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Subramanian S, Pappu HR, Birithia R, Muthomi JW, Sseruwagi P, Narla RD. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Eastern Africa.". In: 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV). Antequera, Málaga, Spain; 2012.
Subramanian S, H.R P, Birithia, R. S, Muthomi O, P JS, R.D N. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions ." Narla, R.D. 2011;101(S172).
Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya." South Africa; 2016.poster-columbia.pptx
Ondiba I, Oyieke F, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Estambale BB. "Diversity and distribution of mosquitoes transmitting malaria and rift valley fever in Baringo County, Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovation week. UON, Nairobi; 2015.poster-moraa2_revised_gg.pdf
Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya.". 2015.
Ong'amo GO, LeGall P, Ndemah R, LeRu BP. "Diversity and host range of lepidopteran stemborer species in Cameroon ." African Entomology. 2014;22:625-635.
Oguge, N.O. HORR, Verheyen W. "Diversity and structure of shrew communities in montane forests of southeast Kenya." Mammalian Biology 69 (5):289-301; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Wagacha JM, Steiner U, Dehne H-W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E-C. "Diversity in Mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya." Journal of Phytopathology. 2010;157:527-535.Website
Maina J, Steiner U, H.DEHNE, Zuehlke S, M.SPITELLER, Muthomi J, OERKE E. "Diversity in mycotoxins and fungal spp infecting wheat in Nakuru." INSTITUTE OF SCINCE AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION. 2010;158(1439):527-537.diversity_in_mycotoxins_and_fungal_spp_infecting_wheat_in_nakuru.pdf
Muchemi AW, Awino ZB. "Diversity In the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance.". In: African Casebook, synergies in African Business and Management Practices Vol.1, 2012 . Nairobi: AJBUMA Publishing; 2012.
Awino ZB, Muchemi AW, Ogutu M. "Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):82-92 .
Pauline Aluka1*, Fabrice Davrieux2, Kahiu Ngugi3*, Rose Omaria4, Gerard2 F,, J.N Kiiru, and MD2, Pinard. "The Diversity of Green Bean Biochemical Compounds in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) as Evaluated by." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture ·. 2016;12(2):1-13.the_diversity_of_green_bean_biochemical.pdf
Ng'etich DK, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Kibegwa FM. "Diversity of Gut Methanogens and Functional Enzymes Associated With Methane Metabolism in Smallholder Dairy Cattle." research square . 2022;2022.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina S. "Diversity of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies and their pests in Cameroon.". 2015.
LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullah Z, Cugala D, Defabachew B, Hailei TA, Kauma TM, Lada VY, Negassi B, Ravolonandrianina KJ, Sidumo A, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity of lepidopteran stem borers in eastern Africa revisited." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2006;96:555-563.
Peichl L. "Diversity of mammalian photoreceptor properties: adaptations to habitat and lifestyle?" The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. 2005;287:1001-1012. Abstract

All mammalian retinae contain rod photoreceptors for low-light vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and color vision. Most nonprimate mammals have dichromatic color vision based on two cone types with spectrally different visual pigments: a short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone and a long-wavelength-sensitive (L-)cone. Superimposed on this basic similarity, there are remarkable differences between species. This article reviews some striking examples. The density ratio of cones to rods ranges from 1:200 in the most nocturnal to 20:1 in a few diurnal species. In some species, the proportion of the spectral cone types and their distribution across the retina deviate from the pattern found in most mammals, including a complete absence of S-cones. Depending on species, the spectral sensitivity of the L-cone pigment may peak in the green, yellow, or orange, and that of the S-cone pigment in the blue, violet, or near-ultraviolet. While exclusive expression of one pigment per cone is the rule, some species feature coexpression of the L- and S-pigment in a significant proportion of their cones. It is widely assumed that all these variations represent adaptations to specific visual needs associated with particular habitats and lifestyles. However, in many cases we have not yet identified the adaptive value of a given photoreceptor arrangement. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful approach to explore the range of possible arrangements within the blueprint of the mammalian retina and to identify species with particularly interesting or puzzling patterns that deserve further scrutiny with physiological and behavioral assays.

Peichl, Leo. "Diversity of mammalian photoreceptor properties: {Adaptations} to habitat and lifestyle?" The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. 2005;287A:1001-1012. AbstractWebsite

All mammalian retinae contain rod photoreceptors for low-light vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and color vision. Most nonprimate mammals have dichromatic color vision based on two cone types with spectrally different visual pigments: a short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone and a long-wavelength-sensitive (L-)cone. Superimposed on this basic similarity, there are remarkable differences between species. This article reviews some striking examples. The density ratio of cones to rods ranges from 1:200 in the most nocturnal to 20:1 in a few diurnal species. In some species, the proportion of the spectral cone types and their distribution across the retina deviate from the pattern found in most mammals, including a complete absence of S-cones. Depending on species, the spectral sensitivity of the L-cone pigment may peak in the green, yellow, or orange, and that of the S-cone pigment in the blue, violet, or near-ultraviolet. While exclusive expression of one pigment per cone is the rule, some species feature coexpression of the L- and S-pigment in a significant proportion of their cones. It is widely assumed that all these variations represent adaptations to specific visual needs associated with particular habitats and lifestyles. However, in many cases we have not yet identified the adaptive value of a given photoreceptor arrangement. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful approach to explore the range of possible arrangements within the blueprint of the mammalian retina and to identify species with particularly interesting or puzzling patterns that deserve further scrutiny with physiological and behavioral assays. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Wachira P.M, Kimenju J, Kiarie J, Mwaniki S. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in banana-based farming systems in Maragua, Kenya.". In: 12th Workshop on sustainable horticultural productions in the tropics. Bondo University College, Bondo - Kenya; 2012.
Wachira P, Mibey R, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Kiarie J. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya.". 2009;(2):60-69. Abstract

The diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Wundanyi division, Coast Province, Kenya, was investigated between May 2006 and December 2007 aiming at harnessing their potential in the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes in the area. Given that the intensity of land cultivation is continually increasing in the study area, it is prudent to document the status of the nematode destroying fungi before the remaining forest habitats are ultimately disrupted. Soil samples were collected from forest, maize/ bean, napier grass, shrub and vegetable fields, which represented the main land use types in the study area. The soil sprinkle technique method was used to isolate the nematode destroying fungi from the soil. The fungi were identified to species level. Eighty-five isolates, distributed in eight genera and 14 taxa were identified as nematode destroying fungi. The species identified were Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Arthrobotrys superba, Acrostalagamus obovatus, Dactyllela lobata, Harposporium aungulilae, Harposporium liltiputanum, Harposporium spp, Haptoglosa heterospora, Monacrosporium asterospernum, Monacrosporium cianopagum, Myzocytium, spp, Nematoctonus georgenious and Nematoctonus leptosporus. Vegetable land use had the highest diversity of nematode destroying fungi. The results show that the study area is rich in nematode destroying fungi with A. oligospora being widespread and a possible candidate for biological control of plant parasitic nematodes

Wachira P, Mibey R, Okoth SA, Kimenju JW. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya." Fungal ecology. 2008;2(2):60-65.
Wachira P, Mibey R, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Kiarie J. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya.". 2009.Website
Wachira P, Mibey R, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Kiarie J. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya.". 2009.Website
Wachira, P.M, Mibey, R. K, Okoth, S.A, Kimenju, J.W, Kiarie, J.W. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya." Fungal Ecology. 2009;2(2):60-65.
Okoth S. "Diversity of nematodes and nematode destroying fungi as influenced by land use in Taita Taveta, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5(12):154. Abstract28527-107841-1-pb.pdfWebsite

Land intensification is thought to lead to soil degradation and consequently to loss of soil biodiversity. A study was undertaken to assess the effect of land use on nematode community and nematode destroying fungi in Taita districts, Kenya. Soil samples were collected from land under various uses which were natural forest, plantation forest, tea, coffee, napier grass, fallow, maize/beans intercrop and horticultural crops production. Chemical analysis of the soil properties was done to determine the amount of carbon, nitrogen and potassium in every land use system. The level of carbon declined with land-use intensification with the highest organic carbon level of 7.6% being recorded in soils from the forest while land with high disturbance recorded 1.6% carbon. Similarly, the intensively cultivated soils had lower nitrogen and phosphorous levels compared to the forest. Nematode and nematode destroying fungi were isolated from the soil and identified. Eighty five isolates, distributed in eight genera and fourteen taxa of nematode destroying fungi were identified. The frequency of isolating nematode destroying fungi increased with increased in land use intensity. All the sampled land use types were significantly (P-value = 3.81x10-07) different in occurrence of nematode destroying fungi. The ratios of free-living to plant parasitic nematodes were 5.18 and 0.54 in the natural forest and annual crop production systems, respectively. The frequency of isolation of nematode destroying fungi was positively correlated to abundance of plant parasitic nematodes.

Wachira, P.M, Kimenju, J.W, Okoth, S.A, Kiarie J.W. "Diversity of nematodes and nematode destroying fungi as influenced by land use in Taita Taveta, Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2013;5(12):154-161.
Mulinge E, Odongo D, Magambo J, Njenga SM, Zeyhle E, Mbae C, Kagendo D, Addy F, Ebi D, Wassermann M, Kern P, Romig T. "Diversity of Taenia and Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in domestic dogs in Kenya." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(9):2863-2875. Abstract

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.

Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Diversity, abundance and function fauna in relation in relation to quality of organic residues.". In: Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) and African Research Network (AfNet) workshops. Kampala, Uganda; 1999. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used. The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest. A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out. Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population. Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna population hence activity.

Ayuke FO. Diversity, abundance and function of soil invertebrate fauna in relation to quality of organic residues. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University; 2000. Abstract

Although the role of soil invertebrate fauna in decomposition of organic residues and thus nutrient release, soil structure and soil-water relations is well recognized, the scope for their manipulation to derive the potential benefits is little understood. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the diversity, abundance and function of soil fauna are related to quality of organic residues used.
The study was conducted during the 1997 short rains (Oct 1997Feb 1998) on farm in western Kenya with the following treatments: (1) control without any input, (2) fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha1, (3) tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsely) A. Grey) biomass and (4) senna (Senna spectabilis D.C & H.S. Irwin) biomass. The organic residues were applied in fresh condition at 5 t ha1 dry weight. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Macro- and meso-fauna diversity and abundance were monitored in soil monoliths (25 x 25 x 30 cm) and soil cores (10 cm diameter and 30 cm depth), respectively, at the beginning of the season, six weeks after sowing maize and at maize harvest.
A satellite experiment was conducted simultaneously to quantify the role of soil fauna in the decomposition of organic residues, using senna foliage (5 t ha1) as the test material and maize as a test crop. Two treatments, with and without soil fauna, were evaluated replicated six times. Fauna were eliminated by treating the soil with furadan at 40 kg ha1at the start of the study, 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks after crop sowing. The standard litterbag technique was used to monitor litter decomposition at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks and N, P and K concentration in the undecomposed material at each of these sampling periods was determined. First order exponential equations were fitted between undecomposed material or nutrients contained therein (y) and time (t), and decomposition constants (k) worked out.
Diversity and populations of soil fauna were found to be low in the arable land use system under study. Macrofauna constituted 90% of the total fauna recovered, while mesofauna constituted only 10%. Termites were the most abundant of the fauna (55%) followed by earthworms (31%). Although the two organic residues did not affect faunal diversity, addition of senna increased total population by 200% and tithonia by 140% over the no input control. Fertilizer use did not change either diversity or total population.
Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues. While only 45% of the material decomposed by two weeks in the absence of fauna, 60% material decomposed in the presence of fauna in the same period. After 8 weeks, hardly any material was recovered in the presence of fauna compared with 9 to 12% material recovered in the absence of fauna. Nutrient release was not influenced by fauna probably because of the nature of material used. As the secondary compounds were lower than the critical level (<4% polyphenol and <15% lignin), nutrient release progressed rapidly with the microbial action and fauna did not play a significant role.
Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. Despite less faunal activity compared with that under senna, tithonia decomposed and released nutrients faster than senna probably because of increased microbial activity. The study indicates that (1) the relative effect of soil fauna on decomposition to that of soil microbes is small, (2) several parameters have to be considered in determining the quality of organic residues, (3) organic residues can be used to manipulate soil fauna and (4) high quality residues can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BB. "Diversity, distribution and abundance of potential rift valley fever vectors in Baringo County, Kenya." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;4(4):42-48.ondiba_etal_2018.pdf
Muchane MN, Muchai M, Mungai G, Wambugu W. "Diversity, Potential Utilization and Management of Cacti in Northern Kenya." International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management. 2017;2:104. Abstract
n/a
Calder JF, Wasunna AE. "Diverticular disease of the colon in Kenyan Africans." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(12):579-81.
ODHIAMBO G O, J W, OLUOCH M F, J. OOKO. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4(3):213-228.
Odhiambo, G. WOOJJ & M. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. ." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017.
Muriungi MA, Kinoti M, Okiro K. "Dividend Signaling and Shareholder Monitoring Hypothesis: Empirical evidence from Nairobi Securities Exchange." African Development Finance Journal. 2021;5(1):145-159. Abstractdividend_signaling_and_shareholder_monitoring_hypothesis_empirical_evidence_from_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Most corporate governance studies have focused on the composition and effectiveness of board members, little attention has barely focused on the interaction between the identity of significant shareholders and the decisions they influence in the firm. Corporate governance literature is currently based on empirical studies in developed countries, but the efficiency of developed and developing markets corporate governance mechanisms is disparagingly different. This paper presents an ideal moment for examining the complementary effect of dividend policy and ownership concentration by shareholders at Nairobi Securities Exchange in a developing securities exchange. Previous studies examining the interaction between corporate governance and firm value have emphasized the significance of institutional shareholder concentration and dividend policy decisions as corporate control mechanisms that influence value creation in a firm. This study is supported by dividend signaling and institutional shareholder monitoring hypothesis. The study used longitudinal data for the period (2008-2017) and the target population is sixty-six companies trading securities at NSE 2008-2017. Empirical results reveal, firms listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange have a high level of ownership concentration and dividend payment has a significant positive effect on the firm value which is in line with the signaling hypothesis, the mediating effect of ownership concentration was negated therefore did not support shareholder monitoring hypothesis. The findings of this study have significant policy implication to policymakers, regulators should not rely on market mechanism as protection to minority owners. Firms should be encouraged to regularly pay dividends if profitable and investors should understand the ownership structure of listed firms they invest in.

M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Divine Control Over Weather.". In: Weatherman. Kenya Met Soc; 1998. Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons
Jacob JS, McDonald HS. "Diving bradycardia in four species of North American aquatic snakes." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(1):69-72.
G.O O, E.K G, R.J M. "DMARD use in rheumatoid arthritis: can we predict treatment response?" Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):50-58. Abstractdmard_use_in_rheumatoid.pdf

Abstract
Objective: To review the current and emerging predictors of treatment response by DMARD Sin Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients.Data source: Published original research work and reviews were searched in
English related to determinants of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis on DMARDS Study design: Only articles that emphasis on determinants of rheumatoid arthritis treatment response with DMARDS Data extraction: Online and library searches done.Data synthesis: Data added and summarized Conclusions: Treatment of RA has been based on the use of a group of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
(DMARDs), of which methotrexate is the most widely used. Although
comprehensive clinical experience exists for MTX and synthetic DMARDs, to date it has not been possible to preview correctly whether or not a patient will respond to treatment with these drugs. Predicting response to MTX and other DMARDs would allow the selection of patients based on their likelihood of response,
thus enabling individualized therapy and avoiding unnecessary adverse effects and elevated costs. Distinguishing responders from non-responders at treatment start as studies have failed to consistently
reproduce similar determinants. Variables possibly influencing drug effectiveness may be related to disease, patient, treatment, clinical or biological (genetic and non-genetic) factors. This study
seeks to review the current data regarding biomarkers of treatment response to DMARDS.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis, DMARDS, Determinants of treatmentresponse

.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment, December, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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Rees H, Baeten J, Baron D, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, S C, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Palanee T, Steyn P, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90:354-356.
Rees H, Baeten BCCCCJDW, Baeten, J, Baron, D, Cates, W, Celum, C, Chipato T, Chombes, S, Donnell, D, Gichangi, Hofmeyr, J, Morrison, C, Mugo, N, Nanda, K, Palanee, T, Steyn, P, Taylor, D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90(2014):354-356.
michael_k._chirchir_and_githii_wainaina. dms_111_manual.; 2012.dms_111_manual_by_michael_k._chirchir_and_githii_wainaina.pdf
Lusweti D, Ochieng JW, Maina JG, Kinyanjui P. "DNA Evidence for a Population Bottleneck in Lake Victoria Nile perch." African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries. 2018;16(1):24-32.
Lusweti D, Ochieng JW, Maina JG, Kinyanjui P. "DNA Evidence for a Population Bottleneck in Lake Victoria Nile perch." African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries. 2018;16(1):24-32.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "DNA fingerprinting for detection of pathogenic fungi in diseased host plant tissues.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vo. 1(3), 10 - 12. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "DNA Microsatellite Analysis of Kenyan Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Author: A.W. Mwang`Ombe, G. Thiong`O, F.M. Olubayo and E.K. Kiprop.". In: Plant Pathology Journal - 62-PPJ-2K6 -2006. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2006. Abstract

Seven hundred and fifty bean plant samples with root rot symptoms were

collected from farmers' fields during two surreys carried out in Embu district,

Kenya. Various fungal pathogens were isolated in the laboratory from these

samples; among them were 50 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, which were

subjected to pathogenicity tests in a glasshouse. Thirty-six isolates of R. solani

obtained from beans with root rots were subjected to DNA microsatellite analysis.

Five isolates of R. solani that cause black scarf of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum

L.) were also analysed alongside those from the beans. A total of 50 alleles were

detected when six microsatellite loci were typed in the 41 samples, with the mean

of 8.33 and a range of 3 at locus RB23 to 19 at locus AF513014. The smallest

allele size was 129 basepair at locus RE102 and the largest was 297 basepair at

locus AY212027. Microsatellite analysis showed a moderate variation among the

isolates from different agro-ecological zones and administrative boundaries

(divisions). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters within the population

of 41 isolates of R. solani from Kenya. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 had 15, 10 and 75%

isolates, respectively. However, cluster 3 had 4 sub-clusters and cluster 1 had 2

sub-clusters, while cluster 2 did not have a sub-cluster. There was no relationship

between microsatellites and geographical origin of the isolates. This is the first

study on the genetic diversity of R. solani using DNA microsatellite analysis in

Kenya.

W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "DNA Microsatellite Analysis of Kenyan Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Source: Plant Pathology Journal - 62-PPJ-2K6 -2006 Author: A.W. Mwang`Ombe, G. Thiong`O, F.M. Olubayo and E.K. Kiprop.". In: . Plant Pathology Journal 6(3): 235-241 (2007). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2006. Abstract

Seven hundred and fifty bean plant samples with root rot symptoms were collected from farmers' fields during two surreys carried out in Embu district, Kenya. Various fungal pathogens were isolated in the laboratory from these samples; among them were 50 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, which were subjected to pathogenicity tests in a glasshouse. Thirty-six isolates of R. solani obtained from beans with root rots were subjected to DNA microsatellite analysis. Five isolates of R. solani that cause black scarf of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were also analysed alongside those from the beans. A total of 50 alleles were detected when six microsatellite loci were typed in the 41 samples, with the mean of 8.33 and a range of 3 at locus RB23 to 19 at locus AF513014. The smallest allele size was 129 basepair at locus RE102 and the largest was 297 basepair at locus AY212027. Microsatellite analysis showed a moderate variation among the isolates from different agro-ecological zones and administrative boundaries (divisions). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters within the population of 41 isolates of R. solani from Kenya. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 had 15, 10 and 75% isolates, respectively. However, cluster 3 had 4 sub-clusters and cluster 1 had 2 sub-clusters, while cluster 2 did not have a sub-cluster. There was no relationship between microsatellites and geographical origin of the isolates. This is the first study on the genetic diversity of R. solani using DNA microsatellite analysis in Kenya. Key words: DNA microsatellite analysis, Kenya, Phaseolus vulgaris and Rhizoctonia solani

Hirano H, Higashi K, Sakamoto Y. "DNA polymerase in nuceoli isolated from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;67(2):518-24.
Kimwele C.N, Karisa B.K. SJ'a HSMEMJOO. "DNA species surveillance: Monitoring bushmeat poaching and trading in Kenya using partial cytochrome b gene." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;11(78):14276-14286.
Mulanda ES, Awori RM, Chuhila Y, Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "A DNA-barcode for Melia volkensii Grke (Meliaceae) and its phylogenetic relationship with some economically important relatives." African Journal of Plant Science. 2017;10(3):58-67.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Do EU standards promote environmentally-friendly fresh vegetable production? Evidence from Kenyan green bean industry.". In: Environment, Development and Sustainability. INTECH Publishers; 2010. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C. "Do farmers’ socio-economic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?, ." Development in Practice. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2019.1638344.
Musoke RN, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA, Mbiti MJ. "Do healthy very-low-birth-weight infants fed on their own mothers' milk require sodium supplementation?" Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.. 2001;501:431-7. Abstract

Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary.

N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Do healthy very-low-birth-weight infants fed on their own mothers' milk require sodium supplementation? Adv Exp Med Biol . 2001; 501 : 431-7 . PMID: 11787713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA, Mbiti MJ.". In: Adv Exp Med Biol . 2001; 501 : 431-7 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2001. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary. PMID: 11787713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Schröder H. "Do high-context cultures prefer implicatures?". In: Relevance Studies in Poland. Exploring translation and communication problems. Warsaw : Warsaw University Press.; 2010.
Muriu P. "Do institutions matter for microfinance profitability? Evidence from Africa.". In: Academy of Management Perspectives.; 2013.
WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Do Kenyan Households choose between child schooling and family size? Application of Becker.". In: Masters in Education, Thesis submitted to Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1995.
Muriu P. "Do microfinance profits converge? Evidence from a dynamic panel analysis’." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2013.
N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. "DO QCD CORRECTIONS DESTROY THE AMPLITUDE ZERO IN THE PROCESS q anti -q-gamma?". In: QCD WORKSHOP,OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY. OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY; 1983.
Angima C. "Do size and age affect performance of general insurance firms in East Africa?" International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(7):8-18.
Mwangi AM, den Hartog AP, Mwadime RKM, van Staveren WA, Foeken DWJ. "Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthy diet? The case of Nairobi." Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2002;23(1):48-56.Website
Atieno R, Onjala J, Jama M. "Do think tanks benefit from APRM work? Kenya’s Experience.". In: in Gruzd Steven (ed) Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Johannesburg: Jacana Media (Pty) and South African Institute of International Studies; 2010.
Atieno R, Jama M, Onjala J. ""Do Think Tanks Benefit from APRM Work? Kenya’s Experience”.". In: Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism,. SAIIA Occasional Paper No. 16; 2008.
Kharlamov AN, Duckers HJ, van Beusekom HMM, Smits PC, Perin EC, Serruys PW. "Do we have a future with transcatheter adventitial delivery of stem cells?" International journal of cardiology. 2013;165:217-221. Abstract

Critically evaluating the methodology of the adventitial delivery of stem cells, some specific options should be underlined. Adventitia as the most superficial layer, consisting of connective tissue has to be distinguished of perivascular tissues. By strict definition, an adventitia is the outermost connective tissue covering any organ, or vessel. The "adventitial" delivery of stem cells with a 1mm micro-needle means a delivery to superficial so called pericardial myocardium, perivascular fat tissues, including a risk of perforation and injury of soft tissues. In fact, the mapping of the artery with visualization of the three-layer vessel structure and perivascular tissues as well as pericardial space with the state-of-the-art imaging approaches including IVUS (intravascular ultrasound) or OCT (optical coherence tomography) allows to find an optimal site for injection, prevents any technical complications and improves efficacy. NOGA magnetic navigation system still remains the optimal tool for the stem cell delivery to myocardium with appropriate visualization of necrosis and peri-infarct tissues. Potentially, more advanced imaging provides a chance to deliver infusate to the adventitial layer, which is a gate to the vessel wall for inflammation as well as a source of stem and progenitor cells, and myofibroblasts.

Azer SA, Eizenberg N. "Do we need dissection in an integrated problem-based learning medical course? {Perceptions} of first- and second-year students." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:173-180. AbstractWebsite

Background The introduction of a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the School of Medicine of the University of Melbourne has necessitated a reduction in the number of lectures and limited the use of dissection in teaching anatomy. In the new curriculum, students learn the anatomy of different body systems using PBL tutorials, practical classes, pre-dissected specimens, computer-aided learning multimedia and a few dissection classes. The aims of this study are: (1) to assess the views of first- and second-year medical students on the importance of dissection in learning about the anatomy, (2) to assess if students’ views have been affected by demographic variables such as gender, academic background and being a local or an international student, and (3) to assess which educational tools helped them most in learning the anatomy and whether dissection sessions have helped them in better understanding anatomy. Methods First- and second-year students enrolled in the medical course participated in this study. Students were asked to fill out a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Data was analysed using Mann–Whitney’s U test, Wilcoxon’s signed-ranks or the calculation of the Chi-square value. Results The response rates were 89% for both first- and second-year students. Compared to second-year students, first-year students perceived dissection to be important for deep understanding of anatomy (P {\textless} 0.001), making learning interesting (P {\textless} 0.001) and introducing them to emergency procedures (P {\textless} 0.001). Further, they preferred dissection over any other approach (P {\textless} 0.001). First-year students ranked dissection (44%), textbooks (23%), computer-aided learning (CAL), multimedia (10%), self-directed learning (6%) and lectures (5%) as the most valuable resources for learning anatomy, whereas second-year students found textbooks (38%), dissection (18%), pre-dissected specimens (11%), self-directed learning (9%), lectures (7%) and CAL programs (7%) as most useful. Neither of the groups showed a significant preference for pre-dissected specimens, CAL multimedia or lectures over dissection. Conclusions Both first- and second-year students, regardless of their gender, academic background, or citizenship felt that the time devoted to dissection classes were not adequate. Students agreed that dissection deepened their understanding of anatomical structures, provided them with a three-dimensional perspective of structures and helped them recall what they learnt. Although their perception about the importance of dissection changed as they progressed in the course, good anatomy textbooks were perceived as an excellent resource for learning anatomy. Interestingly, innovations used in teaching anatomy, such as interactive multimedia resources, have not replaced students’ perceptions about the importance of dissection.

Schröder H. Do we speak the same language? . Nairobi, 17-18 March; 2005.
M. MK. "Do You Know Anybody.". In: The Winner and Other Stories. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau ; 1994.
M. MK. "Do You Know Anybody?” in Writers’ Forum." : A journal of the Writers Association of Kenya, . 1992;Vol 1 1992(No.1).
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; 2011. Abstract
n/a
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur (November 16.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1982. Abstract
n/a
J. S, N. N, Z. Q, M. N. "Does assessment of signs and symptoms add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy?" J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2006;32(1):27-9. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
A World Health Organization-endorsed algorithm, widely published in international guidance documents and distributed in the form of a 'pregnancy checklist', has become a popular tool for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients in developing countries. The algorithm consists of six criteria excluding pregnancy, all conditional upon a seventh 'master criterion' relating to signs or symptoms of pregnancy. Few data exist on the specificity to pregnancy among family planning clients of long-accepted signs and symptoms of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether reported signs and symptoms of pregnancy add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy.

METHODS:
Data from a previous observational study were used to assess the performance of the algorithm with and without the 'signs and symptoms' criterion. The study group comprised 1852 new, non-menstruating family planning clients from seven clinics in Kenya.

RESULTS:
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy were rare (1.5%) as was pregnancy (1%). Signs and symptoms were more common (18.2%) among the 22 clients who tested positive for pregnancy than among the 1830 clients (1.3%) who tested negative, but did not add significantly to the predictive value of the algorithm. Most women with signs or symptoms were not pregnant and would have been unnecessarily denied a contraceptive method using the current criteria.

CONCLUSIONS:
The 'signs and symptoms' criterion did not substantially improve the ability of the algorithm to exclude pregnant clients, but several reasons (including use of the algorithm for intrauterine device clients) render it unlikely that the algorithm will be changed.

Sabo MC, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Does bacterial vaginosis modify the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV seroconversion." AIDS. 2019;33(7):1225-1230. Abstract

A recent study of HIV serodiscordant couples found that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) were associated with increased HIV risk in the presence, but not in the absence, of bacterial vaginosis. We assessed whether bacterial vaginosis is an effect modifier of the association between hormonal contraception and HIV seroconversion in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya.

Viallon A, Zeni F, Lafond P, Venet C, Tardy B, Page Y, Bertrand JC. "Does bicarbonate therapy improve the management of severe diabetic ketoacidosis?" Critical Care Medicine. 1999;27:2690-2693. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The use of bicarbonates in the treatment of severe diabetic ketoacidosis remains controversial, especially regarding the benefit/risk ratio. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy during severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textless}7.10). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The emergency unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: The records of 39 patients consecutively admitted for severe diabetic ketoacidosis were analyzed (pH {\textless}7.10). The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 24; patients with bicarbonate treatment) and group 2 (n = 15; patients without bicarbonate treatment). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We compared two groups of patients presenting with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH values between 6.83 and 7.08) treated with or without bicarbonate. A group of 24 patients received 120+/-40 mmol sodium bicarbonate. The two groups were similar at admission with regard to clinical and biological parameters. No difference could be demonstrated between the two groups concerning the clinical parameters or the normalization time of biochemical parameters. If the number of patients with hypokalemia was comparable between the two groups, the potassium supply was significantly more important in group 1 compared with group 2 (366+/-74 mmol/L vs. 188+/-109 mmol/L, respectively; p {\textless} .001). CONCLUSIONS: Data from the literature and this study are not in favor of the use of bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with pH values between 6.90 and 7.10.

Richard Bitange Nyaoga, Mingzheng Wang POM. "Does Capacity Utilization Mediate the Relationship between Operations Constraint Management and Value Chain Performance of Tea Processing Firms? Evidence from Kenya." International Strategic Management Review - Elsevier. 2015;3(1):81-95.
Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Mbithi ML. "Does COMESA Have Export Potential to Emerging Economies?" Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2020;11(10):58-65.
"Does Corporate Law Inhibit Social Responsibility?". 4 Professional Management, 22; 2003. Abstract
n/a
Samanta P. "Does economic growth suffer due to insecurity? Evidence of Exception.". In: School of Economics, Universi ty of Nairobi.; 2006.
Kiiru J, Onsumu E, Wamalwa F. "Does Education and Training Matter for Youth Employment? Lessons from Kenya." Journal of Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Banking (JEIEFB). 2013;1(2).
DK M, Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "Does Education Pay Dividend? Earnings and Returns to Education in Kenya.". In: Communicating Development Research Highlights.; 2004.
Ascroft J, Ruigu G. "Does Extension Create Poverty in Kenya." East African Journal . 1972;9(3).
Cross, P. EONRTMP, Edwards-Jones G. "Does farm worker health vary between localised and globalised food supply systems?". Environment International, Vol. 37, Issue 7, pp. 1004-1014; 2009. Abstract
n/a
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Does Institutional Isolation Matter for Soil Conservation Decisions? Evidence from Kenya." SAGE Open. 2015;January-March 2015: 1–9. DOI: 10.1177/2158244015570977.
FW N, Ouyang K AA, J O'o, GW A, D Z. "Does Keloid Histology Influence Recurrence?" Am J Dermatol. doi. 2021;10(PMID: 33464754.). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by high recurrence rates, with few factors known to influence the same. We conducted a study to determine whether keloid histology influences recurrence. This was a prospective longitudinal study to determine whether histopathological parameters of keloid influence recurrence. Patients with keloids managed by surgical excision were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital between August 2018 and July 2020. The excised keloids were processed for histology using hematoxylin,/eosin, Masson, and trichrome stains. The slides were analyzed for inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and capillary density using the hot spot technique and correlated to keloid recurrence. Postoperative follow-up was for a minimum of 1 year. A total of 90 patients with 104 keloids were recruited in the study. Overall keloid recurrence rate was 28.6%. There was a correlation between the absolute count of more than 50 per High power field of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages with recurrence of the disease. The sensitivity and specificity for the above parameters were lymphocytes 48% and 81%, macrophages 57% and 83%, mast cells 32% and 33%, and fibroblasts 41% and 91%, respectively. There was no correlation between mast cells and vascularity status with recurrence. Routine histology should, therefore, be performed to determine these parameters. Close monitoring and second-line therapy should be considered for patients with elevated macrophages and/or lymphocytes so as to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "DOES KISSING UP TO THE BOSS PAY?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):1-10. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ingratiation on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis thatingratiation influences career mobility (R2=.944, F=2011.237, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.971 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between ingratiation and career mobility. The study recommends that objective means of performance appraisals be established and followed by superiors to ensure fair and credible ways of career mobility to its employees. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated in other organizations using a longitudinal research design.

KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G. "Does Land Tenure Security Matter for Investment in Soil and Water Conservation? Evidence From Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics- AFJARE. 2011;4(2):123-139.
Iraki XN. "Does Mau Mau Compensation Make Economic Sense." The Standard, June 11, 2013.
Ojwang SO, Otieno DJ, Okello JJ, Muoki P, Nyikal RA. "Does nutrition education influence retention of vitamin A biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato in farms? Evidence from Kenya.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
Iraki XN. "Does Operations Research need a Renaissance?". In: 11 international Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Forthcoming.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Does prospective monitoring improve cataract surgery outcomes in Africa? ." Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 May;86(5):543-7.. 2002. AbstractWebsite

Department of Epidemiology and International Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. dhyorston@enterprise.net AIMS: To determine if prospective monitoring influences cataract surgical outcomes in east Africa. METHODS: A prospective observational study of all routine extracapsular cataract extractions with posterior chamber lens implants carried out at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya, between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. RESULTS: Out of 1845 eligible eyes 1800 were included in the study. Two months' follow up was available in 67.2% of patients. The proportion achieving a good outcome increased steadily from 77.1% in the first quarter to 89.4% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.001). There was no change in the incidence of operative complications; however, the proportion of patients achieving a good visual outcome following vitreous loss increased from 47.2% in the first 6 months to 71.0% in the last 6 months (chi(2) p<0.05). Of the eyes with poor outcome (best corrected acuity <6/60 at 2 months) half were due to pre-existing eye diseases. The proportion of patients with known ocular comorbidity decreased from 10.2% in the first quarter to 5.9% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.05). Poor outcome was associated with age over 80 years, known diabetes, preoperative bilateral blindness, any ocular comorbidity, and intraoperative vitreous loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates improvement in visual outcome results after cataract surgery over a 1 year period. Monitoring of outcomes appears to be associated with a change in surgeons' attitudes, leading to greater emphasis on appropriate case selection, better management of surgical complications, and improved visual outcomes. PMID: 11973251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1771115

Iraki XN. "Does setting minimum, maximum land acreage make economic sense." The Standard, June 30, 2022.
Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm?" East Afr Med J. 1992;69(1):37-9. Abstract

To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm? East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Does the "Baby Cloche" heat shield keep low birth-weight infants warm? East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Brady JP, Wasunna AO, Bowker MH, Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1992 Jan; 69 ( 1 ): 37-9 . John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Omondi F, Tasiran AC, Ever E, Doddapaneni K, Shah P, Mostarda L, Gemikonakli O. "Does the assumption of exponential arrival distributions in wireless sensor networks hold?" mdx.ac.uk. 2018;26(2):81-100. Abstractauthor_version_inderscience.pdf

Wireless Sensor Networks have seen a tremendous growth in various application areas despite prominent performance and availability challenges. One of the
common configurations to prolong the lifetime and deal with the path loss phenomena
is having a multi-hop set-up with clusters and cluster heads to relay the information.
Although researchers continue to address these challenges, the type of distributions
for arrivals at the cluster head and intermediary routing nodes is still an interesting
area of investigation. The general practice in published works is to compare an empirical exponential arrival distribution of wireless sensor networks with a theoretical
exponential distribution in a Q-Q plot diagram. In this paper, we show that such comparisons based on simple eye checks are not sufficient since, in many cases, incorrect
conclusions may be drawn from such plots. After estimating the Maximum Likelihood parameters of empirical distributions, we generate theoretical distributions
based on the estimated parameters. By conducting Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistics for each generated inter-arrival time distributions, we find out, if it is possible to
represent the traffic into the cluster head by using theoretical distribution. Empirical
exponential arrival distribution assumption of wireless sensor networks holds only
for a few cases. There are both theoretically known such as Gamma, Log-normal
and Mixed Log-Normal of arrival distributions and theoretically unknown such as
non-Exponential and Mixed cases of arrival in wireless sensor networks. The work is
further extended to understand the effect of delay on inter-arrival time distributions
based on the type of medium access control used in wireless sensor networks

.Mony F. "Does the Hat Fit."; 2012.
Munyua SJM;, Mutiga ER;, Agumbah GJO;, Ogaa JS;, Mwangi WM. "Does the improved Bull have a place?".; 1997.
Munyua SJM;, Mutiga ER;, Agumbah GJO;, Ogaa JS;, Mwangi WM. "Does the improved Bull have a place?".; 1997.
Awori K, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili. "Does The Pattern Of Innervation Of Brachialis By The Musculocutaneous Nerve Influence The Presence Or Absence Of The Radial Nerve Contribution?" Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):142-144. Abstract

The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution by the radial nerve however ranges from 30 to 100%. It is not clear if the presence or patterns of supply to this muscle by either nerve are interdependent. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of innervation of brachialis by the nusculocutaneous nerve and relate it to the presence and contribution from the radial nerve. Fifty seven arms (25 male and 4 female); 29 right and 28 left from formalin-fixed adult cadavers were used. The pattern of musculocutaneous branch to brachialis was recorded based on the classification by Yang et al. into either type I or II. The presence and number of branches by the radial nerve to the same muscle were determined and related to the pattern from brachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied brachialis in all (100%) of the cases while the radial nerve did so in 33 arms (57.9%). Type I was the predominant pattern in both left and right arms (91.2%) with no correlation between the type of innervation by musculocutaneous nerve and the radial nerve contribution.

Abala DO, Mwabu G, Mwega FM. "Does Total Factor Productivity Matter For Exports? Kenyan Evidence." African Journal of Social Science. 2013;Vol. 3(Number 2):30-44.
Abala D, Mwabu G, Mwega F. ""Does Total Factor Productivity Matter for Exports? Kenyan Evidence"." African Journal of Social Sciences,. 2013;3(2):30-44.
Guthiga P, Karugia J, Nyikal R. "Does use of draft animal power increase economic efficiency of smallholder farms in Kenya?” ." Renewable Agriculture and Food systems. 2007;22:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Draft animal power (DAP) has been identified as an environmentally friendly technology that is based on renewable energy and encompasses integration of livestock and crop production systems. Draft animal technology provides farmers with a possibility to cheaply access and use manure from the draft animals and farm power needed to apply renewable practices for land intensification. Compared to motorized mechanization, DAP is viewed as an appropriate and affordable technology especially for small-scale farmers in developing countries who cannot afford the expensive fuel-powered tractor mechanization. However, it is apparent that there is no consensus among researchers on how it affects crop yields, profit and production efficiency when applied in farm operations. This study addressed the question of whether using DAP increases economic efficiency of smallholder maize producers in central Kenya. Results of the study are derived from a sample of 80 farmers, 57% of whom used draft animals while 43% used hand hoes in carrying farm operations. In the study area, draft animals are almost exclusively used for land preparation and planting, with very few farmers applying them in the consecutive operations such as weeding. A profit function was estimated to test the hypothesis of equal economic efficiency between ‘DAP’ and ‘hoe’ farms. The results showed that farmers who used DAP obtained higher yields and operated at a higher economic efficiency compared to those who used hand hoes. The analysis underscores the viability of DAP in increasing profitability of small-scale farms; however, other aspects of the technology, such as affordability of the whole DAP package, availability of appropriate implements and skills of using the technology, must be taken into account when promoting adoption of DAP technology.

Mulaku M, Opiyo N, Karumbi J, Kitonyi G, Thoithi G, English M. Does use of Hydroxyurea in childhood sickle cell disease, prevent Sickle cell complications?. Sarova,white sands Mombasa; 2013.kpa_plenary_200413_mm.ppt
Julius Juma O. "Does use of ICT-based market information services (MIS) improve welfare of smallholder farm households: Evidence from Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The need to provide agricultural information to farmers has led to emergence of numerous ICT-based MIS projects in developing country. These projects aim at promoting commercialization of smallholder agriculture and subsequently their welfare. This study examines the welfare effects of one such project in western Kenya. It uses household food security and access to medical health services as proxies of welfare. The study finds that farmers that use ICT-based market information are more food secure and have better access to medical health services than their counterpart. It highlights policy implications of these findings.

M DRKITALAPHILIP. "Dog ecology and demography information to support the planning of rabies control in Machakos District, Kenya.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2001.
Wango GM, Esadia, N. "Dog owners report fewer depression symptoms and a greater sense of social support during the pandemic." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):48-49.
Kyule MD. "Dogs and the Sirikwa at Hyrax Hill." East Africa Natural History Soc. Bulletin. 1992;22 :34-37.
MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Dolan, C.S. and Opondo, M., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Dolan, C.S. and Opondo, M., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Dolphin Bycatches in Tuna Fisheries: A Smokescreen Hiding the Real Issues? 27 Ocean Development & International Law p.333 (with Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1996. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
"Domestic Implementation of the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Kenyan Case." The Law Society of Kenya Journal . 2013;33(9):1. Abstractsituma.docxsituma.pdf

Children rights are now being taken over by various international and national organizations and major UN agencies have adopted policies and programmes on children rights and child development. The 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child marked a welcome break from the past history of rhetoric by the international community regarding the recognition and enforcement of children rights. The Convention has been ratified by all the member states of the UN. Kenya ratified it on 30th July 1990.

This article discusses the legal framework of children rights in Kenya with particular focus on the UN Convention, the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, and Kenya’s Children Act of 2001. The article argues that Kenya’s Children Act, which sought to domesticate the state’s obligations towards the child as provided in the UN Convention and the African Charter, is largely flawed and leaves several gaps that raise issues concerning the State’s commitment to discharge its international law obligations towards the child. The enforcement of the Act by judicial institutions as well as administrative structures raises issues as to whether Kenya has fully discharged its obligations under international law.

Boleij JS, Brunekreef B, EM W, FE O, de Koning, A P. "Domestic pollution as a factor causing respiratory health effects." Chest. 1989;96(3 Suppl):368S-372S.
Gateri MW, Alfred OPERE, Wilson GITAU, Ndiwa NGAINAJ. "Domestic rainwater harvesting: a case study in Embu County, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):50-59. Abstractdomestic_rainwater_harvesting_a_case_study_in_embu_county_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

This study assessed probable water that could be harvested during rainy seasons over Embu County of Kenya. Monthly rainfall data was obtained from Kenya Meteorological Department while percentage distribution of household by household size, main roofing material, number of rooms in the main dwelling and per capita volume of water required was sourced from Kenya Integrated Household Budget of Survey (KIHBS). Minimum water demand per household was computed based on KIHBS. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) 2009 population census was used to determine population and number of occupants in the main dwelling. Embu County receives bimodal rainfall during March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Rainfall is highly variable with 8190 and 7490 litres of harvested water during MAM and OND season respectively expected to last for approximately 43 days (MAM) while 39 days (OND) and thus not sufficient to satisfy minimum water demand levels for Embu population. The total potential harvestable water during MAM and OND accounted for 45.4 % and would go a long way in meeting water demands in the region. Notably, harvestable water was being used to supplement natural sources of water. Therefore, enhanced water harvesting during rainy season could provide an alternate source of domestic water.

co-authored with and(ed) DOLOOADAMSWOAB. "Domestic Terrorism in Kenya.". In: Domestic Terrorism in Africa; Defining, Adressing and Understanding It’s Impact on Human Security. SOUTH AFRICA: Institute for Security Studies; 2009.
"Domestic violence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1."; 2006. Abstract

To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current
partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child
transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing.

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, John-Stewart GC. "Domestic violence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1." AIDS. 2006;20(13):1763-9. Abstract

To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing.

W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Domestic violence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. AIDS . 2006 Aug 22; 20 ( 13 ): 1763-9 . PMID: 16931941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, John-Stewart GC.". In: AIDS . 2006 Aug 22; 20 ( 13 ): 1763-9 . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics/Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 3085-00506, Nairobi, Kenya. jkiarie@swiftkenya.com OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing. DESIGN: A prospective cohort. METHODS: Antenatally, women and their partners were interviewed regarding physical, financial, and psychological abuse by the male partner before HIV-1 testing and 2 weeks after receiving results. RESULTS: Before testing, 804 of 2836 women (28%) reported previous domestic violence, which tended to be associated with increased odds of HIV-1 infection [univariate odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.2; P < 0.0001, adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6; P = 0.1], decreased odds of coming with partners for counseling (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0; P = 0.04), and decreased odds of partner notification (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.1; P = 0.09). Previous domestic violence was not associated with a reduced uptake of HIV-1 counseling, HIV-1 testing, or nevirapine. After receiving results, 15 out of 1638 women (0.9%) reported domestic violence. After notifying partners of results, the odds of HIV-1-seropositive women reporting domestic violence were 4.8 times those of HIV-1-seronegative women (95% CI 1.4-16; P = 0.01). Compared with women, men reported similar or more male-perpetrated domestic violence, suggesting a cultural acceptability of violence. CONCLUSION: Domestic violence before testing may limit partner involvement in PMTCT. Although infrequent, immediate post-test domestic violence is more common among HIV-1-infected than uninfected women. Domestic violence prevention programmes need to be integrated into PMTCT, particularly for HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16931941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
TOM DONDICHO. "Domestic violence as an obstacle to develoment in Kenya.". In: Mila 2: 19-28. Mila 2: 19-28; 1998. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Gichangi P, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kigondu C, Ngugi E, Diener L. Domestic violence in Kenya: A baseline survey among women in Nairobi. FIDA Kenya.. Nairobi: Federation of women lawyers; 2002.
Ondicho TG. "Domestic Violence in Kenya: Why Battered Women Stay." International Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences. 2013;1(4):105-111.why_battered_women_stay.pdf
Shah P. "Domestication of the Ramsar Convention in Kenya." Towards realizing of Vision 2030: Kenya Policy Briefs. Office of the DVC Research, Innovation and Extension. University of Nairobi. . 2020;1(1):13-14.
Kariuki Samwel Muiruri, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu E, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Dominant Allele Phylogeny and Constitutive Subgenome Haplotype Inference in Bananas Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear Markers." Genome biology and evolution. 2017;9(10):2510-2521.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Donor Lending Conditions in Africa (ed) (Nairobi, FES and NSE).". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
McConnick D, Mitul1ah W. "Donor Proliferation and Coordination in Kenya. Unpublished research paper." Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK; 2007. Abstract
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Dorothy McCormick, Schmitz H. "Donor Proliferation and Coordination: Experiences of Kenya and Indonesia." Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2011. Abstract

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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Donoval BA, Landay AL, Moses S, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nyagaya EA, MacLean I, Bailey RC.HIV-1 target cells in foreskins of African men with varying histories of sexually transmitted infections.Am J Clin Pathol. 2006 Mar;125(3):386-91.". In: Am J Clin Pathol. 2006 Mar;125(3):386-91. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthiv-1_target_cells_in_foreskins_of_african_men.dochiv-1_target_cells_in_foreskins_of_african_men.pdf

Numerous epidemiologic studies have found significant associations between lack of circumcision and HIV-1 acquisition in men. To our knowledge, this is the first study of human foreskin tissue that examines biologic mechanisms that increase susceptibility of uncircumcised African men to HIV-1. Foreskin specimens from 20 men with and 19 men with no history of sexually transmitted infections were examined for HIV-1 target cells. Most Langerhans cells were found in the epithelium; most CD4+ T cells and macrophages were in the submucosa. There were no differences in HIV-1 target cells between men with and those without history of sexually transmitted infections. However Langerhans cells and macrophages were more abundant in the group with a history of infection. The densities and positions of HIV-1 target cells in the foreskin tissue of these Kenyan men indicate that the inner mucosal surface of the human foreskin contains cells that make it highly susceptible to HIV infection.

Dorothy McCormick. "Dorothy McCormick and Winnie Mitullah. "Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster" In Dorothy McCormick and Banji Oyeyinka, eds., Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation.". In: Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster"Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Tokyo: United Nations University Press; 2007. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Dorothy McCormick. "Industrialisation through Cluster Upgrading: Theoretical Perspectives". In Dorothy McCormick and Banji Oyeyinka, eds., Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.; 2007. Abstract

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OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Dose rate conversion factors for external exposures inside African traditional buildings. In: Ed. M. C. Thorne.". In: Proceedings of 6th Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) International Symposium, Southport, 14 . Departmental seminar; 1999. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Dose rate conversion factors for external exposures inside African traditional buildings. In: Ed. M. C. Thorne.". In: Proceedings of 6th Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) International Symposium, Southport, 14 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Mwanda W O, Orem J PARSCFFK. "Dose-modified Oral Chemotherapy in the Treatment of AIDS- Related Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma." Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2009;10(7641):3480-3488.
"Dosing regimens of oral ciprofloxacin for children with severe malnutrition: a population pharmacokinetic study with Monte Carlo simulation." J Antimicrob Chemother. . 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Severe malnutrition is frequently complicated by sepsis, leading to high case fatality. Oral ciprofloxacin is a potential alternative to the standard parenteral ampicillin/gentamicin combination, but its pharmacokinetics in malnourished children is unknown.
METHODS:

Ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg, 12 hourly) was administered either 2 h before or up to 2 h after feeds to Kenyan children hospitalized with severe malnutrition. Four plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured over 24 h. Population analysis with NONMEM investigated factors affecting the oral clearance (CL) and the oral volume of distribution (V). Monte Carlo simulations investigated dosage regimens to achieve a target AUC(0-24)/MIC ratio of ≥125.
RESULTS:

Data comprised 202 ciprofloxacin concentration measurements from 52 children aged 8-102 months. Absorption was generally rapid but variable; C(max) ranged from 0.6 to 4.5 mg/L. Data were fitted by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag. The parameters were CL (L/h) = 42.7 (L/h/70 kg) × [weight (kg)/70](0.75) × [1 + 0.0368 (Na(+) - 136)] × [1 - 0.283 (high risk)] and V (L) = 372 × (L/70 kg) × [1 + 0.0291 (Na(+) - 136)]. Estimates of AUC(0-24) ranged from 8 to 61 mg·h/L. The breakpoint for Gram-negative organisms was <0.06 mg/L with doses of 20 mg/kg/day and <0.125 mg/L with doses of 30 or 45 mg/kg/day. The cumulative fraction of response with 30 mg/kg/day was ≥80% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella species, but <60% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
CONCLUSIONS:

An oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg three times daily (30 mg/kg/day) may be a suitable alternative antibiotic for the management of sepsis in severely malnourished children. Absorption was unaffected by the simultaneous administration of feeds.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Dossajee H., J. Hassanali;Morphometric Analysis of cerebral cortex in the developing baboon. European Journal of Anatomy 8(1): 29-34. (2004).". In: European Journal of Anatomy 8(1): 29-34. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In order to introduce a comprehensive intervention system to improve health, there is need to establish a profile of the Maasais' current knowledge, attitude and practices of predisposing environmental, cultural and other factors which may lead to considerable health risks. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas of Kajiando District. SUBJECTS: Maasai community in Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas regions of Kajiado District of Kenya over a period of two years. RESULTS: Previous awareness to primary health care and knowledge has been through education and training by AMREF Nomadic Health Unit. Factors such as limited availability of water, health care delivery and dry arid environment with poor infrastructure as well as some persistent harmful cultural practices predispose the Maasai community to common health problems in children and adults. CONCLUSION: With community participation, there is need for an integrated approach to these health risks. The Ministry of Health together with AMREF have incorporated a comprehensive intervention system to address the commonly occurring diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia and address adults and children problems differently.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Dossajee H., J. Hassanali;Recent observations of some socio-cultural norms amongst the Kenyan Maasai in Kajiado District. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 4 No. 2 206-208. (2003).". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 4 No. 2 206-208. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for dental arch shapes. DESIGN: Analysis of measurements of dental casts to determine a general second degree equation for the dental arches. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy and School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: The measurement of dental casts, 30 (15M and 15F) each from three Kenyan ethnic groups (Maasai, Kalenjin, Kikuyu), aged 12 years. RESULTS: The arches change their shapes from a parabola to an ellipse, governed by the boundary conditions at the position of the canine tooth, based on the general second degree equation for the conic sections. CONCLUSION: The simulation model graphically confirms the change from parabolic to elliptic shapes of dental arches with boundary conditions at the canine. This could be used to show the changes in dental arches for other ethnic groups.
Obel AO, EG M. "Double - blind placebo controlled trial of glafeinine in acute pain." East African Medical Journal. 1981;(58):226-30.
Isenberg L. "A double application approach to ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis." Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Dec;87(12):1449-52.. 2003. AbstractWebsite

{ Jules Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Research and Education Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA. isenberg@ucla.edu AIMS: To investigate if a second drop of 2.5% povidone-iodine ophthalmic solution placed within the first postnatal day would achieve better prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum than a single drop applied at birth. METHODS: A masked, prospective, controlled trial was conducted over a 2 year period in a Kenyan hospital. Randomisation was achieved by alternating weeks of one or two eye drop application to both eyes. All 719 neonates received one drop of the povidone-iodine solution to both eyes at birth, while 317 received a second drop at hospital discharge or 24 (SD 4) hours after delivery, whichever was first. All infants developing conjunctivitis within a month after birth underwent microbiological analysis using Gram and Giemsa stains, direct fluorescent antibody assay for Chlamydia trachomatis, and culture. RESULTS: Of the neonates receiving the one eye drop application, 18.4% returned with a red eye with discharge, 4.0% had organisms found on the initial smear, and 8.2% had a positive culture. The corresponding proportions for the multidrop group were 24.3%, 4.7%, and 10.4%. Of those returning with an inflamed eye, there were no cases of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 4.2% in the single dose group and 3.9% in the double dose group were positive for C trachomatis, and 5.4% and 6.5% respectively for Staphylococcus aureus. At discharge, the eyelid oedema score of the double dose group was mildly greater than the single dose group (1.4 (0.67) v 1.2 (0.73)

R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Double supernumerary impacted premolar teeth: case report. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jul;66(7):489-90.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jul;66(7):489-90. International Journal of Climatology; 1989. Abstract
A rare case of double supernumerary impacted premolar teeth is presented. The possible sequelae and management are briefly discussed.
Hazan L, Hernández Rodriguez OA, Bhorat A'adE, Miyazaki K, Tao B, Heyrman R, group(EM Wafula AESOPS. "A double-blind, dose-response study of the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children and adolescents with hypertension." Hypertension. 2010;55(6):1323-30. Abstract

The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children with hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure measured at or above the 95th percentile (90th percentile for patients with diabetes, glomerular kidney disease, or family history of hypertension) for age, gender, and height while off any antihypertensive medication. The active treatment phase was conducted in 2 periods, with 2 cohorts in each period (cohort A, 62% white; cohort B, 100% Black). In period 1, patients stratified by weight received low-dose (2.5 or 5 mg) or high-dose (20 or 40 mg) olmesartan medoxomil daily for 3 weeks. In period 2, patients maintained their olmesartan medoxomil dose or initiated placebo washout for an additional 2 weeks. Period 1 efficacy results showed a dose-dependent, statistically significant reduction in seated trough systolic and diastolic blood pressure for both cohorts, with mean blood pressure reductions numerically smaller in cohort B than in cohort A. The olmesartan medoxomil dose response remained statistically significant when adjusted for body weight. In period 2, blood pressure control decreased in those patients switching to placebo, whereas patients continuing to receive olmesartan medoxomil therapy maintained consistent blood pressure reduction. Adverse events were generally mild and unrelated to study medication. Olmesartan medoxomil was safe and efficacious in children with hypertension, resulting in significant blood pressure reductions.

Wasamba P. Down Me. Nairobi; 2009.down_me-1.pdf
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Akong'a J., Mungai, D.N., Muturi, H.R. and Porter, H.L., 1988. Introduction to the Kenya case study. Part II (pp. 129-148), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Mungai, D.N. and Muturi, H.R., 1988. Drought climatology and development of the climatic scenarios. Part II (pp. 149-173), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2:.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

M. MRMBUTHIAJACKSON. "Dr Mwangi Mbulhia. Ph.D. "Computer-Base DataBase Application in the ManagementOf Small and Medium Scale Business - The Kenyan Experience", Submiteed to the Kenya National Academy of Science, September 2001.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M. MRMBUTHIAJACKSON, Mbuthia DM. "Dr Mwangi Mbuthia, Ph D. and S. O. Orero. M.Sc. "Short Term load Forecasting For the Kenya Power" Submitted to "IEEE (Institution of Electrical and Electronic 'Engineers, USA) Transactions on Power Systems", October 2001 _.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract

A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

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