moderate pallor, fever of 38 degrees Celsius, and who was wasted with moderate dehydration and oral thrush. There was no finger clubbing, lymphadenopathy, or pedal edema. Chest examination revealed bilateral basal pneumonia. The spleen was palpable 4 cm below the costal margin; the liver was not enlarged. The rest of the examination was normal. On admission, complete blood count showed a haemoglobin of 5.4 g/dl, total white cells were 12.5 x 10-9/L, with 82% polymorphonuclear cells and 18% lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 85 mm/hour, and platelet count was normal. The anemia was normocytic, normochromic, and no malaria parasites were seen. Urea and electrolytes and liver function tests were normal. Sputum showed no acid fast bacilli on Ziel-Neelson Stain. HIV-1 antibodies were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Bone marrow aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow with reversed M:E ration, dyserythropoesis, reticulum cell hyperplasia, plentiful golden yellow pigment, and clumps of Histoplasma capsulatum. Chest X-ray showed bilateral basal pneumonia. She was treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, but she remained febrile, her general condition progressively deteriorated, and she died a week after admission. Treatment for histoplasmosis had not been commenced, and no postmortem examination was carried out.
KAUR DRSEHMIJASWANT, KAUR DRSEHMIJASWANT. "Dr. J.K. Sehmi; National Food Composition Tables and the Planning of Satisfactory Diets in Kenya. Government Printers, Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
1992
Kibwage IO, Ogeto JO, Maitai CK, Rutere G, Thuranira J, Ochieng' A. "Drug quality control work in Daru: observations during 1983-1986." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(10):577-80. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm?" East Afr Med J. 1992;69(1):37-9. Abstract

To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age.

M. MK. "Do You Know Anybody?” in Writers’ Forum." : A journal of the Writers Association of Kenya, . 1992;Vol 1 1992(No.1).
Kyule MD. "Dogs and the Sirikwa at Hyrax Hill." East Africa Natural History Soc. Bulletin. 1992;22 :34-37.
Githure JI, Kabiru EW, Martin SK, Khan B, Ofulla AV, Kariuki DM. "Drug sensitivity studies during a highland malaria epidemic in Kenya.". 1992.Website
Kinyamario JI, Imbamba SK. "Dry savanna, Kenya.". 1992.Website
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Training in gastroenterology.Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Apr-Jun;13(2):45.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Apr-Jun;13(2):45. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
We studied the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH) in recipients of blood collected from voluntary donors screened for HBsAg. Two hundred and fifty patients without any previous history of liver disease or transfusion were followed up for 12 months subsequent to cardiac surgery. Thirty-five of them had closed-heart surgery without receiving transfusion and served as controls. The remaining 215 patients received single-point transfusions (mean 4 +/- 2.4 units). None of the controls and 15 (6.9%) blood recipients developed PTH. Three (20%) patients had hepatitis-B-virus-induced hepatitis while the remainder (80%) had non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis. The number of units of blood transfused and surrogate markers for development of PTH (donor alanine aminotransferase, anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibody) were not associated with the occurrence of PTH (p greater than 0.05). Nine (60%) of the 15 patients developing PTH were asymptomatic. All the patients recovered from the PTH, except one who died of fulminant hepatitis. At the end of 1 year of follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of chronic hepatitis. Only three (25%) of the patients with NANB-PTH developed anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody during the follow-up. We conclude that the incidence of PTH in India is similar to other parts of the world and NANB virus was the major cause of the PTH. The absence of chronicity and lack of seroconversion to anti-HCV antibody in the majority of the patients after 1 year of follow-up may suggest the possibility of a NANB virus other than HCV as the major cause of PTH in India.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Misra SC, Acharya SK, Irshad M, Joshi YK, Venugopal P, Tandon BN.Prospective controlled study of post-transfusion hepatitis after cardiac surgery in a large referral hospital in India.Liver. 1992 Jun;12(3):116-20.". In: Liver. 1992 Jun;12(3):116-20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
We studied the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH) in recipients of blood collected from voluntary donors screened for HBsAg. Two hundred and fifty patients without any previous history of liver disease or transfusion were followed up for 12 months subsequent to cardiac surgery. Thirty-five of them had closed-heart surgery without receiving transfusion and served as controls. The remaining 215 patients received single-point transfusions (mean 4 +/- 2.4 units). None of the controls and 15 (6.9%) blood recipients developed PTH. Three (20%) patients had hepatitis-B-virus-induced hepatitis while the remainder (80%) had non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis. The number of units of blood transfused and surrogate markers for development of PTH (donor alanine aminotransferase, anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibody) were not associated with the occurrence of PTH (p greater than 0.05). Nine (60%) of the 15 patients developing PTH were asymptomatic. All the patients recovered from the PTH, except one who died of fulminant hepatitis. At the end of 1 year of follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of chronic hepatitis. Only three (25%) of the patients with NANB-PTH developed anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody during the follow-up. We conclude that the incidence of PTH in India is similar to other parts of the world and NANB virus was the major cause of the PTH. The absence of chronicity and lack of seroconversion to anti-HCV antibody in the majority of the patients after 1 year of follow-up may suggest the possibility of a NANB virus other than HCV as the major cause of PTH in India.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralised Development Planning and Management in Kenya: An Assessment," in Ladipo Adamolekun et al., (eds.), Decentralisation Policies and Socio-Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, DC: Economic Development Institute of the World B.". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Decentralization of Development Planning in Kenya, published PhD thesis University of Dortmund, Germany (1992).". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1992.
K MRMBOBUMATHEW. "THE DEFENCE OF FORUM NON-CONVENIENS UNDER THE WARSAW CONVENTION: Unpublished paper for LL.M Degree Course. Georgetown University Washington D.C.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1992. Abstract
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Mwangi J. Demand for Insurance in Nairobi: An Econometric Study.. Kenyatta University; 1992. Abstract
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K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Development Communication Needs for NGOs and Donors: An Overview of Issues (A paper presented in a symposium on Development Communication Needs, Organized by Development Horizons Trust, Fairview Hotel, Nairobi, 25th Feb.1992.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Development Policies and Ecological Change in Kenya: A Review Paper presented at the Biodiversity Support Program Meeting, 14th Sept - 17th Sept Washington, D.C.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Dissemination or Method.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm? East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm? East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1991
Gichaga FJ. "Deflections of Lateritic Gravel and Stone Base Pavements of Low Volume Tea Roads in Kenya.". In: Fifth International Conference on Low Volume Roads.; 1991.
Badamana MS. "Dairy cattle industry in Kenya.".; 1991.
El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "Description of some Typhlodromus species from Tanzania (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae). Acarologia: 217.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1991. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Diplomacy: From Theory to Practice’ ."; 1991.
Mwangi, J.W., NEWSON RM, KAAYA GP. "Drop-off patterns for engorged adult females, nymphs and larvae of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Insect Science and Its Application. 1991;12:629-633.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, M. Bhaiji, M.S. Masinde Immunoglobulin Levels in Tears M.Med Thesis 1991.". In: M.Med Thesis 1991. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, M. Bhaiji, M.S. Masinde Immunoglobulin Levels in Tears M.Med Thesis 1991.". In: M.Med Thesis 1991.; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, M. Bhaiji, M.S. Masinde Immunoglobulin Levels in Tears M.Med Thesis 1991.". In: M.Med Thesis 1991. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Debt and Development in Africa: Alternative Approaches to Adjustment and Debt relief ( A paper presented in a workshop on Churches and NGOs forum on Structural Adjustment Program and Debt in Kenya organized by the National Council of Churches of Kenya).". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Deflections of Lateritic Gravel and Stone Base Pavements of low volume Tea roads in Kenya.". In: Fifth International Conference on Low Volume Roads. Held in May 1991 North Carolina. TRB. National Research Council. UN-HABITAT; 1991. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Demographic characteristics of Nyandarua Districts of Nyandarua District. Republic of Kenya. Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Demographic trends in Muranga District Socio-Cultural profile.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Demographic trends in Muranga District Socio-Cultural profile.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract

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MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Layout of a special issue of the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE).". In: Newsletter; The Spider. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Development and Prospects of Distance Education in Kenya Paper Presented for publication to the East African Journal of Education.". In: The World Education Crisis Conference held at Robinson College, Cambridge. Thought and Practice; 1991. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
O. OL. "Development Journalism in Africa: Problems and Prospects." Peter Desbarats, Phillis Giroux and Pierre Boutet (eds.) Mass Media in a Shrinking World. London, ON.: The University of Western Ontario; 1991. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Development of Catalytic Photometric Flow Injection Methods for Determination of Selenium.". In: Anal. Chem., 63, 692-699,. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract
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Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Friedrich A, Ziegert W, Brückner G, Schober W. "Development of the rabbit retina. {I}. {Size} of eye and retina, and postnatal cell proliferation." Anatomy and Embryology. 1991;183:287-297. Abstract

Measures of rabbit eyes and retinal wholemounts were used to evaluate the development of retinal area and shape. The retina is shown to have a horizontal axis about a third longer than the vertical axis just before birth, and to adopt an almost symmetrical shape during postnatal development to adulthood. In general, retinal thickness is shown to decrease after birth, but differently in particular retinal regions: the reduction is marked in the periphery, and less pronounced in the visual streak. As an exception, the myelinated region–after it becomes really myelinated, from 9 days p.p.–even increases in thickness. In all regions of the retina, the absolute and relative thickness of the nuclear layers decreases, whereas the relative thickness of plexiform and fibrous layers increases. Proliferation of cells within the rabbit retina was studied during the first three postnatal weeks. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to demonstrate DNA synthesis autoradiographically in histological sections as well as in enzymatically isolated retinal cells. A first proliferation phase occurs in the neuroblastic cell layer and ceases shortly after birth in the retinal center, but lasts for about one week in the retinal periphery. We found, however, a few 3H-thymidine-labeled cells as late as in the third postnatal week. These late-labeled cells were found within the nerve fiber layer and in the inner plexiform layer. The latter cells were shown to express antigens detected by antibodies directed to the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin, which are known to label Müller cells and neuroepithelial stem cells. This was confirmed in our preparation of enzymatically isolated cells; all cells with autoradiographically labeled nuclei revealed a characteristic elongated morphology typical for Müller radial glia (and also for early neuroepithelial stem cells). 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the nerve fiber layer were most probably astrocytic. In analogy to the brain, we conclude that the mammalian retina undergoes a series of proliferation phases: first an early phase producing both neurons and glial cells, and then a late phase producing glial cells, e.g., in the nerve fiber layer. Most probably, the late phase within the inner nuclear layer is glial as well, i.e., consists of dividing Müller cells; it cannot be excluded, however, that there may remain some mitotically active stem cells.

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Dialogue Btween an African Christology and Karl Rahner's Christology in L. Namwera (ed.) Nairobi: African Christian Studies, Nairobi: CUEA, Vol.7 2 June 1991.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
1990
Stone DM, Wessel T, Joh TH, Baker H. "Decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase, but not aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, messenger {RNA} in rat olfactory bulb following neonatal, unilateral odor deprivation." Molecular Brain Research. 1990;8:291-300. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral naris cauterization in rats results in occlusion of the affected naris and blockade of odorant access to ipsilateral olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory. These receptor cells project exclusively to the olfactory bubl (OB) and appear to regulate expression of the dopaminergic phenotype in a population of OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Unilateral odor deprivation results in a loss of normal stimulatory input to the OB and a marked and specific decrease in ipsilateral OB tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression. The expression of co-localized aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is not similarly affected. We have used this procedure in neonatal rats to examine the effect of stimulation deprivation on OB TH and AADC mRNA levels. Both Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed a pronounced decrease in ipsilateral as compared to contralateral OB TH mRNA levels 40 days after naris closure. In contrast, the levels of OB AADC mRNA were unaltered by naris closure. By in situ hybridization histochemistry, both TH and AADC mRNAs were localized to OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Odor deprivation was associated with an apparent region-specific reduction in TH mRNA within the ipsilateral OB glomerular layer. By densitometric analysis, the loss of TH-specific message was quantitatively consistent with the decrease in TH activity, suggesting that the observed plasticity of OB dopaminergic neurons following functional deafferentiation can be attributed to a selective, transneuronally-mediated down regulation of TH gene transcription.

Wachtel TJ. "The diabetic hyperosmolar state." Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 1990;6:797-806. Abstract

The diabetic hypersomolar state is defined by a serum glucose greater than 600 mg/dl and a serum osmolarity greater than 320 m Osm/L. Ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis may co-exist with DHS in the same patient. The incidence of this acute complication of diabetes is high enough (17.5 cases per 100,000 person-years) for primary care physicians to encounter a case every year or two. Predisposing factors include older age, female sex, nursing home residence, and infection. A substantial proportion of cases occur in patients with no prior history of diabetes. Common presenting signs include fatigue or weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, nausea, and alteration of consciousness. The mainstay of therapy is intravenous fluid replacement with close monitoring of glucose and electrolytes in a hospital setting. Current mortality figures are high, at 10% to 20%, and the chance of survival is adversely affected by older age, higher osmolarity, and the presence of an associated severe illness. Prevention includes screening for diabetes, educating diabetic patients and their care givers about the symptoms of hyperglycemia, prompt treatment of any infection in a diabetic person, avoidance of drugs that increase carbohydrate intolerance in diabetic people, and encouraging compliance with treatment of diabetes.

Wikler KC, Rakic P. "Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1990;10:3390-3401. AbstractWebsite
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Wikler KC, Rakic P. "Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1990;10:3390-3401. AbstractWebsite
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Wasunna A. "Diarrhoeal diseases in preterm neonates." East Afr Med J. 1990;67(4):221-2.
Odingo RS. "Desertification revisited .". 1990.Website
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Daniel, R.C.W., Kerr, D.R. and Mulei, C.M. (1990). Occurrence and effects of subclinical hypocalcaemia in dairy cows.". In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. 50: 261-263.; 1990.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Dastot H, Schmid M, Gontier C, Amiot M, Mathieu-Mahul D, Bensussan A, Boumsell L. Correlation between T cell receptor gamma delta isotypic forms and cytotoxic activity: analysis with human T cell clones and lines.Cell Immunol. 1990 Feb;125(2):315-25.". In: Cell Immunol. 1990 Feb;125(2):315-25. uon press; 1990. Abstract
INSERM U 93, Institut de Recherche sur les maladies du sang, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris, France. Three biochemically distinct isotypic forms of the human T cell receptor (TcR) gamma delta structure can be expressed at the cell membrane. This unique variation in structure of TcR, which is due to C gamma gene segments utilization, prompted us to look for isotype-association functional differences. In this regard, we have developed human T cell clones or lines from normal thymus or peripheral blood from several patients. In the present report, we have selected by phenotypic, biochemical, and TcR gene rearrangement analysis representative pairs of IL2-dependent clones or lines for each TcR gamma delta isotypic form. The results showed a lack of correlation between the TcR isotypes and the ability of the cells to proliferate in response to TcR stimulation mediated through the CD3 molecular complexes. By contrast, despite the fact that all of these representative cells exhibit an NK-like activity, as measured by their ability to kill K562, the strongest lytic activity was observed with the cells having the disulfide-bonded form of the receptor. Moreover only those latter cells were able to efficiently kill the LAK-sensitive Daudi cell line.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Layout of KAEA.". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

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