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2005
Peichl L. "Diversity of mammalian photoreceptor properties: adaptations to habitat and lifestyle?" The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. 2005;287:1001-1012. Abstract

All mammalian retinae contain rod photoreceptors for low-light vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and color vision. Most nonprimate mammals have dichromatic color vision based on two cone types with spectrally different visual pigments: a short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone and a long-wavelength-sensitive (L-)cone. Superimposed on this basic similarity, there are remarkable differences between species. This article reviews some striking examples. The density ratio of cones to rods ranges from 1:200 in the most nocturnal to 20:1 in a few diurnal species. In some species, the proportion of the spectral cone types and their distribution across the retina deviate from the pattern found in most mammals, including a complete absence of S-cones. Depending on species, the spectral sensitivity of the L-cone pigment may peak in the green, yellow, or orange, and that of the S-cone pigment in the blue, violet, or near-ultraviolet. While exclusive expression of one pigment per cone is the rule, some species feature coexpression of the L- and S-pigment in a significant proportion of their cones. It is widely assumed that all these variations represent adaptations to specific visual needs associated with particular habitats and lifestyles. However, in many cases we have not yet identified the adaptive value of a given photoreceptor arrangement. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful approach to explore the range of possible arrangements within the blueprint of the mammalian retina and to identify species with particularly interesting or puzzling patterns that deserve further scrutiny with physiological and behavioral assays.

Miles KA. "Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role." Clinical Radiology. 2005;60:742-745. Abstract

Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, "virtual endoscopy", functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences.

Kimani MW, Okonkwo O. "Delivering Affordable housing in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Low-cost housing provision has been a major focus of government in post-apartheid urban South Africa. While successes can be noted, there is growing concern regarding the social and environmental sustainability of housing programs and the impacts upon both the surrounding environment and human health. Utilizing key informant interviews, survey research, Census data and documentary review, this essay identifies the major impediments to a sustainable low-cost housing provision in urban South Africa. The essay also points to hopeful signs in new policy directions, particularly attention to health issues and informal settlement upgrade programs. However, the major obstacles to a sustainable low-cost housing process, including macro-economic conditions, enduring historical legacies of race and class, the scale and rapidity of urban growth and institutional challenges show little indication of abating

MUDUDA EO. "Deploying Trained Personnel for Improved Job Satisfaction." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Choksey PV, Gichuhi S. "Diabetes and the eye.". In: Clinical care guidelines for diabetes in Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2005. Abstract

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, W5010, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. sgichuhi@jhsph.edu BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years off age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events. SEARCH STRATEGY: Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; Medline/PubMed, CENTRAL, AIDSearch, EMBASE, LILACS, African Healthline, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialised Register, and the Cochrane Cancer Network Specialised Register. We searched the clinical trial register of the US National Institutes of Health, searched the international conference proceedings of AIDS and AIDS-related cancers, and contacted individual researchers, research organisations, and pharmaceutical companies that manufacture the drugs used as interventions. Searches were done between September 2005 and June 2006. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. MAIN RESULTS: No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Implications for practice:Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports.Implications for research:Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour. PMID: 17443606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PK Mbugua, CF Otieno JKKAAASOML. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi ." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12). Abstract

Objective: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH.

Subjects: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Results: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c >8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation.

Conclusion: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

MCLIGEYO SO, PK M, CF O, JK K, AA A. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S191-6.". In: Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

CF Otieno, JK Kayima EOOGOO. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors, mechanisms and management approaches in diabetes ketoacidosis in published literature and to discuss them in the context of why a significant proportion of patients who develop diabetic ketoacidosis in sub-Saharan Africa still have high mortality. DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world. DATA SYNTHESIS: The main causes or precipitants of DKA in patients in SSA are newly diagnosed diabetes, missed insulin doses and infections. The major underlying mechanism is insulin deficiency. Treated patients miss insulin doses for various reasons, for example, inaccessibility occasioned by; unavailability and unaffordability of insulin, missed clinics, perceived ill-health and alternative therapies like herbs, prayers and rituals. Infections also occur quite often, but are not overt, like urinary tract, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Due to widespread poverty of individuals and nations alike, the healthcare systems are scarce and the few available centres are unable to adequately maintain a reliable system of insulin supply and exhaustively investigate their hospitalised patients. Consequently, there is little guarantee of successful outcomes. Poor people may also have sub-optimal nutrition, caused or worsened by diabetes, more so, at first presentation to hospital. Intensive insulin therapy in such individuals mimics 're-feeding syndrome', an acute anabolic state whose outcome may be unfavourable during the period of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality and morbidity from diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, improved healthcare systems and reliable insulin supply can reverse the trend, at least, to a large extent. Individuals and populations need empowerment through education, nutrition and poverty eradication to improve self-care in health and living with diabetes

DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Digestive Endo-proteases from the Midgut Glands of the Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus indicus (Decapoda:Penaeidae) from Kenya. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 4(1),109-121.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2005.
"Discovery and Innovation." Discovery and Innovation. 2005;17(1):1.
Bowa O. "Distance Education." University of Nairobi Kikuyu Press. 2005.abstract_distance_education.pdf
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses of naturally and artificially infected Kenyan cattle and its implication for routine meat inspection method. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2005;9:66-73.
Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
Otieno NA. Diversity and abundance of wild host plants of lepidopteran stem borers in two different agro-ecological zones of Kenya. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE). Nairobi Kenya; 2005.
Schröder H. Do we speak the same language? . Nairobi, 17-18 March; 2005.
Njoroge DNB. "Dr Ngaruiya Boniface Njoroge.". 2005.
Lwai-Lume L, Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Kariuki S. "Drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.

Wanjala C. Drums of Death. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 2005.
Ininda JM. DYNAMIC METREOROLOGY II (SMR 401). Nairobi: University Of Nairobi; 2005. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

This course is a continuation of Dynamic Meteorology I (SMR401). If you studied SMR301 a long while ago, it
may be advisable to review it once more before you embark on this course. As you worked through SMR301, you may have been introduced to several equations and may be wondering why this course appear to be mathematical. Well, as you may have already found out, there are many processes that take place in the atmosphere, dynamic meteorology will seek not only to explain how this comes about, but also to express the relationship between the forces involved in a mathematical form.

NATHANIEL MULU, Ambrose KDWSHMD. "Dating the MSA/LSA Transition in Southwest Kenya.". Society for American Archaeology, 65th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia; 2005. Abstract
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O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP. "Daytime encopresis associated with gland mal epileptic seizures: case report.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40. PMID: 16261923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Sphincteric incontinence of stool and urine are not unusual features of generalised epileptic seizures. Isolated secondary encopresis as a manifestation of an epileptic seizure is unusual. This report is of, a four year old boy, with daytime secondary non-retentive encopresis. The onset of encopresis was preceded by several episodes of nocturnal generalised tonic clonic epileptic seizures. An electroencephalogram showed features consistent with complex partial seizures. He was commenced on anti-epileptic treatment with phenytoin sodium, and by the third day of treatment, the patient had achieved stool control.
MAKAU DRNZUMAJONATHAN. "Deng. H., and Nzuma. M.J., (2005). Assessing the Effects of NAFTA on Canada/US Agricultural Trade.". In: Paper is presented at the 2005 CAES-WEAI-WAEA Annual Meeting at San Francisco, CA July 6-8, 2005. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
Muriithi HM, Masiga MA, Chindia ML. "Dental injuries in 0-15 year olds at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African medical journal. 2005;82. Abstract
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H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Design of Museum Spaces - PMDA, Mombasa Kenya.". In: PMDA, IAS, Mombasa, Kenya. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Determinants of Health Insurance Ownership Among South African Women" (with Joses M. Kirigia, Luis G. Sambo, Benjamin Nganda, Rufaro Chatora and Takondwa Mwase), BMC Health Services Research 2005, 5:17doi:10.1186/1472-6963-5-17.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Development of /therapeutic Feeding Porridge ration: Part B; Application of lactic fermentation and amylolytic enzymes, Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Development of a Kiswahili Text to Speech System.". In: Interspeech 2005, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2005. FARA; 2005. Abstract
This paper discusses how a concatenative Kiswahili Text to Speech System (TTS) was developed based on the Festival Unit Selection Speech Synthesiser. It explains how important Kiswahili linguistic features such as phones, stress and intonation were modelled as inputs to the Festival engine. It also discusses the design, recording and segmentation of the speech database, beginning with text corpus collection and transcription. The choice of the speaker, which is crucial to realising a good TTS is discussed and also how the system was tested.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Development of an oral biosensor for salivary amylase using a monodispersed silver for signal amplification.". In: Analytical Biochemistry, 340(1), 136-144, (2005). Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch, A. O., Sadik, O. A., Bedi, G. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of protein amylase in human saliva is described. A novel design and the preparation of amylase antibodies and antigens, essential for the development of the biosensor, are reported. The biosensor sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary antibody (or antigen) self-assembled onto Au-electrode via covalent attachment. Molecular recognition between the immobilized antibody and the salivary amylase proteins was monitored via an electroactive indicator (e.g., K3Fe(CN)(6)) or a monodispersed silver layer present in solution or electrochemically deposited onto the solid electrode. This electroactive indicator was oxidized or reduced and the resulting current change provided the analytical information about the concentration of the salivary proteins. The limit of detection of 1.57 pg/ml was obtained, in comparison to detection limits of 4.95 pg/ml obtained using potassium ferrocyanide as the redox probe and 10 ng/ml obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was tested against cystatin antibodies and was found to be less than 2.26%.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Development of therapeutic feeding porridge rations for the clinically malnourished: Part A; Substitution of extrusion cooking with lactic fermentation. Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition Journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Diabetes care in Kenya–where are we and which way forward? East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
OMONDI DROYOOGEORGE, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors, mechanisms and management approaches in diabetes ketoacidosis in published literature and to discuss them in the context of why a significant proportion of patients who develop diabetic ketoacidosis in sub-Saharan Africa still have high mortality. DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world. DATA SYNTHESIS: The main causes or precipitants of DKA in patients in SSA are newly diagnosed diabetes, missed insulin doses and infections. The major underlying mechanism is insulin deficiency. Treated patients miss insulin doses for various reasons, for example, inaccessibility occasioned by; unavailability and unaffordability of insulin, missed clinics, perceived ill-health and alternative therapies like herbs, prayers and rituals. Infections also occur quite often, but are not overt, like urinary tract, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Due to widespread poverty of individuals and nations alike, the healthcare systems are scarce and the few available centres are unable to adequately maintain a reliable system of insulin supply and exhaustively investigate their hospitalised patients. Consequently, there is little guarantee of successful outcomes. Poor people may also have sub-optimal nutrition, caused or worsened by diabetes, more so, at first presentation to hospital. Intensive insulin therapy in such individuals mimics 're-feeding syndrome', an acute anabolic state whose outcome may be unfavourable during the period of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality and morbidity from diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, improved healthcare systems and reliable insulin supply can reverse the trend, at least, to a large extent. Individuals and populations need empowerment through education, nutrition and poverty eradication to improve self-care in health and living with diabetes.

Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
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Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
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Ngatia EM, Muita JWG, Imungi JK, others. "Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82. Abstract
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Peichl, Leo. "Diversity of mammalian photoreceptor properties: {Adaptations} to habitat and lifestyle?" The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. 2005;287A:1001-1012. AbstractWebsite

All mammalian retinae contain rod photoreceptors for low-light vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and color vision. Most nonprimate mammals have dichromatic color vision based on two cone types with spectrally different visual pigments: a short-wavelength-sensitive (S-)cone and a long-wavelength-sensitive (L-)cone. Superimposed on this basic similarity, there are remarkable differences between species. This article reviews some striking examples. The density ratio of cones to rods ranges from 1:200 in the most nocturnal to 20:1 in a few diurnal species. In some species, the proportion of the spectral cone types and their distribution across the retina deviate from the pattern found in most mammals, including a complete absence of S-cones. Depending on species, the spectral sensitivity of the L-cone pigment may peak in the green, yellow, or orange, and that of the S-cone pigment in the blue, violet, or near-ultraviolet. While exclusive expression of one pigment per cone is the rule, some species feature coexpression of the L- and S-pigment in a significant proportion of their cones. It is widely assumed that all these variations represent adaptations to specific visual needs associated with particular habitats and lifestyles. However, in many cases we have not yet identified the adaptive value of a given photoreceptor arrangement. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful approach to explore the range of possible arrangements within the blueprint of the mammalian retina and to identify species with particularly interesting or puzzling patterns that deserve further scrutiny with physiological and behavioral assays. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Dolan, C.S. and Opondo, M., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

MAGDALENE DROPONDOMARY. "Dolan, C.S. and Opondo, M., (2005), .". In: The Journal of Corporate Citizenship - Special Issue of on Corporate Citizenship in Africa, Issue 18, Summer 2005, pp. 87-92. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

OCHANDA DRMBUYAS. "Dr S.O. Mbuya Review of treatment of epilepsy The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 2005 Ed.:4.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 2005 Ed.:4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To summarise and discuss the role of neuro-electrophysiological diagnostic tests in clinical medicine. DATA SOURCES: Published original research and reviews to date. STUDY SELECTION: The review was with emphasis on diagnosis of peripheral neuropathic and neuromuscular disorders. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: On-line and manual library searches provided information and data on which the summaries and discussions were based. Some physicians are not yet aware of some of the tests and some may not know their indications. In this article a review is made of evoked potential tests, nerve conduction tests and electromyography in diagnosis of neurological diseases. An attempt has been made to clearly show their indications, and relative importance. CONCLUSION: Studies clearly show that neuro-electrophysiological tests are important in neurological diagnosis in clinical medicine and are an extension of the physical examination
ODODA DRORIGAJAPHETH. "DR. ORIGA JAPHETH G. O.,THE IMPACT OF CONSTRUCTIVISM ON THE LEARNING OF GEOMETRY AMONG GIRLS IN KENYAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.". In: PhD. Thesis, Department of Educational Communications and Technology, University of Nairobi. Elsevier; 2005.
NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. "Draft Land Based and Sources and Activities Protocol to the Nairobi Convention LBS/A Protocol), under the on going UNEP/ GEF WIO LaB Project, as a consultancy key output.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2005. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
2004
Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Granger NA. "Dissection laboratory is vital to medical gross anatomy education." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:6-8. AbstractWebsite
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Wangai JK, Gathoni RN, Mustapha AO, Kaduki KA. "Development of a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer for NO2 measurements.". In: The Seventh International Workshop on Physics and Modern Applications of Lasers. Douala, Cameroon; 2004.
S.M. M. "Drug and Substance Abuse among Children and Teenagers.". In: Primary School Teacher Counselors. Mombasa; 2004.
Mulwa JK, MATHU ELIUDM. "Development of geothermal energy resources in Kenya-A collective responsibility between University and Industry.". In: Proceedings: 3rd KenGen geothermal conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya: KenGen; 2004. Abstract

Kenya is the first and so far the only country in the African continent to generate electricity from geothermal resources. Currently the power output from geothermal resources stands at about 57 MWe. This output is expected to rise with the planned commissioning of other power plants in Olkaria and elsewhere. Geothermal energy is reliable, environmentally sustainable and the least cost source of base load power for Kenya. The least cost power development plan (KPLC, 2001) has proposed that the geothermal sources provide approximately an additional 500 MWe of base load electric power over the next 20 years (Omenda, 2001; Mwangi, 2001). It should be noted that the Rift System in Kenya has a potential of producing 2000 MWe of geothermal energy that can be generated using conventional steam condensing turbines. This power generation can even exceed 3000 MWe when combined cycle and binary systems are used (Omenda, 2001). For these reasons, exploration for geothermal resources is quite active within the Kenya Rift System and the potential to be exploited is quite substantial.

Geothermal resource exploration has largely been undertaken by the Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen) and the Ministry of Energy. There has also been an input from international organizations and consulting companies. Nevertheless, there has been low level contributions by the local universities in geothermal resource studies and research works. In other countries such as U.S.A, New Zealand, Iceland, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, just to mention a few, geothermal resources have been collaboratively studied and researched on by both the university and the industry and there is no satisfactory reason why this cannot be emulated in our continent. This paper therefore outlines some of the areas where collaborative work can be undertaken by both the industry and the local universities. Some of the areas include feasibility studies, exploration, construction and installation, production, research and development. This is essential for better knowledge dissemination, improvement and training for posterity.

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya." Lancet. 2004;364(9445):1622-9. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.E Maitho and N.K.R. Musimba (2004). Potential use of plant antihelmintics for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 14-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. "Data preparation: Coding, Editing and Inputting.". In: Data Collection and Analysis. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

Bedi, Kimalu A, K P, DK M, Nafula N. "The Decline in Primary School Enrolment in Kenya." Journal of African Economies . 2004;11(1).
T.N. O. "Definition and Assessment of World Foreign Direct Investment Stock on the eve of the First World War’ In." Conference Proceedings. 2004;(Conference Proceedings. March-April 2004).
English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya.". 2004;364:1622-1629. Abstractdelivery_of_paediatric_care_at_first_referal_hospitals_in_kenya.pdf

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya’s eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals,
antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems.
However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were
expressed. Caretakers’ views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

Owiti E, Awiti M, Mwabu G. "The Demand for Healthcare by Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Case of Migori District.". In: XV International AIDS Conference. Bangkok . Medimond, Italy; 2004.
Agwanda AO. "Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Under review, International Family Planning Perspectives. E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Thabano JRE, bong’o DA, Sawula GM. "Determination of nitrate by suppressed ion chromatography after copperised-cadmium column reduction." Journal of Chromatography A. 2004;1045(1):153-159. AbstractFull text link

The nitrate-selective copperised-cadmium (Cu-Cd) reduction reaction coupled directly to the highly sensitive nitrite ion chromatographic detection, produced a more precise method for determination of nitrate than any one of the two conventional methods. A borate buffer solution used in the reduction reaction, in place of the conventional ammonium–EDTA buffer solution, eliminated interferences from co-eluting ions in the subsequent ion chromatographic detection of nitrite. Optimised experimental conditions included using a packed-bed Cu-Cd reductor column length of 12.5 cm, a solution flow rate of 3.0 ml/min, and using 10.0 ml of borate buffer solution for each 20.0 ml of nitrate-containing solution. Precision was high for results obtained within a greatly extended linear dynamic range of 0.006–1.20 mg/l NO3−, with a much lower limit of detection of 0.40 μg/l NO3−. Cu-Cd reductor column efficiency was 98.20 ± 6.03%. Validation of the method was undertaken using certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied to analysis of dam water, river water and storm water samples, producing more precise results than either the conventional colorimetric method or the conventional ion chromatographic method.

Thabano JRE, D.Abongo, Sawula GM. "determination of nitrates using suppressed ion chromatography after copperised cadmium column reduction ." Journal of chromatography A. 2004;1045:153-159.thabano_publication.pdf
GITHII MW. "DETERMINATION OF THE UNIT COST FOR BACHELOR OF COMMERCE DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ghana: MBA; 2004. Abstract

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Wafula G, Mutoro PH. "The development of Archaeology in Kenya since the early 1960s.". 2004. Abstract

The paper sets out to elucidate the socio-economic environment under which archaeology as a discipline has developed in Kenya since the early 1960’s to the year 2000 with special interest in assessing the part played by various administrations since independence. The international trends in method and theory are also examined in addition to explaining why archaeological studies were conducted. The chapter starts by examining the challenges that archaeology faced at independence. The response to these challenges is discussed in three periods: the era of Neo-colonialism, between 1960 and 1965; the era of Afrocentrism, between 1965 and 1980; and the era of Recent Research, between 1980 and 2000. It is concluded that after attaining independence, the successive governments in Kenya have done little to promote the discipline owing largely to the lack of financial capacity, and consequently, on their dependence on foreign institutions both economically and academically. Nevertheless, it is noted that by the year 2000 the discipline had helped to solve most of the challenges it faced at independence

Ahuya CO;, Okeyo AM;, Peacock C. "Development of dairy goat industry in Kenya: A case study."; 2004.
Mshinda, H., Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Mathenge, E.M., Mboera, L.E.G., Knols BGJ. "Development of genetically modified mosquitoes in Africa." Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2004;4(5):264-265.
Mwai OA;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Mwai OA, Mitaru B;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Kariuki PW. "Development of Self-Esteem and Its Influence on Academic Achievement." Journal of the Faculty of Education. 2004;2:101-112.
Okoth SA, Ohingo M. "Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Kisumu, Kenya: Cross sectional study." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2004;(11):43-54.
and Njeru UKEMHN. "Discussion Paper 047, IPAR - Funding the- Fight Against HIV/AIDS: Budgetary Analysis of Kenya's HIV/AIDS Activity Prioritization and Financing."; 2004. Abstract

The Abuja Declaration, adopted at the Africa Union special summit on AIDS in
2001, called upon African governments to allocate 15% of their national budgets to
health spending, with more emphasis on HIV/AIDS programmes. This commitment
echoes the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on illVIAIDS
(UNGASS), which calls for an increase in spending on HIVIAIDS programmes to
US$ 7-10 billion by 2005. The declaration of commitment by the Africa Union calls
for minimum spending that provides coverage of essential prevention, care, and
mitigation services in an effort to reduce the spread of the epidemic. In Kenya,
despite the government's commitment to fight the pandemic, very little information
is available on the actual expenditures on HIV/AIDS activities. The objective
of this study was to track HIV/AIDS expenditure and analyse the budget from an
HIV/AIDS perspective. Understanding how the financial and other national resources
are used towards realization of the national objectives as outlined in the
HIV/AIDS related strategic goals in each country, will help the planners to choose
pertinent, useful and attainable interventions.

nje ru Enos Njeru RAPMN8 18/02/20. "Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004 : Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential.". ISBN 9966-948-18-x.; 2004. Abstractsocial_health_insurance_scheme_for_all_kenyans0001.pdf

Health is a basic need for all, regardless of race, nationality, social class, age,
sex, etc. In Kenya, just like in many other developing countries, the health
situation has been deteriorating in spite of the government having since
independence directed her efforts tow;rrds tackling the twin problems of
affordability and access to health care services. Beyond this, the policy position
is also clear on the need to address equity and sustainability of quality health
care delivery. The health sector reforms that have hitherto taken place (including
introduction ofNHIF, free health services, cost-sharing, exemptions and waivers,
etc.) are all largely aimed at addressing affordability and access to health care
services, especially among the poor. The latter often find themselves in poverty
traps that deny them access to social services, consequent upon which they
benefit least from health, education, food security, knowledge and information
services and other basic human rights components.
This negates the policy endeavors relating to promoting poverty reduction through
economic growth, access to minimum quality health care by removing barriers
arising from social differentiation and concomitant stratification on basis of
gender, social class, knowledge and limited or even zero participation of the
underprivileged in prioritization and provision ofthe national service infrastructure.
Past policy priorities and measures have not been effective in addressing these
concerns, which relate positively to health care access potential for all. Spending
to promote access to health care is crucial, given also that Kenya is a signatory
to the WHO Abuja Declaration (25th April 2000). The latter requires member
countries to spend at least 15 per cent of their national incomes (aDP) on
health (Kenya spends 9 per cent).
The high cost of health care limits access to the services for many Kenyans,
given that 56 per cent of the population lives below the poverty line (on less
than one dollar a day) among whom 30 per cent live in absolute poverty. The
Second Report on Poverty in Kenya reveals that 40 per cent of the poor did not
seek medical care when they fell sick, mainly due to inability to meet the cost of
medical care, while 2.5 per cent were constrained by distance to a health facility.
Unaffordability, therefore, remains a key challenge facing the poor against
access to health care. Many Kenyans therefore continue to either have no
access to or cannot afford to pay for their health care needs. It is due to the
failures of the past programs, that the National Social Health Insurance Fund
(NSHIF) was conceptualized for implementation, with a view to providing a

Onyatta JO, Huang PM. Distribution of cadmium introduced to soil in different size fractions after incubation.. Wuhan, China: International Union of Soil Sciences; 2004.
DK M, Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "Does Education Pay Dividend? Earnings and Returns to Education in Kenya.". In: Communicating Development Research Highlights.; 2004.
Wasamba P. "Dustbin." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):16.garbage.pdf
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Decentralized and participatory breeding strategies for bean in Africa: Evolution and potential. In: Sperling, L, J. Lancon and M. Loosevelt (Eds). Participatory Plant Breeding and participatory Plant Genetic Resource Enhancement. An Africa-wide Exchange .". In: Participatory breeding workshop, 17-25 May 2004, Kakamega, Kenya. Pan African Bean Research Alliance, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Decentralized and participatory breeding strategy for beans in Africa:its role and potential for institutionalization. In: Sperling, L, J. Lancon and M. Loosevelt (Eds). Participatory Plant Breeding and participatory Plant Genetic Resource Enhancement. An.". In: Participatory breeding workshop, 17-25 May 2004, Kakamega, Kenya. Pan African Bean Research Alliance, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya. Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N.". In: Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya. Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N.". In: Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Design of Speech Database for Unit Selection in Kiswahili Text to Speech System.". In: E-Tech conference, Nairobi August 2004. FARA; 2004. Abstract
When developing a Concatenative Text to Speech System [1, 3, 4] (i.e. a form of synthesis where waveforms are created by concatenating parts of natural speech recorded from humans) it is necessary that all the acoustically and perceptually significant sound variations (allophones) in the language are recorded so that they are played back each time the system synthesises speech. Improvement on the system is made by assuming that co-articulation (mutual influence between adjoining sounds) does not extend beyond phone-phone boundary [1]. In this case all possible phone-phone combinations are read and recorded. Each unit of the two phone combination is referred to as the diphone. Synthesis is then based on concatenation of the diphones thus taking care of the overlap in the phone-phone boundary. An even better system can be realised when each diphone is captured within the context of several words and synthesis carried out by using the best selection from the recorded words. It is clear then that this procedure must use proper selection of the sentences from which the diphones are to be captured. In other words, such sentences must be phonetically balanced; implying that they must have the same phone distribution as used entirely in the language.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in soil and water from River Nyando drainage system within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.". In: Contam. Toxicol. 72: 335-343. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2004. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "Determination of stress characteristics at Connections of Welded Members using Finite Element Method. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practise, Volume 1, No. 1, April 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Detrimental effects of Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphate and Phosphate ions in contact with concrete made with ordinary Portland cement". International Journal of Biochemiphysics.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2004. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Development and evaluation of a quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for hepatitis C virus RNA in serum using transcribed thio-RNA as internal control. J Virol Methods. 2004 Mar 1;116(1):45-54.". In: J Virol Methods. 2004 Mar 1;116(1):45-54. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
A method for quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was developed based on competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using in vitro transcribed mutated thio-RNA as a competitor template. The thio-RNA is more resistant to RNAse and is stable over a year. This assay was compared with the commercially available Roche Amplicor HCV Monitor assay V 2.0 and real time PCR using SYBR green 1 dye method. A total of 18 pre-therapy serum samples from chronic hepatitis C cases were tested in parallel by the three assays. All samples could be quantitated using the in-house competitive RT-PCR and real time PCR and there was a significant correlation in the virus titer (P<0.05). However, 8 (44%) samples could not be quantified by Amplicor HCV Monitor assay, which has a lower detection range (10(2) to 10(5.5) copies/ml). The in-house method of competitive RT-PCR showed a detection range of 10(3) to 10(10) copies/ml. In the patients the mean viral titer was found to be (9.66+/-9.3)x10(6) copies/ml. Ten (55%) of the samples, assessed by the Amplicor HCV Monitor assay showed a mean viral titre of (1.13+/-0.75)x10(6) copies/ml, which was lower than the other two tests. The competitive PCR method and real time PCR could amplify all prevalent genotypes. This in-house quantitative competitive RT-PCR method is simple, cheap, reproducible and useful for estimation of HCV RNA load.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, MUTUKU DRKIOKOURBANUS. "Development and Implementation of a Human Resource Management System in the University of Nairobi: Analysis from a Social Informatics Approach.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 238. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2004. Abstract
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NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. ""Development Co-operation Report: 2002 (Kenya)", a publication of the United Nations Development Programme, (UNDP.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2004. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Diplomacy: Documents, Methods and Practice.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "District Focus for Rural Development in Kenya: Its Limitations as a Decentralization and participatory Planning Strategy and Prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.46.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
ODUNDO DRAMOLLOHPAUL. "District Human Resource Needs in the Health Sector: Prospects, Challenges and Policy- A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) January 2004.". In: A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) January 2004. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004.
W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Diversity and abundance of nematodes in agroecosystems of Kenya. Journal of Tropical Microbiology 3:24-33.". In: Socio-economic Studies on Rural Development Vol. 130. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany (ISSN 0175-2464; ISBN 3-8175- 0371-5). Ogutu J.O; 2004. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
Webala, P. ON, Afrework B. "The diversity and distribution of bats in Meru National Park, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology 42 (3): 171-178; 2004. Abstract
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Oguge, N.O. HORR, Verheyen W. "Diversity and structure of shrew communities in montane forests of southeast Kenya." Mammalian Biology 69 (5):289-301; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "DMCN/UNEP (2004) Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya. Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN)-April 2004-Member of the Scientific Team which P.". In: Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment, December, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Dossajee H., J. Hassanali;Morphometric Analysis of cerebral cortex in the developing baboon. European Journal of Anatomy 8(1): 29-34. (2004).". In: European Journal of Anatomy 8(1): 29-34. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In order to introduce a comprehensive intervention system to improve health, there is need to establish a profile of the Maasais' current knowledge, attitude and practices of predisposing environmental, cultural and other factors which may lead to considerable health risks. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas of Kajiando District. SUBJECTS: Maasai community in Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas regions of Kajiado District of Kenya over a period of two years. RESULTS: Previous awareness to primary health care and knowledge has been through education and training by AMREF Nomadic Health Unit. Factors such as limited availability of water, health care delivery and dry arid environment with poor infrastructure as well as some persistent harmful cultural practices predispose the Maasai community to common health problems in children and adults. CONCLUSION: With community participation, there is need for an integrated approach to these health risks. The Ministry of Health together with AMREF have incorporated a comprehensive intervention system to address the commonly occurring diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia and address adults and children problems differently.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Dr. Obondo A., Dr. Mwanda O. W. Aspects Of Psychological Issues Of Adult Cancer Patients, Review Article. MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18.". In: MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Dr. Obondo A., Dr. Mwanda O. W. Aspects Of Psychological Issues Of Adult Cancer Patients, Review Article. MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18.". In: MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2003
Sharma RK, O’Leary TE, Fields CM, Johnson DA. "Development of the outer retina in the mouse." Developmental Brain Research. 2003;145:93-105. AbstractWebsite

Mice represent a valuable species for studies of development and disease. With the availability of transgenic models for retinal degeneration in this species, information regarding development and structure of mouse retina has become increasingly important. Of special interest is the differentiation and synaptogenesis of photoreceptors since these cells are predominantly involved in hereditary retinal degenerations. Thus, some of the keys to future clinical management of these retinal diseases may lie in understanding the molecular mechanisms of outer retinal development. In this study, we describe the expression of markers for photoreceptors (recoverin), horizontal cells (calbindin), bipolar cells (protein kinase C; PKC) and cytoskeletal elements pivotal to axonogenesis (beta-tubulin and actin) during perinatal development of mouse retina. Immunocytochemical localization of recoverin, calbindin, PKC and beta-tubulin was monitored in developing mouse retina (embryonic day (E) 18.5 to postnatal day (PN) 14), whereas f-actin was localized by Phalloidin binding. Recoverin immunoreactive cells, presumably the photoreceptors, were observed embryonically (E 18.5) and their number increased until PN 14. Neurite projections from the immunoreactive cells towards the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were noted at PN 0 and these processes reached the OPL at PN 7 coincident with histological evidence for the differentiation of the OPL. Outer segments, all the cell bodies in the ONL, as well as the OPL were immunoreactive to recoverin at PN 14. Calbindin immunoreactive horizontal cells were also present in E 18.5 retinas. These cells became progressively displaced proximally as the ONL developed. A calbindin immunoreactive plexus was seen in the OPL at PN 7. PKC immunoreactive bipolar cells developed postnatally, becoming distinguished at PN 7. Both beta-tubulin and actin immunoreactive cells were present in the IPL as early as E 18.5; however, appearance of processes labeled with these markers in the OPL was delayed until PN 7, concurrent with the first appearance of photoreceptor neurites, development of the horizontal cell plexus, and development of synaptophysin immunoreactivity at this location. These results provide a developmental timeframe for the expression of recoverin, calbindin, synaptophysin, beta-tubulin and actin. Our findings suggest that the time between PN 3 and PN 7 represents a critical period during which elements of the OPL are assembled.

Mbuthia P G, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Njagi LW, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Ducks in rural and semi – urban poultry production.". In: National workshop on “Use of research results in the development of smallholder poultry projects” . ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.2003-ducks_in_rural_and_semi-urban_poultry_production.pdf
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Deregulation and management of interest rates, IPAR Discussion Paper # 38." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
Designing Distance Learning courses using e-learning Techniques science.. Institute of Computer, University of Nairobi; 2003.
Ngugi RW. "Determinants of Interest rate spread in Kenya." African Journal of Economic Policy. 2003.Website
Dulo SO. "Determination of some Physico-chemical parameters of the Nairobi River, Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper discusses the results of a study carried out in 2003 on the water quality of Nairobi River on the basis of pollution parameters and water quality index. The study aimed at establishing whether the water meets the surface water quality criteria for water supply. The area of study in Nairobi River was within its entry and exit of Nairobi province. It was observed that human activities along the river with visible encroachment to the banks, contribute to the heavy level of pollution of the river. This is the section that industrial discharges and municipal sewerage are discharged into the river. The study was carried out through field surveys and laboratory tests on samples taken from the river. The results obtained from laboratory tests were analysed and compared to the established surface water quality criteria by A.S.C.E, W.H.O, Natural watercourses Standards of Kenya and classification of rivers by Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal. Human activities along the river course have severely impacted on the River water quality. The study area had average pH of 7.04; the average turbidity was 41.5N.T.U, the average suspended solids in the section was 116.43 mg/l, the average dissolved oxygen was 4.32mg/l. the average BOD was 182.5mg/l. The average COD for the reach studied was 49.5mg/l. The river was therefore classified as bad according to Klein 1966. The study concluded that the Nairobi River within Nairobi province was badly polluted as indicated by the water quality index analysis. The WQI gives a value of 49.27, fall between the numerical ranges of the classification of bad (26-50).

MANGALA MJ, Korier KA, Maina DM, Kinyua AM. Determination of Trace Elements in Mineral Water Samples using Total Reflection X ray Fluorescence (TXRF).; 2003. Abstract

Preliminary results of trace element analysis by TXRF of drinking tap water, various brands of local and imported bottled water samples sold in Nairobi as mineral are presented. The levels of potassium(K) ranged from 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml, calcium(Ca) 2.2 to 120 μg/ml, titanium(Ti) 11 to 60 μg/l, manganese(Mn)8 to 670 μg/l, iron(Fe)31 to 50 μg/l, copper(Cu) 8 to 30 μg/l, bromine(Br) 9 to 248 μg/l, rubidium(Rb )10 to 40 μg/l, and strontium(Sr)10 to 1000 μg/l. It was found that the local mineral water samples contained higher levels of trace elements especially Mn, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr compared to the imported brands. Principal component analysis of the results revealed three factors with the highest component loadings clustering Rb, Sr, Ca in the first eigenvalue; Ti, Fe, Br, Zn, in the second; Zn, Mn, K in the third. A limited spread of 5–6 mm for a 10μl samples was achievable by completely drying the quartz Suprasil sample carrier in a low pressure (300mbar) oven at temperature of 70oC for 10 hours.

T.K. M. "Developing a national framework for medicinal and aromatic plants in Kenya.". In: Stakeholder workshop on the sustainable, safe and effective use of medicinal plants in Eastern Africa - IDRC & USAID/USDA. Arusha, Tanzania; 2003.
"developing learner friendly study manuals." VVOB at Kenya Technical Teachers college, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
"developing learner friendly study Manuals." at Kenya Technical Teachers college, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
Kanyinga K, Owiti J. "Development of Civil Society in Kenya." Voices from Southern Civil Society: Interplay of National and Global Contexts in the Performance of Civil Society in the South. 2003;Policy Paper No. 6/2003.Website
Taboada R, Ordonio GG, Ndakala AJ, Howell AR. "Directed Ring-Opening of 1,5-Dioxaspiro[3.2]hexanes: Selective Formation of 2,2-Disubstituted Oxetanes." Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2003;68:1480-1488. AbstractWebsite

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

"Discovery and Innovation." Discovery and Innovation. 2003;15:1-2.
Ogot M, Aly S. "Discretizing Continuous Problems for Faster Global Convergence.". In: ASME 2003 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2003:. Abstract

Global optimization of mechanical design problems using heuristic methods such as Simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GAs) have been able to find global or near-global minima where prior methods have failed. The use of these nongradient based methods allow the broad efficient exploration of multimodal design spaces that could be continuous, discrete or mixed. From a survey of articles in the ASME Journal of Mechanical Design over the last 10 years, we have observed that researchers will typically run these algorithms in continuous mode for problems that contain continuous design variables. What we suggest in this paper is that computational efficiencies can be significantly increased by discretizing all continuous variables, perform a global optimization on the discretized design space, and then conduct a local search in the continuous space from the global minimum discrete state. The level of discretization will depend on the complexity of the problem, and becomes an additional parameter that needs to be tuned. The rational behind this assertion is presented, along with results from four test problems.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, J.O L. "Dissipation, Distribution and Uptake of 14C-Chloropyrifos in a Model Tropical Seawater/Sediment/Fish Ecosystem. Bull.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. and Toxicology, 70 883-890. Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate, is one of the most widely used organophosphorous pesticides worldwide due its high efficacy (Carvalho et al. 1992; Liu et al. 2001, Meikle and Youngson 1978). In Kenya, Dursban formulations are mainly used for protection of horticultural fruits and vegetables (Lalah 1994), Because of its low water solubility (0.4 mg/L) and high hydrophobicity (log Kow of 5.27), it is believed that chlorpyrifos would be able to partition easily onto aquatic sediments and macrophytes where it can pose dangers to benthic organisms (Ronday et al. 1998). It is also quite a volatile toxicant due to its low vapour pressure (2.5 mPa at 25 °C) and low air-to-water partition coefficient (8.9 10"4 at 25 °C) and its residues have been detected in air and rainwater samples (Liu et al. 2001).Increasing use of chlorpyrifos also causes a lot of anxiety to environmentalists and toxicologists because it is toxic to both humans and wildlife. As an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, it can cause impairment in mammalian brain cell development (Lund et al. 2000; Jeanty et al 2001; Jett et al 1999; Slotkin et al. 2001). Widespread use of this compound is therefore considered to be of great danger particularly to pregnant women and children Some of its reported toxicities to aquatic organisms include 96 hr LCNo of 0.13 |.ig/L and 96 hr LC?o of 0.035 Ug/L in adult Neomysis integer and Americamysis bahia, respectively (Roast et al. 1999). Although its toxicity in mammalian and aquatic organisms has been well documented, its fate and effects on aquatic ecosystems in tropical conditions where it is expected to degrade and dissipate faster (Carvalho et al 1992) are little known. In a laboratory model aquarium simulating a tropical marine environment, we studied the persistence and accumulation of HC-chlorpyrifos in sediment, fish and oysters. The results obtained from these studies are reported in this paper.

De Vuyst H, Steyaert S VRCLP, Muchiri L, Sitati S VQKVMTSWBE. "Distribution of human papillomavirus in a family planning population in nairobi, kenya." Sex Transm Dis. . 2003;30(2):Sex Transm Dis.
I.O JUMBA, O WANDIGAS, W.G M, J.O L. "The Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of 14C-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment.". In: Toxicol and Environ. Chem. 84, 253-268 (Trailer & Francis Group). Association of Africa Universities; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted on the distribution, fate and metabolism of DDT in a model ecosystem simulating a tropical marine environment of fish, Gabions nudiceps, Leihrinuf haruk, Cohious keineiis, Gnhiota nebutosis and white shrimp iPanaeus seliferus), show that DDT concentration in the water decreases rapidly within the first 24 h. Rapid accurr. • ution of the pesticide in the biota also reaches a maximum level in 24 h before graJuiiiy declining The bioaccumulution factors calculated for the fish specie.! (G. keinesis) and white shrimp '(P. Stiiferu!) were 270 and 351, respectively, after 24 h There was a steady build up of DDT residues in the sediment during the first 24 h which continued to a maximum concentration of 6 66 ng g in the sea-water fish sediment ecosystem after 3 weeks and 5.27ngg in the seawater/shrimps/sediment ecosystem after 2.7 days The depuration of the accumulated pesticide was slow with only 54% lost in G. nudiceps within 3 days of exposure in fresh sea water. By contrast, depuration was fast in the while shrimp, which lost 97% of the accumulated pesticide under the same conditions. DDT was found to be toxic to two of the fish species, (G. nebulmis and /_. huruk) and to white shnmp, and the degree of toxicity was dependent on the particular species. The 24 h LCyj al room temperature lor the fish species G. nebulous and white shrimp was found to be 0.011 and O.I 16mg kg. respectively. These levels are comparable to the ones recorded for the temperate organisms. Degradation of DDT to its primary metabolites. DDE and DDD. uas found in all the compartments of the ecosystem with DDE being the major metabolite in the fish, shrimps and sediment, while in se.iwater. DDD dominated as the major metabolite.

Isenberg L. "A double application approach to ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis." Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Dec;87(12):1449-52.. 2003. AbstractWebsite

{ Jules Stein Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Research and Education Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA. isenberg@ucla.edu AIMS: To investigate if a second drop of 2.5% povidone-iodine ophthalmic solution placed within the first postnatal day would achieve better prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum than a single drop applied at birth. METHODS: A masked, prospective, controlled trial was conducted over a 2 year period in a Kenyan hospital. Randomisation was achieved by alternating weeks of one or two eye drop application to both eyes. All 719 neonates received one drop of the povidone-iodine solution to both eyes at birth, while 317 received a second drop at hospital discharge or 24 (SD 4) hours after delivery, whichever was first. All infants developing conjunctivitis within a month after birth underwent microbiological analysis using Gram and Giemsa stains, direct fluorescent antibody assay for Chlamydia trachomatis, and culture. RESULTS: Of the neonates receiving the one eye drop application, 18.4% returned with a red eye with discharge, 4.0% had organisms found on the initial smear, and 8.2% had a positive culture. The corresponding proportions for the multidrop group were 24.3%, 4.7%, and 10.4%. Of those returning with an inflamed eye, there were no cases of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 4.2% in the single dose group and 3.9% in the double dose group were positive for C trachomatis, and 5.4% and 6.5% respectively for Staphylococcus aureus. At discharge, the eyelid oedema score of the double dose group was mildly greater than the single dose group (1.4 (0.67) v 1.2 (0.73)

MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "D. K. Kariuki, J.O. Miaron, A.K. Kuria, J. Mugweru and A. Mwaura (2003). Synergistic Effects of �� -Cypermethrin and Dimethoate against Insect Pests. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6, 64-68.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "D.O.Ochiel, EOWango, C Sekadde-Kigondu et al. Effect of Menstrual cycle on local mucosal imuunity to SHIV within the reproductive tract of Baboons (Papio anubis): preliminary findings. Journal of Medical Primatology 32, 161 2003.". In: Journal of Medical Primatology 32, 161 2003. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
W. MK. "Dahl." Hekima: Journal of Humanities and social Sciences, Vol. 2 No.1; 2003. Abstract
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ODUNDO DRAMOLLOHPAUL. "Decentralisation of Human Resource Management in Tanzania: Lessons for Kenya. A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) 2003.". In: A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) 2003. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Decentralisation of tuberculosis treatment from the main hospitals to the peripheral health units and in the community within Machakos district, Kenya. Kangangi JK, Kibuga D, Muli J, Maher D, Billo N, N'gang'a L, Ngugi E, Kimani V. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. .". In: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003 Sep;7(9 Suppl 1):S5-13. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2003. Abstract
SETTING: A rural district, Machakos, in Kenya, facing decreasing national resources for health and an increasing tuberculosis (TB) caseload fuelled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on district TB programme performance of decentralising TB treatment by providing ambulatory care in the hospital and peripheral health units and in the community. METHODS: A comparative study of district TB programme performance before and after the decentralisation of TB services at the end of 1997. To facilitate ambulatory care, ethambutol replaced streptomycin in the new treatment regimen. FINDINGS: The number of patients registered in the control period (1996) was 1141, of whom almost 100% were admitted during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and in the intervention period (1998 and 1999), it was 3244, of whom only 153 (4.7%) required admission in the intensive phase. Of 3244 TB patients (all forms) registered in the intervention period, the number (%) choosing the different options for directly observed treatment (DOT) supervision were: hospital clinic 1618 (49.9%), peripheral health unit 904 (27.9%), community volunteer 569 (17.5%) and hospitalisation 153 (4.7%). The options were found to be acceptable to patients, their families and health staff. The treatment outcomes among new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were similar in the intervention and control cohorts, with treatment success rates of 88% vs. 85% and death rates of 4% vs. 6%, respectively. Treatment completion was significantly higher among new sputum smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB patients in the intervention than in the control cohort (79% vs. 48%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The decentralisation of the intensive phase of TB treatment resulted in maintenance of good TB programme performance, while Machakos hospital closed its TB wards. A separate paper describes the cost-effectiveness of this approach. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme plans to adopt this approach as national policy.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Design of Museum spaces. - PMDA, Mombasa Kenya.". In: PMDA, IAS, Mombasa, Kenya. IPPNW; 2003. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
MANGALA MJ, Korier KA, Maina DM, Kinyua AM. Determination of trace elements in mineral water samples using total reflection X ray fluorescence (TXRF). inis.iaea.org; 2003. AbstractWebsite

[en] Full text: Preliminary results of trace element analysis by TXRF of drinking tap water, various brands of local and imported bottled water samples sold in Nairobi as mineral are presented. The levels of potassium (K) ranged from 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml, calcium (Ca) 2.2 to …

RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Developer profits undermine residents.". In: Implications for local government in Kenya. VLIR; 2003.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Development of Distance Education Material.". In: Distance Educators at Emalalatini Development Centre15th August 2003, - Swaziland. Thought and Practice; 2003. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Development of Technical Capabilities for Sustainable Radiation and Waste Safety .". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-107, p. 9 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "DFID scoping mission report on malaria in Uganda.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid studies in patients suspected to have tuberculous meningitis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796.". In: International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.
CHAGA MRSMWALIWAHANNAH. ""Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross secondary school - A case study" - A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for Post Graduate Diploma in Education of Kenyatta University.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2003.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Displacement, Minorities, and Human Security: The African Experience.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 4, No.2 Autumn pp. 133-134. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
"Disqualification of Directors in Kenya." 54 Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 118; 2003. Abstract
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ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Dissipation, Distribution and Uptake of 14C-Chloropyrifos in a Model Tropical Seawater/Sediment/Fish Ecosystem. Bull.". In: Environ. Contam. and Toxicology, 70 883-890. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of 14C-DDT in model aquarium tanks with fish and sediment simulating a tropical marine environment.". In: Toxicol and Environ. Chem. 84, 253-268 (Trailer & Francis Group). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2003. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
"Does Corporate Law Inhibit Social Responsibility?". 4 Professional Management, 22; 2003. Abstract
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JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Dossajee H., J. Hassanali;Recent observations of some socio-cultural norms amongst the Kenyan Maasai in Kajiado District. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 4 No. 2 206-208. (2003).". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences . Vol 4 No. 2 206-208. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for dental arch shapes. DESIGN: Analysis of measurements of dental casts to determine a general second degree equation for the dental arches. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy and School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: The measurement of dental casts, 30 (15M and 15F) each from three Kenyan ethnic groups (Maasai, Kalenjin, Kikuyu), aged 12 years. RESULTS: The arches change their shapes from a parabola to an ellipse, governed by the boundary conditions at the position of the canine tooth, based on the general second degree equation for the conic sections. CONCLUSION: The simulation model graphically confirms the change from parabolic to elliptic shapes of dental arches with boundary conditions at the canine. This could be used to show the changes in dental arches for other ethnic groups.
KAUR DRSEHMIJASWANT, KAUR DRSEHMIJASWANT. "Dr. J.K. Sehmi; Manual for Diabetes. Lions District 411, Nairobi-00100, Index LCI,.". In: M.Sc. thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2003. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
CHARLES DRNYANDWI. "Dr. Nyandwi Charles, Doctorate Thesis; Use of Special functions in Representations ( Expansions) of Entire Functions.". In: East African educational Publishers; Nairobi. au-ibar; 2003. Abstract
Alcohol and Substance Abuse has increased greatly globally resulting in increased numbers of drug addicts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of the rehabilitation programmes for drug addicts at the Asumbi Treatment Centre (ATC) in the Nairobi (Karen) and Kiambu facilities. The target population included the counselors at the centre, recovering addicts, and selected parents of clients of ATC. The sample was selected purposively, while data was gathered through interviews, observations and focus group discussions. Data analysis was done through qualitative methods.  The study established that ATC facilities are in great demand. The clients were from all walks of life including professionals such as lawyers, engineers, doctors, lecturers and students.  The main approach to treatment was found to be the drug free approach, anchored on the 12 steps programme. Major challenges include inadequate funding. A success rate for the programme could not be established, since there was no follow-up of the clients after discharge.  Family support was found to be crucial in the recovery process.  The study recommends that in developing curricular for rehabilitation programmes, it is important to consider the addicts characteristics.
Odingo RS, Ogallo L. "Drought in Eastern Africa-CLIVAR/UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA/IPCC." Workshop on Drought in Tucson Arizona. Papers presented to the workshop on Drought and Climate Change. Workshop on Drought Episodes and Climate Change, Tucson Arizona; 2003. Abstract
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Odingo RS, Ogallo L. "Drought Occurrence in Eastern Africa Sub-Region, as witnessed from Palaeo-and Instrumental Climate records.". Paper Presented to CLIVAR/University of Arizona/IPCC; 2003. Abstract
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KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Duseja A, Nada R, Kalra N, Acharya SK, Minz M, Joshi K, Chawla Y.Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis-like syndrome in a hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus-negative renal transplant recipient: a case report with autopsy findings.Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 J.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 Jan-Mar;24(1):31-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
We report a patient with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH)-like syndrome in renal transplant recipient, who was negative for hepatitis-B and C-virus infection. The patient presented initially with extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to stricture at the lower end of the common bile duct. Cholestasis persisted inspite of effective biliary drainage. He was operated for empyema of the gallbladder and histological examination showed the presence of cytomegalovirus inclusions in the wall of the gallbladder. The patient died inspite of aggressive management; autopsy examination of the liver revealed evidence of FCH-like changes.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "A dynamical Model for stage-specific HIV Incidences with Application to Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Applied Maths and Computation, 146 pp93-104, with R.O.Simwa. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2003. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
2002
Gichangi P, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kigondu C, Ngugi E, Diener L. Domestic violence in Kenya: A baseline survey among women in Nairobi. FIDA Kenya.. Nairobi: Federation of women lawyers; 2002.
FARAH DRIBRAHIM. "DEEGAAN, POLITICS AND WAR IN SOMALIA."; 2002.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Walter Oyugi in Said Adejumobi and Abdalla Bujra(eds.). "The Democratization Process in Kenya: Prospects and Obstacles.". In: Breaking Barriers, Creating New Hopes: Democracy, Civil Society and Good Governance in Africa. ADDIS ABABA: DPMF; 2002.
C. O. Mito, G. Laneve, and Castronuovo MM. "Derivation of land surface temperatures from MODIS data using general split-window technique.". In: Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing,. Valencia: Servicio de Publicaciones. Universitat de Valencia; 2002.
Kiarie, E G;, Kabuage LW;, Wakhungu JW;, Gitau GK;, Githure J;, Mutero CM. "A description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme.".; 2002.
"Developing architecture and environmental design." Construction Review. October 2002 Oct 2002 (2002):38-40.
Mathenge EM, Killen GF, Oulo DO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Knols BJG. "Development of an exposure-free bednet trap for sampling Afrotropical malaria vectors." Medical & Veterinary Entomology 16, 1-8. 2002;16:1-8.Website
Mathenge EM, GF K, DO O, LW I, PN N, BG K. "Development of an exposure-free bednet trap for sampling Afrotropical malaria vectors." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2002;16(1):67-74. AbstractWiley Online Library

An exposure-free bednet trap (the 'Mbita trap') for sampling of Afrotropical malaria vectors was developed during preliminary studies of mosquito behaviour around human-occupied bednets. Its mosquito sampling efficiency was compared to the CDC miniature light-trap and human landing catches under semi-field conditions in a screen-walled greenhouse using laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). When compared in a competitive manner (side by side), the Mbita trap caught 4.1+/-0.5 times as many mosquitoes as the CDC light-trap, hung beside an occupied bednet (P < 0.000 1) and 43.2+/-10% the number caught by human landing catches (P < 0.0001). The ratio of Mbita trap catches to those of the CDC light trap increased with decreasing mosquito density. Mosquito density did not affect the ratio of Mbita trap to human-landing catches. In a non-competitive comparison (each method independent of the other), the Mbita trap caught 89.7+/-10% the number of mosquitoes caught by human landing catches (P < 0.0001) and 1.2+/-0.1 times more mosquitoes than the CDC light trap (P = 0.0008). Differences in Mbita trap performance relative to the human landing catch under noncompetitive vs. competitive conditions were explained by the rate at which each method captured mosquitoes. Such bednet traps do not expose people to potentially infectious mosquito bites and operate passively all night without the need for skilled personnel. This trap is specifically designed to catch host-seeking mosquitoes only and may be an effective, sensitive, user-friendly and economic alternative to existing methods for mosquito surveillance in Africa.

Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Machangi JM;, Odhiambo BO;, Nje ru RW;, El-Bedewy, R.; Aura JA, El-Bedewy, R.; Aura JA. "Development of an Integrated aphid and virus disease management strategies for the farmer-based seed potato production system in Kenya."; 2002.
Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Machangi JM;, Odhiambo BO;, Nje ru RW;, El-Bedewy R;, Aura JA. "Development of an Integrated aphid and virus disease management strategies for the farmer-based seed potato production system in Kenya."; 2002.
Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Machangi JM;, Odhiambo BO;, Nje ru RW;, El-Bedewy R;, Aura JA. "Development of an Integrated aphid and virus disease management strategies for the farmer-based seed potato production system in Kenya."; 2002.
MARY MWIANDI. ""Dissertations on African Related Topics done in US, Canada and U.K." in the African Studies.". In: Association (ASA) Newsletter Publications. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2002. Abstract

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Okoth SA, Ogola JS. "Distribution of Fungi and Climate Change: A Case Study of Mucoraceous Fungi in Kenya." World Resource Review . 2002;14(2):223-234.
Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, LALAH JO, YUGI PO, BARASA MW. "The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in marine samples along the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1235-1246. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

The concentrations of organochlorine residues of lindane, aldrin, <*- endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in samples of seawater, sediment, fish and seaweed from different locations along the coast of Kenya are discussed in relation to the geographical location of the sampling sites and potential sources of residue over a period of two years. All sediment samples were found to contain very low levels of organic carbon except those sampled from Sabaki River that had high (4.7%) organic carbon due to greater primary activity. Most of the pesticides residues (112 samples analysed in 1997 and 258 analysed in 1998/99) were detected in fish, water, sediments and seaweed. The concentration of some residues was higher during the wet season than the dry season in 1997, but no marked seasonal variation was observed in 1998/99. Lindane, aldrin, p,p'-DOT and p,p'-DDE were the most frequently observed residues in all samples while «-endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p'-DDD and endrin were either present in low concentrations or absent in most samples. Water samples had the lowest concentrations of residues (range 0.503 - 9.025 ng g'1). Sediments had the second highest levels of pesticides residues with a range of 0.584 - 59.00 ng g'1 while fish lipid content had the highest levels of residues in 1989/99 with p,p'-DDT concentration of 1011 ng g'1 and 418 ng g"1 p,p'-DDD 'mSiganus rivulatus.

Mwangi AM, den Hartog AP, Mwadime RKM, van Staveren WA, Foeken DWJ. "Do street food vendors sell a sufficient variety of foods for a healthy diet? The case of Nairobi." Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2002;23(1):48-56.Website
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Does prospective monitoring improve cataract surgery outcomes in Africa? ." Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 May;86(5):543-7.. 2002. AbstractWebsite

Department of Epidemiology and International Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. dhyorston@enterprise.net AIMS: To determine if prospective monitoring influences cataract surgical outcomes in east Africa. METHODS: A prospective observational study of all routine extracapsular cataract extractions with posterior chamber lens implants carried out at Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya, between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 1999. RESULTS: Out of 1845 eligible eyes 1800 were included in the study. Two months' follow up was available in 67.2% of patients. The proportion achieving a good outcome increased steadily from 77.1% in the first quarter to 89.4% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.001). There was no change in the incidence of operative complications; however, the proportion of patients achieving a good visual outcome following vitreous loss increased from 47.2% in the first 6 months to 71.0% in the last 6 months (chi(2) p<0.05). Of the eyes with poor outcome (best corrected acuity <6/60 at 2 months) half were due to pre-existing eye diseases. The proportion of patients with known ocular comorbidity decreased from 10.2% in the first quarter to 5.9% in the fourth quarter (chi(2) for trend, p<0.05). Poor outcome was associated with age over 80 years, known diabetes, preoperative bilateral blindness, any ocular comorbidity, and intraoperative vitreous loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates improvement in visual outcome results after cataract surgery over a 1 year period. Monitoring of outcomes appears to be associated with a change in surgeons' attitudes, leading to greater emphasis on appropriate case selection, better management of surgical complications, and improved visual outcomes. PMID: 11973251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1771115

Thoithi GN, Abuga KO, Nguyo JM, Mukindia G, Kingondu O, Ngugi JK, Kibwage IO. "Drug quality control work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observation during 1996-2000." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:28-32.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D. Ilako, F. D. Ngounou, K. H. M. Kollmann, R. Waigwa, Ndinya-Achola Magnitude and character of aqueous humour and vitreous body contamination of patients with perforating eye injuries East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D. Ilako, F. D. Ngounou, K. H. M. Kollmann, R. Waigwa, Ndinya-Achola Magnitude and character of aqueous humour and vitreous body contamination of patients with perforating eye injuries East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D. Ilako, F. D. Ngounou, K. H. M. Kollmann, R. Waigwa, Ndinya-Achola Magnitude and character of aqueous humour and vitreous body contamination of patients with perforating eye injuries East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

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