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Speicher DJ, Wanzala P, D'Lima M, Njiru A, Chindia M, Dimba E, Johnson NW. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings." Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2015;44:842-849. Abstract
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Johnson NW, Dimba E, Chindia M, Njiru A, D'Lima M, Wanzala P, Speicher DJ. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings.". 2015. Abstract
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D S, N J, P W, M D’lima, chindia ML, E D, A N. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi’s sarcoma in resource-limited settings." Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2015.
Miles KA. "Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role." Clinical Radiology. 2005;60:742-745. Abstract

Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, "virtual endoscopy", functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences.

Murage EW;, Karanja NK;, Smithson PC;, Woomer PL. "Diagnostic Indicators Of Soil Quality In Productive And Non-productive Smallholders."; 2000.
Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

MM B, M B, J F, EA L, A A, K A, GA B, WD B, E B, C C, H D, P D'A, L DC, N F, A M. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa." EClinicalMedicine. 2021. Abstract
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Khainga KA. The diagnostic role of ultrasonography in patients with thyroid gland enlargement at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya (E. Africa)..; 2007. Abstract

Background
/\ prospective cross section study was carried out at the Department or Diagnostic
Imaging and Radiation Medicine of the University of Nairobi, the X-ray Department of
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the Thyroid Clinic [TC] of KNll and the Department
of Pathology. University of Nairobi.
During the study in a period spannmg SIX months, 70 patients presenting with
goiter at KNH thyroid clinic and sent for ultrasound evaluation, were recruited into the
investigation using purposeful sampling technique. Demographic data was gathered for
each case before ultrasonography being carried out on the thyroid gland using real time
and Doppler modes in axial [transverse] and longitudinal [sagittal] planes. The
sonographic features of each thyroid nodule studied were size, internal consistency,
echogenicity relative to adjacent tissue. vascularity at CFI, margination and presence of
calcification and a sonoluscent peripheral halo.
lesions then underwent FNA for cytology or excision biopsy lor histology to
rule out malignancy. Data collection was done using a presorted questionnaire filled by
the researcher. It was analyzed by SPSS computer software and results presented in form
tables, charts and graphs.
Results: ()2.R(/'i) or patients with thyroid enlargement were female. The male: female
ratio was found to he I: I). The age range or patients with thyroid enlargement varied
from 18 to 77yrs. Goiter was most noticeable' in the 4th through to ih decades [from 21
to GO years J with 75% or the patients in this study falling in this age range.
The rate ofmalignancy in this study is 2.9(10 having registered only two cases.
The findings indicate that there exists a relationship between the cytological status and
the age 01' the patients, internal consistency. outline/margin, presence or the peripheral
halo. vascularity and presence of calcifications. There was no signi Iicant relationship
established between the cytological findings and the variables gender. number of nodules
and echogenicity.

Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
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Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Dimba EAO. "Diagnostic Service Provision at the Nairobi University Oral Pathology Laboratory.". 2005. Abstract
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R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Diagnostic significance of radiographs on proximal surface caries in epidemiological surveys. East Afr Med J. 1989 Apr;66(4):289-92.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Apr;66(4):289-92. International Journal of Climatology; 1989. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Mugambi I, Williams F, Muthomi J, Chege F, Oronje ML. "Diagnostic support to plantwise plant doctors in Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2016;8(11):232-239.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid studies in patients suspected to have tuberculous meningitis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796.". In: International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.
MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "The diagnostic value of various features for acute lower respiratory infection among under fives. East Afr Med J. 1989 Oct;66(10):678-84. Wafula EM, Tindyebwa DB, Onyango FE.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Oct;66(10):678-84. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract
One hundred and fifty children aged between 5 months and 5 years with cough of less than 2 weeks duration, and presenting at the paediatric filter clinic and paediatric observation ward of the Kenyatta National Hospital between July and December 1985 were each evaluated by a complete history, physical examination, and a chest X-ray. Ninety of them (or 60%) had radiological evidence of pneumonia. Respiratory rate of over 50 per minute, chest indrawing, flaring of alae nasae, and a history of rapid breathing were found to be valuable indicators of pneumonia.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Dialague on Literature," with Dr. Daisaku Ikeda in Ushio Magazine 2001. 2 (160- 188) No.4 (156 -188).". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
MO O, RO O. "The Dialectics of Sustainable Kibera Neighbourhood Development." International Refereed Journal the Icfai University Journal of Architecture. 2010;II(1).
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "The Dialectics of Sustainable Neighbourhood Development for Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2010. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "The dialectics of the 1997 Electoral politics in Western and the Trans Nzoia Districts of Kenya.". In: Mazrui and Grignon (ed) "The 1997 elections and democratization process in Kenya:. uon press; 2001. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Dialogue Btween an African Christology and Karl Rahner's Christology in L. Namwera (ed.) Nairobi: African Christian Studies, Nairobi: CUEA, Vol.7 2 June 1991.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
John HPH. "Dialogue Drama in Kenyan Political Speeches & Its Pragmatic Implications." Nordic Online Journal of Linguistics; Helsinki, Finland. 2011.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Dialogue on World Literature. With Daisaku Ikeda. Tokyo:.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
OLALE P, Ngau P. "Dialogues on Informality: Land Sharing as a Sustainable approach to Tenure Security in Kiandutu Informal Settlement Thika, Kenya.". In: Reframing the Urban Challenge in Africa. New York: Routledge; 2020.
M DRSENERWADANIEL. "Diamiano, A.W., M. Kagiko, M. Kayihura and D. Senerwa (1989). Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. Proceedings of the 3rd African Conference on Diarrhoeal Diseases: 55-57.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 1989. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
Wasunna A. "Diarrhoeal diseases in preterm neonates." East Afr Med J. 1990;67(4):221-2.
Odipo G. "Diaspora, Remittances and Development in IGAD States.". In: 2nd IGAD Regional Consultative Process On Migration (RCP); Migration & Development. United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa.; 2012.
Christophe Long, Yannick Aussagues, Nicolas Molinier LMLVASVPPCMBF. "Dichapetalins from Dichapetalum species and their cytotoxic properties." Phytochemistry . 2013;94:184-191.
Jayne M. A Dictionary and a Story Book. Nairobi: Nairobi Journal of Literature.; Forthcoming.
"Dictionary of African Boigraphy." Biographies of Kinyanjui Gathirimu, James Gichuru, Waiyaki Hinga, Wang’ombe Ihura, John Keen, Gutu Kibetu, Cege Kibiru and Wangu Makeri. 2011.
Waeni N. Dictionnaire pour l’Afrique . Paris, France.: Larousse Publishing House; 1987.
Lewa, A. K., Munyua, W.K., Ngatia, T.A., Maingi N, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis in Donkeys in Kiambu District of Kenya.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 1997.
Lewa AK;, Munyua W k;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi N;, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis In Donkeys In Kiambu District Of Kenya."; 1997.
Lewa AK;, Munyua W k;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi N;, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis In Donkeys In Kiambu District Of Kenya."; 1997.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Die Sprachwissenschaft und das doppelte Problem der Interpretation.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. thelem Verlag; 2010.
Maina J, Gitau A, Nyang’aya J. "Diesel Engine Emissions and Performance Characteristics under Cape Chestnut Biofuel." Journal of power and Energy Engineering. 2013;Vol 1,No.6 :9-14.
O OL, W KL, W MR, S BB. "Diet composition and nutritional contribution of food scavenged by indigenous chickens in Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2009;21.
Okoth SA, Ohingo M. "Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Kisumu, Kenya: Cross sectional study." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2004;(11):43-54.
Kiama TN, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Ochungo P, Waithanji EM, Lindahl J, EK K'ethe, D. G. "Dietary exposure to mycotoxins within the Kenya dairy value chain and the role of gender.".; 2015.
Ngatia EM, Nganga PM, Muita JG, Imungi JK. "Dietary habits, oral hygiene and dental caries in 3-5 year-olds in Nairobi.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 78. AMER ASSOC DENTAL RESEARCH 1619 DUKE ST, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 USA; 1999:. Abstract
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Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya." Br. J. Nutr.. 2009;101(9):1378-87. Abstractdietary_micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya. Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG.Br J Nutr. 2008 Sep 30:1-10. [Epub ahead of print].". In: Br J Nutr. 2008 Sep 30:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2008. AbstractDietary micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

Ngatia EM, Imungi JK, Muita JWG, others. "Dietary patterns and dental caries in nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya." East African medical journal. 2001;78:673-677. Abstract
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K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Dietary patterns and dental carries in nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Ngatia EM, Muita JWG, Imungi JK, others. "Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82. Abstract
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Obel AO, W.M KT-, Ellison R.H MM. "Dietary sodium/potassium ratios in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension." East African Medical Journal. 1985;( 62):507-514.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". In: Fluorosis Research Strategies', Proceedings of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya; S.Likimani, (Ed.) , 32-6 (1983). UoN; 1983. Abstract

Analysis offluoride concentrations in Kenyan waters have been carried out using two methods: the fluoride ion selective electrode method and colorimetric method. Water samplesanalysed were taken from boreholes and rivers in Nairobi. Central and Rift Valley Provincesand from the Rift Valley lakes. The high levels of fluoride content present in the Rift Valley lakes and boreholes would pose a threat if the water is used for drinking or for irrigation purposes. However the fluoride concentrations for most potable waters (especially those derived from rivers) is less than the accepted limits of 0.7-1.8 ppm. In order to account for the high incidence of dental fluorosis in Kenya, it is necessary to determine the fluoride intakefrom the total diet. A method suitable for analyzing fluoride content in foods and plant materials is discussed. Preliminary survey of fluoride concentrations for various foods showed: bananas, 4.2ppm; potatoes, 5.6 ppm; cabbages, 0.3ppm; maize 0.7ppm. High levels of fluoride were found in tea leaves in the range 229-340 ppm per kg. which is quite equivalent to 4.4-7.3 ppm F per 125 c.c. cup of tea. Fluoride concentration in coffee beans is quite low – 6.6 ppm per kg. and sodas, beer, cow’s milk have less than 0.01 ppm.

D.N. Kariuki TNHM & LW. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". 1983.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""Dieu en Langage Luo" Vivant Universe No. 344, Biemestrel, April.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1983. Abstract
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Jani PG. "Dieulafoy’s Lesion: A case report: ." East African Medical Journal. 2001;(78):109.
R. TT, Rice J. IL, B. J, A. M, F. N. "The Difference Interventions for Guardians Can Make." Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. 2009.
THURMAN TR, RICE J, IKAMARI L, B.JARAB, MUTUKU AK, NYANGARA F. The difference interventions for guardians can make: Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. Washington, DC.: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); 2009.ovc_kilifi.doc
Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howland HC. "Differences in eye growth and the response to visual deprivation in different strains of chicken." Vision research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract

Several laboratories studying visual deprivation myopia in the domestic chick report varying degrees of axial elongation and myopia induced by similar visual deprivation techniques. In this study we tested the hypothesis that in different strains of chick the eyes respond differently to visual deprivation. We compared under identical conditions two strains of White Leghorn chick commonly used in ocular development research–the Cornell-K strain (K) and Washington H & N Strain (H/N). The normal development of the eye was found to vary significantly between these strains of White Leghorn chicks. The K strain normally develops flatter corneas, thicker lenses, and larger eyes than the H/N strain. The response to visual deprivation also varies significantly between strains. For example, we find that 2 weeks of visual deprivation in the K strain results in less elongation of the vitreous chamber and flattening of the cornea yielding lower levels of induced myopia compared to the H/N strain. Our results show that while visual experience clearly affects normal ocular development in both strains of chick, the nature of the effect depends upon not only the type and duration of the experience but the genetics of the subject population as well.

Pantazis N, Morrison C APNLSRAMCJLKPMCAT, in and Group. TCASCADECECANRSP-CISG; 1220. "Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa." PLoS One.. 2012;7(3):e32369.
Othieno-Abinya NA, Riyat MS, Omollo R, Kiarie GW. "Differences in response to imatinib between gastrointestinal stromal tumours involving the liver and tumours that do not: experience from Nairobi." African Journal of Cancer. 2013;5(2):79-83. Abstract

Introduction

More than 60% of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) arise from the stomach and about 20% from the small intestine. About 95% of GISTs express kit receptor tyrosine kinase (CD117), which is used for purposes of diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, kit expression alone is not specific for GIST, nor does it necessarily imply that signalling through the kit kinase is the driving oncogenic event. Poor prognostic features of GIST include involvement of the liver and other bulky sites of disease.
Patients and methods

We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients with CD117-positive leiomyosarcomas arising in the abdomen and treated through the Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP) Clinic at the Nairobi Hospital between 7th November 2005 and 22nd November 2011.
Results

In total 54 patients were included. Males were 36 (66.7%) and females 18 (33.3%). The age range was 25–86 years and the median age 50 years. The stomach was involved primarily in 22 of 47 cases evaluable (46.8%). The liver was primarily involved in 3 (6.4%) and liver metastases in 7 (14.9%) cases. None of 8 patients (0%) with evaluable liver involvement regressed or stabilized on treatment for at least 6 months compared with 10 of 14 (71.4%) from the stomach, 7 of 7 (100%) from the small bowel, and 7 of 13 (53.8%) with mesenteric/omental involvement. These differences were statistically significant (P<0.001).
Conclusion

Apparent lack of response by tumours involving the liver could suggest that the kit, or by extrapolation PDGFR-alpha overexpression, may not be the factors activating kit or PDGFR-alpha targets in this subset of patients, or they could be of exon 9 mutation predominantly. Mutational analysis studies may shed more light in this issue.

Troilo D, Li T, Glasser A, Howlandi H. "Differences in {Eye} {Growth} and the {Response} to {Visual} {Deprivation} in {Different} {Strains} of {Chicken}." Vision Research. 1995;35:1211-1216. Abstract
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Alphayo L, Wasonga OV, Odadi WO, Ngugi RK. "Differences of Soil Properties between Planned and Unplanned Grazing Sites in Semi-Arid Pastoral Rangelands of Northern Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211. 2016;5. Abstract
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Lenze D, Leoncini L, Hummel M, Volinia S, Liu CG, Amato T, Falco DG, Githanga J, Horn H, Nyagol J, Ott G, Palatini J, Pfreundschuh M, Rogena E, Rosenwald A, Siebert R, Croce CM, Stein H. "The different epidemiologic subtypes of Burkitt lymphoma share a homogenous micro RNA profile distinct from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma." Leukemia. 2011:1-8.
Mganga1 KZ, Nyariki DM, Nyangito MM, 2 WEN, Muiru WM, Musimba NKR, Agnes M’ombeW. "Different land use types in the semi-arid rangelands of Kenya influence soil properties." Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management . 2011; 2(11):370-374. Abstract

Rangelands in semi-arid Kenya have recently witnessed extensive land use changes. These changes can mainly be attributed to increased livestock populations and the response of the increased human population to both local and exogenous opportunities and constraints. This study was carried out in Kibwezi district of Kenya mainly inhabited by agro-pastoralists. The main objective of this study was to establish how different land use types influence soil properties in tropical semi-arid rangelands. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples from three land use types namely cultivated land (CL), grazing land (GL) and fallow land (FL) at a depth of 15-30cm were collected and analyzed using standard laboratories for soil nutrients and soil physical properties. Results show open grazing lands (CEC 19.59 meq/100g) to be more fertile than cultivated (13.88 meq/100g) and fallow (6.40 meq/100g) lands. This was attributed to the continuous dropping of faecal material by grazing livestock. Higher bulk density in grazing land (1.36 g/cm3) compared to cultivated and fallow lands with 1.29 g/cm3 and 1.33 g/cm3 was attributed to the hoof action of livestock. These results suggest that different land use types in the semi-arid rangelands contribute immensely to soil properties.

Key words: Bulk density, cation exchange capacity (CEC), drylands, grazing lands, Kibwezi district, livestock.

"Different land use types in the semi-arid rangelands of Kenya influence soil properties." Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management . 2011;2(11):370-384.
B R, M C, G.O.Oyoo. "Different techniques to assess microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):46-49. Abstractrheumatology_full_flow1.pdf

Blood perfusion
Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a connective
tissue disease with multifactorial
aetiology and autoimmune pathogenesis.
SSc is characterized by structural and
functional alterations of microcirculation,
with important clinical implications, such
as Raynaud Phenomenon (RP) and digital
ulcers1,2. For these reason, morphological
and functional assessment of the peripheral
microvasculature is a must for diagnosis,
prognosis and therapy in SSc patients 2.
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) is
the best safe and non-invasive method
to detect morphological microvascular
abnormalities. NVC allows to distinguish
secondary RP from both primary RP and
healthy subjects, identify morphological
patterns that are specific to various SSc
stages (‘Early’, ‘Active’ and ‘Late’ patterns
of microvascular damage) and calculate
the Microangiopathy Evolution Score
(MES) to follow disease evolution3,4.
The video-capillaroscope makes
use of a magnification system (from 50x
up to 500x magnification), and it has an
optical/digital probe which can be moved
over the surface of the finger nails from
the 2nd to the 5th finger of both hands2.
The normal NVC image is characterized
by normal skin transparency, morphology
of the capillary to “U” or “hairpin shape”,
morphological/structural homogeneity,
10-12 capillaries / linear millimetre, one
capillary inside dermal papilla, diameters
of capillary branches <20 μm, and lack of
morphological atypia2. Nailfold capillaries
are frequently normal in primary RP,
but it is possible to observe capillaries
with efferent branch enlargement or
tortuous capillaries. Therefore in normal
conditions, or in the presence of primary
RP, the NVC examination is characterized
by a regular array of capillary loops
along the nailfold bed, without abnormal
Different techniques to assess microvascular damage in
systemic sclerosis
Ruaro B1, Sulli A1, Smith V2, Paolino S1, Pizzorni C1, Cutolo M1
enlargements nor capillary loss2.
Conversely, secondary RP is characterized
by the morphological signs that represent
the microvascular damage: these include
giant capillaries, microhaemorrhages,
capillary loss, presence of avascular
areas and angiogenesis. These sequential
capillaroscopic changes are typical of the
microvascular involvement observed in
more than 95% of SSc patients and are
described by the term “SSc pattern”2,3.
NVC technique identifies
morphological patterns specific to
various stages of SSc (‘Early’, ‘Active’
and ‘Late’ patterns)3,4. The ‘Early’
SSc pattern is characterized by few
enlarged/giant capillaries, few capillary
microhaemorrhages, no evident capillary
loss and a relatively well preserved
capillary distribution. The ‘Active’ SSc
pattern, a marker of disease progression, is
characterized by frequent giant capillaries
(more than 66%), frequent capillary
microhaemorrhages, moderate (up to 33%)
capillary loss, absent or mild ramified
capillaries and a mild disorganization of
the capillary architecture. In the ‘Late’
SSc pattern there is irregular enlargement
of the capillaries, severe (>66%) capillary
loss with evident avascular areas,
ramified or bushy capillaries and a severe
disorganization of the normal capillary
array, although giant capillaries and
microhaemorrhages are almost absent3,4
(Figure 1). NVC is also used to make a
quantitative assessment (i.e. quantify
certain characteristics and make semiquantitative
scoring) of the microvascular
damage. The usual capillaroscopic
parameters (diagnostic parameters,
such as irregularly enlarged capillaries,
giant capillaries, microhaemorrhages;
and progression parameters, such as
reduced capillary number, capillary
ramifications and capillary architectural
disorganization) are evaluated by a semiquantitative
scale. Score 0-3 has been
adopted for all these parameters3

CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "Differential behaviour patterns between men and women in a social gathering: The case of a discotheque.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
Hildebrandt HA, Gossl M, Mannheim D, Versari D, Herrmann J, Spendlove D, Bajanowski T, Malyar NM, Erbel R, Lerman LO, Lerman A. "Differential distribution of vasa vasorum in different vascular beds in humans." Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:47-54. AbstractWebsite

Objective Vasa vasorum (VV) have been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to describe the distribution of VV density in different vascular beds in humans and to investigate the association between VV density and the known distribution of atherosclerosis in human arteries. Methods Forty-two human arteries, harvested at autopsy or after explantation, were analyzed by three-dimensional microscopic-computed tomography (micro-CT). VV density, endothelial-surface-fraction (Σ VV endothelial-surface-area/vessel-wall-volume) and vascular-area-fraction (Σ VV area/vessel-wall-area) were calculated for coronary, renal and femoral arteries. Representatively five coronary, renal and femoral arteries were stained for endothelial cells (von Willebrand-Factor), macrophages (CD68), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen (Sirius Red). Results Coronary arteries showed a higher VV density compared to renal and femoral arteries (2.12±0.26n/mm2 versus 0.61±0.06n/mm2 and 0.66±0.11n/mm2; P{\textless}0.05 for both) as well as a higher endothelial-surface-fraction and vascular-area-fraction. Histology showed a positive correlation between histologically derived VV density and CD68-positive cells/area (r=0.54, P{\textless}0.01), VEGF-immunoreactivity/area (r=0.55, P{\textless}0.01) and a negative correlation between VV density and collagen I content (r=0.66, P{\textless}0.05). Conclusion This micro-CT study highlights a higher VV density in coronary than in peripheral arteries, supporting the relation between VV density and the susceptibility to atherosclerosis in different vascular beds in humans.

Awad O, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA ON JUNCTIONAL AND LABYRINTHINE ZONES OF PLACENTA IN SPRAGUE DAWELY RAT." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(1):840-846. Abstractdifferential_effects_of_chronic_iron_deficiency.pdfWebsite

Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on
histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are
important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to describe the histomorphometric changes
associated with iron deficiency anaemia on placenta of albino rat. Fourty nine (49) Sprague – Dawely albino rats
were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was rendered anaemic by
removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days. Placentas were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and
21. Five cubic milimetre segments were fixed in 10 % buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and
embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut, deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and
Eosin. Micrographs were taken using Leica ICC 50 digital photomicrographic camera attached to a computer at
magnification x40 and the thickness of the labyrinth and junctional zones measured. Student t- test was used to
compare values for the experimental and control groups. The labyrinth in the chronic anaemia group was thinner
than in the control group at gestational days 17, 19 and 21. The junctional zone, on the other hand, was consistently
thicker in anaemic than in the control animals. The difference in thickness of junctional zone varied with gestational
age. At gestational day 17, the zone was significantly thicker in the anaemic group (628.9 μ) than in the control
(381 μ). On day 19 and 21, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the effects of
chronic iron deficiency anaemia on the labyrinth differ from those on the junctional zone of the placenta. This
differential effect appears to depend on the function and gestational age. The decrease in thickness of the labyrinth
may be designed to maintain placental diffusion capacity while increased thickness of the junctional zone constitutes
a compensatory physical and nutritional adaptation to hypoxia.

Omondi WP, Owino EA, Odongo D, Mwangangi JM, Torto B, Tchouassi DP. "Differential response to plant- and human-derived odorants in field surveillance of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti." Acta Trop. 2019;200:105163. Abstract

Linalool oxide (LO) and hexanoic acid (HA) represent plant- and human-derived odorants, respectively, previously found as attractants for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Here, we investigated if a blend of both compounds can improve captures of this mosquito species in field trials in two dengue endemic sites, Kilifi and Busia Counties in Kenya. Ae. aegypti captures were significantly higher in Kilifi than Busia (χ = 170.63, P < 0.0001) and varied by treatments (χ = 151.19, P = 0.002). We found that CO-baited BG Sentinel traps combined with a blend of both odorants decreased Ae. aegypti captures about 2- to 4-fold compared to captures with the individual compounds (LO or HA) used as positive controls. This was the case for all blends of LO and HA, irrespective of the doses tested. Our findings indicate that combining plant- and human-derived odors may elicit a masking effect in trapping Ae. aegypti. These results partly corroborate previous findings for malaria mosquitoes which showed that combining lures from both host sources either decreases or increases trap catches depending on the dose. Further investigations in the usefulness of combining plant and animal odorants in mosquito trapping are therefore necessary.

Kamau L, Skilton RA, Odongo DO, Mwaura S, Githaka N, Kanduma E, Obura M, Kabiru E, Orago A, Musoke A, Bishop RP. "Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida)." Insect Mol. Biol.. 2011;20(1):105-14. Abstract

The transcriptional control of gene expression is not well documented in the Arthropoda. We describe transcriptional analysis of two exceptionally divergent homologues (Ra86) of the Bm86 gut antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Bm86 forms the basis of a commercial vaccine for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. appendiculatus Ra86 proteins contain 654 and 693 amino acids, with only 80% amino acid sequence identity. Reverse-transcription PCR of gut cDNA showed transcription of only one genotype in individual female ticks. PCR amplification of 3' untranslated sequences from genomic DNA indicated that both variants could be encoded within a single genome. When both variants were present, one of the two Ra86 genotypes was transcriptionally dominant.

Jani PG, Gill H, Kotecha V. "Difficult Gallbladder Surgery, Improving Patient Outcomes Through Appropriate Surgical Decisions." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. Submitted;17(1).
Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Karanja DN. "Diffuse Peritonitis Associated With Ventral Hernia In An Adult Doe." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2014;7(1):53-55.diffuse_peritonitis_associated_with_ventral_hernia_in_an_adult_doe.pdf
Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Mogoa EM, Karanja DN. "Diffuse Peritonitis Associated With Ventral Hernia In An Adult Doe." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2014;7. Abstract
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P K, AN K, WE M, E M, DN K. "Diffuse peritonitis associated with ventral hernia in an adult doe: A case report." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and veterinary sciences. 2014;7(1):53-55.
P. K, A.N. K, W.E. M, E.G.M. M, D.N. K. "Diffuse Peritonitis Associated With Ventral Hernia In An Adult Doe: Case Report." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2014;7(1):53-55.
P K, AN K, WE M, EGM M, Karanja DN. "Diffuse peritonitis associated with ventral hernia in an adult doe: Case report." Journal of agriculture and veterinary sciences. 2014;7(1):53-55.
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mogoa EGM, Karanja DN. "Diffuse peritonitis associated with ventral hernia in an adult doe: case report." IOSR-J Agric. Vet. Sci. 2014;7:53-55. Abstract
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S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Diffusion of Dissolved Oxygen through Concrete". Material Performance, 12,39-44 (December ).". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1986.
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Diffusion of Dissolved Oxygen through Concrete". Presented at the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Conference, Corrosion 76,.". In: Houston, Texas. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
     
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Digestive Endo-proteases from the Midgut Glands of the Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus indicus (Decapoda:Penaeidae) from Kenya. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 4(1),109-121.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2005.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Digestive Exo-proteases from the Midgut Glands of the Indian White Shrimp, Penaeus indicus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from Kenya. World Aquaculture 136 (3),.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2007.
Dimaras H, Dimba EAO, Waweru W, Githanga J, Kimani K. "Digital cancer pathology in Africa." The Lancet Oncology. 2013;14:e289-e290. Abstract
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Dimaras H, Dimba EA WGKWJK. "Digital cancer pathology in Africa." Lancet Oncol.. 2013;14(8):289-290.
H D, EA D, W W, J G, K K. "Digital cancer pathology in Africa." Lancet Oncol. 2013.
"The Digital Divide and CSR in Africa: The Need for Corporate Law Reform." Wayne Visser et al, Corporate Citizenship in Africa: Lessons from the Past, Paths to the Future (Greenleaf Publishing), 201.; 2006. Abstract
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Williams S, White A, Waiganjo P, Orwa D, Klopp J. "The digital matatu project: Using cell phones to create an open source data for Nairobi's semi-formal bus system." Journal of Transport Geography. 2016;49:39-51. AbstractFull text link

In many of the world's growing cities, semi-formal buses form the basis of public transit systems. However, little open and standardized data exist on these systems. The Digital Matatus project in Nairobi, Kenya set out to test whether the geo-locative capabilities of mobile technology could be used to collect data on a semi-formal transit system and whether that data could be translated into the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data standard for wider use. The results of this work show that mobile technologies, particularly mobile phones, which are increasingly prevalent in developing countries, can indeed be used effectively to collect and deliver data in a modified GTFS format for semi-formal transit. Perhaps more importantly, through our work in Nairobi, we were able to identify the benefits and technical needs for developing data on semi-formal transit. Overall, the work illustrates (1) how the GTFS can be adapted to semi-formal systems and used by other cities with such transit systems, (2) that there is demand from technologists as well as transport communities for comprehensive data on semi-formal transit, (3) that releasing the data openly in the GTFS standard format can help to encourage the development of transportation applications, and (4) that including the entire transit community during the data development can create a community of users and mechanisms for institutionalizing a process of data updating and sharing. The engagement strategies our research team developed around the data collection process in Nairobi became just as important as the resulting data it produced.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Digital Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

One of the most fundamental developments in the history of photogrammetry has been the transition from analytical to digital photogrammetry. This was realized in the early 1990s through softcopy-based systems or Digital Photogrammetric Workstations (DPWs). Today, on the one hand, initial applications of digital photogrammetry in performing routine and operational procedures, such as aerial triangulation and map revision, as well as in generating geospatial datasets, including digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital orthophotos, have been essentially standardized. On the other hand, system development in automated feature extraction for diverse geospatial features have been continually improved and refined.

Kwanya T, Kiplanga't J, Wamukoya J, Njiraine D. Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: The Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
Makori EO, Osebe NM. "Digital Technology Acceptance in Transformation of University Libraries and Higher Education Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice (E-journal). 2016;(1379).
Greenwood RD. "Digitalis as treatment for pulmonary comsumption, 1799." IMJ Ill Med J. 1975;148(5):531.
Onyango G, Ondiek JO. "Digitalization and Integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) in Public Organizations in Kenya.". 2021. Abstract

This study mapped the role of ICT, digital platforms, the internet connectivity and skills of the personnel vis-à-vis implementation processes of SDGs in public organizations in Kenya. Findings show cross-cutting institutionalization and internalization deficits as a result of limited mastery of ICT skills and training of the personnel, insufficient ICT platforms, mainly, computers, poor internet connectivity and poor investment in digital platforms by the government institutions. An organizational culture that predisposes institutions to change resistance also constrained integration of SDG goals in public organizations. The article concludes by providing critical policy recommendations for addressing these problems.

Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G. "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(17):1639-41.
Kemoli AM. "Dilemma of managing multi-surface dental caries in the primary dentition using the atraumatic restorative treatment: renaissance or dimming hope." East Afr Med J . In Press. Abstract

Background: Alot of research work has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in the management of dental caries, but there are still unresolved issues surrounding the use of the technique particularly in very large carious lesions.
Objective: To determine the current survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations placed in the primary dentition and any consequences to the restored tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Study selection: Using a set of specific key words, a Pubmed/Medline search was carried out to retrieve all publications on ARTrestorations placed in primary teeth in the period January 2000 to December 2011. Only publications whose studies had multi-surface ARTrestorations as an item of study were retrieved and relevant data extracted.
Data synthesis: Twelve studies contained in 12 publications fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study. The selected publications were analysed by the author to establish the study follow-up period and the survival rate of the multi-surface ARTrestorations for the different follow-up periods. Further information was adduced on any other effects of restoration on the tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Results: The search findings indicated that the survival rate for most of the multi-surface restorations were generally very low. Further, there were indications that even after the premature loss of the ARTrestorations, most of the affected teeth survived for the period of the study with a number of them having shown no signs of secondary caries or associated dental abscessees.
Conclusion: While the survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations in the studies documenetd in the review were low, the ART restorations appeared to provide some beneficial effects to the retention-longevity of the restored tooth even after their premature loss.

Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE. "The dilemma of selecting suitable proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach." Community Dent Health J. 2011;28(1):12-16. Abstract

Objective: To determine the examiner’s accuracy in selecting proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)
approach.
Basic research design: Intervention study.
Clinical setting and participants: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from 30 rural
schools in Kenya participated in the study.
Intervention: Three examiners selected a total of 1,560 suitable proximal carious
lesions in the primary molars after examining 6,002 children from 30 schools randomly
selected out of 142 schools in two divisions. Seven operators randomly paired on a daily
basis to eight assistants restored the lesions. An explanation was provided for any cavity
that was not restored. Pre-and post-operative radiographs of the cavities were also taken
for evaluation.
Main outcome measures: The examiner’s choice of suitable proximal cavities
restorable using the ART approach was related to the decision made to either restore or
not to restore. The radiographic findings of the selected cavities were also compared to
the decision made by the examiner. The results obtained were used to determine the
examiner’s accuracy in selecting suitable proximal cavities for restoration using the ART approach.
Results: The majority of the subjects were excluded due to absenteeism, pulpalexposure or anxiety during the operative stage. Only 804 children received one restoration in their primary molars. The examiner’s accuracy in selecting suitable ART restorable cavities was 79.9% based on clinical parameters. The examiners’ judgment that the cavities had not progressed into the pulp was 94.9% based on preoperative radiographic analysis and based on postoperative radiographic analysis, 91.7% that the pulp would not be involved after treatment.
Conclusions: A trained and diligent examiner has a very good chance of selecting
proximal carious lesions restorable using the ART approach, without the threat of dental
pulpal-involvement during the excavation of caries.

Sottas B, King'oriah GK, Betschart CE, Ndegwa EN. "Dilemmas of deciding stakeholders: governance and open access to common property.". 1998.Website
KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Dimba EA, Gichana J, Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Chindia ML, Awange DO.An audit of oral diseases at a Nairobi centre, 2000-2004.Int Dent J. 2007 Dec;57(6):439-44.". In: Int Dent J. 2007 Dec;57(6):439-44. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral diseases diagnosed in an urban referral centre in Kenya in terms of age, gender and anatomical distribution and to compare this with reports in the literature. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective histopathological audit. SETTING: Oral Pathology Laboratory at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital, a tertiary referral centre in Kenya. RESULTS: 548 (53.83%) patients were diagnosed with oral and maxillofacial tumours. Benign tumours (mean age +/- SD = 29.93 +/- 18.27 years) peaked in the third decade and tended to affect men at a younger age (p = 0.001). The most common benign tumour was the ameloblastoma (50.23%: n = 109), which predominantly affected the mandible, and also occurred in male patients at a younger age (p = 0.023). Peak incidences for malignant disease were observed in the sixth decade (mean age +/- SD = 46.94 +/- 18.99 years). Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most common malignant tumour (59.55%; n = 187); occurring in the tongue, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa and palate. 10.30% of OSCC occurred in patients under 40 years of age. 147 patients presented with cysts, which were mainly (68.10%) of odontogenic origin. Reactive lesions, infections, salivary gland diseases and autoimmune conditions constituted 26.60% of the case load. CONCLUSION: The tendency of oral squamous cell carcinoma to occur in younger age groups may be an indication of carcinogenic factors that could be peculiar to this population. There is an urgent need for the expansion of reporting systems for oral diseases as an integral part of development of appropriate strategies in the improvement of general health in Kenya.
Watts DC, Kisumbi BK, Toworfe GK. "Dimensional changes of resin/ionomer restoratives in aqueous and neutral media." Dental Materials. 2000;16:89-96. Abstract
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Kisumbi BK, Toworfe GK, Watts DC. "Dimensional changes of resin/ionomer restoratives in aqueous and neutral media.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 77. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC 2455 TELLER RD, THOUSAND OAKS, CA 91320 USA; 1998:. Abstract
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O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Diphtheria in African children (report of 13 cases seen at Mulago Hospital). J Trop Pediatr. 1969 Mar;15(1):15-7. Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Pediatr. 1969 Mar;15(1):15-7. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1969. Abstract

No abstract available

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Diploma in Adult Education in Kenya, Adult Education and Development, No. 15, Sept. 1980, German Adult Education Association, Bonn.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Architecture Syllabi and Regulations.". In: Kenya Institute of Education. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Building Construction Kenya Institute of Education (K.I.E.) Nairobi.". In: Technical Education Programmes. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Graphic Design, Textile Design, Painting and Sculpture.". In: Buruburu Institute of Fine Arts. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Diploma in Sculpture.". In: Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Diplomacy: Documents, Methods and Practice.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Diplomacy: From Theory to Practice’ ."; 1991.
Kiamba A. "Diplomatic missions and international political economy.". In: Induction Course for Ambassadors of South Sudan. Mombasa; 2012.
"Diplopia.". In: Optometrist Webinar series, Kenya. Virtual Meeting; 2020.diplopia-__dr._njambi-_06082020.pdf
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Dipole Moments of Halogenogermanes from Non-Resonant Absorption of Vapours.". In: Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 11, 70 719 (1974. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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Peng B, Yue C, Zhang H, Fang Z, Weng H. "Dirac semimetals in Sodium Ternary Compounds from Material Design on Na3Bi." arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.01434. 2018. Abstract
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Chern M-J, Kuan Y-H, Giri N, Horng T-L, Odhiambo E. "Direct forcing immersed boundary simulation for lock-in phenomena and assessment for renewable energy.". In: The 12th International Conference on Fluid Control, Measurements, and Visualization. Nara, Japan; 2013.
Peng B, van Blaaderen A, Imhof A. "Direct observation of the formation of liquid protrusions on polymer colloids and their coalescence." ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2013;5:4277-4284. Abstract
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Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Kaniu MI, Angeyo KH, Mwala AK, MANGALA MJ. "Direct rapid analysis of trace bioavailable soil macronutrients by chemometrics-assisted energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry." Analytica chimica acta. 2012. AbstractWebsite

Precision agriculture depends on the knowledge and management of soil quality (SQ), which calls for affordable, simple and rapid but accurate analysis of bioavailable soil nutrients. Conventional SQ analysis methods are tedious and expensive. We demonstrate …

King-Okumu C, Wasonga OV, Jarso I, Salah YMS. "Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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Osanjo G, Dion M, Drone J, others. "Directed Evolution of the R-L-Fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima into an R-L-Transfucosidase." Biochemistry . 2007;46:1022-1033.
Taboada R, Ordonio GG, Ndakala AJ, Howell AR. "Directed Ring-Opening of 1,5-Dioxaspiro[3.2]hexanes: Selective Formation of 2,2-Disubstituted Oxetanes." Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2003;68:1480-1488. AbstractWebsite

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., D. M. Nyariki, and K. O. Farah. 2000. Changing land use systems and socio-economic roles of vegetation in semi-arid Africa: The case of the Afar and Tigrai of Ethiopia. J. Soc. Sci. 4:199 .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., D. M. Nyariki, and K. O. Farah. 2000. Changing land use systems and socio-economic roles of vegetation in semi-arid Africa: The case of the Afar and Tigrai of Ethiopia. J. Soc. Sci. 4:199 .". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., K. O. Farah, and D. M. Nyariki. 1999. Influence of settlements on land use and vegetation in the rangelands of northeastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. J. Hum. Ecol. 10: 349-356.". In: Proceedings of a national workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at Machakos, Kenya, 14-15 October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., K. O. Farah, and D. M. Nyariki. 1999. Influence of settlements on land use and vegetation in the rangelands of northeastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. J. Hum. Ecol. 10: 349-356.". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
 Gachene, C.K.K., Kathumo VM, Okello JJ, Ngigi M, Miruka M. "The Disappearing Forest: A case study of trends in land use and land cover change of the threatened Lower Tana River Forest Complex, Coastal Kenya.". In: Sustainable Land Management in Dry Lands of Kenya. Nairobi: UNDP, ISBN No. 978-9966-1805-51. Chapter 1, pp. 1-12.; 2015. Abstract

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Henry M. "Disaster management activities within Livestock sector." KVA national conference, Safari Park; 2015.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Disaster Monitoring and Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Since time immemorial, natural disasters have continued to plague the history of mankind. They have varied in type, frequency, coverage and severity ranging from earthquakes, landslides, droughts, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc. Over the last century, the frequency, severity and impact of natural disasters has increased substantially.

Wanjare, J. & Kirui G(2016). "Discerning Cash Conversion Cycle Management Practices by Sugar Cane Out-grower Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2016;Vol 5.
Kisumbi B, Wakiaga J, Chindia ML. "Discolouration of Teeth.". 1995. Abstract
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Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B, Chindia ML. "Discolouration of teeth: an overview of the diagnosis and management." East African medical journal. 1995;72:213-216. Abstract
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W M. "Discourse as Graduated from the Word." Reyono Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2014;3(2):42-53.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "DISCOURSE CONNECTIVITY:THE CASE OF LUBUKUSU.". In: Relevance Theory Circuit - Kaizemeir Dolny Poland. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2007. Abstract
Discourse connectivity, according to those who propose discourse and text grammars and leaning towards the code model (Harris 1952, Longacre 1983, Dooley and Levinsohn 2000), say it is a purely linguistic matter. However, discourse connectivity also relies on context, the context of the discourse itself, that of the speaker and that of the hearer. This later position is proposed in an inferential model (Sperber & Wilson 1986/95). This inferential model suggests that sentence structure alone determines only a fraction of what is communicated and context plays a crucial role in the determination of meaning hence to link individual sentences in creating a discourse requires linkages beyond a language code. It is these linkages over and above the code that connect with context and thereby allow for utterance comprehension. Blass 2006:7 argues that, intuitive judgements of well formedness and ill formedness of discourse depend upon the connectivity occurring between and within sentences of a language. The argument by Blass is that to create discourse harmony, it is inevitable to integrate both linguistic and non linguistic features to achieve discourse connectivity which enables utterance comprehension. This paper will examine discourse connectivity linkage as manifested in the particle nono and its allomorphic realization ne of the Lubukusu - a Bantu language spoken in western Kenya. The aim is to show the diversity of use for this particle while emphasizing its idiosyncratic usage that is specific to Lubukusu speakers.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Discourse of Allienation in Kiswahili Poetry: A re-analysis of Muyaka wa Muhaji's Poetry." The University of Nairobi Literature Journal. 2014.
Wachege PN, Cherono F. "Discourse on Ecumenical Implications of Pneumatological Vital Force Towards University Students' Welfare." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2018;23(7):62-73.prof_wachege__cherono_article.pdf
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. The Discourse Political Language in Kenya: Structure and Meaning of Speeches. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2011.
Okebe M.A", Wanyande" P. Discourses on civil society in Kenya. Nairobi: ARRF; 2009.
Martinon MCA –. "Discover the Success in You: Discover the Magic in Believing in Yourself." a Letter to Young Women. . Vol. 4, July – December (2009):8-9. 26._discover__the__success_in_you.pdf
Wanjala C. "Discovering New East African Poets." Busara. 1969;2(2):43-45.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Discovering New East African Poets, Busara II, 2 (1969), 43-45. An extended version of it in E. Gachukia and S.K. Akivaga (eds.), Teaching of African Literature in Schools, Nairobi [Kenya Literature Bureau, 1978], 77-90.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1978. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

MARTINON MUMMA-CA. "Discovering The Role Of The Church In The Protection Of Civilians In Peace Support Operations.". In: In L. Magesa & M. C. Kirwen (Eds.), Exploring The Faith Of Mission In Africa: Celebration Of Maryknoll’s 100 Years In Mission,. Nairobi: Maryknoll Institute Of African Studies.; 2012.5._the_role_of_the_church_in_protecting_civillians.pdf
"Discovery and Innovation." Discovery and Innovation. 2003;15:1-2.
"Discovery and Innovation." Discovery and Innovation. 2005;17(1):1.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "Discovery and Innovation Vol 8:181-188 [1996] A Comparison of Ultrastructural aspects of macrogametogenic Stages of Two Eimeria Species of Goats( capra hircus) PWN Kanyari, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; Kenya.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
Machuka JS;, Waithaka K;, Gopalan HNB. "Discovery and Innovation, 5(1): 75-80."; 1993.
Knowles DP, Kappmeyer LS, Haney D, Herndon DR, Fry LM, Munro JB, Sears K, Ueti MW, Wise LN, Silva M, Schneider DA, Grause J, White SN, Tretina K, Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Pelzel-McCluskey AM, Scoles GA, Mealey RH, Silva JC. "Discovery of a novel species, Theileria haneyi n. sp., infective to equids, highlights exceptional genomic diversity within the genus Theileria: implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance." Int J Parasitol. 2018;48(9-10):679-690. Abstract

A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses. The estimated divergence time between the new Theileria sp. and T. equi, based on genomic sequence data, is greater than 33 million years. Average protein sequence divergence between them, at 23%, is greater than that of Theileria parva and Theileria annulata proteins, which is 18%. The latter two represent highly virulent Theileria spp. of domestic cattle, as well as of African and Asian wild buffalo, respectively, which differ markedly in pathology, host cell tropism, tick vector and geographical distribution. The extent of genome-wide sequence divergence, as well as significant morphological differences, relative to T. equi justify the classification of Theileria sp. as a new taxon. Despite the overall genomic divergence, the nine member equi merozoite antigen (EMA) superfamily, previously found as a multigene family only in T. equi, is also present in the novel parasite. Practically, significant sequence divergence in antigenic loci resulted in this undescribed Theileria sp. not being detectable using currently available diagnostic tests. Discovery of this novel species infective to equids highlights exceptional diversity within the genus Theileria, a finding with serious implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance.

Wambua L, Westhead DR, McConkey GA. "Discovery of novel drug targets against pathogenic protozoa: The promise of metabolic reconstruction." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2009;9(3):375-376.
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
Karimurio J. "Discrepancies in trachoma control policies and practices in the last decade.". In: 8th Annual Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Conference. Kisumu, Kenya; 2014.trachoma_keynote_presentation_2014_kash_conference.pdf
Ogot M, Aly S. "Discretizing Continuous Problems for Faster Global Convergence.". In: ASME 2003 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2003:. Abstract

Global optimization of mechanical design problems using heuristic methods such as Simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GAs) have been able to find global or near-global minima where prior methods have failed. The use of these nongradient based methods allow the broad efficient exploration of multimodal design spaces that could be continuous, discrete or mixed. From a survey of articles in the ASME Journal of Mechanical Design over the last 10 years, we have observed that researchers will typically run these algorithms in continuous mode for problems that contain continuous design variables. What we suggest in this paper is that computational efficiencies can be significantly increased by discretizing all continuous variables, perform a global optimization on the discretized design space, and then conduct a local search in the continuous space from the global minimum discrete state. The level of discretization will depend on the complexity of the problem, and becomes an additional parameter that needs to be tuned. The rational behind this assertion is presented, along with results from four test problems.

Chirchir MK. "A discriminant model to distinguish between successful and unsuccesful students in the Faculty of Commerce of the University of Nairobi.". In: Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.

OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Discussant, Session on Urban Economics W.E.A.". In: 53 Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 22-26, 1978, Honolulu. Aloha, Hawa 11 islands. University of Nairobi.; 1978. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Discussant: Session on Urban Economics,.". In: 51st Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 24-27, 1976. University of Nairobi.; 1976. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.

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