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E. I, P S. "Development of cultural heritage tourism in Kenya: A strategy for diversification of tourism products.". In: Conservation of natural and cultural heritage in Kenya. LONDON: University College London (UCL) Press; 2016.
Ahuya CO;, Okeyo AM;, Peacock C. "Development of dairy goat industry in Kenya: A case study."; 2004.
Maina SM. "Development of disgust: effects of delay in re-development of occupied building; a case study of ADD building." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2013;volume 7(No. 7):509-518.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Development of Distance Education Material.". In: Distance Educators at Emalalatini Development Centre15th August 2003, - Swaziland. Thought and Practice; 2003. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Kimani J, Osanjo GO, Sang R, Ochieng J, Mulaa F. "Development of Dromedary Antibody-based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Chikungunya virus Infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2).
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Development of early maturing fusarium wilt resistant pigeonpeas. African J. Crop Sci. 2: 35 - 41.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
David K. Chikati, Lydiah N. Wachira JMN. "The Development of Education for Teachers of the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya: A Historical perspective." Journal of Education and Practice . 2019;10(32).
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in East Africa. Trends and Issues Affecting Development".". In: The Symposium on East Africa in Transition. Nairobi. Kenya. July 2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in East Africa. Trends and Issues Affecting Development".". In: The Symposium on East Africa in Transition. Nairobi. Kenya. July 2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in Kenya".". In: The 1 st Symposium on East Africa in Transition; Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi. Kenya. 4 - 7 th July 2000. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract
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A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Development of Education in Kenya".". In: The 1 st Symposium on East Africa in Transition; Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi. Kenya. 4 - 7 th July 2000. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract

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Gakungai DK. "Development of education in Kenya:Influence of the political factor beyond 2015 MDGs." Journal of education and Practice. 2016;7:55-60. Abstract
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Otieno NA, Culhain J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species. 29 July-2 August,Kyoto, Japan: International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions; 2012. Abstract

Internal plant tissue colonisation has made endophytic bacteria valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance particularly for those bacteria having traits such as plant growth promotion (PGP). This project involved screening and identifying endophytic bacterial strains, sourced from the bacterial collection available at the Institute of Technology Carlow, with the potential to enhance growth rate in bio-energy plant crop species. In the initial stage under greenhouse condition, a total of 140 strains in master mix (MM) groups of 10 strains, were inoculated into Rye Grass. The inoculated Rye Grass seeds were sown in pots and arranged in complete randomised design and their growth was monitored for a period of 3 months. The plant fresh weights (FW) and dry weights (DW) were used as growth parameters. Three MMs (comprising 30 strains) showed PGP potential in Rye Grass, significantly increased the mean FW and DW of Rye Grass plants compared to the negative controls. The 30 selected strains were further characterised for PGP traits under in vitro study. Results showed three strains inhibited Pythium spp. growth in dual culture assay, whereas the culture filtrates to quantify gluconic acid production necessary for inorganic phosphate solubilisation, had six strains recording more than 20mg/ml of gluconic acid production. Ten strains showed Indole acetic acid (IAA) production in the range (10-18 µg/ml) while three strains showed 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity. This study indicates that the selected bacterial endophytes have the potential for PGP and development in plant crops.

Lally R, Moreira AS, Germaine K, Galbally P, Culhain J, Otieno N, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. "Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species.". In: Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Conference 2013 - Positive plant microbial interactions: their role in maintaining sustainable agricultural and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, Brigg, North Linconshire, U.K; 2013. Abstract

Endophytes are bacteria present in plants that form a symbiotic relationship with
their hosts and may promote plant growth and health (Ryan et al., 2008). We extracted
Pseudomonas endophytes from Miscanthus × giganteus; a series of strains were selected
for application to two oilseed rape (OSR) trials. Endophytes colonise plants (including
the root-surface) and allow the plant to utilise nutrients present in the rhizosphere. This
potentially provides a yield boost for colonised plants, allowing for efficient fertiliser
strategies and improved yield performance (Redondo-Nieto et al., 2013). This study has
provided evidence that the application of specialised live microbial biofertilisers can
enhance aspects of crop development when applied in the field. The results show that
there was a significant increase in crop stem and leaf of “Compass” a variety of Oilseed
rape. The results did not indicate that there was a significant increase within the overall
yield of the crop.

Susan S Imbahale, Collins K Mweresa, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Development of environmental tools for Anopheline larval control." Parasites & Vectors. 2011;4:130.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Mbugua PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ. "Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya."; 1995.
Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
Mshinda, H., Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Mathenge, E.M., Mboera, L.E.G., Knols BGJ. "Development of genetically modified mosquitoes in Africa." Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2004;4(5):264-265.
Mulwa JK, MATHU ELIUDM. "Development of geothermal energy resources in Kenya-A collective responsibility between University and Industry.". In: Proceedings: 3rd KenGen geothermal conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya: KenGen; 2004. Abstract

Kenya is the first and so far the only country in the African continent to generate electricity from geothermal resources. Currently the power output from geothermal resources stands at about 57 MWe. This output is expected to rise with the planned commissioning of other power plants in Olkaria and elsewhere. Geothermal energy is reliable, environmentally sustainable and the least cost source of base load power for Kenya. The least cost power development plan (KPLC, 2001) has proposed that the geothermal sources provide approximately an additional 500 MWe of base load electric power over the next 20 years (Omenda, 2001; Mwangi, 2001). It should be noted that the Rift System in Kenya has a potential of producing 2000 MWe of geothermal energy that can be generated using conventional steam condensing turbines. This power generation can even exceed 3000 MWe when combined cycle and binary systems are used (Omenda, 2001). For these reasons, exploration for geothermal resources is quite active within the Kenya Rift System and the potential to be exploited is quite substantial.

Geothermal resource exploration has largely been undertaken by the Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen) and the Ministry of Energy. There has also been an input from international organizations and consulting companies. Nevertheless, there has been low level contributions by the local universities in geothermal resource studies and research works. In other countries such as U.S.A, New Zealand, Iceland, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, just to mention a few, geothermal resources have been collaboratively studied and researched on by both the university and the industry and there is no satisfactory reason why this cannot be emulated in our continent. This paper therefore outlines some of the areas where collaborative work can be undertaken by both the industry and the local universities. Some of the areas include feasibility studies, exploration, construction and installation, production, research and development. This is essential for better knowledge dissemination, improvement and training for posterity.

Roman F, Hensel O, Mbuge D. "Development of Grain Drying Facilities That Use Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP) to Optimise Drying and Control Aflatoxin Contamination in Kenya.". In: “Solidarity in a competing world — fair use of resources”. Vienna, Austria; 2016.
O.Koteng D, Chen C-T. "Development of High-Strengths Lime-Pozzolana Pastes.". In: The second international Conference on chemically-activated materials (CAM'2010).; 2014.koteng.pdf
VASANT MRDHARMADHIKARY. ""Development of Hinduism in Fast Africa" at a Religious Forum, Moi University Eldoret, 2 Is'March 2001.". In: International conference of IEEE at pune (Indian). Kioko UM; 2001.
KAAYA GP. "Development of innovative method based on fungal entomopathogens for control of the economically-important African ticks.". In: 22nd World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP, 2009) Conference. Calgary, Canada; 2009.
K MRGAKERIJACOB. ""Development of International Law relating to the protection of the Stratospheric Ozone layer" (1994) University of Nairobi Law Journal Page 44.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1994. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Development of Kenya.". In: Development Trends and Prospects for 1985-2000. Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi,Kenya, September, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
John Habwe RTAS&. "The Development of Kiswahili Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili Novel." In Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies St. Thomas College Kozhencherry Kerala, India . 2016;5(2):21-43 .
Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki. "Development of Laser Education and Research Towards Biophotonics at Nairobi.". In: 12th International conference on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Mwai OA;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Mwai OA, Mitaru B;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga AA. "Development of Multimix Composite Flour as Complementary Food for Infants in Malawi. ." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018;(2):11.
Bojana Boh, David N. Kariuki AKJMSWOO. "Development of New Products: International - Un iversity - Industry Cooperation: Camomile Project." UNESCO - ICCS ; Submitted.
Ndegwa PN, Mihok S. "Development of odour-baited traps for Glossina swynnertoni Austen." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1999;89:255-261.Website
McArdle CB, Dowling JE, Masland RH. "Development of outer segments and synapses in the rabbit retina." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1977;175:253-273. AbstractWebsite

The peripheral retina of rabbits aged 0 to 60 days was studied by electron microscopy. Ribbon and conventional synaptogenesis was studied with serial sections, and the density of synapses of the inner plexiform layer was measured on large (1,500μm2) montages. Photoreceptor and bipolar ribbon synapses seem to develop similarly in that processes of the prospective dyad or triad contact the presynaptic ribbon-containing terminal one at a time. No statistically significant difference in the lengths of ribbon lamellae was found at 11 and 30 days. Conventional synapses appear to result from the aggregation of synaptic vesicles on one side of junctions that first existed as symmetrical membrane densities without vesicles. The length of the synaptic membrane specialization remains constant between 0 and 30 days. The density of inner plexiform layer conventional synapses remains at a low and roughly constant level from 0 to 9 days, after which there is an abrupt increase to a plateau at about 20 days. After nine days the density of ribbon synapses also increases, with an initially steep time course similar to that of conventional synapses. All subcategories of synapse studied (amacrine-to-amacrine, amacrine-to-bipolar, serial, and reciprocal) participate in the general increase between 9 and 20 days. Functional circuits of the inner plexiform layer thus seem to be assembled primarily during the second and third weeks of life.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Development of Parametric Numbers in Filter-bed Flocculation.". In: JKUAT Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 7,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2002. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology. In Press.
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology,. 2013;3:154-164.Website
P A, J K, A K, J N. "Development of Policies Standards and Guidelines for the Reduction of Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Kenya." International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics . 2015;131( suppl 5).
Fisher LJ. "Development of retinal synaptic arrays in the inner plexiform layer of dark-reared mice." Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. 1979;54:219-227. Abstract

In the central area of the retina of mouse the rate of synaptogenesis in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) drops precipitously at about the time the eyes open. To determine if the visual input at eye opening provides a signal for the neurons to stop adding synapses, mice were raised in darkness during the period of maximal synaptogenesis and through eye opening. Retinal synaptic arrays of dark-reared and normally reared animals were compared quantitatively. The rate of synaptogenesis after eye opening in dark-reared mice indicated that the onset of visual stimulation was not the cue to stop synaptogenesis. However, the synaptic arrays of the IPL of dark-reared mice consistently had more conventional synapses than those of normally reared mice. It is concluded that the number of conventional synapses in the central retina was increased by dark-rearing.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Development of Rice Husk Ash based alternative cements in Kenya", Proceedings:.". In: Inaugral conference of the Kenya Chemical Society, Nairobi, June 1993. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "The development of Schistosomiasis mansoni in an immulogically na.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Division of Vector Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya. The relocation of several thousand members of the Kamba tribe from the Kyulu Hills to the Thange valley near Masongaleni in Kenya provides an excellent opportunity to study the development of the immune response to schistosomiasis mansoni in a population with little or no previous experience of the infection. An adjacent, well-established Kamba community with similar patterns of water contact provides a suitable endemic control population. The immigrants were, uniquely, examined shortly after their arrival in the endemic area, while the prevalence of infection was still low. At this time faecal egg counts peaked atypically around 30 years of age. Over the next 12-18 months infection increased rapidly, especially among teenagers, producing a pattern of infection more typical of endemic communities. This substantially narrows estimates of the time required to develop the important determinants of the age-intensity profile, supporting the notion that changes related to age per se, rather than duration of infection, dominate. Age-dependent factors might include behaviour or physiology, including immune response. This paper provides the background for continuing longitudinal studies on the development of immunological responses to this parasite. PMID: 9778634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. Development of Scientific and Technical terminology with special reference to African Languages. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Academy of Ethiopian Languages; 1987.
Kariuki PW. "Development of Self-Esteem and Its Influence on Academic Achievement." Journal of the Faculty of Education. 2004;2:101-112.
Wairire GG. "The Development of Social Work Education in Africa.". In: World Conference for Social work themed ‘Social Work and Social Development 2012: Action and Impact. Stockholm- Sweden; 2012.
David K. Chikati, Lydiah N. Wachira JMM. "Development of special Education for the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya – A Historical Perspective." European Journal of Special Education Research. 2019;4.
"Development of Special Education for the Visually Impaired Learners in Kenya: A Historical Perspective." European Journal of Special Education Research, . 2019;4(2):80-92.
Mithöfer K, Ong'amo G, LeRu BP. "Development of species distribution models for lepidopteran stem borers and associated parasitoids in Kenya.". In: Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. University of Hamburg, Germany; 2009.
Munayi S, Chumba JM, Andanjah M, Wanderi PM. "The Development of Sports Tourism in Kenya.". In: 9th Biennial Conference of the African Association for health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. Kyambogo University; 2011.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Development of Technical Capabilities for Sustainable Radiation and Waste Safety .". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-107, p. 9 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003.
Mumenya SW. "Development of Textiles Customized as Reinforcement to Cementitious Materials.". In: Textiles, Types, Uses and Production Methods. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2013.
Makanya AN. "Development of the Airways and the Vasculature in the Lungs of Birds.". In: The Biology of the Avian Respiratory System.; 2017.
Robertson TW, Hickey TL, Guillery RW. "Development of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in normal and visually deprived {Siamese} cats." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1980;191:573-579. Abstract

Neuronal cell bodies in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and of monocularly-deprived Siamese cats have been measured. Seventeen normally reared Siamese cats, ranging in age between 20 and 120 days, were used to determine rates of normal geniculate cell growth. A second group of five adult Siamese cats reared from bith with the lids of one eye closed were used to study the effects of monocular visual deprivation upon geniculate cell size. For each of the normal and visually deprived Siamese cats, the cross-sectional areas of 600 lateral geniculate cells were measured from camera lucida drawings of Nissl preparations. During normal development the geniculate cells rapidly increase in size during the first postnatal month of life and reach their adult size sometime between days 28 and 56. While this course of geniculate cell growth is similar to that seen in normally pigmented cats, the pattern of change seen after monocular deprivation is quite different in Siamese cats from that found in normally pigmented cats. In Siamese cats the regions of the nucleus receiving a contralateral projection from the deprived eye appear to be shielded from the effects of binocular competition. Cells throughout lamina A and in the abnormal, contralaterally innervated segment of lamina A1 show only about a 10% reduction in cell size. There are no noticeable differences between the parts of lamina A in the binocular and monocular segments of the nucleus. Cells in the ipsilaterally innervated segment of lamina A1, in contrast, show deprivation-induced changes that average 27.1%. Two mechanisms are proposed to explain why some geniculate cells in Siamese cats appear to be shielded from binocular competition: one depends on possible interactions between geniculo-cortical cells lying in adjacent parts of the same geniculate lamina, and the other depends on an anatomical segregation of the cell type ("Y-cells") most heavily affected by the binocular competition. Each proposed mechanism is related to earlier observations on monocularly deprived, normally pigmented cats.

Habwe J. "The Development of the Kiswahili: Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili." Journal of Literature UoN. Forthcoming.
Sharma RK, O’Leary TE, Fields CM, Johnson DA. "Development of the outer retina in the mouse." Developmental Brain Research. 2003;145:93-105. AbstractWebsite

Mice represent a valuable species for studies of development and disease. With the availability of transgenic models for retinal degeneration in this species, information regarding development and structure of mouse retina has become increasingly important. Of special interest is the differentiation and synaptogenesis of photoreceptors since these cells are predominantly involved in hereditary retinal degenerations. Thus, some of the keys to future clinical management of these retinal diseases may lie in understanding the molecular mechanisms of outer retinal development. In this study, we describe the expression of markers for photoreceptors (recoverin), horizontal cells (calbindin), bipolar cells (protein kinase C; PKC) and cytoskeletal elements pivotal to axonogenesis (beta-tubulin and actin) during perinatal development of mouse retina. Immunocytochemical localization of recoverin, calbindin, PKC and beta-tubulin was monitored in developing mouse retina (embryonic day (E) 18.5 to postnatal day (PN) 14), whereas f-actin was localized by Phalloidin binding. Recoverin immunoreactive cells, presumably the photoreceptors, were observed embryonically (E 18.5) and their number increased until PN 14. Neurite projections from the immunoreactive cells towards the outer plexiform layer (OPL) were noted at PN 0 and these processes reached the OPL at PN 7 coincident with histological evidence for the differentiation of the OPL. Outer segments, all the cell bodies in the ONL, as well as the OPL were immunoreactive to recoverin at PN 14. Calbindin immunoreactive horizontal cells were also present in E 18.5 retinas. These cells became progressively displaced proximally as the ONL developed. A calbindin immunoreactive plexus was seen in the OPL at PN 7. PKC immunoreactive bipolar cells developed postnatally, becoming distinguished at PN 7. Both beta-tubulin and actin immunoreactive cells were present in the IPL as early as E 18.5; however, appearance of processes labeled with these markers in the OPL was delayed until PN 7, concurrent with the first appearance of photoreceptor neurites, development of the horizontal cell plexus, and development of synaptophysin immunoreactivity at this location. These results provide a developmental timeframe for the expression of recoverin, calbindin, synaptophysin, beta-tubulin and actin. Our findings suggest that the time between PN 3 and PN 7 represents a critical period during which elements of the OPL are assembled.

Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Reichelt E, Osborne NN, Fritzsche B, Puls A, Richter U, Friedrich A, Knothe A-K, Schober W, Timmermann U. "Development of the rabbit retina, {III}: {Differential} retinal growth, and density of projection neurons and interneurons." Visual Neuroscience. 1993;10:479-498. AbstractWebsite

To provide a quantitative description of postnatal retinal expansion in rabbits, a new procedure was developed to map the retinae, which cover the inner surface of hemispheres or parts of rotation ellipsoids, in situ, onto a single plane. This method, as well as the known distribution of Müller cells per unit retinal surface area, were used to estimate the redistribution of specific subpopulations of Müller cells within different topographic regions of the retinae. Müller cells are known to exist as a stable population of cells 1 week after birth and can therefore be used as “markers” for determining tissue expansion. Our results show that differential retinal expansion occurs during development. Peripheral retinal regions expand at least twice as much as the central ones. Furthermore, there is a greater vertical than horizontal expansion. This differential retinal expansion leads to a corresponding redistribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accumulating amacrine cells. Differential retinal expansion, however, does not account for all of the changes in the centro-peripheral density gradient of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) — mostly retinal ganglion cells — during postnatal development. The changes in the ganglion cell layer were evaluated in Nissl-stained wholemount retinal preparations. Additionally, the difference between expansion-related redistribution of cells in the GCL and Müller cells was confirmed in wholemount preparations where Müller cells (identified as vimentin positive) and cells in the GCL (identified by fluorescent supravital dyes) were simultaneously labeled. It is assumed that many of the ganglion cells within the retinal center are not translocated during retinal expansion, possibly because their axons are fixed. In contrast, 5-HT accumulating amacrine cells — which are interneurons without a retinofugal axon — display a passive redistribution together with the surrounding retinal tissue.

Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Friedrich A, Ziegert W, Brückner G, Schober W. "Development of the rabbit retina. {I}. {Size} of eye and retina, and postnatal cell proliferation." Anatomy and Embryology. 1991;183:287-297. Abstract

Measures of rabbit eyes and retinal wholemounts were used to evaluate the development of retinal area and shape. The retina is shown to have a horizontal axis about a third longer than the vertical axis just before birth, and to adopt an almost symmetrical shape during postnatal development to adulthood. In general, retinal thickness is shown to decrease after birth, but differently in particular retinal regions: the reduction is marked in the periphery, and less pronounced in the visual streak. As an exception, the myelinated region–after it becomes really myelinated, from 9 days p.p.–even increases in thickness. In all regions of the retina, the absolute and relative thickness of the nuclear layers decreases, whereas the relative thickness of plexiform and fibrous layers increases. Proliferation of cells within the rabbit retina was studied during the first three postnatal weeks. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to demonstrate DNA synthesis autoradiographically in histological sections as well as in enzymatically isolated retinal cells. A first proliferation phase occurs in the neuroblastic cell layer and ceases shortly after birth in the retinal center, but lasts for about one week in the retinal periphery. We found, however, a few 3H-thymidine-labeled cells as late as in the third postnatal week. These late-labeled cells were found within the nerve fiber layer and in the inner plexiform layer. The latter cells were shown to express antigens detected by antibodies directed to the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin, which are known to label Müller cells and neuroepithelial stem cells. This was confirmed in our preparation of enzymatically isolated cells; all cells with autoradiographically labeled nuclei revealed a characteristic elongated morphology typical for Müller radial glia (and also for early neuroepithelial stem cells). 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the nerve fiber layer were most probably astrocytic. In analogy to the brain, we conclude that the mammalian retina undergoes a series of proliferation phases: first an early phase producing both neurons and glial cells, and then a late phase producing glial cells, e.g., in the nerve fiber layer. Most probably, the late phase within the inner nuclear layer is glial as well, i.e., consists of dividing Müller cells; it cannot be excluded, however, that there may remain some mitotically active stem cells.

Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

A D, D O, E O. "Development of the roadmap and guidelines for the prevention and management of high blood pressure in Africa: Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.". In: : Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.; 2014. Abstract

Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economic changes are associated with a health transition characterised by a rise in cardiovascular risk factors and complications, which tend to affect the African population at their age of maximum productivity. Recent data from Africa have highlighted the increasing importance of high blood pressure in this region of the world. This condition is largely underdiagnosed and poorly treated, and therefore leads to stroke, renal and heart failure, and death. Henceforth, African countries are taking steps to develop relevant policies and programmes to address the issue of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in response to a call by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by the year 2025 (25 × 25). The World Heart Federation (WHF) has developed a roadmap for global implementation of the prevention and management of raised blood pressure using a health system approach to help realise the 25 × 25 goal set by the WHO. As the leading continental organisation of cardiovascular professionals, the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) aims to contextualise the roadmap framework of the WHF to the African continent through the PASCAR Taskforce on Hypertension. The Taskforce held a workshop in Kenya on 27 October 2014 to discuss a process by which effective prevention and control of hypertension in Africa may be achieved. It was agreed that a set of clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension are needed in Africa. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a roadmap for implementation of the prevention and management of hypertension in Africa under the auspices of the WHF.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The development of the school milk programme in Kenya. A country paper presented at the International conference on School Milk in the 21st. Century. Kwa Maritane, Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa, 27-29th Oct. Conference proce.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
D.C. Munasighe, A.H.S. Elbusaidy KMDNNB. "The development of the Solar Industry in Kenya.". 1979.
S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "The Development of the Solar Salt Industry in Kenya". A technical.". In: Kenya. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1979. Abstract
   
Mey J, Thanos S. "Development of the visual system of the chick: {I}. {Cell} differentiation and histogenesis." Brain Research Reviews. 2000;32:343-379. AbstractWebsite

This review summarizes present knowledge on the embryonic development of the avian visual projections, based on the domestic chick as a model system. The reductionist goal to understand formation and function of complex neuroanatomical systems on a causal level requires a synthesis of classic developmental biology with recent advances on the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and histogenesis. It is the purpose of this article. We are discussing the processes underlying patterning of the anterior neural tube, when the retina and optic tectum are specified and their axial polarity is determined. Then the development of these structures is described from the molecular to the anatomical level. Following sections deal with the establishment of secondary visual connections, and the developmental interactions between compartments of the retinotectal system. Using this latter pathway, from the retina to the optic tectum, many investigations aimed at mechanisms of axonal pathfinding and connectivity have accumulated a vast body of research, which will be covered by a following review.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Development of therapeutic feeding porridge rations for the clinically malnourished: Part A; Substitution of extrusion cooking with lactic fermentation. Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition Journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
CHEGE MRMUNGAIJOSEPH. "Development Of Trade Education In Kenya .". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
Nyankanga RO. "Development of Tuber Blight.". 2008;(5)(43):1501-1508.abstract_2.pdf
MJ Nyetanyane MM. "Development of UmobiTalk: ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator for Sesotho language." Central University of Technology, Free State. 2016;15(1):115-132. AbstractFull text link

The need to conserve the under-resourced languages is becoming more urgent as some of them are becoming extinct; natural language processing can be used to redress this. Currently, most initiatives around language processing technologies are focusing on western languages such as English and French, yet resources for such languages are already available. Sesotho language is one of the under-resourced Bantu languages; it is mostly spoken in Free State province of South Africa and in Lesotho. Like other parts of South Africa, Free State has experienced a high number of non-Sesotho speaking migrants from neighbouring provinces and countries. Such people are faced with serious language barrier problems especially in the informal settlements where everyone tends to speak only Sesotho. As a solution to this, we developed a parallel corpus that has English as a source and Sesotho as a target language and packaged it in UmobiTalk - Ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator. UmobiTalk is a mobile-based tool for learning Sesotho for English speakers. The development of this tool was based on the combination of automatic speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. This application will be used as an analysis tool for testing accuracy and speed of the corpus. We present the development, testing and evaluation of UmobiTalk in this paper. Keywords: UmobiTalk, Automatic speech recognition (ASR), Machine translation (MT), Text to speech (TTS) and Parallel corpora

MARY MWIANDI. "Development of University Education in Kenya Since Independence.". In: Shaping Research Universities in the Nile Basin Countries. Kampala: : Fountain Publishers; 2010.
Apata(6) AO, Muobeleni TN, A A Fabuyide, Ogunmuyiwa EN, G.O.Rading, Jain PK, Witcomb WJ, Cornish LA. "Development of VC-Ni Eutectic Alloys for Wear Resistance." Advanced Materials Research, 1019. 2014:347-354.
MALECHE MRZACHARIAH. "Development Plan 1984-88. In collaboration with the Ministry of Planning and National Development, Republic of Kenya, 1984.". In: KISE Bulletin, July 1987. Vol. 1 No. 2. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1984.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Development Planning and Employment in Five West African Countries International Education Materials Exchange Geneva International Institute for Labour Studies,.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1977. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Development Policies and Ecological Change in Kenya: A Review Paper presented at the Biodiversity Support Program Meeting, 14th Sept - 17th Sept Washington, D.C.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Onyango OW. "Development Policy .". 1984.Website
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Development Priorities for Malindi", a research report prepared for the Malindi Constituency Development Fund, March, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Development, Acceptability and Nutritional Characteristics of Low-cost, Shelf-stable Supplementary Food Product for Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
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A K. Developmental Defects of Enamel. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co; 2011.
Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick, Pinaud N. "The Developmental Impact of Asian Drivers on Kenya with emphasis on textile and clothing." The World Economy. 2009;111 (10):1467-1495.
Kamau, Paul DMCNP. "The Developmental Impact of Asian Drivers on Kenya with Emphasis on Textile and Clothing." The World Economy 111:10. P 1467 - 1495; 2009. Abstract
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Lombard A, Wairire GG. "Developmental Social Work in South Africa and Kenya: Some Lessons for Africa." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. 2010:98-111.
Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo DW, Dehayem-Massop A. "Developments in Medical Elementology and Spectral Diagnostics of Disease via Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Trace Spectroanalytics and Imaging Towards Applications in Nanomedicine.". In: First Pan-African Summer School in Nanomedicine. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
"Device Simulation of Sb2S3 Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D Software." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2019;3, 2019. Abstract

Antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) has drawn research interest due to its promising properties for photovoltaic applications. The progress in developing highly efficient Sb2S3 solar cells has stimulated this study to a great extent. In this paper, we present the results of a simulation of solar cell processing parameters on the performance of the solar cell through theoretical analysis and device simulation using SCAPS software. The results of this simulation show that the solar cell performance can be enhanced to a great extent by adjusting the thickness, doping concentration and defect density of both the TiO2 buffer layer and Sb2S3 absorber layer and also the electron affinity of the TiO2 buffer layer. Optimized parameters were found to be: doping concentration of (1.0 X 1017CM3 for TiO2 and 3.0 X 1016 CM3 for Sb2S3), defect density of the Sb2S3 absorber at (1.0 X 1015.....3) and the electron affinity of the buffer layer at (4.26 eV). The results obtained were as follows: Voc of 750 mV, Jsc of 15.23 mA/cm2, FF of 73.55% and efficiency of 8.41%. These results show that Sb2S3 is a potential earth-abundant compound that can yield highly efficient solar cells.

Dr. OLOO ADAMS in Kibua, Thomas and Mwabu Germano(eds.). "Devolution and Democratic Governance.". In: Decentralization and Devolution in Kenya. NAIROBI: University of Nairobi Press; 2008.
Sihanya B. Devolution and Education.; 2013.
Kanyinga. "Devolution and New Politics of Development in Kenya." African Studies Review. 2016;59(3):155-167.
joshua Kivuva. "devolution and the politics of marginalization in Kenya.". In: FES workshop on The national cohesion and devolution forum: the ethnic challenge of devolution. Migori County Hall.; 2011.
Kanyinga K. "Devolution dividend depends on how you chose your governor." Daily Nation, February 14, 2015.
Kanyinga K. "Devolution good for Kenya but it might brew violence in 2017." Daily Nation, March 13, 2016.
joshua Kivuva. "devolved governance in the post 2010 kenya.". In: Workshop for provincial administration and senior police officers on devolution and the security sector. Eldoret, Kenya.; 2011.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Devouassoux G, Heyraud JD, Gontier C. Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory infections in hospitalized patients. Rev Mal Respir. 1994;11(5):473-7.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1994;11(5):473-7. uon press; 1994. Abstract

Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgennettes, Lyon. We report a study of 8 patients with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection of the respiratory tract admitted to the Army Hospital Desgenettes over a 10 months period. Our clinical observations are compared with a review of the literature. We observed a seasonal outbreak in spring and autumn. This infection was encountered mainly in young people. The two most common clinical findings were cough and fever. Our report describes mild forms of this disease. Definitive etiological diagnosis is based on a four-fold or higher rise in titers. The macrolides or tetracyclines remain the most effective antibiotics.

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. I: Dewatering Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(702): 1975 - 1983.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dewatering and Drying Characteristics of Coffee Pulp. II: Drying Characteristics. Kenya Coffee. 60(703): 2003 - 2008.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Akendo I.C.O., Gumbe LO, Gitau AN. "Dewatering and drying characteristics of water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) petiole. Part I: Dewatering characteristics. ." Agricultural engineering international the CIGR E-journal.. 2008;X(Manuscript FP 070).
Akendo I.C.O., Gumbe LO, Gitau AN. "Dewatering and drying characteristics of water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) petiole. Part II: Drying characteristics. ." Agricultural engineering international the CIGR E-journal. 2008;X (Manuscript FP 07033.).
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "DFID scoping mission report on malaria in Uganda.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Dhana na Sifa Bainifu za Hadithi Fupi.". In: Kunani Marekani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers Ltd; 2012.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Dhananjaya G, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H. Urine as a transport medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis Vol. 1 1984.". In: Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis Vol. 1 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
J.N. M, Mbatiah M, Iribe M. Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali katika Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2014.
Ochola E. "Dholuo Morphosyntactics in a Minimalist Program,." LAP Publishing Ltd; 2011. Abstract

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Choksey PV, Gichuhi S. "Diabetes and the eye.". In: Clinical care guidelines for diabetes in Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2005. Abstract

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, W5010, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. sgichuhi@jhsph.edu BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years off age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events. SEARCH STRATEGY: Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; Medline/PubMed, CENTRAL, AIDSearch, EMBASE, LILACS, African Healthline, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialised Register, and the Cochrane Cancer Network Specialised Register. We searched the clinical trial register of the US National Institutes of Health, searched the international conference proceedings of AIDS and AIDS-related cancers, and contacted individual researchers, research organisations, and pharmaceutical companies that manufacture the drugs used as interventions. Searches were done between September 2005 and June 2006. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. MAIN RESULTS: No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Implications for practice:Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports.Implications for research:Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour. PMID: 17443606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Diabetes care in Kenya–where are we and which way forward? East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S161-2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
mungai lnw. "diabetes ketoacidosis.". In: paediatric diabetes . ISPAD; 2014.
Otieno CF, Otedo AEO, Oyoo GO, Omonge EO. "Diabetes Mellitus/ HIV Interphase: A Series of 10 Cases. ." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):53-56.
Wachtel TJ. "The diabetic hyperosmolar state." Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 1990;6:797-806. Abstract

The diabetic hypersomolar state is defined by a serum glucose greater than 600 mg/dl and a serum osmolarity greater than 320 m Osm/L. Ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis may co-exist with DHS in the same patient. The incidence of this acute complication of diabetes is high enough (17.5 cases per 100,000 person-years) for primary care physicians to encounter a case every year or two. Predisposing factors include older age, female sex, nursing home residence, and infection. A substantial proportion of cases occur in patients with no prior history of diabetes. Common presenting signs include fatigue or weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, nausea, and alteration of consciousness. The mainstay of therapy is intravenous fluid replacement with close monitoring of glucose and electrolytes in a hospital setting. Current mortality figures are high, at 10% to 20%, and the chance of survival is adversely affected by older age, higher osmolarity, and the presence of an associated severe illness. Prevention includes screening for diabetes, educating diabetic patients and their care givers about the symptoms of hyperglycemia, prompt treatment of any infection in a diabetic person, avoidance of drugs that increase carbohydrate intolerance in diabetic people, and encouraging compliance with treatment of diabetes.

Wolfsdorf J, Glaser N, Sperling MA, American Diabetes Association. "Diabetic ketoacidosis in infants, children, and adolescents: {A} consensus statement from the {American} {Diabetes} {Association}." Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1150-1159. Abstract
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Winter RJ, Harris CJ, Phillips LS, Green OC. "Diabetic ketoacidosis. {Induction} of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia by phosphate therapy." The American Journal of Medicine. 1979;67:897-900. Abstract
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DeFronzo RA, Matzuda M, Barret E. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: a combined metabolic-nephrologic approach to therapy." Diabetes Rev.. 1994;2:209. Abstract
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PK Mbugua, CF Otieno JKKAAASOML. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi ." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12). Abstract

Objective: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH.

Subjects: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Results: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c >8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation.

Conclusion: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

MCLIGEYO SO, PK M, CF O, JK K, AA A. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S191-6.". In: Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

Barrett EJ, DeFronzo RA. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and treatment." Hospital Practice (Office Ed.). 1984;19:89-95, 99-104. Abstract
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Fisher JN, Shahshahani MN, Kitabchi AE. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: low-dose insulin therapy by various routes." The New England Journal of Medicine. 1977;297:238-241. Abstract

Since in normal persons the hypoglycemic effect of low-dose intramuscular exceeds that of subcutaneous insulin we studied the effect of routes of insulin therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis. Forty-five patients with diabetic ketoacidosis entered a randomized prospective protocol with insulin administered either intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Initial priming dose of insulin had to be repeated in two of 15, three of 15 and six of 15 of the intravenous, subcutaneous and intramuscular groups respectively. The intravenous group had a more rapid fall in plasma glucose (P less than 0.01) and ketone bodies (P less than 0.05) during the first two hours. Thereafter, there were no significant differences in the rate of decline of plasma glucose or ketones nor in the time required for glucose to reach 250 mg per deciliter or for complete recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis. The data confirm the efficacy of low-dose insulin therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis and indicate that the optimal route of insulin administration is by initial intravenous combined with subcutaneous or intramuscular.

CF Otieno, JK Kayima EOOGOO. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors, mechanisms and management approaches in diabetes ketoacidosis in published literature and to discuss them in the context of why a significant proportion of patients who develop diabetic ketoacidosis in sub-Saharan Africa still have high mortality. DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world. DATA SYNTHESIS: The main causes or precipitants of DKA in patients in SSA are newly diagnosed diabetes, missed insulin doses and infections. The major underlying mechanism is insulin deficiency. Treated patients miss insulin doses for various reasons, for example, inaccessibility occasioned by; unavailability and unaffordability of insulin, missed clinics, perceived ill-health and alternative therapies like herbs, prayers and rituals. Infections also occur quite often, but are not overt, like urinary tract, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Due to widespread poverty of individuals and nations alike, the healthcare systems are scarce and the few available centres are unable to adequately maintain a reliable system of insulin supply and exhaustively investigate their hospitalised patients. Consequently, there is little guarantee of successful outcomes. Poor people may also have sub-optimal nutrition, caused or worsened by diabetes, more so, at first presentation to hospital. Intensive insulin therapy in such individuals mimics 're-feeding syndrome', an acute anabolic state whose outcome may be unfavourable during the period of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality and morbidity from diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, improved healthcare systems and reliable insulin supply can reverse the trend, at least, to a large extent. Individuals and populations need empowerment through education, nutrition and poverty eradication to improve self-care in health and living with diabetes

OMONDI DROYOOGEORGE, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S197-203. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors, mechanisms and management approaches in diabetes ketoacidosis in published literature and to discuss them in the context of why a significant proportion of patients who develop diabetic ketoacidosis in sub-Saharan Africa still have high mortality. DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world. DATA SYNTHESIS: The main causes or precipitants of DKA in patients in SSA are newly diagnosed diabetes, missed insulin doses and infections. The major underlying mechanism is insulin deficiency. Treated patients miss insulin doses for various reasons, for example, inaccessibility occasioned by; unavailability and unaffordability of insulin, missed clinics, perceived ill-health and alternative therapies like herbs, prayers and rituals. Infections also occur quite often, but are not overt, like urinary tract, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Due to widespread poverty of individuals and nations alike, the healthcare systems are scarce and the few available centres are unable to adequately maintain a reliable system of insulin supply and exhaustively investigate their hospitalised patients. Consequently, there is little guarantee of successful outcomes. Poor people may also have sub-optimal nutrition, caused or worsened by diabetes, more so, at first presentation to hospital. Intensive insulin therapy in such individuals mimics 're-feeding syndrome', an acute anabolic state whose outcome may be unfavourable during the period of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality and morbidity from diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, improved healthcare systems and reliable insulin supply can reverse the trend, at least, to a large extent. Individuals and populations need empowerment through education, nutrition and poverty eradication to improve self-care in health and living with diabetes.

"Diabetic {Ketoacidosis} {Treatment} .". 2014. AbstractWebsite

Treatment & Management: Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes.

Nguena MB, van den Tweel JG, Makupa W, Hu VH, Weiss HA, Gichuhi S, Burton MJ. "Diagnosing ocular surface squamous neoplasia in East Africa: case-control study of clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy assessment." Ophthalmology. 2014;121(2):484-491. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the reliability of clinical examination and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in distinguishing ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) from benign conjunctival lesions.
DESIGN:

Case-control study.
PARTICIPANTS:

Sixty individuals with conjunctival lesions (OSSN and benign) and 60 age-matched controls with normal conjunctiva presenting to Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.
METHODS:

Participants were examined and photographed, and IVCM was performed. Patients with conjunctival lesions were offered excisional biopsy with histopathology and a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test. The IVCM images were read masked to the clinical appearance and pathology results. Images were graded for several specific features and given an overall categorization (normal, benign, or malignant). A group of 8 ophthalmologists were shown photographs of conjunctival lesions and asked to independently classify as OSSN or benign.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Comparison of the histopathology diagnosis with the clinical and IVCM diagnosis.
RESULTS:

Fifty-two cases underwent excisional biopsy with histopathology; 34 were on the OSSN spectrum, 17 were benign, and 1 was lymphoma. The cases and controls had comparable demographic profiles. Human immunodeficiency syndrome infection was more common in OSSN compared with benign cases (58.8% vs. 5.6%; odds ratio, 24.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-204; P = 0.003). Clinically, OSSN lesions more frequently exhibited feeder vessels and tended to have more leukoplakia and a gelatinous appearance. Overall, the ophthalmologists showed moderate agreement with the histology result (average kappa = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.64). The masked grading of IVCM images reliably distinguished normal conjunctiva. However, IVCM was unable to reliably distinguish between benign lesions and OSSN because of an overlap in their appearance (kappa = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.57). No single feature was significantly more frequent in OSSN compared with benign lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of IVCM for distinguishing OSSN from benign conjunctival lesions were 38.5% and 66.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:

In East Africa, conjunctival pathology is relatively common and can present significant diagnostic challenges for the clinician. In this study, neither clinical examination nor IVCM was found to reliably distinguish OSSN from benign conjunctival pathology because of an overlap in the features of these groups. Therefore, IVCM cannot currently replace histopathology, and management decisions should continue to rely on careful clinical assessment supported by histopathology as indicated.

Oreskovic A, Panpradist N, Marangu D, Ngwane WM, Magcaba ZP, Ngcobo S, Ngcobo Z, Horne DJ, Wilson DPK, Shapiro AE, Drain PK, Lutz BR. "Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Using Sequence-Specific Purification of Urine Cell-Free DNA." J Clin Microbiol. 2021;59(8):e0007421. Abstract

Transrenal urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising tuberculosis (TB) biomarker, but is challenging to detect because of the short length (<100 bp) and low concentration of TB-specific fragments. We aimed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of TB urine cfDNA by increasing recovery of short fragments during sample preparation. We developed a highly sensitive sequence-specific purification method that uses hybridization probes immobilized on magnetic beads to capture short TB cfDNA (50 bp) with 91.8% average efficiency. Combined with short-target PCR, the assay limit of detection was ≤5 copies of cfDNA in 10 ml urine. In a clinical cohort study in South Africa, our urine cfDNA assay had 83.7% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.0 to 91.5%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 86.2 to 100%) for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB when using sputum Xpert MTB/RIF as the reference standard. The detected cfDNA concentration was 0.14 to 2,804 copies/ml (median 14.6 copies/ml) and was inversely correlated with CD4 count and days to culture positivity. Sensitivity was nonsignificantly higher in HIV-positive (88.2%) compared to HIV-negative patients (73.3%), and was not dependent on CD4 count. Sensitivity remained high in sputum smear-negative (76.0%) and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-negative (76.5%) patients. With improved sample preparation, urine cfDNA is a viable biomarker for TB diagnosis. Our assay has the highest reported accuracy of any TB urine cfDNA test to date and has the potential to enable rapid non-sputum-based TB diagnosis across key underserved patient populations.

MR GITAU WILSON. Diagnosis and Predictability of Intraseasonal characteristics of wet and dry spells over Equatorial East Africa. PROF OGALLO LABAN, PROF CAMBERLIN PIERRE, DR OKOOLA RAPHAEL, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Wafula EM, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nzanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DT, Ademba GR, Pamba A. "Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) among under fives in the paediatric observation ward (POW), Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 1987;64(4):263-9.
Garvie JM, Kemp FH. "The diagnosis of chronic intussusception in children." Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1945;20:73-80. AbstractWebsite

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Muia B. "Diagnosis of Crystal Arthropathies.". In: AFLAR REGIONAL RHEUMATOLOGY SYMPOSIUM EASTERN AFRICAN REGION-Rheumatology is moving on. Kisumu, Kenya; 2014.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya I. The role of indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63:311 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya II. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermo-stable antigen. E. Afr. Med. J. 63: 318 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Diagnosis of hydatid disease in surgically confirmed cases by the use of the indirect hemagglutination test based on a thermo-stable lipoprotein and an unfractionated hydatid cyst fluid. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 83: 299 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Marangu D, Devine B, John-Stewart G. "Diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests in urine for pulmonary tuberculosis: a meta-analysis." Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.. 2015;19(11):1339-47. Abstract

To determine the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis (TB) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in urine samples for individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

Kassa R, Wentzell MKKMMDT-KJVS. "Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of tetanus toxin-derivatives in neurodegerative diseases.". In: the American Society of Neurochemistry (ASN). Saint Louis, mi, USA; 2011.

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