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Ogollah K, Bolo AZ, Muchemi AW. "Determinants of Strategic Forces That Shape Competition in Handicraft Industry In Kenya ." Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(2):58-67.ogollah_et_al1.pdf
Murimi E, Kihiu J, Nyakoe G, Mutuli S, Kimotho J. "Determination of resonant frequency of a piezoelectric ring for generation of ultrasonic waves.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Ultrasound technology has become an important aspect in material handling and machining. Standing and traveling ultrasonic waves have been applied in powder transportation, feeding, dosing and supply of small amounts of powder with high quantitative accuracy and precision. Piezoelectric actuators are the most commonly used to generate the ultrasonic waves in various devices. Hence, these devices have presented a unique, economic and simple means of accurate handling of powder. This paper describes the determination of the resonant frequency of a piezoelectric ring that can be applied for generation of the ultrasonic waves. The resonant frequency is important in determining the highest amplitude of the vibration of the ring.

Mulwa JK, Kimata F. "Determination of source parameters for the May 20, 1990 Southern Sudan earthquake by inversion of teleseismic body-waves.". In: Operating Management of Earthquake, Tsunami and Volcano Eruption Observation Systems. Nagoya: Research Center for Seismology, Volcanology and Disaster Mitigation, Nagoya University; 2011. Abstract

The May 20, 1990 earthquake which occurred in southern Sudan is so far the strongest earthquake to occur in the eastern part of African continent within the past 21 years. It caused damage in southern Sudan as well as severe shaking in parts of Uganda and Kenya, and was accompanied by aftershocks on May 24, 1990 of moment magnitudes Mw = 6.5 and 7.1.

Inversion of teleseismic body-waves has been undertaken for the purpose of this study in an attempt to reassess the seismo-tectonics of northern and central Kenya as well as southern Sudan. The results show that the best solution for the inversion of teleseismic body waves for the May 20, 1990 earthquake consists of only one event with a source mechanism of 315o/84o/-3o (strike/dip/rake) and the fault plane is characterized by left-lateral strike-slip fault mechanism. The focal depth for this earthquake is 12.1 km, seismic moment Mo = 7.65 x 1019 Nm and moment magnitude, Mw = 7.19 (7.2). The fault rupture started 15 seconds earlier and lasted for a duration of 17 seconds along a fault plane having dimensions of length  60 km and width  40 km. The average dislocation along the fault is 1.1 m and the stress drop,  is 1.63 Mpa.

The distribution of historical earthquakes from southern Sudan through central Kenya shows a NW-SE alignment of epicenters. On a local scale in Kenya, the NW-SE alignment of epicenters is characterized by earthquakes of local magnitude Ml  4.0. This NW-SE alignment of epicenters confirms the existence of an active fault zone, the Aswa-Nyangia fault zone, from southern Sudan through central Kenya and further into the Indian Ocean. However, owing to lack of waveform data for these historical earthquakes, it is not possible to determine the source mechanism of the fault. Further work on inversion of short period waveform data is required so as to precisely determine the fault mechanism of this NW-SE trending fault zone in the central and southeastern parts of Kenya.

Yangyuoru PM, Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Determination of Sphingosine Kinase 2 Activity using Fluorescent Sphingosine by Capillary Electrophoresis." Electrophoresis. 2011;32(13):1742-9.
Omuga DB. "Determination Of The Daily Nursing Procedures Performed To Children Admitted With Medical Conditions At Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2011;39(2):16-23. Abstract

The daily nursing procedures are those aspects of nursing that occur most frequently, affect a large number of patients andplace patients at ·riskby not providing care correctly or providing care that is not indicated. There has been an increasing outcry of falling standards of health care in hospitals. Many a times health care providers including the nurse do not follow recommended procedures or do not carry out required tasks at all. Checks on procedures performed to hospitalized children and their parents has been documented as one way of evaluating the quality of care. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried at KNHwith the aim of determining the daily nursing procedures and the adherence to oral drug administration' procedure. The children whose parents/ guardians participated in the study were selected through systematic random
sampling using the admission registers while the nurses were purposely selected. A total of 256 parents/guardians staying with the selected children, 78 nurses and 4 nurse in- charges were recruited into the study. Data was analysed by use of the "Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)".Drug administration was established as one of the procedures that almost all nurses carried out on a daily basis. However, the procedure for administration of oral medications was not adhered to by all the nurses observed. Other daily procedure.s.mentioned invariably included nutritional care (50%),hygiene (50%),taking of
vital observations (46.4%),comfort caring (44%);health education (36%)and infection control (2.5%).It was concluded that there is minimal performance of the expected daily nursing procedures and non-adherence to the laid down procedures for the administration of oral medications thus indicating that the quality of care is sub-optimal. The study recommended that standards of paediatric nursing be developed and emphasis be laid on the performance of the daily procedures and adherence to the laid procedures for oral drug administration to minimize drug errors.

C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Developing an Authentic African Architecture." Africa Habitat Review . 2011;5. Abstract

The idea of the existence of an African Architecture has been problematic over the years since the onset of European occupation. Early scholars of non-Western built forms saw them as not constituting architecture but as shelter or mere dwellings (Oliver, 1987). Others classed these built forms as primitive or indigenous architecture (Guidoni, 1987 Gardi, 1973)while others have classed built forms on the African continent as African Architecture (Kultermann, 1969).Globally, most indigenous societies build their structures using local resources and quite often adapted to the climate of the locality. In addition, traditional built forms tend to respect historical precedents and local customary practices. In this regard, it can be argued that traditional architecture is green architecture without the benefits of sophisticated technologies. The above notwithstanding, most Western architecture imported to the continent, had little regard for local practices and quite often ignored local climate. In attempting to train architects for contemporary practice, this paper argues for hybrid architecture. This is because there is no current pure African architecture in existence. What happened over time was the Africanisation of Western and Eastern architectural models to suit the African condition. The resultant architecture has been a hybrid of these various architectures, what Mazrui refers to as the Triple African Heritage. This architecture is a spatial counter form for the contemporary African society and can be seen to be authentic

Ondieki EO. "Developing Resources for the Training of Architects." Africa Habitat Review Journal - . Nairobi, SBE Publication- UoN. 2011;Vol:5(5)(2010):296-302.Website
Omwenga EI, Kinoti P. "the Development of a Framework for Open Courseware for Emerging Economies: the case of Kenyan public Universities.". In: Special Issues in Computing and ICT Research . Vol. Volume VII. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2011.
Susan S Imbahale, Collins K Mweresa, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Development of environmental tools for Anopheline larval control." Parasites & Vectors. 2011;4:130.
A K. Developmental Defects of Enamel. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co; 2011.
Ochola E. "Dholuo Morphosyntactics in a Minimalist Program,." LAP Publishing Ltd; 2011. Abstract


MR GITAU WILSON. Diagnosis and Predictability of Intraseasonal characteristics of wet and dry spells over Equatorial East Africa. PROF OGALLO LABAN, PROF CAMBERLIN PIERRE, DR OKOOLA RAPHAEL, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
John HPH. "Dialogue Drama in Kenyan Political Speeches & Its Pragmatic Implications." Nordic Online Journal of Linguistics; Helsinki, Finland. 2011.
"Dictionary of African Boigraphy." Biographies of Kinyanjui Gathirimu, James Gichuru, Waiyaki Hinga, Wang’ombe Ihura, John Keen, Gutu Kibetu, Cege Kibiru and Wangu Makeri. 2011.
Lenze D, Leoncini L, Hummel M, Volinia S, Liu CG, Amato T, Falco DG, Githanga J, Horn H, Nyagol J, Ott G, Palatini J, Pfreundschuh M, Rogena E, Rosenwald A, Siebert R, Croce CM, Stein H. "The different epidemiologic subtypes of Burkitt lymphoma share a homogenous micro RNA profile distinct from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma." Leukemia. 2011:1-8.
Mganga1 KZ, Nyariki DM, Nyangito MM, 2 WEN, Muiru WM, Musimba NKR, Agnes M’ombeW. "Different land use types in the semi-arid rangelands of Kenya influence soil properties." Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management . 2011; 2(11):370-374. Abstract

Rangelands in semi-arid Kenya have recently witnessed extensive land use changes. These changes can mainly be attributed to increased livestock populations and the response of the increased human population to both local and exogenous opportunities and constraints. This study was carried out in Kibwezi district of Kenya mainly inhabited by agro-pastoralists. The main objective of this study was to establish how different land use types influence soil properties in tropical semi-arid rangelands. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples from three land use types namely cultivated land (CL), grazing land (GL) and fallow land (FL) at a depth of 15-30cm were collected and analyzed using standard laboratories for soil nutrients and soil physical properties. Results show open grazing lands (CEC 19.59 meq/100g) to be more fertile than cultivated (13.88 meq/100g) and fallow (6.40 meq/100g) lands. This was attributed to the continuous dropping of faecal material by grazing livestock. Higher bulk density in grazing land (1.36 g/cm3) compared to cultivated and fallow lands with 1.29 g/cm3 and 1.33 g/cm3 was attributed to the hoof action of livestock. These results suggest that different land use types in the semi-arid rangelands contribute immensely to soil properties.

Key words: Bulk density, cation exchange capacity (CEC), drylands, grazing lands, Kibwezi district, livestock.

"Different land use types in the semi-arid rangelands of Kenya influence soil properties." Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management . 2011;2(11):370-384.
Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE. "The dilemma of selecting suitable proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach." Community Dent Health J. 2011;28(1):12-16. Abstract

Objective: To determine the examiner’s accuracy in selecting proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)
Basic research design: Intervention study.
Clinical setting and participants: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from 30 rural
schools in Kenya participated in the study.
Intervention: Three examiners selected a total of 1,560 suitable proximal carious
lesions in the primary molars after examining 6,002 children from 30 schools randomly
selected out of 142 schools in two divisions. Seven operators randomly paired on a daily
basis to eight assistants restored the lesions. An explanation was provided for any cavity
that was not restored. Pre-and post-operative radiographs of the cavities were also taken
for evaluation.
Main outcome measures: The examiner’s choice of suitable proximal cavities
restorable using the ART approach was related to the decision made to either restore or
not to restore. The radiographic findings of the selected cavities were also compared to
the decision made by the examiner. The results obtained were used to determine the
examiner’s accuracy in selecting suitable proximal cavities for restoration using the ART approach.
Results: The majority of the subjects were excluded due to absenteeism, pulpalexposure or anxiety during the operative stage. Only 804 children received one restoration in their primary molars. The examiner’s accuracy in selecting suitable ART restorable cavities was 79.9% based on clinical parameters. The examiners’ judgment that the cavities had not progressed into the pulp was 94.9% based on preoperative radiographic analysis and based on postoperative radiographic analysis, 91.7% that the pulp would not be involved after treatment.
Conclusions: A trained and diligent examiner has a very good chance of selecting
proximal carious lesions restorable using the ART approach, without the threat of dental
pulpal-involvement during the excavation of caries.

HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. The Discourse Political Language in Kenya: Structure and Meaning of Speeches. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2011.
Rukwaro R. "Dissemination of Architectural Knowledge among Research, Training and Practice.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Within the field of architecture, architects and scholars appear to have difficulty making sense of one another’s experience and the relationship between practice and research is often uneven and unclear. In addition, those who identify themselves as scholars of architecture tend to be closed in their academic spheres and vice versa for those who are practitioners. The professionals and scholars seem not to have adequate interchange and reconciliation of the profession. This has not helped much in developing a unifying framework for research and practice of architecture. The scholars and the practicing architect have yet to produce a comprehensive institutional framework capable of directing the profession toward the demonstrable improvement of the architectural practice; training and research. Survey is used as the research design. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from archiects in practice and those in academia, students of architecture and educational administrators. The practicing architects were randomly sampled from the Board of Architects and Quantity Surveying (BORAQS) register. Forty practicing architects were selected. Twenty lecturers and fifty students were interviewed while four administrators were administered questionnaires. Qualitative techniques were used to analyze the responses from the field. This paper has unraveled the minimal relationship between scholars and professionals; the information flow between them and presented the way forward

Mboroki DG, Mulwa DA, Kyalo DD, Bowa DO. "Distance Education: Product or Process." JCODE . 2011;1(2):71-84.
Gichuhi NW, Gitau AN, Mutua JM, Kaberere KK, Mangoli MK. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering . 2011;4(1):65-77.
Gichuhi, S, N.; GA, J.M.; M, K.K. K, M.K. M. "Distributed Generation of Green Electricity for Sustainable Rural Electrification in Kenya. ." ICASTOR journal of engineering.. 2011;Vol. 4. No.1 (ISSN-0974-407X):65-77.
Ogeng'o JA, Malek A, Kiama SG. "Distribution of ageing changes of the goat aortic tunica media." J. Morphol. Sci. . 2011;28(1):23-27.
Subramanian S, H.R P, Birithia, R. S, Muthomi O, P JS, R.D N. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions ." Narla, R.D. 2011;101(S172).
Awino ZB, Muchemi AW, Ogutu M. "Diversity in the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):82-92 .
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G. "Does Land Tenure Security Matter for Investment in Soil and Water Conservation? Evidence From Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics- AFJARE. 2011;4(2):123-139.
Dorothy McCormick, Schmitz H. "Donor Proliferation and Coordination: Experiences of Kenya and Indonesia." Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2011. Abstract


"Dosing regimens of oral ciprofloxacin for children with severe malnutrition: a population pharmacokinetic study with Monte Carlo simulation." J Antimicrob Chemother. . 2011. Abstract


Severe malnutrition is frequently complicated by sepsis, leading to high case fatality. Oral ciprofloxacin is a potential alternative to the standard parenteral ampicillin/gentamicin combination, but its pharmacokinetics in malnourished children is unknown.

Ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg, 12 hourly) was administered either 2 h before or up to 2 h after feeds to Kenyan children hospitalized with severe malnutrition. Four plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured over 24 h. Population analysis with NONMEM investigated factors affecting the oral clearance (CL) and the oral volume of distribution (V). Monte Carlo simulations investigated dosage regimens to achieve a target AUC(0-24)/MIC ratio of ≥125.

Data comprised 202 ciprofloxacin concentration measurements from 52 children aged 8-102 months. Absorption was generally rapid but variable; C(max) ranged from 0.6 to 4.5 mg/L. Data were fitted by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag. The parameters were CL (L/h) = 42.7 (L/h/70 kg) × [weight (kg)/70](0.75) × [1 + 0.0368 (Na(+) - 136)] × [1 - 0.283 (high risk)] and V (L) = 372 × (L/70 kg) × [1 + 0.0291 (Na(+) - 136)]. Estimates of AUC(0-24) ranged from 8 to 61 mg·h/L. The breakpoint for Gram-negative organisms was <0.06 mg/L with doses of 20 mg/kg/day and <0.125 mg/L with doses of 30 or 45 mg/kg/day. The cumulative fraction of response with 30 mg/kg/day was ≥80% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella species, but <60% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

An oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg three times daily (30 mg/kg/day) may be a suitable alternative antibiotic for the management of sepsis in severely malnourished children. Absorption was unaffected by the simultaneous administration of feeds.

Olubayo FM, Kilao D C, S O, I.S. S, J.M. K. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication." International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production. 2011;6(2):23-28.homoptera_pests_of_citrus.pdf
K'Oyugi BO. Draft Population Policy for National Development. Hotel Intercontinental, Mombasa: National Council for Population and Development; 2011.
K'Oyugi BO. Drivers That Will Influence National Development Beyond 2030 – Population and Resources Maximization Dynamics in Kenya. Kenya School of Monetary Studies Nairobi: National Economic and Social Council Secretariat; 2011.
Mogotsi K, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM. "Drought Management Strategies among Agro-Pastoral Communities in Non-Equilibrium Kalahari Ecosystems." Environmental Research Joumal. . 2011; 5 ((4)):156-162. Abstract

Rural Kalahari communities whose livelihoods are heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture are
exposed to increasing intensity and frequency of drought spells. Subsequently their resilience is gradually
being eroded and they are left increasingly vulnerable. This study unearths and higtrlights the myriad measures
employedby small scale agro-pastoralists to cope with and adapt to droughts. Such strategies include enrolling
in the govemment's Labour Intersive Public Works Programme, harvesting larvae of Imbrasia belina
(Westwood) moth for corsurnption and/or sale, supplementary feeding of livestock, providing water for
livestock and selling part of the livestock herd while some households moved livestock to better graz:rrg areas
within the commtmal area and sor:ght altemative sources of income or-rtside agriculture. This fluidity and
flexibility is necessary to manage the often harsh and unpredictable environment commr:nities operate under.
But more importantly, some of these currently used measures could be enhanced to buffer Kalahari
agro-pastoralists from anticipated future dry spells in the Southern African region.

Key words: Adaptation Botswana. coping, drought, Kalahari, semi-arid, strategies

Kibugi R. "Development and balancing of interests in Kenya." The balancing of interests in environmental law in Africa. 2011:191. Abstract
Bishop RP, Musoke A, Orago A, Kabiru E, Obura M, Kanduma EG, Githaka N, Mwaura S, Odongo DO, Skilton RA, others. "Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.". 2011. Abstract
Kamau L, Skilton RA, Odongo DO, Mwaura S, Githaka N, Kanduma E, Obura M, Kabiru E, Orago A, Musoke A, others. "Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida)." Insect molecular biology. 2011;20:105-114. Abstract
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Diversity and Characteristics of Supplementary Foods Sold and Consumed by Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences. Kunyanga CN; 2011. Abstract
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; 2011. Abstract
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Margaret N. Meme others, Prof. Anna Karani, et al Book .". In: Ministry of Public Heath and Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services. Ministry of Public Health & Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the  sexuality curriculum is to improve service provider

PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O Mala 1,2*; 2011. Abstract
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Ebrahim Y. "Design and development of Temperature Template for bioclimatic analysis in tropical countries.". In: National Council for Science and Technology, Nairobi. KICC; 2010.
Musyoka SM, Wayumba GO, Mwathane I. Development of a proto-type land information management system for the peri-urban areas in Nairobi: Case study of Kitengela area. Nairobi: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya; 2010.
Sanes JR, Zipursky LS. "Design principles of insect and vertebrate visual systems." Neuron. 2010;66:15-36. Abstract

A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal's view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers-retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus), and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates; and retina, lamina, and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance.

Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Distribution of the tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus infecting onions in Kenya.". In: Tenth Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics: Analysis of Production Chains of Ornamentals for the Local Market and For Export. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Juja, Kenya; 2010.
Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, Hughes JP, Thomas KK, Mujugira A, Mugo N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Kidoguchi L, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L, Celum C. "Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2010;375(9717):824-33. Abstract

Most people infected with HIV-1 are dually infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. Daily suppression of this herpes virus reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but whether it delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. We investigated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 progression.

Hazan L, Hernández Rodriguez OA, Bhorat A'adE, Miyazaki K, Tao B, Heyrman R, group(EM Wafula AESOPS. "A double-blind, dose-response study of the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children and adolescents with hypertension." Hypertension. 2010;55(6):1323-30. Abstract

The current study investigated the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil in children with hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure measured at or above the 95th percentile (90th percentile for patients with diabetes, glomerular kidney disease, or family history of hypertension) for age, gender, and height while off any antihypertensive medication. The active treatment phase was conducted in 2 periods, with 2 cohorts in each period (cohort A, 62% white; cohort B, 100% Black). In period 1, patients stratified by weight received low-dose (2.5 or 5 mg) or high-dose (20 or 40 mg) olmesartan medoxomil daily for 3 weeks. In period 2, patients maintained their olmesartan medoxomil dose or initiated placebo washout for an additional 2 weeks. Period 1 efficacy results showed a dose-dependent, statistically significant reduction in seated trough systolic and diastolic blood pressure for both cohorts, with mean blood pressure reductions numerically smaller in cohort B than in cohort A. The olmesartan medoxomil dose response remained statistically significant when adjusted for body weight. In period 2, blood pressure control decreased in those patients switching to placebo, whereas patients continuing to receive olmesartan medoxomil therapy maintained consistent blood pressure reduction. Adverse events were generally mild and unrelated to study medication. Olmesartan medoxomil was safe and efficacious in children with hypertension, resulting in significant blood pressure reductions.

Kamau, C. WDPMN'ang'a NMPWGL. "Developing an Open source spell checker for Gikuyu." In: Guy De Pauw GHJ, De Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010), European Language Resources Association (ELRA.; 2010:. Abstract

In this paper, we describe the development of an open source spell checker for Gikuyu language using the Hunspell language tools. We explore the morphology of Gikuyu, highlighting the inflection of various parts of speech in Gikuyu including verbs, nouns, and adjectives among others. In Hunspell, surface words are realized as a set of continuation classes, with each class providing a morpheme with a specific function. In addition, circumfixation, which is prevalent in Gikuyu derived nouns, is implemented. Hunspell also provides for word suggestion using character prevalence and replacement rules. Given that the developed Gikuyu spellchecker and the Hunspell tools are open source, the spell checking function developed in this work can be adopted in major open-source products such as Mozilla and OpenOffice products. The spell checker has a fairly representative Gikuyu lexicon and achieves an acceptable realization of a Gikuyu spellchecker. When tested on a test corpus, the spell checker attains a precision of 82%, recall of 84% and an accuracy of 75%.

Gitao CG, S.M.Kihu, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Karimuribo E, P S, Wahome R, Maingi N. "Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region.". In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.gitao.pdf
Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Omucheni DL, Wabwile R, Abramczyk H, Zoueu JT. "Disease diagnostics by chemometrics-assisted spectroanalytical and imaging techniques.". In: LAM9 International Workshop on Optics and Lasers in Science and Technology. Dakar, Senegal; 2010.
Rading GO. "D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Analysis of the Weld Strength of High Density Polyethylene Dam Liner." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):12-23.
Hamu PJH, Nyonje J. Darubini ya Isimujamii Kwa Shule na Vyuo . Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
Ombongi K. "Dashed Hopes And Missed Opportunities: Malaria Control Policies In Kenya (1896-2009).". In: Markets of well-being:Navigating Health and Healing in Africa. Leiden and Boiston: Brill; 2010.
Maobe, S.N.; Mburu ANMMOMWK; L. Decomposition, Mineralization And Nitrogen Loss Following Application Of Different Rates Of Mucuna Green Biomass Under Field Conditions In Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Knowledge on the relationship amongst mucuna green biomass application rate, decomposition pattern, mineralization and its distribution in rooting zone of maize is essential for efficient utilization of the legume as N source for maize production. Consequently, on-farm research was carried out for two seasons on sandy clay soil of southwest Kenya in 2004. The objective was to determine effect of different application rates of mucuna green biomass on its decomposition pattern, available soil N, distribution in rooting zone of maize, and leaching beyond the zone during the season when the biomass is incorporated into the soil. The treatments were mucuna applied at rates of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; and inorganic fertilizer-urea at 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 included for comparison. The approaches employed in evaluating the treatments were: Field incubation using micro-lysimeter technique and, direct field sampling method. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Results showed that mucuna decomposition pattern remained same irrespective of application rate. Soil available N (SAN) increased over time after application of either source of N. The SAN level reached a significantly higher peak at 2 weeks after application (WAA). Direct field sampling showed that at 2 WAA most of the N accumulated at 50–100 cm depth, regardless of the N source. Significant differences in SAN level attributed to application of the various rates of mucuna and fertilizer were notable at 2 WAA, but had disappeared by 4 WAA. At the 2 WAA, fertilizer and mucuna applied at 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 respectively gave comparable SAN level and had non-significant effect on it at 0-15 and 15–30 cm depths. It required 240 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna green biomass, or 120 kg N ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer-urea to substantially increase SAN level over the control. The loss of N beyond maize rooting zone was significantly higher from inorganic fertilizer than mucuna and the control, which were the same.

N Kilonzo, SJ Theobald NAMKRTECHJ. "Delivering post-rape care services: Kenya’s experience in developing integrated services." Wiley Online Library ( 2010;(DOI: 10.1002):hon.977.
Osanjo L, Amollo L. "Design Policy and Promotion Map." SEE Bulletin. 2010;3 (Issue 3 - May 2010):8.
Haile A;, Duguma G;, Mirkena T;, Tibbo M;, Iñiguez L;, Rischkowsky B;, Mwai OA;, Wurzinger M;, Sölkner J. "Designing and implementation of community-based breeding programs for adapted local sheep breeds in Ethiopia."; 2010.
G. KJ, I. MJ, N. WR, L TC. "Determination of Deltamethrin Residue Levels in Selected Vegetables Consumed in Nairobi, Kenya using HPLC." Journal of International; Published by Environmental Application & Science . 2010;5(1)(11-ICCA Special Issue):801-805. Abstract

Abstract Vegetables provide vital minerals and other nutrients to our bodies.
However, pests destroy vegetables. This as lead to rampant use of pesticides on
vegetables in Kenya. The pesticides that are commonly used on vegetables in
Kenya are the pyrethroids which include; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and
chismethrin. In this study deltamethrin was analysed in selected vegetables which
include; kales, cabbages and tomatoes during the dry and wet seasons. The
vegetables were bought from some markets in Nairobi city in Kenya.
Deltamethrin residues were extracted from the samples using organic solvents.
The residues were then determined by high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC). The results shows that the deltamethrin mean residue levels ranged
between 0.0700±0.0200 and 0.2000±0.1000 mg/kg during the dry season and
between 0.0080±0.0500 and 0.0400±0.0001 mg/kg during the wet season. The
deltamethrin residue levels were significantly higher during the wet season than
during the wet season in most of the samples.
Keywords: Vegetables, pyrethroids, deltamethrin, residues and HPLC

Ogara WO, Gitahi NJ, Andanje SA, Oguge N, Nduati DW, Mainga AO. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2010;4(8):540-546.determination_of_carnivore_prey_base_by_scat_analysis_in_samburu_community_group_ranches_in_kenya.pdf
Mbugua P, Salim A, Onditi A, Yusuf A. "Determination of Micronutrients and micronutrients in Soil Samples from Around Lake Ol-Bolossat." Int. J. Biol. Sci.. 2010;2(8):140-148.scan0016.pdf
Midzi V, Ayele, A., ESARSWG. "Determination of velocity models for the East and Southern Africa Region." Africa Geoscience Review. 2010;Vol.17(1):21-34.
Gor SO, Gitau CMW. "Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub - sect or in Kenya: What Role for Public - Private Partnerships? ." IDA International Journal of Sustainable Development,. 2010;101(06):1-17.
Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng’ang’a W. "Developing an Open source Spell-checker for Gıkuyu.". 2010. AbstractFull Text

Abstract In this paper, we describe the development of an open source spell checker for
Gıkuyu, using the Hunspell language tools. We explore the morphology of Gıkuyu and
highlight the inflection of various parts of speech, including verbs, nouns, and adjectives. In
Hunspell, surface words are realized as a set of continuation classes, with each class
providing a morpheme with a specific function. In addition, circumfixation, which is prevalent
in Gıkuyu, is implemented. Hunspell also provides for word suggestion, using character

Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng'ang'a W, Ngure K, Mutiga J. Developing an Open source Spell-checker for G˜ık˜uy˜u. Valletta, Malta: European Language Resources Association- ELRA; 2010.gikuyu_spellchecker.pdf
Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng'ang'a W, Ngure K, Mutiga J. "Developing an Open source Spell-checker for G˜ık˜uy˜u.". 2010.Website
Gitao, C G; Kihu BNWKSWMSM; LC;. Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region.; 2010. Abstract

Major losses in sheep and goats have been incurred from Peste des petit ruminants (PPR), a relatively new disease in East Africa. It first appeared in Eastern Uganda but has since spread to most of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Small ruminants are the source of income for most pastoralists in East Africa. In this study the epidemiology of PPR including risk factors, prevalence, and socio-economic effects will be analyzed using participatory tools in Turkana, Kenya and Longido in Tanzania.

Okumu F.O., Killeen G.F., Ogoma.S, Biswaro L., Smallegange R.C., Mbeyela E., Titus E., Munk C., Ngonyani H., Takken W., Mshinda H., Mukabana W.R., Moore S.J. "Development and field evaluation of a synthetic mosquito lure that is more attractive than humans. ." PLoS One. 2010;5(1):e8951.
MARY MWIANDI. "Development of University Education in Kenya Since Independence.". In: Shaping Research Universities in the Nile Basin Countries. Kampala: : Fountain Publishers; 2010.
Lombard A, Wairire GG. "Developmental Social Work in South Africa and Kenya: Some Lessons for Africa." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. 2010:98-111.
MO O, RO O. "The Dialectics of Sustainable Kibera Neighbourhood Development." International Refereed Journal the Icfai University Journal of Architecture. 2010;II(1).
Pamnani P, Rajab J.A G’a KJNR. "Disseminated Histoplasmosis diagnosed on Bone Marrow Aspirate Cytology." EAMJ. 2010;86:102-105.
Dharani N, Onyari JM, Kinyamario JI, Maina, Mavuti. "Distribution of Cd and Zn levels in Soils and Acacia xanthophloea Benth. From Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2010;85(3):318-323.
Birithia RL;, Subramanian S;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD. "Distribution Of The Tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus Infecting Onions In Kenya.".; 2010.
Birithia RL;, Subramanian S;, Muthomi J;, Narla RD. "Distribution Of The Tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus Infecting Onions In Kenya.".; 2010.
R B, S S, Villinger.J, J M, R.D N, H.R P. Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya. JKUAT; 2010.
Wagacha JM, Steiner U, Dehne H-W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E-C. "Diversity in Mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya." Journal of Phytopathology. 2010;157:527-535.Website
Maina J, Steiner U, H.DEHNE, Zuehlke S, M.SPITELLER, Muthomi J, OERKE E. "Diversity in mycotoxins and fungal spp infecting wheat in Nakuru." INSTITUTE OF SCINCE AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION. 2010;158(1439):527-537.diversity_in_mycotoxins_and_fungal_spp_infecting_wheat_in_nakuru.pdf
Schröder H. "Do high-context cultures prefer implicatures?". In: Relevance Studies in Poland. Exploring translation and communication problems. Warsaw : Warsaw University Press.; 2010.
Atieno R, Onjala J, Jama M. "Do think tanks benefit from APRM work? Kenya’s Experience.". In: in Gruzd Steven (ed) Grappling with Governance: Perspectives on the African Peer Review Mechanism. Johannesburg: Jacana Media (Pty) and South African Institute of International Studies; 2010.
Julius Juma O. "Does use of ICT-based market information services (MIS) improve welfare of smallholder farm households: Evidence from Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The need to provide agricultural information to farmers has led to emergence of numerous ICT-based MIS projects in developing country. These projects aim at promoting commercialization of smallholder agriculture and subsequently their welfare. This study examines the welfare effects of one such project in western Kenya. It uses household food security and access to medical health services as proxies of welfare. The study finds that farmers that use ICT-based market information are more food secure and have better access to medical health services than their counterpart. It highlights policy implications of these findings.

Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya D. "Drug Use in a Rural Secondary School in Kenya.". 2010.
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Nyangito MM, Mwang’ombe AW, Ekaya WN, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J, Muiru WM. "Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa." African Journal of Plant Science. 2010;5(4):135-141. Abstract

Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall at three phenological stages; early growth, elongation and reproduction. Laboratory seed viability tests were also done. Hydrological properties of the three grasses were estimated using a Kamphorst rainfall simulator. Results showed that there was a significant difference (p > 0.05) in dry matter yields and soil hydrological properties at the different grass phenological stages. Generally, all the three grasses improved the soil hydrological properties with an increase in grass stubble height. C. ciliaris gave the best soil hydrological properties followed by E. macrostachyus and E. superba, respectively. E. macrostachyus recorded the highest seed viability percentage. C. ciliaris and E. superba were ranked second and third, respectively. C. ciliaris yielded the highest biomass production at the reproductive stage followed by E. superba and E. macrostachyus, respectively.

Key words: Cenchrus ciliaris, Enteropogon macrostachyus, Eragrostis superba, rangeland.

Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Nyangito MM, Mwang’ombe AW, Ekaya WN, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J, Muiru WM. "Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa.". 2010. Abstract

Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall at three phenological stages; early growth, elongation and reproduction. Laboratory seed viability tests were also done. Hydrological properties of the three grasses were estimated using a Kamphorst rainfall simulator. Results showed that there was a significant difference (p > 0.05) in dry matter yields and soil hydrological properties at the different grass phenological stages. Generally, all the three grasses improved the soil hydrological properties with an increase in grass stubble height. C. ciliaris gave the best soil hydrological properties followed by E. macrostachyus and E. superba, respectively. E. macrostachyus recorded the highest seed viability percentage. C. ciliaris and E. superba were ranked second and third, respectively. C. ciliaris yielded the highest biomass production at the reproductive stage followed by E. superba and E. macrostachyus, respectively.

Key words: Cenchrus ciliaris, Enteropogon macrostachyus, Eragrostis superba, rangeland

Mutai EBK, Gitau AN, Aganda AA, Karuri GE. "Dynamic modeling of Temperatures in Poultry Structures.". 2010.Website
Gitau AN, Mutai EBK, Aganda AA, Karuri GE. "Dynamic modeling of Temperatures in Poultry Structures.". 2010.Website
Mutai EBK, Gitau AN, Aganda AA, Karuri GE. "Dynamic modeling of Temperatures in Poultry Structures.". 2010.Website
Mwanyumba PM, Wahome RG, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS. "A dynamic study of smallholders mixed farms in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya: Activities, performance and interactions." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;23.
Karanja NK, Mutua GK, Ayuke FO, Njenga M, Prain G, Kimenju J. "Dynamics of soil nematodes and earthworms in urban vegetable irrigated with wastewater in the Nairobi River Basin, Kenya." Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2010;12:521-530. Abstract

The effects of heavy metals lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Cromium (Cr) on nematode communities and earthworm density and biomass were studied in the wastewater irrigated farms of the Nairobi river basin. The levels of Cr and Pb in the wastewater were below the threshold values considered to be toxic while those of Cd exceeded the permissible limit. Heavy metal accumulation in soils in the Kibera and Maili Saba farms were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and 98.7 mg Cd kg-1, 4.0 mg Cr kg-1 and 74.3 mg Pb kg-1, respectively. High heavy metal concentrations as well as soil organic matter were negatively correlated with plant feeding nematodes in the genera Criconema, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus and Scutellonema. Bacterial feeding nematodes genera Rhabditis, Plectus, Cephalobus and Acrobeles were predominant in the gardens treated with wastewater. An average density of 198 m-2 earthworms and a biomass of 68 g m-2 and 102 earthworms m-2 with 33g m-2 biomass were recorded in Kibera and Maili Saba, respectively. The earthworms isolated from both sites were all epigeic with the metal content in Maili Saba suppressing their populations. This study has demonstrated that the use of untreated urban wastewater for irrigation has adverse effects on nematode and earthworm abundance and diversity and their potential as bioindicators of heavy metal presence.
Key words: Heavy metal accumulation; soil fauna; diversity

Owino RO, Masiga MA, Macigo FG, others. "Dental caries, gingivitis and the treatment needs among 12-year-olds." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87:25-31. Abstract
Ober-Oluoch J, Abdulhalim H, Dimba EAO. "Dentinogenesis imperfecta–a case report.". 2010. Abstract
M. DRGUANTAIERIC. "Design, synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of triazole-linked chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds.". In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. DMW; 2010. Abstract
A targeted series of chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds containing aminoquinoline and nucleoside templates was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimalarial activity. The Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes was applied as the hybridization strategy. Several chalcone-chloroquinoline hybrid compounds were found to be notably active, with compound 8b the most active, exhibiting submicromolar IC50 values against the D10, Dd2 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "The Dialectics of Sustainable Neighbourhood Development for Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2010. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Die Sprachwissenschaft und das doppelte Problem der Interpretation.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. thelem Verlag; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "DISTRIBUTION OF CD AND ZN LEVELS IN SOILS AND ACACIA XANTHOPHLOEA BENTH. FROM LAKE NAKURU NATIONAL PARK KENYA. N. Dharani, J. M. Onyari, J. I. Kinyamario, D. M. Maina, K. M. Mavuti.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Do EU standards promote environmentally-friendly fresh vegetable production? Evidence from Kenyan green bean industry.". In: Environment, Development and Sustainability. INTECH Publishers; 2010. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
KAAYA G.P., KANDILA-MUANDINGI, P.N., LOTFY EL-SAYED, H.R, MSHIGENI K. "Determination of optimum ratios of seaweed in mushroom cultivation substrates and ability of mushrooms to absorb iodine.". In: Proc. AGRISSON Congress. Oshakati Country Hotel; 2009.
KAAYA GP. "Development of innovative method based on fungal entomopathogens for control of the economically-important African ticks.". In: 22nd World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP, 2009) Conference. Calgary, Canada; 2009.
Gewa CA, Weiss RE, Bwibo NO, Whaley S, Sigman M, Murphy SP, Harrison G, Neumann CG. "Dietary micronutrients are associated with higher cognitive function gains among primary school children in rural Kenya." Br. J. Nutr.. 2009;101(9):1378-87. Abstractdietary_micronutrients.pdf

With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.

THURMAN TR, RICE J, IKAMARI L, B.JARAB, MUTUKU AK, NYANGARA F. The difference interventions for guardians can make: Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. Washington, DC.: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); 2009.ovc_kilifi.doc
Mithöfer K, Ong'amo G, LeRu BP. "Development of species distribution models for lepidopteran stem borers and associated parasitoids in Kenya.". In: Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. University of Hamburg, Germany; 2009.
"D.S.B. Ongarora, G.N. Thoithi, F. N. Kamau, K.O. Abuga, J.W. Mwangi and I.O. Kibwage (2009). Triterpenoids from the Stem Bark if Blighia unijugata Bak (Sapindaceae)."; 2009. Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Bligtiia unijugat
The structures of the two compounds were elucidated 011 the basis of their spectral data as friedel

Ssebugere P, Kiremire BT, Kishimba M, Wandiga SO, Nyanzi SA, Wasswa J. "DDT and metabolites in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda.". 2009.Website
Mwega F. "The Debt Experiences of Uganda, Kenya and Bolivia.". In: Compendium on Debt Sustainability and Development.; 2009.
Murigu J. "Decision-making criteria for investing in commercial real estate in Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Commercial real estate investments in the Kenya’s capital city-Nairobi reveal the following: A shrinking occupation demand; Disparities between expected and actual incomes; Difficulties in meeting debt servicing obligations and difficulties in completing construction projects within the specified cost and time frames. In spite of these problems, new, large and very expensive buildings continue to mushroom in the city. Therefore, there appears to be unexplained reasons that compel investors to continue investing in commercial real estate. It is against this background that research was undertaken to establish the basis of decision-making while investing in these properties. The research was based on two main objectives, namely; to identify and rank the factors that influence the decision to invest in commercial real estate and propose steps to be followed by investors in the decision to invest in these properties in order to, amongst other goals, minimise disparities between the expected and actual returns. A random sample of commercial buildings in the city was studied and it was established that, expected income was the most important factor influencing the decision to invest in commercial real estate followed by expected returns from the investment. While it was observed that the commercial real estate investor in Kenya is fairly rational and economically led, a lack of systematic and formal decision making rules and procedures was noted. The study’s main proposal is that the decision to invest in commercial real estate ought to be undertaken in a systematic manner. Effective decision making rarely occurs by chance but involves a logical, sequential and ordered approach. The researcher is also of the opinion that a standard school of appraisal should be developed and introduced in Kenya. Continuous professional development programmes should also be instituted.

Mutembei HM, Muasa BS, Origa R, Jimbo S, Ojango JMK, Tsuma VT, Mutiga ER, Okeyo AM. "Delivery of appropriate cattle genotypes to Eastern African smallholder farmers through in vitro embryo production technologies – the technical procedures, prospects and challenges." Royal Society Chemistry Journal. 2009;32:84-90.
Mwabu G, Carrin G. "The Demand for Health Care.". In: WHO Health Systems Policy, Finance and Organization. Academic Press; 2009.
Nduiga DK, Joshi M, OGOLA EN. "Demographic and clinical characteristics of ambulatory atrial fibrillation at Kenyatta National Hospital." Cardiovascular Journal of Africa:. 2009:6-7.
Chepchirchir A, Bii C, Ndinya-Achola LP. "Dermatophyte infections in Primary School Children in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. ." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(2)(Feb):59-68.
Onyango W. "The Design and Production Process of Jua Kali Furniture in Kenya "Art or Chaos.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

The jua kali sector covers the informal manufacturer who operates informally makeshitfs on the outskirts of our major urban areas such as Gikomba and shauri moyo in Nairobi.This paper looks into design and production process of jua kali furniture,Jua kali designers approaches to the trade and tools used are also addressed.The issue of equipments and workshop sketches and photographs showing faults in their products have also been included for scrutiny and evidence of the chaotic situation

Deisser A-M, Wahome EPHRAIMW. "Designing preventive conseravation training for museums: a case of the National Museums of Kenya." Hekima (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.. 2009;IV(1):23-38.
Irungu P;, Bett B;, Mbogoh SG;, Randolph TF;, Nyamwaro SO;, Murilla G. "Determinants of cattle market price volatility in Maasailand: a GARCH-M application."; 2009.
Irungu P;, Bett B;, Mbogoh SG;, Randolph TF;, Nyamwaro SO;, Murilla G. "Determinants of cattle market price volatility in Maasailand: a GARCH-M application."; 2009.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Ndenge G, Mwabu D. "Determinants of children’s nutritional status in Kenya: evidence from demographic and health surveys." Journal of African Economies. 2009;18(13):363-387.Website
Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M. "Developing and Introducing Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Serious Illness in Kenya.". 2009;10(93):799-804. Abstractdeveloping_and_introducing_evidence_based_clinical_practice_guidelines_for_serious_illness_in_kenya..pdf

The under-5 mortality rate in most developing countries remains high yet many deaths could be averted if available knowledge was put into practice. For seriously ill children in hospital investigations in low-income countries commonly demonstrate incorrect diagnosis and treatment and frequent prescribing errors. To help improve hospital management of the major causes of inpatient childhood mortality we developed simple clinical guidelines for use in Kenya, a low-income setting. The participatory process we used to adapt existing WHO materials and further develop and build support for such guidelines is discussed. To facilitate use of the guidelines we also developed job-aides and a 5.5 days training programme for their dissemination and implementation. We attempted to base our training on modern theories around adult learning and deliberately attempted to train a ‘critical mass’ of health workers within each institution at low cost. Our experience suggests that with sustained effort it is possible to develop locally owned, appropriate clinical practice guidelines for emergency and initial hospital care for seriously ill children with involvement of pertinent stake holders throughout. Early experience suggests that the training developed to support the guidelines, despite the fact that it challenges many established practices, is well received, appropriate to the needs of front line health workers in Kenya and feasible. To our knowledge the process described in Kenya is among a handful of attempts globally to implement inpatient or referral care components of WHO / UNICEF’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach. However, whether guideline dissemination and implementation result in improved quality of care in our environment remains to be seen.

N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "DEVELOPMEMENT OF A HPLC-MS/MS METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF HYDROZINOCURCUMIN IN PLASMA.". In: 12 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2009. Abstract

The natural product curcumin has a wide range of useful biological effects. However its use in humans is limited due to its short half-life, rapid metabolism and poor oral bioavailability. It is metabolized by sequential reduction of carbon-carbon double two carbonyl groups. To overcome these limitations, a hydrazide derivative of curcumin was synthesized to improve its water solubility and reduce its rate of metabolism. The objective of study was, therefore, to develop a method for the analysis of hydrazinocureumin in murinc blood. This method will be eventually used to evaluate the pharmokinetic profile of hydrazinocurcumin in mice. Method: LC/MS/MS was selected as the analytic method because its high sensitivity allowed for sampling of small volumes of blood from mice. The optimal chromatographic and mass spectrometry conditions were determined by trial arid error. The column performance was monitored by measuring retention time, peak symmetry factor. A calibration curve was generated by using standard solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.78 - 10 rig/ml. The method was validated by determining the recovery, limit of detection, accuracy, linearity and intraday precision. The optimal method for extracting hydrazinocurcumin from biological fluids was determined by spiking human blood and plasma and extraction was done by solvent extraction from a spotted filter paper and liquid-liquid extraction. Instrumentation: The samples were assayed using an Agilent LC/MS/MS 3200Q Trap system (1100 series, USA) in the positive ionization mode. HPLC separation was done using an Agilent 1200 system (Agilent Technologies, Japan) interfaced with the MS/MS system. Ionization was done by electron spray ionization with a collision energy was 33eV. Chromatograms were integrated using Analyst version 1.4 software. Weighted linear regression was used to generate calibration curves from standard solutions. Results: The optimal conditions for HPLC separation was a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile: acetonitrile (1:1) with an isocratic flow rate of 0.3m1/minute and run time of 2 minutes. The analytical column was a 50 by 2.0 mm Pheromex C18 column with a particle size of 5 microns. The injection volume was 1 Out The hydrazinocurcumin formed molecular ion at M+H+ m/z 365.2 and two metastable ions at m/z 351 and m/z. 349.2. The transition monitored was m/z 365.2 to 349.2 at unit resolution and a dwelling time of 150 milliseconds. The retention time was 1.11 minutes. The optimal method of extraction was liquid-liquid extraction using 250 ul of ethyl acetate from 10 ul of whole blood in 50 ul of buffer at pH 10. The filter paper method of extraction was found to give erratic results. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 10n/m1 to 0.5 ng/ml of hydrazinocurmin in whole human blood. Conclusion: The precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

Development of Christian Doctrine. Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distance Learning ; 2009.
Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick, Pinaud N. "The Developmental Impact of Asian Drivers on Kenya with emphasis on textile and clothing." The World Economy. 2009;111 (10):1467-1495.
O OL, W KL, W MR, S BB. "Diet composition and nutritional contribution of food scavenged by indigenous chickens in Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2009;21.
R. TT, Rice J. IL, B. J, A. M, F. N. "The Difference Interventions for Guardians Can Make." Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. 2009.
Okebe M.A", Wanyande" P. Discourses on civil society in Kenya. Nairobi: ARRF; 2009.
Martinon MCA –. "Discover the Success in You: Discover the Magic in Believing in Yourself." a Letter to Young Women. . Vol. 4, July – December (2009):8-9. 26._discover__the__success_in_you.pdf
Wambua L, Westhead DR, McConkey GA. "Discovery of novel drug targets against pathogenic protozoa: The promise of metabolic reconstruction." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2009;9(3):375-376.
J.I. K, J.I K, O.N A, P.T H. "Dispersal distance of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) pollen at the Tana River delta in the coast province, Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(10):2265-2270. Abstract

Rice is a staple food in Kenya and its production needs to be increased. Genetically modified (GM) rice
may be a solution, but before it can be introduced, potential ecological impacts, such as pollen
mediated gene flow from GM rice to non-GM rice or to its wild indigenous relatives, need to be
understood. Pollen dispersal in rice (Oryza sativa) was studied in the Tana River district in the coast
province of Kenya. O. sativa seedlings were planted in a 50 m diameter circular experimental design.
Pollen traps (glass slides coated by vaseline attached to a board) were used to measure pollen flow at 2
heights and at increasing distances from the source plot. Pollen dispersal decreased rapidly with
increasing distance from the pollen source up to 250 m, no pollen was found at 300 m. There was a
significant (P < 0.05) difference in pollen dispersal in different directions, which correlated with the
prevailing wind direction (south, occasionally east). Effect on wind speed and humidity could not be
evaluated as they were relatively stable during the sampling period. No overall difference (P > 0.05) in
pollen count between upper and lower pollen traps. The highest daily pollen count was observed
between 11:00 am and 12:00 noon, and at a narrow range of temperatures 28 ± 2ºC. On the basis of
these data, an adequate isolation distance of more than 250 m should be considered to minimize
chances of gene flow from transgenic rice to conventional or wild rices.

Kanya JI, Kinyamario JI, Amugune NO, Hauser TP. "Dispersal distance of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) pollen at the Tana River delta in the coast province, Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(10):2265-2270.
N. KG. "A distance – learning module for B. Ed students.". In: Educational Management. Nairobi: African Virtual University; 2009.
Wachira P, Mibey R, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Kiarie J. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya.". 2009;(2):60-69. Abstract

The diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Wundanyi division, Coast Province, Kenya, was investigated between May 2006 and December 2007 aiming at harnessing their potential in the biological control of plant parasitic nematodes in the area. Given that the intensity of land cultivation is continually increasing in the study area, it is prudent to document the status of the nematode destroying fungi before the remaining forest habitats are ultimately disrupted. Soil samples were collected from forest, maize/ bean, napier grass, shrub and vegetable fields, which represented the main land use types in the study area. The soil sprinkle technique method was used to isolate the nematode destroying fungi from the soil. The fungi were identified to species level. Eighty-five isolates, distributed in eight genera and 14 taxa were identified as nematode destroying fungi. The species identified were Arthrobotrys dactyloides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Arthrobotrys superba, Acrostalagamus obovatus, Dactyllela lobata, Harposporium aungulilae, Harposporium liltiputanum, Harposporium spp, Haptoglosa heterospora, Monacrosporium asterospernum, Monacrosporium cianopagum, Myzocytium, spp, Nematoctonus georgenious and Nematoctonus leptosporus. Vegetable land use had the highest diversity of nematode destroying fungi. The results show that the study area is rich in nematode destroying fungi with A. oligospora being widespread and a possible candidate for biological control of plant parasitic nematodes

Wachira P, Mibey R, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Kiarie J. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya.". 2009.Website
Wachira P, Mibey R, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Kiarie J. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya.". 2009.Website
Wachira, P.M, Mibey, R. K, Okoth, S.A, Kimenju, J.W, Kiarie, J.W. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya." Fungal Ecology. 2009;2(2):60-65.
co-authored with and(ed) DOLOOADAMSWOAB. "Domestic Terrorism in Kenya.". In: Domestic Terrorism in Africa; Defining, Adressing and Understanding It’s Impact on Human Security. SOUTH AFRICA: Institute for Security Studies; 2009.
Mwanda W O, Orem J PARSCFFK. "Dose-modified Oral Chemotherapy in the Treatment of AIDS- Related Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma." Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2009;10(7641):3480-3488.
Wasamba P. Down Me. Nairobi; 2009.down_me-1.pdf
Masu SM, Mutuku RN. "Drivers for change in the built environment and their implications in construction management curricula at African universities.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

The paper explains the context of built environment in relation to construction management and identifies the drivers of change as globalization, technology and competition. Specific drivers for change in the built environment and their impacts in the training of professionals within the built environment are described. Implications for construction management curricula in universities are explored including an examination of the construction management curricula in universities in African countries and in some overseas commonwealth countries. A review of the various construction management programmes offered in selected African Universities is carried out in order to understand their implications in the construction management curricula. There is a description of a modern trends in construction project procurement models and their incorporation in construction management training programmes. The paper highlights and compares how construction management curricula responds to current change drivers in the built environment. The paper concludes by recommending the adoption of new trends in construction management training programmes. It concludes by suggesting that there should be an improved exchange of knowledge between researchers and practitioners and how these research processes need to be modified to serve the needs of practitioners and society through relevant training and curriculum development in the construction industry.

S.O M. "Drug adherence or compliance." East African Medical Journal . 2009;86(11):497-498.
Mortimore M, Anderson S, Cotula L, Davies J, Faccer K, C.Hesse, Morton J, Nyangena W, J.Skinner, C.Wolfangel. "Dryland Opportunities: A new paradigm for people, ecosystems and development.". 2009.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "D. M. Nyariki, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(7), pp. 430-436. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2009. Abstract
Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semiarid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "D. M. Nyariki,a,1, A. W.Mwang.". In: Kamla-Raj 2009 J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2009. Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
Makhanu M, Opinya G, Mutave RJ. "Dental fluorosis, caries experience and snack intake of 13-15 year olds in Kenya." East African medical journal. 2009;86:120-124. Abstract
Makhanu M, Opinya G, Mutave RJ. "Dental fluorosis, caries experience and snack intake of 13-15 year olds in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86:120-124. Abstract

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