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D
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Discussant: Session on Urban Economics: Municipal Issues W.E.A.". In: 52nd Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 20-23, 1977, Anaheim, California. University of Nairobi.; 1977. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Discussion on Constitutive Equation for Granular Materials En-masse. East African Journal of Engineering. 1(1): 27 - 38.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
and Njeru UKEMHN. "Discussion Paper 047, IPAR - Funding the- Fight Against HIV/AIDS: Budgetary Analysis of Kenya's HIV/AIDS Activity Prioritization and Financing."; 2004. Abstract

The Abuja Declaration, adopted at the Africa Union special summit on AIDS in
2001, called upon African governments to allocate 15% of their national budgets to
health spending, with more emphasis on HIV/AIDS programmes. This commitment
echoes the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on illVIAIDS
(UNGASS), which calls for an increase in spending on HIVIAIDS programmes to
US$ 7-10 billion by 2005. The declaration of commitment by the Africa Union calls
for minimum spending that provides coverage of essential prevention, care, and
mitigation services in an effort to reduce the spread of the epidemic. In Kenya,
despite the government's commitment to fight the pandemic, very little information
is available on the actual expenditures on HIV/AIDS activities. The objective
of this study was to track HIV/AIDS expenditure and analyse the budget from an
HIV/AIDS perspective. Understanding how the financial and other national resources
are used towards realization of the national objectives as outlined in the
HIV/AIDS related strategic goals in each country, will help the planners to choose
pertinent, useful and attainable interventions.

nje ru Enos Njeru RAPMN8 18/02/20. "Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004 : Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential.". ISBN 9966-948-18-x.; 2004. Abstractsocial_health_insurance_scheme_for_all_kenyans0001.pdf

Health is a basic need for all, regardless of race, nationality, social class, age,
sex, etc. In Kenya, just like in many other developing countries, the health
situation has been deteriorating in spite of the government having since
independence directed her efforts tow;rrds tackling the twin problems of
affordability and access to health care services. Beyond this, the policy position
is also clear on the need to address equity and sustainability of quality health
care delivery. The health sector reforms that have hitherto taken place (including
introduction ofNHIF, free health services, cost-sharing, exemptions and waivers,
etc.) are all largely aimed at addressing affordability and access to health care
services, especially among the poor. The latter often find themselves in poverty
traps that deny them access to social services, consequent upon which they
benefit least from health, education, food security, knowledge and information
services and other basic human rights components.
This negates the policy endeavors relating to promoting poverty reduction through
economic growth, access to minimum quality health care by removing barriers
arising from social differentiation and concomitant stratification on basis of
gender, social class, knowledge and limited or even zero participation of the
underprivileged in prioritization and provision ofthe national service infrastructure.
Past policy priorities and measures have not been effective in addressing these
concerns, which relate positively to health care access potential for all. Spending
to promote access to health care is crucial, given also that Kenya is a signatory
to the WHO Abuja Declaration (25th April 2000). The latter requires member
countries to spend at least 15 per cent of their national incomes (aDP) on
health (Kenya spends 9 per cent).
The high cost of health care limits access to the services for many Kenyans,
given that 56 per cent of the population lives below the poverty line (on less
than one dollar a day) among whom 30 per cent live in absolute poverty. The
Second Report on Poverty in Kenya reveals that 40 per cent of the poor did not
seek medical care when they fell sick, mainly due to inability to meet the cost of
medical care, while 2.5 per cent were constrained by distance to a health facility.
Unaffordability, therefore, remains a key challenge facing the poor against
access to health care. Many Kenyans therefore continue to either have no
access to or cannot afford to pay for their health care needs. It is due to the
failures of the past programs, that the National Social Health Insurance Fund
(NSHIF) was conceptualized for implementation, with a view to providing a

KM N, GO O, KM B, CS I. "Disease activity measurement in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016:19-24.disease_activity_measurement.pdf
Okeyo AM;, Kitlit JK;, Ahuya CO;, Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC. "Disease and prolificacy characteristics of the Galla and East African Breeds at Ol'Magog."; 1985.
Kuria JKN. "Disease caused by bacteria in cattle: Tuberculosis.". In: Disease caused by bacteria in cattle. London: IntechOpen books; 2019.
Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Omucheni DL, Wabwile R, Abramczyk H, Zoueu JT. "Disease diagnostics by chemometrics-assisted spectroanalytical and imaging techniques.". In: LAM9 International Workshop on Optics and Lasers in Science and Technology. Dakar, Senegal; 2010.
Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

U B, M M, J M, Mwang’ombe, S G. "Disease surveillance and farmers’ knowledge of Brachiaria (Syn. Urochloa) grass diseases in Rwanda." African Journal of Range & Forage Science. 2020;. https://doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2020.1810774.
Uzayisenga B, Mutimura M, Muthom JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Ghimire SR. "Disease surveillance and farmers’ knowledge of Brachiaria (Syn. Urochloa) grass diseases in Rwanda." AFRICAN JOURNAL OF RANGE & FORAGE SCIENCE. 2020;tarf20:1-13.
M MH, LW I, PN N. "The diseases of coffee under the changing climate: the established situation in Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technolog. 2012;2(2):265-267.
Okumu PO, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK. Diseases of domestic rabbits and associated risk factors in Kenya. Germany : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2017.
Njoroge(4) KD, Rading GO, Kihiu JM, Witcomb MJ, Cornish LA. "The Dislocation Core Misfit Potential." Comput. Mater. Sci. 100. 2015:195-202.
Mutuli SM, Kihiu JM, Njoroge KD. "A Dislocation Density Evolution Model of Metal Plasticity.". 2013.Website
CHAGA MRSMWALIWAHANNAH. ""Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross secondary school - A case study" - A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for Post Graduate Diploma in Education of Kenyatta University.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2003.
Kuria MW. "Disorders of Eating Chapter 12.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Disorders of Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Chapter 15.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Disorders of the Claw and Their Association with Laminitis in Smallholder Zero Grazed Dairy Cows." International journal of veterinary science. 2017;6(2).
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):64-69.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:64-69. Abstract
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Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PM, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Mutungi OK. "Disparity of Sentences." L.L.M. Thesis at Columbia University Law School, U.S.A; 1968. Abstract
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MM M, Opanga S, Oluka M, Godman B. "'Dispensing of antimicrobials in Kenya: a cross sectional pilot study and its implications' ." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2018:1-8.
J.I. K, J.I K, O.N A, P.T H. "Dispersal distance of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) pollen at the Tana River delta in the coast province, Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(10):2265-2270. Abstract

Rice is a staple food in Kenya and its production needs to be increased. Genetically modified (GM) rice
may be a solution, but before it can be introduced, potential ecological impacts, such as pollen
mediated gene flow from GM rice to non-GM rice or to its wild indigenous relatives, need to be
understood. Pollen dispersal in rice (Oryza sativa) was studied in the Tana River district in the coast
province of Kenya. O. sativa seedlings were planted in a 50 m diameter circular experimental design.
Pollen traps (glass slides coated by vaseline attached to a board) were used to measure pollen flow at 2
heights and at increasing distances from the source plot. Pollen dispersal decreased rapidly with
increasing distance from the pollen source up to 250 m, no pollen was found at 300 m. There was a
significant (P < 0.05) difference in pollen dispersal in different directions, which correlated with the
prevailing wind direction (south, occasionally east). Effect on wind speed and humidity could not be
evaluated as they were relatively stable during the sampling period. No overall difference (P > 0.05) in
pollen count between upper and lower pollen traps. The highest daily pollen count was observed
between 11:00 am and 12:00 noon, and at a narrow range of temperatures 28 ± 2ºC. On the basis of
these data, an adequate isolation distance of more than 250 m should be considered to minimize
chances of gene flow from transgenic rice to conventional or wild rices.

Kanya JI, Kinyamario JI, Amugune NO, Hauser TP. "Dispersal distance of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) pollen at the Tana River delta in the coast province, Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(10):2265-2270.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Displacement, Minorities, and Human Security: The African Experience.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 4, No.2 Autumn pp. 133-134. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
"Disqualification of Directors in Kenya." 54 Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 118; 2003. Abstract
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Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Pamnani P, Rajab J.A G’a KJNR. "Disseminated Histoplasmosis diagnosed on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology." EAMJ. 2010;86:102-105.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a case report.East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):61-2. Links. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993. Abstract
A 27 year old female with AIDS and disseminated histoplasmosis is presented. The clinical features include fever, weight loss, productive cough, splenomegaly and moderate pallor. The initial working diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis was made terminally from bone marrow aspirate examination. Disseminated histoplasmosis with its varied clinical picture is likely to be missed in a patient with AIDS, and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis. PIP: A 27-year old female from Nairobi was admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital in May 1991. She presented with a 4-week history of productive cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. She acknowledged a history of contact with a patient known to have pulmonary tuberculosis. She has never received a blood transfusion. She was single and para 3 + 0. Examination revealed a sick patient, with moderate pallor, fever of 38 degrees Celsius, and who was wasted with moderate dehydration and oral thrush. There was no finger clubbing, lymphadenopathy, or pedal edema. Chest examination revealed bilateral basal pneumonia. The spleen was palpable 4 cm below the costal margin; the liver was not enlarged. The rest of the examination was normal. On admission, complete blood count showed a haemoglobin of 5.4 g/dl, total white cells were 12.5 x 10-9/L, with 82% polymorphonuclear cells and 18% lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 85 mm/hour, and platelet count was normal. The anemia was normocytic, normochromic, and no malaria parasites were seen. Urea and electrolytes and liver function tests were normal. Sputum showed no acid fast bacilli on Ziel-Neelson Stain. HIV-1 antibodies were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Bone marrow aspirate revealed a hypercellular marrow with reversed M:E ration, dyserythropoesis, reticulum cell hyperplasia, plentiful golden yellow pigment, and clumps of Histoplasma capsulatum. Chest X-ray showed bilateral basal pneumonia. She was treated with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, but she remained febrile, her general condition progressively deteriorated, and she died a week after admission. Treatment for histoplasmosis had not been commenced, and no postmortem examination was carried out.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection among HIV-infected patients in Kenya. Gilks CF; Brindle RJ; Mwachari C; Batchelor B; Bwayo JJ; Kimari J; Arbeit RD; von Reyn CF. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Feb 1;8(2):195-8.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Feb 1;8(2):195-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection among HIV-infected patients in Kenya.Gilks-CF; Brindle-RJ; Mwachari-C; Batchelor-B;Bwayo JJ; Kimari-J; Arbeit-RD; von-Reyn-CF J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr-Hum-Retrovirol.1995 Feb 1; 8(2): 195-8.". In: J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr-Hum-Retrovirol.1995 Feb 1; 8(2): 195-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
Joel O. Dissemination of Agricultural Information : a case study of KADOC. Nairobi: Technical University ; 1993.
Rukwaro R. "Dissemination of Architectural Knowledge among Research, Training and Practice.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Within the field of architecture, architects and scholars appear to have difficulty making sense of one another’s experience and the relationship between practice and research is often uneven and unclear. In addition, those who identify themselves as scholars of architecture tend to be closed in their academic spheres and vice versa for those who are practitioners. The professionals and scholars seem not to have adequate interchange and reconciliation of the profession. This has not helped much in developing a unifying framework for research and practice of architecture. The scholars and the practicing architect have yet to produce a comprehensive institutional framework capable of directing the profession toward the demonstrable improvement of the architectural practice; training and research. Survey is used as the research design. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from archiects in practice and those in academia, students of architecture and educational administrators. The practicing architects were randomly sampled from the Board of Architects and Quantity Surveying (BORAQS) register. Forty practicing architects were selected. Twenty lecturers and fifty students were interviewed while four administrators were administered questionnaires. Qualitative techniques were used to analyze the responses from the field. This paper has unraveled the minimal relationship between scholars and professionals; the information flow between them and presented the way forward

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Dissemination or Method.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

MARY MWIANDI. ""Dissertations on African Related Topics done in US, Canada and U.K." in the African Studies.". In: Association (ASA) Newsletter Publications. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2002. Abstract

n/a

Waswa G. A, I. M, Abong'o D. A, Mbugua J. K., D. A, Aluoch A. O. "Dissipation and Sorption of Urea on Eburru Soils in Kenya." Journal of Physical Chemistry and Biophysics. 2018;8(3):271.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Dissipation behaviour of malathion and dimethoate from the garden pea plant (Pisum sativa).". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 64, 339 - 367. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2000. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Kipngetich B, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mukabi M. "Dissipation studies of Amitraz in cattle dips in Bureti, Kericho county- Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):248-253.
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, J.O L. "Dissipation, Distribution and Uptake of 14C-Chloropyrifos in a Model Tropical Seawater/Sediment/Fish Ecosystem. Bull.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxicology, 70 883-890. Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate, is one of the most widely used organophosphorous pesticides worldwide due its high efficacy (Carvalho et al. 1992; Liu et al. 2001, Meikle and Youngson 1978). In Kenya, Dursban formulations are mainly used for protection of horticultural fruits and vegetables (Lalah 1994), Because of its low water solubility (0.4 mg/L) and high hydrophobicity (log Kow of 5.27), it is believed that chlorpyrifos would be able to partition easily onto aquatic sediments and macrophytes where it can pose dangers to benthic organisms (Ronday et al. 1998). It is also quite a volatile toxicant due to its low vapour pressure (2.5 mPa at 25 °C) and low air-to-water partition coefficient (8.9 10"4 at 25 °C) and its residues have been detected in air and rainwater samples (Liu et al. 2001).Increasing use of chlorpyrifos also causes a lot of anxiety to environmentalists and toxicologists because it is toxic to both humans and wildlife. As an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, it can cause impairment in mammalian brain cell development (Lund et al. 2000; Jeanty et al 2001; Jett et al 1999; Slotkin et al. 2001). Widespread use of this compound is therefore considered to be of great danger particularly to pregnant women and children Some of its reported toxicities to aquatic organisms include 96 hr LCNo of 0.13 |.ig/L and 96 hr LC?o of 0.035 Ug/L in adult Neomysis integer and Americamysis bahia, respectively (Roast et al. 1999). Although its toxicity in mammalian and aquatic organisms has been well documented, its fate and effects on aquatic ecosystems in tropical conditions where it is expected to degrade and dissipate faster (Carvalho et al 1992) are little known. In a laboratory model aquarium simulating a tropical marine environment, we studied the persistence and accumulation of HC-chlorpyrifos in sediment, fish and oysters. The results obtained from these studies are reported in this paper.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Dissipation, Distribution and Uptake of 14C-Chloropyrifos in a Model Tropical Seawater/Sediment/Fish Ecosystem. Bull.". In: Environ. Contam. and Toxicology, 70 883-890. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Dissociation of the Urinary Excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase (AG) and B2 .". In: M.Journal of applied Toxicology Vol. 1 No. 4 1981, 44-45. University of Nairobi Press; 1981. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Kuria MW. "Dissociative Disorders Chapter 9.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Bowa O. "Distance Education." University of Nairobi Kikuyu Press. 2005.abstract_distance_education.pdf
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Distance Education Practice and Prospects of the Faculty of External.". In: UNESCO/ICDE Seminar on Multi Channel Learning Base at Mount Clear Nyanga, Zimbabwe. Thought and Practice; 1995. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Distance Education Programme of the Faculty of External Studies.". In: Pan-Commonwealth meeting in Distance teaching for Non-Formal Education. Nairobi. Thought and Practice; 1990. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Mboroki DG. Distance Education Versus the Mainstream:. Germany: LAP Academic Publications; 2013.
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "Distance Education, University of Nairobi, 2006.". In: University of Nairobi, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
Mboroki DG, Mulwa DA, Kyalo DD, Bowa DO. "Distance Education: Product or Process." JCODE . 2011;1(2):71-84.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Distance Learning and Telecommunication in Kenya. Paper presented at Satelite Education Demonstration at Kikuyu Campus, University of Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at Satelite Education Demonstration at Kikuyu Campus, University of Nairobi. Thought and Practice; 1994. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Nyongesa FW, Awour JB. "DISTANCE LEARNNG STUDY MODULE.". 2015. Abstract
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N. KG. "A distance – learning module for B. Ed students.". In: Educational Management. Nairobi: African Virtual University; 2009.
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
Osoti A, Gwako GN, Liyayi B, Qureshi ZP. "Distinguishing Intrauterine Fetal Demise versus Abdominal Pregnancy in Low Resource Settings." East African Medical Journal. 2015;92(1). Abstractdistinguishing_intrauterine_fetal_demise_versus_abdominal_pregnancy_in_low_resource_settings.pdf

Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus abdominal pregnancies. We present a case of a 36 year old para 4+0 gravida 5 who presented with fetal demise at 16 weeks of gestation. Multiple abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds showed intra uterine fetal demise for which she underwent induction. The definitive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was established using transcervical Foleys catheter aided abdominal-pelvic ultrasound which showed an empty uterus and a gestational sac, placenta and a 16-week fetus with no cardiac activity in the right adnexa/iliac region.

Osoti A, Gwako GN, Liyayi B, Qureshi ZP. "Distinguishing Intrauterine Fetal Demise Versus Abdominal Pregnancy in Low Resource Settings, A Case Report." East African Medical Journal. 2015;92(1). Abstractfull_article.pdf

Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus abdominal pregnancies. We present a case of a 36 year old para 4+0 gravida 5 who presented with fetal demise at 16 weeks of gestation. Multiple abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds showed intra uterine fetal demise for which she underwent induction. The definitive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was established using transcervical Foleys catheter aided abdominal-pelvic ultrasound which showed an empty uterus and a gestational sac, placenta and a 16-week fetus with no cardiac activity in the right adnexa/iliac region.

Gichaga FJ. "Distress Features of Flexible Road Pavements in Kenya.". In: Seminar on Maintenance and Drainage aspects of Road Pavements.Indian Road Congress. Bangalore - India; 1982.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Odongo O, Manderick B. "Distributed Computing, Agents and Trends: An introduction.". In: UNESCO-HP Brain Gain workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Mulongo AW, Ayienga E. "Distributed Energy Control in Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring Based on Adaptive Sampling.". In: UNESCO-HP Brain Gain Workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya.". In: IEK International Conference. IEK International Conference; 2009. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
Gichuhi NW, Gitau AN, Mutua JM, Kaberere KK, Mangoli MK. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering . 2011;4(1):65-77.
Gichuhi, S, N.; GA, J.M.; M, K.K. K, M.K. M. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya. ." ICASTOR journal of engineering.. 2011;Vol. 4. No.1 (ISSN-0974-407X):65-77.
ABDULLAH DRHASSANMOHAMMED. "Distributed Hydrological Modeling of a Mountainous Catchment in Kenya, Irons. Of Japanese Society of Irrigation, Drainage and Reclamation Engineering. JSIDRE. No. 221. pp. 49-55.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2002.
Moses MP, Abungu NO. "Distributed Slack Bus Model for a Wind-Based Distribution Generation using Combined Participation Factors." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2012;2(10):459-469. Abstractijetae_1012_80.pdfClick here to read more...

With the increased penetration of distributed generation into the power distribution system, the traditional
load flow analysis that assumes a single slack bus has become impractical. The existing literature focuses on slack bus placement taking only real power losses into place. However with increasing need of reactive power in maintaining voltage stability at the consumer end; reactive power generation management cannot
be ignored any further. Thus a distributed slack bus model taking into consideration both real and reactive power losses is of paramount importance. The wind based doubly fed induction generator is an attractive option for both real and reactive power loss compensation since it is economically attractive, can be grid
connected and it has the capability to generate and absorb reactive power. A distributed slack bus model
using combined participation factors is developed in this paper to distribute the slack(real and reactive power losses). The combined participation factors are formulated using the method of Lagrange
multipliers and the distributed slack bus model employs a Genetic Algorithm of a Newton Raphson Solver.

Muchira J, Stuart-Shor E, Kariuki J, Mukuna A, Ndigirigi I, Gakage L, Mutuma V, Karani A. "Distribution and Characteristics of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular-Metabolic Disease in a Rural Kenyan Community." International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. Available online 21 September 2015.. 2015;21(8/2015).
Muchira J, Stuart-Shor E, Kariuki J, Mukuna A, Ndigirigi I, Gakage L, Mutuma V, Karani A. "Distribution and characteristics of risk factors for cardiovascular–metabolic disease in a rural Kenyan community." International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2015;3:76-81. Abstract
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MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Distribution and diagnosis of hydatid disease in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 12: 53 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Distribution and dissipation of Carbofuran in a paddy field in the Kano Plain of Kenya.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxic. 56 (4).pg. 584. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
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Maina PK, Wachira PM, Okoth SA, Kimenju JW. "Distribution and Diversity of Indigenous Trichoderma species in Machakos County, Kenya." British Microbiology Research Journal. 2015;9(4):1-15.
Okoth S. "Distribution and Diversity of Indigenous Trichoderma species in Machakos County, Kenya." British Microbiology Research Journal. 2015;9(4):1-15. Abstractmaina_et_al_distribution_and_diversity_of_indigenous_trichoderma_species.pdfWebsite

Aim: This study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of land-use intensification on
occurrence, distribution, and diversity of Trichoderma fungus.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Distribution of Study: Mycology Laboratory, University of Nairobi between March and
September, 2014.
Methodology: Soil samples were collected from both Mwala and Kauti irrigation blocks in Kabaa
irrigation scheme of Machakos County, in Kenya under three land use types (LUTs): intensively
cultivated farmlands under irrigation, rainfed intensively cultivated farmlands and undisturbed lands.
A total of 100 soil samples were obtained from the top 0- 20 cm depth. Trichoderma species were
isolated using the dilution plate technique using Trichoderma-selective media (TSM).
Results: A total of 369 Trichoderma isolates were recovered from the three LUTs. These were
identified and classified into eleven species. The species identified were: T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, T. asperellum, T. atroviride, T. spirale, T. virens, T. tomentosum, T. brevicompactum, T.
crassum and T. hamatum. The most abundant Trichoderma species was T. harzianum with a
frequency of isolation of 38.87%, followed by T. koningii and T. viride at 18.03 and 15.49%,
respectively. Trichoderma hamatum had the least isolation frequency at 0.41%. T. harzianum also
had the widest distribution. The difference in abundance of Trichoderma in the three LUTs was
significant (P=0.05). The undisturbed lands had a higher abundance of Trichoderma compared to
the disturbed areas. Mwala irrigation block A had the least abundance while block D which is more
recent in cultivation had highest mean abundance of Trichoderma. Difference in Trichoderma
species mean richness between LUTs was not significant (P=0.203). Undisturbed lands had the
highest richness. Undisturbed lands also had the highest diversity while irrigated lands were the
least diverse
Conclusion: Enhanced land-use intensification lowers the abundance and diversity of Trichoderma
in the soil.

PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "The distribution and economic importance of the mangrove forests in Kenya.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1985. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
Dossaji SF, Gitonga J, Bell EA. "Distribution and significance of amino acids in the leaves of Acacia and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)." Kenya J. of Science and Technology, 1, 19.. 1980;1:19-22. Abstract

Leaf extracts of 13 species of Acacia and 9 species of Crotalaria which are native to or estabhshed in Kenya were analysed by 2D paper chromatography and high voltage ionophoresis for their free protein and nonprotein amino acids. In addition to the presence of protein amino acids, both the genera contained nonprotein amino acids. Acacia species contained pipecolic acid, 4-OH pipecolic acid, 5-OH pipecolic
acid and homoarginine. They did not contain N-acetyldjenkolic which is found in the seeds of all but one of the species analysed. The leaf extracts of three species of Crotalaria contained the toxic amino acids, a-amino-p-oxalylaminopropionic acid and a-amino-y-oxalylaminobutyric acid.

Ogeng'o JA, Malek A, Kiama SG. "Distribution of ageing changes of the goat aortic tunica media." J. Morphol. Sci. . 2011;28(1):23-27.
Dossaji SF, Bell EA. "Distribution of alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid in Cycas." Phytochemistry. 1973;12:143-144. Abstract

alpha-Amino-beta-Methylaminopropionic acid, previously isolated from seeds of Cycas circinalis, has
now been identified either free or bound in all the other nine species of this genus.

Onyatta JO, Huang PM. "Distribution of applied cadmium to different size fractions of soils after inocubation." Bio- Fertility Soils. 2006;42:432-436.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. Distribution of cadmium introduced to soil in different size fractions after incubation.. Wuhan, China: International Union of Soil Sciences; 2004.
Kimenju HODMWMAM’ombe. JMWMWW. "Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight and Reaction of Selected Cassava Genotypes to the Disease in Kenya." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2019;9(4):ISSN 2224-3186 .
N PROFGUANTAIA. "DISTRIBUTION OF CATHINONE AND D-NORPSEUDOEPHEDRINE IN CATHA EDULIS.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNA. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1982. Abstract
he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "DISTRIBUTION OF CD AND ZN LEVELS IN SOILS AND ACACIA XANTHOPHLOEA BENTH. FROM LAKE NAKURU NATIONAL PARK KENYA. N. Dharani, J. M. Onyari, J. I. Kinyamario, D. M. Maina, K. M. Mavuti.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
Dharani N, Onyari JM, Kinyamario JI, Maina, Mavuti. "Distribution of Cd and Zn levels in Soils and Acacia xanthophloea Benth. From Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2010;85(3):318-323.
Juma G, Chimtawi M, Ahuya PO, Njagi PGN, Rü BL, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. Distribution of chemo- and mechanoreceptors on the antennae and maxillae of Busseola fusca larvae. PO Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya: 4Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2008.abstracts_juma.pdf
Khasakhala" "AA. "Distribution of Childhood Risk of Mortality among Women in Kenya.". In: In Population and Development in Kenya, Assays in honour of Prof. S.H. Ominde. Nairobi: School of Journalism Press; 2000.
Alice K. Charles, William M. Muiru DMJKW & W. "Distribution of Common Maize Diseases and Molecular Characterization of Maize Streak Virus in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(5).
and SO OJMW. "Distribution of Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn in Lake Victoria sediments, East Africa,." Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., . 1989;42:807-813.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Distribution of Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, in Lake Victoria Sediments.". In: Bulletin of Enviromental Contamination and Toxicology (1989) 42 (6)807. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1989. Abstract
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Dharani N, JM O, DM M. "The Distribution of Cu and Pb Levels in soils and Acacia xanthoploea Benth. From Lake Nakuru National Park Kenya." Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2007;79(2):172-177.
Eileen M. Stuart-Shor, Anna K. Karani AMPJKJMCJDMKBSS. "Distribution of CV risk factors in a convenience sample of community dwelling Kenyans .". In: World congress of cardiology. Dubai, UAE; 2012.wc_of_cardiology.pdf
Stuart-Shor EM, Karani AK, MacPherson A, McCarey J, Brown K, DeMita J, Sayer S, Suyematsu M, Kimani S, Kirui AC. "Distribution of CV risk factors in a convenience sample of community dwelling Kenyans.". In: CIRCULATION. Vol. 125. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2012:. Abstract
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Stuart-Shor EM, Karani AK, MacPherson A, McCarey J, Brown K, DeMita J, Sayer S, Suyematsu M, Kimani S, Kirui AC. "Distribution of CV risk factors in a convenience sample of community dwelling Kenyans.". In: CIRCULATION. Vol. 125. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2012:. Abstract
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Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses of naturally and artificially infected Kenyan cattle and its implication for routine meat inspection method. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2005;9:66-73.
Pulei AN, Odula P, Malek A, Ogeng'o JA. "Distribution of elastic fibres in the human abdominal linea alba." Anatomy journal of Africa . 2015;4(1):476-480.pulei_hla_aja.pdf.pdf
Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Distribution of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna, ADI-FDTD Perspective.". In: KSEEE-JSAEM 2012 International Engineering Conference.; 2012.
Gaciri SJ, Altherr R, Nyamai CM, Mathu EM. Distribution of elements in mineral pairs from Mozambique belt rocks of Matuu a rea, central Kenya. Nairobi - Kenya: UNEP/UNESCO; 1993.
Nderitu GG, Gichuki NN, Triest L. "Distribution of epilithic diatoms in response to environmental conditions in an urban tropical stream, central Kenya ." Biodiversity and Conservation. 2006;(15):3267-3293.
ADUDA JO. "The Distribution of Financial Ratios of Companies Quoted at the Nairobi Stock Exchange: An Empirical Evidence.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "The distribution of fluoride in Kenya waters.". In: Proceedings of the Environmental Chemistry Sub-region Workshop, National University of Lesotho, Roma, 32-6 (1982). UoN; 1982. Abstract
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H.M. Thairu KNDN & LW. "The distribution of fluoride in Kenya waters.". 1982.
Okoth SA, Ogola JS. "Distribution of Fungi and Climate Change: A Case Study of Mucoraceous Fungi in Kenya." World Resource Review . 2002;14(2):223-234.
Omuombo C, Huguet A, Olago D, Williamson D. "Distribution of Glycerol Diakyl Glycerol Tetraethers in Surface Soil and Crater Lake Sediments from Mount Kenya, East Africa." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2013. AbstractFull Text Link

Glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), a palaeoclimate proxy based on the relative abundance of lipids produced by archaea and bacteria, is gaining wide acceptance for the determination of past temperature and pH conditions. This study looks at the spatial distribution and abundance of GDGTs in soil and sediment samples along an altitudinal transect from 3 crater lakes of Mt. Kenya (Lake Nkunga, Sacred Lake and Lake Rutundu) ranging in elevation from 1700m - 3080m above sea level. GDGTs were extracted with solvents and then analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS). Mean annual air temperature and pH were estimated based on the relative abundance of the different branched GDGTs, i.e. on the MBT (Methylation index of Branched Tetraethers) and CBT (Cyclization ratio of Branched Tetraethers) indices. Substantial amount of GDGTs were detected in both soil and sediment samples. In addition, branched GDGT distribution was observed to vary with altitude. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the branched GDGTs to understand the environmental parameters controlling the distribution of these lipids. The MBT/CBT proxy is a promising tool to infer palaeotemperatures and characterize the climate events of the past millennia in equatorial east Africa.

De Vuyst H, Steyaert S VRCLP, Muchiri L, Sitati S VQKVMTSWBE. "Distribution of human papillomavirus in a family planning population in nairobi, kenya." Sex Transm Dis. . 2003;30(2):Sex Transm Dis.
ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the Provinces and Districts in Kenya. A Case Study of the Factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of Delinquency Rates, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, Vol. 4, No.1, 1974, East .". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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ERASTO PROFMUGA. "The Distribution of Juvenile Delinquency in the provinces in Kenya. A case Study of the factors Accounting for the Differential Distribution of delinquency rates, journal of eastern African research and development, Vol., No.1, 1974, east African Literatu.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Berlin International Conference on Technology Supported Learning, Berlin Dec 2-4 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1974. Abstract
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Rajcáni J, Krobová J, Málková D. "Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus in the chick embryo." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):467-72. Abstract

Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus antigen (LVA) was followed by immunofluorescene (IF) in chick embryos inoculated into the yolk sacs. Positive fluorescence of LVA was observed in neurons and neuroblasts of the developing brain, spinal cord and spinal ganglia as well as in skeletal muscles, heart muscle, vascular endothelium and lung mesenchyma. In the yolk sac, foci of specific fluorescence were occasionally seen in endothelium cells of vessels and in islands of extraembryonic haematopoesis. At sites corresponding to the occurrence of LVA, extensive oedema was accompanied by extravazation of erythrocytes and accumulation of white blood cells. The nature of tissues in which the virus replicates was discussed from the point of view of LVA distribution and the morphological lesions observed.

W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Distribution of lesion nematodes associated with maize in Kenya and susceptibility of maize cultivars to Pratylenchus zeae. African Crop Science Journal 6:367 .". In: Proceedings of 5th of African Crop Science Conference. Lagos Nigeria. Ogutu J.O; 1998. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Distribution of Lipids in the Young Shoots of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.), TEA, 9 (2), 7.". In: Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
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Okoth SA, Siboe GM, van Speybroeck D. "The distribution of mucorales in some parts of Kenya." International Journal of BiochemiPhysics . 1998;7(2):45-50.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "The Distribution of Mucorales in some parts of Kenya.". In: Int. J. BiochemiPhysics ,Vol. 6&7 (no. 1 & 2): 45 - 50. Taylor & Francis; 1998. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, LALAH JO, YUGI PO, BARASA MW. "The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1235-1246. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

The concentrations of organochlorine residues of lindane, aldrin, <*- endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in samples of seawater, sediment, fish and seaweed from different locations along the coast of Kenya are discussed in relation to the geographical location of the sampling sites and potential sources of residue over a period of two years. All sediment samples were found to contain very low levels of organic carbon except those sampled from Sabaki River that had high (4.7%) organic carbon due to greater primary activity. Most of the pesticides residues (112 samples analysed in 1997 and 258 analysed in 1998/99) were detected in fish, water, sediments and seaweed. The concentration of some residues was higher during the wet season than the dry season in 1997, but no marked seasonal variation was observed in 1998/99. Lindane, aldrin, p,p'-DOT and p,p'-DDE were the most frequently observed residues in all samples while «-endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p'-DDD and endrin were either present in low concentrations or absent in most samples. Water samples had the lowest concentrations of residues (range 0.503 - 9.025 ng g'1). Sediments had the second highest levels of pesticides residues with a range of 0.584 - 59.00 ng g'1 while fish lipid content had the highest levels of residues in 1989/99 with p,p'-DDT concentration of 1011 ng g'1 and 418 ng g"1 p,p'-DDD 'mSiganus rivulatus.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1235-1246. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Wikler KC, Rakic P. "Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1990;10:3390-3401. AbstractWebsite
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Wikler KC, Rakic P. "Distribution of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina of diurnal and nocturnal primates." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1990;10:3390-3401. AbstractWebsite
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Ezzi MS, Anzala O, Maritim MC, Bhatt KM. "Distribution of Salmonella Typhi Antibodies in the Sera of Healthy Blood Donors at Kenyatta National Hospital." Online Journal of Medicine and Medical Science Research. 2014;3(3):19-23. Abstract

Typhoid fever is widespread in Kenya. Widal test interpretation requires knowledge of the baseline titres amongst healthy population. These normal agglutinin titres vary depending on the degree to which typhoid fever is endemic in each area, a factor which may change over time. It has been a decade since Widal titres in apparently healthy population has been assessed. Furthermore, no baseline Widal titres have been assessed in blood donors. The method applied was a cross sectional descriptive analysis whereby voluntary and healthy blood donors at Kenyatta National Hospital Blood Transfusion Unit were consecutively sampled and screened for Salmonella Typhi agglutinin titres using the Widal test from October 2012 to November 2012. Demographic and focused medical history was obtained by use of structured pretested questionnaires. Blood sample was taken for assessment of Widal titres. Among the 353 serum specimen tested, 75 (21.25%) sera were found to be positive for the Widal test and 278 (78.75%) were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1: 40 for both the anti-O antibodies and the anti-H antibodies which occurred in 49% and 44% of the reactive sera respectively. About 20% of healthy blood donors had a positive Widal screening test, with 50% constituting a baseline titre of 1: 40 for both O and H antigens. A significant proportion of blood donors had titres ≥1: 80. Hence, the researchers recommend the cut off titres of ≥ 1:80 for diagnosis of typhoid fever with the appropriate clinical features.

Mwenda E, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Marani VN, Njagi L. "Distribution of spectrum in a direct sum decomposition of operators into normal and completely non-normal operators." International Journal of Modern Mathematical Sciences. 2014;11(3):118-124.
Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Distribution of the tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus infecting onions in Kenya.". In: Tenth Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics: Analysis of Production Chains of Ornamentals for the Local Market and For Export. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Juja, Kenya; 2010.
Birithia RL;, Subramanian S;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD. "Distribution Of The Tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus Infecting Onions In Kenya.".; 2010.
Birithia RL;, Subramanian S;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD. "Distribution Of The Tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus Infecting Onions In Kenya.".; 2010.
R B, S S, Villinger.J, J M, R.D N, H.R P. Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya. JKUAT; 2010.
Birithia R;, Subramanian S;, Villinger J;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD;, Pappu HR. "Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya."; Submitted.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Distribution of trace elements and their petrogenetic significance in the Jombo Hill alkaline rocks, Kenya.". In: UUDMP Research Report No. 10. 14p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Distribution of Turcicum leaf blight of maize in Kenya and cultural variability of its causal agent, Exserohilum turcicum.". In: UoN research meeting. J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol; 2008. Abstract
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I.O JUMBA, O WANDIGAS, W.G M, J.O L. "The Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of 14C-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment.". In: Toxicol and Environ. Chem. 84, 253-268 (Trailer & Francis Group). Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted on the distribution, fate and metabolism of DDT in a model ecosystem simulating a tropical marine environment of fish, Gabions nudiceps, Leihrinuf haruk, Cohious keineiis, Gnhiota nebutosis and white shrimp iPanaeus seliferus), show that DDT concentration in the water decreases rapidly within the first 24 h. Rapid accurr. • ution of the pesticide in the biota also reaches a maximum level in 24 h before graJuiiiy declining The bioaccumulution factors calculated for the fish specie.! (G. keinesis) and white shrimp '(P. Stiiferu!) were 270 and 351, respectively, after 24 h There was a steady build up of DDT residues in the sediment during the first 24 h which continued to a maximum concentration of 6 66 ng g in the sea-water fish sediment ecosystem after 3 weeks and 5.27ngg in the seawater/shrimps/sediment ecosystem after 2.7 days The depuration of the accumulated pesticide was slow with only 54% lost in G. nudiceps within 3 days of exposure in fresh sea water. By contrast, depuration was fast in the while shrimp, which lost 97% of the accumulated pesticide under the same conditions. DDT was found to be toxic to two of the fish species, (G. nebulmis and /_. huruk) and to white shnmp, and the degree of toxicity was dependent on the particular species. The 24 h LCyj al room temperature lor the fish species G. nebulous and white shrimp was found to be 0.011 and O.I 16mg kg. respectively. These levels are comparable to the ones recorded for the temperate organisms. Degradation of DDT to its primary metabolites. DDE and DDD. uas found in all the compartments of the ecosystem with DDE being the major metabolite in the fish, shrimps and sediment, while in se.iwater. DDD dominated as the major metabolite.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of 14C-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment.". In: Toxicol and Environ. Chem. 84, 253-268 (Trailer & Francis Group). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Ong'amo G, LeRu BP, Dupas S, Moyal P, Calatyud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Distribution, pest status and agroclimatic preferences of lepidopteran stemborers of maize and sorghum in Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(2):171-177.
Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSW; W. Distributions, densities and trends of elephants and rhinoceros in Kenya, 1977-1978 from KREMU's aerial surveys.; 1979. Abstract

Baseline information on densities, distributions and population trends of the African elephant was obtained during KREMU's 1977 and 1978 aerial surveys of all pastoral rangelands in Kenya. It was estimated in 1978 that there were between 44,000 and 67,000 elephants in Kenya 73% of the estimated 1977 population. The ratio of live to dead elephants in 1978 has further decreased to 44:56 compared to 51:49 in 1977. Of the 5,000 to 10,000 located in the general agricultural zone, most were in the national parks and forest reserves.

AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "District Focus for Rural Development in Kenya: Its Limitations as a Decentralization and participatory Planning Strategy and Prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.46.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
ODUNDO DRAMOLLOHPAUL. "District Human Resource Needs in the Health Sector: Prospects, Challenges and Policy- A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) January 2004.". In: A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) January 2004. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004.
Midiwo OJ, Owuor FAO, Juma BF, Waterman PG. "Diterpenes from the leaf exudate of Psiadia punctulata.". 1997.Website
Ndunda BE, Langat MK, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK. "Diterpenoid Derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus." NPC. 2015;10(4):557-558.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK. "Diterpenoid Derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst." Natural Product Communications (NPC). 2015;10(4):557-558.ndunda_et_al.pdf
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Psiada punctulata .". In: Phytochemistry Vol 45, (1) 117-120.; 1997. Abstract
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Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry . 2017;144(2017):1-8.
Langat MK, Ndunda B, Salter C, Odusina BO, Isyaka SM, Mas-Claret E, Onocha PA, Midiwo JO, Nuzillard J-M, Mulholland DA. "Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;39:1-7.
Langat MK, Ndunda BM, Salter C, Odusina BO, Isyaka SM, Mas-Claret E, Onocha PA, Midiwo JO, Nuzillard J-M, Mulholland DA. "Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;39:1-7. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
Five previously undescribed compounds, megalocarpoidolide I (1), megalocarpoidolide J (3), 12-epi-crotonzambefuran A (4), megalocarpoidolide K (5), 1-trans-p-hydroxycoumaroyl–geranylgerani-1-ol (6) were isolated from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert. The known ent-trachyloban-18-ol, megalocarpoidolide B, megalocarpoidolide C (2), megalocarpoidolide H, crotocorylifuran, 7,8-dehydrocrotocorylifuran, 1,2-dehydrocrotocorylifuran-2-one, acetyl aleuritolic acid, lupeol, N-trans-p-coumaroyl-3′,4′-dihydroxyphenylethylamine, dodecyl trans-ferulate and lignoceryl trans-ferulate were also isolated. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, IR spectroscopy and HRMS. The structure of compound 1 was determined using Logic for Structural Determination (LSD). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 that were selected for screening based on their ability to add diversity to the …

Kasina, M.J., Nderitu, J., Nyamasyo, G., Olubayo, F., Waturu, C., Obudho, E. Yobera D. "Diurnal population trends of Megalurothrips sjostedti and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and their natural enemies on French BEAN Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae)." International J. Trop. Inse. Sc. . 2006;26(1):2-7.
Anyamba TJC, VDM V, Saarbrucken M. "Diverse Informalities."; 2008.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Diversification and Performance: A Case Study of the Kenyan Insurance Industry.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 2.; 1996.
PK K, F T, G O'amo, JM N, EA O, A K. "Diversity and Abundance of Grasshopper and Locust Species in Nakuru County, Kenya." Asian J Conserv Biol. 2019;8(2):102-109.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.
W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Diversity and abundance of nematodes in agroecosystems of Kenya. Journal of Tropical Microbiology 3:24-33.". In: Socio-economic Studies on Rural Development Vol. 130. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany (ISSN 0175-2464; ISBN 3-8175- 0371-5). Ogutu J.O; 2004. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." International journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4:1-12.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4:1-12.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo GO, Moyal P, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two agro-ecological zones of Kenya." The International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2008;4(2):92-103. Abstract

A survey was carried out between 2005 and 2006 in two ecologically different localities, Suam and Mtito Andei, to assess diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers during the cropping and non-cropping seasons. Suam in western Kenya is situated in the moist high tropics and is characterised by an Afromontane vegetation mosaic, while Mtito Andei is located in the dry mid-altitudes characterised by a Somalia Masai vegetation mosaic. In Suam, wild host plants and maize covered 11 and 50%, respectively, of the surveyed area. In Mtito Andei, 27% of the surveyed area was under maize during the cropping season, while wild host plant species covered 13% and 8% during the cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. There was no significant variation in the relative abundance and diversity of the wild grasses between the two seasons in either location. The abundance of host plants of B. fusca and C. partellus is low in natural habitats surrounding cereal crops. The abundance of C. partellus was low in its wild host plants and B. fusca was absent. Therefore, the role of wild vegetation surrounding cultivated areas in the carry-over of these pests during the non-cropping season is limited

Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Makobe M, Ochora J, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):371-380.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, G O'amo, P M, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Societe entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):371-380.
Otieno NA. Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE). Nairobi Kenya; 2005.
Otieno NA, LeRu BP, Ong'amo GO, Dupas S, Calatayud P-A, Makobe M, Ochora J, Silvain J-F. "Diversity and Abundance of wild host plants of Lepidopteran stem borers in two different agroecological zones of Kenya." Annales de la Société entemologique de France. 2006;42 (3-4):371-380. Abstract

A survey was carried out between 2004 and 2005 in two ecologically different locations, Kakamega and Muhaka to assess diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers as compared to maize plots during the cropping and non-cropping seasons. Kakamega in Western Kenya is characterized by a Guineo-Congolian rain forest mosaic and Muhaka at the Kenyan coast by a Zanzibar Inhambane mosaic with secondary grassy and woody vegetation. In Kakamega, wild host plants and maize covered 2 and 43% of the surveyed area. No variation in diversity and relative abundance of wild host plants was observed between both the cropping and non-cropping seasons. In Muhaka, the diversity and relative abundance of wild host plant species differed between seasons, with the Shannon Weaver Index (H) of 1.67 and 0.95 for cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. Similarly in this location, wild host plant cover varied between cropping (23%) and non-cropping (17.9%). During both seasons, this was higher than the maize cover, with 10.7% and 0% for the cropping and non-cropping seasons, respectively. For both localities, the implication of the differences found in the abundance and diversity between the cropping and non-cropping seasons is discussed.

Otieno NA. Diversity and Abundance of wild host plants of stem borers in two sites, Kakamega and Muhaka in Kenya.. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2006.
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN. "Diversity and Characteristics of Potato Flakes in Nairobi and Nakuru, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research (D). 2012;12(10):35-39.potato_flakes_survey_kenya.pdf
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Diversity and Characteristics of Supplementary Foods Sold and Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences. Kunyanga CN; 2011. Abstract
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Malembaka REB, Onwonga R, Jefwa J, Ayuke F, Nabahungu L. "Diversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in maize (Zea mays) cropping fields in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(4):604-617.
Webala, P. ON, Afrework B. "The diversity and distribution of bats in Meru National Park, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology 42 (3): 171-178; 2004. Abstract
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