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Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
)
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines
In

Rose LJ, Okoth S, Beukes I, Ouko A, Mouton M, Bradley CF, Makumbi D, Viljoen A. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica . 2017:213-93.
Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

Lelei JK. "Determining Safety Stock with an Electronic Spreadsheet: A Simulation Approach.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Management Vol.2, Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Obiero JPO, Hassan. MA. Determining the effect of land use change on streamflow using soil water assessment tool (SWAT) Model. Pula/Sardinia/Italy: CRS4 Research Centre, Italy; 2015.
Ogweno, J.O., Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A. "Determining the influence of Principals’ use of participatory decision making on the status of students’ discipline in secondary schools I Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Research. 2016:841-861.12.pdf
Ogweno J, Kalai J, Okoth UA. "Determining the Influence of the Principals’ Use of Participatory Decision Making on the Status of Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). 2016;1(7):841-861.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Deterministic Claims Reserving in Short-Term Insurance Contracts.". In: E.A.J. of Statistics, Vol. 1, No. 2: 198 . East African Journal of Statistics; 2006.
Lelei JK. "Determinng safety stock with an electronics spreadsheet: A simulation approach. .". In: The Nairobi Journal Management Vol. 4 No October. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Detrimental effects of Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphate and Phosphate ions in contact with concrete made with ordinary Portland cement". International Journal of Biochemiphysics.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2004. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Devaluation - a few safeguids, Published in the Journal of Economics and Business, University of Zambia Business and Economic Association,.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1981. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Andago A, Imungi J, Mwangi A, Lamuka P, Ruth Nduati. "Developemnt of a bovine blood enriched porridge flour for alleviation of anaemia among young children in Kenya." Food Science and Quality Management. 2015;39:73-83.
RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Developer profits undermine residents.". In: Implications for local government in Kenya. VLIR; 2003.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Developing a cost-effective strategy for PHC implementation at the district level (with J. Maneno and C. Thube) paper presented at the WHO meeting on Strengthening of District Health Systems Harare, July-August 1987.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

Bett B;, Kitala J;, Gathuma J. "Developing a Frame Work for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of ‘Disease Free Zones’ in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.

Bett B;, Kitala J;, Gathuma J. "Developing a Frame Work for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of ‘Disease Free Zones’ in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.

M DRKITALAPHILIP. "Developing a Framework for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of .". In: conference. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2006. Abstract
Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.
Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng J, Crawford A. Developing a genetic classification for gene pool management of spotted gums.; 2013. Abstract

Spotted gums (Genus Corymbia Section Politaria) occur as a species replacement series along the eastern seaboard of Australia, their distributions marked by regions of disjunction and sympatry. Their taxonomy remains controversial, with species assignment often challenging and reliant upon knowledge of geographic origin as well as subtle morphological or leaf oil variation. In this paper we explore a classification for spotted gums without assuming predefined geographic or taxonomic groups, instead using genetic structure at microsatellite marker loci (n=9) and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach implemented in STRUCTURE software. The C. torelliana outgroup (n=21; Section Cadagaria) formed a well resolved cluster (min. pairwise Fst = 0.19). Four populations were evident within the spotted gums (n=93) but structure was weak (pairwise Fst range 0.13 -0.05). Geography, both distance and topography were major determinants of structure, with migration among populations approximating a linear stepping-stone model. Corymbia maculata was resolved as a taxon and had the greatest genetic distance to any other population (min pairwise Fst 0.08). Three clusters were evident within the northern taxa but alignment with taxonomic groupings was poor. Corymbia citriodora material from north of a major disjunction in Central Queensland formed a Northern population. Corymbia citriodora, C. variegata and C. henryi material from below this disjunction but north of the Border Ranges, formed a Central population, whereas a Southern population was comprised of C. variegata and C. henryi from predominately south of the Border Ranges. Fewer ambiguous assignments occurred using genetic rather than taxonomic groups for self classification of the spotted gum reference population.

T.K. M. "Developing a national framework for medicinal and aromatic plants in Kenya.". In: Stakeholder workshop on the sustainable, safe and effective use of medicinal plants in Eastern Africa - IDRC & USAID/USDA. Arusha, Tanzania; 2003.
Luciani R, Laneve G, Mito C, Jahjah M. "Developing a satellite based automatic system for crop monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift valley a case study.". In: ESA SP 740, LPS16, Proceedings of the conference held 9–13 May 2016. L. Ouwehand. Vol. 740.; 2016:. Abstract
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Brooks P, Spillane JJ, Dick K, Stuart-Shor E. "Developing a strategy to identify and treat older patients with postoperative delirium." AORN journal. 2014;99:256-276. Abstract
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Gor SO, Gitau CMW. "Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub - sect or in Kenya: What Role for Public - Private Partnerships? ." IDA International Journal of Sustainable Development,. 2010;101(06):1-17.
Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Getao KW. "Developing an annotated corpus for Gıkuyu using language-independent machine learning techniques.". 2006. AbstractFull text link

Networking the development of computational resources for African languages can
be greatly advanced if researchers aim to develop tools that are to a large extent language-
independent and therefore reusable for other languages. In this paper we describe a
particular case study, namely the development of an annotated corpus of Gıkuyu, using
language-independent machine learning techniques. The general aim of our work on
Gıkuyu is two-fold: on the one hand we wish to digitally preserve this resource-scarce

C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Developing an Authentic African Architecture." Africa Habitat Review . 2011;5. Abstract

The idea of the existence of an African Architecture has been problematic over the years since the onset of European occupation. Early scholars of non-Western built forms saw them as not constituting architecture but as shelter or mere dwellings (Oliver, 1987). Others classed these built forms as primitive or indigenous architecture (Guidoni, 1987 Gardi, 1973)while others have classed built forms on the African continent as African Architecture (Kultermann, 1969).Globally, most indigenous societies build their structures using local resources and quite often adapted to the climate of the locality. In addition, traditional built forms tend to respect historical precedents and local customary practices. In this regard, it can be argued that traditional architecture is green architecture without the benefits of sophisticated technologies. The above notwithstanding, most Western architecture imported to the continent, had little regard for local practices and quite often ignored local climate. In attempting to train architects for contemporary practice, this paper argues for hybrid architecture. This is because there is no current pure African architecture in existence. What happened over time was the Africanisation of Western and Eastern architectural models to suit the African condition. The resultant architecture has been a hybrid of these various architectures, what Mazrui refers to as the Triple African Heritage. This architecture is a spatial counter form for the contemporary African society and can be seen to be authentic

MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "Developing an Informal settlement information system for Kenyan Low income areas. Presented at the Africa GIS conference, Nairobi 2002.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Kamau, C. WDPMN'ang'a NMPWGL. "Developing an Open source spell checker for Gikuyu." In: Guy De Pauw GHJ, De Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010), European Language Resources Association (ELRA.; 2010:. Abstract

In this paper, we describe the development of an open source spell checker for Gikuyu language using the Hunspell language tools. We explore the morphology of Gikuyu, highlighting the inflection of various parts of speech in Gikuyu including verbs, nouns, and adjectives among others. In Hunspell, surface words are realized as a set of continuation classes, with each class providing a morpheme with a specific function. In addition, circumfixation, which is prevalent in Gikuyu derived nouns, is implemented. Hunspell also provides for word suggestion using character prevalence and replacement rules. Given that the developed Gikuyu spellchecker and the Hunspell tools are open source, the spell checking function developed in this work can be adopted in major open-source products such as Mozilla and OpenOffice products. The spell checker has a fairly representative Gikuyu lexicon and achieves an acceptable realization of a Gikuyu spellchecker. When tested on a test corpus, the spell checker attains a precision of 82%, recall of 84% and an accuracy of 75%.

Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng’ang’a W. "Developing an Open source Spell-checker for Gıkuyu.". 2010. AbstractFull Text

Abstract In this paper, we describe the development of an open source spell checker for
Gıkuyu, using the Hunspell language tools. We explore the morphology of Gıkuyu and
highlight the inflection of various parts of speech, including verbs, nouns, and adjectives. In
Hunspell, surface words are realized as a set of continuation classes, with each class
providing a morpheme with a specific function. In addition, circumfixation, which is prevalent
in Gıkuyu, is implemented. Hunspell also provides for word suggestion, using character

Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng'ang'a W, Ngure K, Mutiga J. Developing an Open source Spell-checker for G˜ık˜uy˜u. Valletta, Malta: European Language Resources Association- ELRA; 2010.gikuyu_spellchecker.pdf
Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng'ang'a W, Ngure K, Mutiga J. "Developing an Open source Spell-checker for G˜ık˜uy˜u.". 2010.Website
MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "Developing an Urban Information system for small towns in Kenya 2001.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Dlamini CP, Khumalo T, Nkwanyana N, Mathunjwa-Dlamini TR, Macera L, Nsibandze BS, Kaplan L, Stuart-Shor EM. "Developing and implementing the family nurse practitioner role in Eswatini: implications for education, practice, and policy." Annals of Global Health. 2020;86. Abstract
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Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M. "Developing and Introducing Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Serious Illness in Kenya.". 2009;10(93):799-804. Abstractdeveloping_and_introducing_evidence_based_clinical_practice_guidelines_for_serious_illness_in_kenya..pdf

The under-5 mortality rate in most developing countries remains high yet many deaths could be averted if available knowledge was put into practice. For seriously ill children in hospital investigations in low-income countries commonly demonstrate incorrect diagnosis and treatment and frequent prescribing errors. To help improve hospital management of the major causes of inpatient childhood mortality we developed simple clinical guidelines for use in Kenya, a low-income setting. The participatory process we used to adapt existing WHO materials and further develop and build support for such guidelines is discussed. To facilitate use of the guidelines we also developed job-aides and a 5.5 days training programme for their dissemination and implementation. We attempted to base our training on modern theories around adult learning and deliberately attempted to train a ‘critical mass’ of health workers within each institution at low cost. Our experience suggests that with sustained effort it is possible to develop locally owned, appropriate clinical practice guidelines for emergency and initial hospital care for seriously ill children with involvement of pertinent stake holders throughout. Early experience suggests that the training developed to support the guidelines, despite the fact that it challenges many established practices, is well received, appropriate to the needs of front line health workers in Kenya and feasible. To our knowledge the process described in Kenya is among a handful of attempts globally to implement inpatient or referral care components of WHO / UNICEF’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illness approach. However, whether guideline dissemination and implementation result in improved quality of care in our environment remains to be seen.

Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M. "Developing and introducing evidence based clinical practice guidelines for serious illness in Kenya." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2008;93(9):799-804.
Ballesteros C, Mwasi A, Mungai E, Ibarahim A, Thuranina-McKeever C, Aboge GO, Onono JO, Alarcon P. "Developing and validating a rapid assessment tool for small ruminant reproduction and production in pastoralist flocks in Kajiado, Kenya." Veterinary and Animal Science. 2021;13.
"Developing architecture and environmental design." Construction Review. October 2002 Oct 2002 (2002):38-40.
Gitao, C G; Kihu BNWKSWMSM; LC;. Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region.; 2010. Abstract

Major losses in sheep and goats have been incurred from Peste des petit ruminants (PPR), a relatively new disease in East Africa. It first appeared in Eastern Uganda but has since spread to most of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Small ruminants are the source of income for most pastoralists in East Africa. In this study the epidemiology of PPR including risk factors, prevalence, and socio-economic effects will be analyzed using participatory tools in Turkana, Kenya and Longido in Tanzania.

Gitao CG, S.M.Kihu, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Karimuribo E, P S, Wahome R, Maingi N. "Developing capacity for implementing innovative PPR control strategies based on the epidemiology and socio-economic aspects of the disease in the East African region.". In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.gitao.pdf
Li Qun He, Njambi L MNMHDKMEM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics." Public Health Genomics. 2014;(DOI: 10.1159/000363645). Abstract

Abstract
Background/Aims: Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part
of cancer control and management, yet its development as an
essential medical service has been hindered in many low-andmiddle-
income countries. We report our experiences in developing
a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in
Kenya. Methods: A genetics task force was created from within
the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma
Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple inperson
and telephone discussions, delineating experiences,
opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally
sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded
and thematically categorized to develop a strategy for
the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma
clinical genetics service. Results: Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a
comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient
and family counseling, (2) community involvement, and
(3) medical education. Conclusions: A coordinated national
retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a
unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive
and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients.
The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer
genetics research, education and knowledge translation,
taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African
context

Key Words
Africa • Cancer • Clinical genetics • Genetic counseling •
Genetic testing • Retinoblastoma

He LQ, Njambi L, Nyamori JM, Nyenze EM, Kimani K, Matende I, Rono H, Njom V, Bett J, Mukuria M, Gachago M, Roberts H, Dimaras H. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services in Resource-Limited Countries: The Case of Retinblastoma in Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(4):221-227.
H LQ, L N, JM N, Gachago MM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services In Resource-Limited Countries: The Case Of Retinoblastoma In Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;4(17):221-227. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS:
Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part of cancer control and management, yet its development as an essential medical service has been hindered in many low-and-middle-income countries. We report our experiences in developing a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in Kenya.
METHODS:
A genetics task force was created from within the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple in-person and telephone discussions, delineating experiences, opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded and thematically categorised to develop a strategy for the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma clinical genetics service.
RESULTS:
Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient and family counselling, (2) community involvement, and (3) medical education.
CONCLUSIONS:
A coordinated national retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients. The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer genetics research, education and knowledge translation, taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African context.

HeLQ, Nyamori J NEMKMRNBMGRDKIHV. "Developing clinical genetic services in the resource limited countries: The case of Retinoblastoma in Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(4):221-227.
Korir A, Mauti N, Moats P, Gurka MJ, Mutuma G, Metheny C, Mwamba PM, Oyiro PO, Fisher M, Ayers LW, Rochford R, Mwanda WO, Remick SC. "Developing clinical strength-of-evidence approach to define HIV-associated malignancies for cancer registration in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85881. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa cancer registries are beset by an increasing cancer burden further exacerbated by the AIDS epidemic where there are limited capabilities for cancer-AIDS match co-registration. We undertook a pilot study based on a "strength-of-evidence" approach using clinical data that is abstracted at the time of cancer registration for purposes of linking cancer diagnosis to AIDS diagnosis.

Chirwa TF, Zingoni ZM, Munyewende P, Manda SO, Mwambi H, Kandala N-B, Kinyanjui S, Young T, Musenge E, Simbeye J, Musonda P, Mahande MJ, Weke P, Onyango NO, Kazembe L. "Developing excellence in biostatistics leadership, training and science in Africa: How the Sub-Saharan Africa Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) training unites …." AAS Open Research. 2020;3(51). AbstractWebsite

The increase in health research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has led to a high demand for biostatisticians to develop study designs, contribute and apply statistical methods in data analyses. Initiatives exist to address the dearth in statistical capacity and lack of local biostatisticians in SSA health projects. The Sub-Saharan African Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) led by African institutions was initiated to improve biostatistical capacity according to the needs identified by African institutions, through collaborative masters and doctoral training in biostatistics. SACCAB has created a critical mass of biostatisticians and a network of institutions over the last five years and has strengthened biostatistics resources and capacity for health research studies in SSA. SSACAB comprises 11 universities and four research institutions which are supported by four European universities. In 2015, only four universities …

Maingi N. "Developing genetic resistance to internal parasites (helminths) in goats and cattle in Kenya.". In: Teleconference on Biotechnology and Agriculture at the University of Nairobi. CEES, Kikuyu Campus; 1994.
English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Moore KL, Persaud TVN, Torchia MG. The developing human: clinically oriented embryology.. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders; 2013. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Developing Intranet for linkage to the Internet.". In: VLIRIUC-UoN International Conference, 2002. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Developing Intranet for linkage to the Internet.". In: VLIRIUC-UoN International Conference, 2002. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
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Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Developing Kenya." International Journal of Nuclear Security. 2018;4:2. Abstract
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"developing learner friendly study manuals." VVOB at Kenya Technical Teachers college, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
"developing learner friendly study Manuals." at Kenya Technical Teachers college, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner Centered Approach for Technology Supported Instruction. Accepted for publication In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. 2016.
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko R, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner-Centered Approach ." Handbook of Research on Learner-Centered Pedagogy in Teacher Education and Professional Development. 2016:128. AbstractFull Link Text

A Learner-Centered Approach for
Technology Supported Instructions ABSTRACT Bonface Ngari Ireri Africa Nazarene
University, Kenya Elijah I. Omwenga University of Nairobi, Kenya Robert Oboko University of
Nairobi, Kenya Ruth Wario University of Free State, South Africa Since technology alone without
the instructor or teacher cannot deliver learning to learners, the presence of the teacher or instructor
is very important. For any meaningful teaching and learning to take place in a class, the teacher
must gain learner's attention. Teachers who use learner centered approaches have a strong
trust in students, they believe that students want to learn, have great faith in student ability and
offer students ownership of class activities. They are able to manage their classroom.

Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J, Tripathi L. "Developing Plantain for Resistance to Banana Aphids by RNA Interference." Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings. 2020;36:54. Abstract
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Ondieki EO. "Developing Resources for the Training of Architects." Africa Habitat Review Journal - . Nairobi, SBE Publication- UoN. 2011;Vol:5(5)(2010):296-302.Website
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Developing Urban Capital through Community Participation: A Conceptual Discussion. Forthcoming in African Urban Quarterly Journal, University of Nairobi, 1998.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "DEVELOPMEMENT OF A HPLC-MS/MS METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF HYDROZINOCURCUMIN IN PLASMA.". In: 12 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2009. Abstract

The natural product curcumin has a wide range of useful biological effects. However its use in humans is limited due to its short half-life, rapid metabolism and poor oral bioavailability. It is metabolized by sequential reduction of carbon-carbon double two carbonyl groups. To overcome these limitations, a hydrazide derivative of curcumin was synthesized to improve its water solubility and reduce its rate of metabolism. The objective of study was, therefore, to develop a method for the analysis of hydrazinocureumin in murinc blood. This method will be eventually used to evaluate the pharmokinetic profile of hydrazinocurcumin in mice. Method: LC/MS/MS was selected as the analytic method because its high sensitivity allowed for sampling of small volumes of blood from mice. The optimal chromatographic and mass spectrometry conditions were determined by trial arid error. The column performance was monitored by measuring retention time, peak symmetry factor. A calibration curve was generated by using standard solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.78 - 10 rig/ml. The method was validated by determining the recovery, limit of detection, accuracy, linearity and intraday precision. The optimal method for extracting hydrazinocurcumin from biological fluids was determined by spiking human blood and plasma and extraction was done by solvent extraction from a spotted filter paper and liquid-liquid extraction. Instrumentation: The samples were assayed using an Agilent LC/MS/MS 3200Q Trap system (1100 series, USA) in the positive ionization mode. HPLC separation was done using an Agilent 1200 system (Agilent Technologies, Japan) interfaced with the MS/MS system. Ionization was done by electron spray ionization with a collision energy was 33eV. Chromatograms were integrated using Analyst version 1.4 software. Weighted linear regression was used to generate calibration curves from standard solutions. Results: The optimal conditions for HPLC separation was a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile: acetonitrile (1:1) with an isocratic flow rate of 0.3m1/minute and run time of 2 minutes. The analytical column was a 50 by 2.0 mm Pheromex C18 column with a particle size of 5 microns. The injection volume was 1 Out The hydrazinocurcumin formed molecular ion at M+H+ m/z 365.2 and two metastable ions at m/z 351 and m/z. 349.2. The transition monitored was m/z 365.2 to 349.2 at unit resolution and a dwelling time of 150 milliseconds. The retention time was 1.11 minutes. The optimal method of extraction was liquid-liquid extraction using 250 ul of ethyl acetate from 10 ul of whole blood in 50 ul of buffer at pH 10. The filter paper method of extraction was found to give erratic results. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 10n/m1 to 0.5 ng/ml of hydrazinocurmin in whole human blood. Conclusion: The precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Development Administration and Decentralization: Some Administrative and Political Consideration". IDS Working Paper No. 257 January 1976.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1976. Abstract
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Murage JK, Amugune BK, Njogu P, Ndwigah SN. "Development and application of a spectrophotometric method in quality evaluation of benzimidazole anthelminthics in Nairobi City County." Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2020;6:74.
Murage JK, Amugune BK, Njogu PM, S.N.Ndwigah. "Development and application of aspectrophotometric method in qualityevaluation of benzimidazole anthelminthicsin Nairobi city county." Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2020;6:74.
Kibugi R. "Development and Balancing of Interests in Kenya.". In: Balancing of Interests in Environmental Law in Africa . Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press; 2012.
Kibugi R. "Development and balancing of interests in Kenya." The balancing of interests in environmental law in Africa. 2011:191. Abstract
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KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Development and evaluation of a quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for hepatitis C virus RNA in serum using transcribed thio-RNA as internal control. J Virol Methods. 2004 Mar 1;116(1):45-54.". In: J Virol Methods. 2004 Mar 1;116(1):45-54. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
A method for quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was developed based on competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using in vitro transcribed mutated thio-RNA as a competitor template. The thio-RNA is more resistant to RNAse and is stable over a year. This assay was compared with the commercially available Roche Amplicor HCV Monitor assay V 2.0 and real time PCR using SYBR green 1 dye method. A total of 18 pre-therapy serum samples from chronic hepatitis C cases were tested in parallel by the three assays. All samples could be quantitated using the in-house competitive RT-PCR and real time PCR and there was a significant correlation in the virus titer (P<0.05). However, 8 (44%) samples could not be quantified by Amplicor HCV Monitor assay, which has a lower detection range (10(2) to 10(5.5) copies/ml). The in-house method of competitive RT-PCR showed a detection range of 10(3) to 10(10) copies/ml. In the patients the mean viral titer was found to be (9.66+/-9.3)x10(6) copies/ml. Ten (55%) of the samples, assessed by the Amplicor HCV Monitor assay showed a mean viral titre of (1.13+/-0.75)x10(6) copies/ml, which was lower than the other two tests. The competitive PCR method and real time PCR could amplify all prevalent genotypes. This in-house quantitative competitive RT-PCR method is simple, cheap, reproducible and useful for estimation of HCV RNA load.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Development and evaluation of secondary metabolite-based assay technique for species delimitation in Cercosporoid fungi.". In: Int. J. Biochemiphysics, Vol.8: 63 - 67. Taylor & Francis; 1999. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Okumu F.O., Killeen G.F., Ogoma.S, Biswaro L., Smallegange R.C., Mbeyela E., Titus E., Munk C., Ngonyani H., Takken W., Mshinda H., Mukabana W.R., Moore S.J. "Development and field evaluation of a synthetic mosquito lure that is more attractive than humans. ." PLoS One. 2010;5(1):e8951.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 1 Legal and Institutional Issues in the Lake Victoria Basin 200 pages.". In: UNEP publication. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 2.". In: UNEP Publication June 1999 ISBN 92-1804-1. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 3.". In: UNEP publication, ISBN 97-807-1805-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 4.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1881-9. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 5.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1881-9. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 6.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 97-807-1883-5. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 7.". In: UNEP Publication, ISBN 92-807-1911-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and Harmonization of Environmental Law: Volume 8.". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, MUTUKU DRKIOKOURBANUS. "Development and Implementation of a Human Resource Management System in the University of Nairobi: Analysis from a Social Informatics Approach.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 238. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2004. Abstract
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Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
Rice T, Stuart-Shor E. "Development and Implementation of an Evidence Based Protocol Using Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency to Improve the Appearance of Acne Scars.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 67. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS TWO COMMERCE SQ, 2001 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA …; 2018:. Abstract
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Alexandra Hiscox, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Martin Geier, Andreas Rose, Wolfgang R Mukabana, undefined. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):257.
A Kibet, Rose A, P Omusula, Takken W, M Geier, Mweresa CK, B Otieno, Mukabana WR. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control.". 2014.
Mutui FN, Bao CV, Onyango V, Muhandiki V, and Mwaura F. "The Development and Practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in Kenya." European Scientific Journal October 2013 Edition. 2013;Vol 19(29):165-185.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Development and Promotion of Community Based Sericulture. Annex XL pp 96.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Development and Prospects of Distance Education in Kenya Paper Presented for publication to the East African Journal of Education.". In: The World Education Crisis Conference held at Robinson College, Cambridge. Thought and Practice; 1991. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Makanya A, Anagnostopoulou A, Djonov V. "Development and remodeling of the vertebrate blood-gas barrier." Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:101597. Abstract

During vertebrate development, the lung inaugurates as an endodermal bud from the primitive foregut. Dichotomous subdivision of the bud results in arborizing airways that form the prospective gas exchanging chambers, where a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) is established. In the mammalian lung, this proceeds through conversion of type II cells to type I cells, thinning, and elongation of the cells as well as extrusion of the lamellar bodies. Subsequent diminution of interstitial tissue and apposition of capillaries to the alveolar epithelium establish a thin BGB. In the noncompliant avian lung, attenuation proceeds through cell-cutting processes that result in remarkable thinning of the epithelial layer. A host of morphoregulatory molecules, including transcription factors such as Nkx2.1, GATA, HNF-3, and WNT5a; signaling molecules including FGF, BMP-4, Shh, and TFG- β and extracellular proteins and their receptors have been implicated. During normal physiological function, the BGB may be remodeled in response to alterations in transmural pressures in both blood capillaries and airspaces. Such changes are mitigated through rapid expression of the relevant genes for extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors. While an appreciable amount of information regarding molecular control has been documented in the mammalian lung, very little is available on the avian lung.

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED, Amer SAA, Saber SA. "Development and reproduction of the predacious mite, Amblyseius cydnodactylon on different species; effect of plant leaf texture on the behavior and reproduction of the predator. J. Plant Diseases and Protection, 107: 218.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2000. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Murage MW, Muge EK, Mbatia BN, Mwaniki MW. "Development and Sensory Evaluation of Omega-3-Rich Nile Perch Fish Oil-Fortified Yogurt." International Journal of Food Science. 2021;2021. Abstract
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Makanya AN, Djonov V. "Development and spatial organization of the air conduits in the lung of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus variant domesticus." Microsc. Res. Tech.. 2008;71(9):689-702. Abstract

We employed macroscopic and ultrastructural techniques as well as intratracheal casting methods to investigate the pattern of development, categories, and arrangement of the air conduits in the chicken lung. The secondary bronchi included four medioventral (MVSB), 7-10 laterodorsal (LDSB), 1-3 lateroventral (LVSB), several sacobronchi, and 20-60 posterior secondary bronchi (POSB). The latter category has not been described before and is best discerned from the internal aspect of the mesobronchus. The secondary bronchi emerged directly from the mesobronchus, except for the sacobronchi, which sprouted from the air sacs. Parabronchi from the first MVSB coursed craniodorsally and inosculated their cognates from the first two LDSB. The parabronchi from the rest of the LDSB curved dorsomedially to join those from the rest of the MVSB at the dorsal border. Sprouting, migration, and anastomoses of the paleopulmonic parabronchi resulted in two groups of these air conduits; a cranial group oriented rostrocaudally and a dorsal group oriented dorsoventrally. The neopulmonic parabronchial network formed through profuse branching and anastomoses and occupied the ventrocaudal quarter of the lung. There were no differences in the number of secondary bronchi between the left and right lungs. Notably, a combination of several visualization techniques is requisite to adequately identify and enumerate all the categories of secondary bronchi present. The 3D arrangement of the air conduits ensures a sophisticated system, suitable for efficient gas exchange. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Development and the Environment in Africa: Policy Initiatives (Nairobi: ACTS Press, Ecopolicy Series No. 5, 1993.". In: ISBN 92-807-1763-4. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Development and the legal process in Kenya: an approach to the analysis of law in rural development administration"; International Journal of Sociology of Law 12(1).". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1985. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
"DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF LOW COST BUILDING MATERAILS IN KENYA." ARCHITECTURE, the official journal of the Architectural Association of Kenya. 1986:63.
Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups ." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya . 2018;23(3):89-94.
Aluda AT, Amugune BK, Abuga KO, Kamau FN. "Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Menthol in Cold-Cough Syrups." PJK. 2018;23(3):90-93. Abstract

Background
Common cold is the most common infection of the upper respiratory tract and cold-cough syrups are often prescribed. Although menthol is one of the common constituents of these syrups, quality checks on cold-cough syrups normally target the major active pharmaceutical ingredients without regard to menthol content.

Objective
To develop and validate a gas chromatography method for determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups.

Methods
A simple, rapid, robust, accurate and reliable Gas Chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, chlorpheniramine, guaifenesin, bromhexine and salbutamol.

Results
Optimized chromatographic conditions were: A ZB-WAXplus 60m ×0.25mm; 0.25μm fused silica capillary column. Oven temperature program of 110 0C (2 min), ramp 10 0C/min to 190 0C (2 min). Injector port temperature maintained at 240 0C. Injection volume of 1.0 μl split in the ratio of 50:1. Carrier gas as nitrogen at 1.0mL/min which also serves as make up gas (30 mL/min) in the flame ionization detector (260 0C). Other detector gases were hydrogen (30 mL/ min) and industrial air (300 mL/ min) and the diluent for samples and standards was grade chloroform.
From recovery studies, 97.56 to 102.97 % recovery was reported. Repeatability studies had a coefficient of variation of 0.55 while intermediate precision was 0.32. The method was linear over a range of 0.042 to 0.169 mg/mL with a coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9986.
Of the 21 samples analyzed, only 10 samples (47.6 %) complied with assay specifications of 90.0 to 110.0 % label claim for finished products according to the United States Pharmacopeia 2016.

Conclusion and recommendation
A gas chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of menthol in cold-cough syrups in Kenya. This method can be used together with a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to assay cold-cough syrups that may also contain ambroxol, bromhexine, chlorpheniramine maleate, guaifenesin and salbutamol.
This method can be useful in routine analysis such as pre-registration studies as well as post market surveillance to curb substandard and counterfeit cold-cough syrups.

Mitema A, Feto NA, Rafudeen MS. "Development and Validation of TOF/Q-TOF MS/MS, HPLC Method and in-vitro Bio-Strategy for Aflatoxin Mitigation." Food Additives & Contaminants. 2020.
NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. ""Development Co-operation Report: 2002 (Kenya)", a publication of the United Nations Development Programme, (UNDP.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2004. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Development Communication Needs for NGOs and Donors: An Overview of Issues (A paper presented in a symposium on Development Communication Needs, Organized by Development Horizons Trust, Fairview Hotel, Nairobi, 25th Feb.1992.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
Ngugi M. "Development Communication: A Clarification of Constructs,” in Okigbo, C (ed).". In: Development Communication Principles. Nairobi: ACCE; 1996.
"Development from Below: Examples from Karamoja, Uganda." Pan African Journal of Anthropologists, VOL. 5, No. 3, March 1998 Special Issue, pp. 230 ; 1998. Abstract
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Obamba MO, Kimbwarata J, RIECHI ANDREWR. "Development Impacts of International Partnerships.". In: Internationalisation of African Higher Education. SensePublishers; 2013:. Abstract
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RIECHI ANDREWR. "DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS: A KENYAN CASE STUDY." Internationalisation of African Higher Education: Towards Achieving the MDGs. 2013:151. Abstract
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Legge PL, Barongo JO, Opiyo-Aketch N, Mathu EM, Nyambok IO. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
Nyambok IO, Mathu EM, Opiyo-Aketch N, Barongo JO, Legge PL. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
Legge PL, Barongo JO, Opiyo-Aketch N, Mathu EM, Nyambok IO. "Development in earth Science Education in East Africa.". 1996.Website
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Development in Practice Some reflections on Kenyas Experience. Working paper Nom 52 Institue for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1972. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
O OL. "Development Journalism in Africa: Capitulation of the Fourth Estate?". Africa Media Review 5, 2: 197-209; 1990. Abstract
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O. OL. "Development Journalism in Africa: Problems and Prospects." Peter Desbarats, Phillis Giroux and Pierre Boutet (eds.) Mass Media in a Shrinking World. London, ON.: The University of Western Ontario; 1991. Abstract
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KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Development of /therapeutic Feeding Porridge ration: Part B; Application of lactic fermentation and amylolytic enzymes, Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Osiro OAM. Development of a prototype for a restorative dental cement in Kenya. Kariuki DK, Gathece LW, Brauer DS, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2019.
Waema T, Masinde M, Odera G, Adeya-Weya C, Were P, Chepken C. Development of a Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Kenya: Critical Success Factors; IDRC.; 1999.
Waema T, Masinde M, Odera G, Adeya-Weya C, Were P, Chepken C. Development of a Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Kenya: Critical Success Factors; IDRC.; 1999.
Waema T, Masinde M, Odera G, Adeya-Weya C, Were P, Chepken C. Development of a Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Kenya: Critical Success Factors; IDRC.; 1999.
Amiga KK, Kola BO. Development of a computer graphics interface. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya National Association of Physicists; 1988.
Waiganjo Wagacha P, Pauw GD, K. Getao. "Development of a Corpus for Gikuyu using machine learning techniques." In: J.C. Roux, ed. Proceedings of LREC workshop - Networking the development of language resources for African languages. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association; 2006:. Abstract

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Wagacha PW, Pauw DG, Getao K. "Development of a corpus for Gıkuyu using machine learning techniques." Proceedings of LREC workshop-Networking the development of language resources for African languages. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association. 2006.Full Text
Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Omwenga EI, Kinoti P. "the Development of a Framework for Open Courseware for Emerging Economies: the case of Kenyan public Universities.". In: Special Issues in Computing and ICT Research . Vol. Volume VII. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2011.
Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Oyieke F, Mukabana WR, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. "Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.". 2013.Website
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Development of a Kenyan English Text To Speech System: A Method of Developing a TTS for a previously undefined English Dialect.". In: Interspeech 2009, Bristol, UK, September 2009. FARA; 2009.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Development of a Kiswahili Text to Speech System.". In: Interspeech 2005, Lisbon, Portugal, September 2005. FARA; 2005. Abstract
This paper discusses how a concatenative Kiswahili Text to Speech System (TTS) was developed based on the Festival Unit Selection Speech Synthesiser. It explains how important Kiswahili linguistic features such as phones, stress and intonation were modelled as inputs to the Festival engine. It also discusses the design, recording and segmentation of the speech database, beginning with text corpus collection and transcription. The choice of the speaker, which is crucial to realising a good TTS is discussed and also how the system was tested.
Naarding MA, Fernandez N, Kappes JC, Hayes P, Ahmed T, Icyuz M, Edmonds TG, Bergin P, Anzala O, Hanke T, Clark L, Cox JH, Cormier E, Ochsenbauer C, Gilmour J. "Development of a luciferase based viral inhibition assay to evaluate vaccine induced CD8 T-cell responses." J. Immunol. Methods. 2014;409:161-73. Abstract

Emergence of SIV and HIV specific CD8 T cells has been shown to correlate with control of in vivo replication. Poor correlation between IFN-γ ELISPOT responses and in vivo control of the virus has triggered the development of more relevant assays to assess functional HIV-1 specific CD8 T-cell responses for the evaluation and prioritization of new HIV-1 vaccine candidates. We previously established a viral inhibition assay (VIA) that measures the ability of vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses to inhibit viral replication in autologous CD4 T cells. In this assay, viral replication is determined by measuring p24 in the culture supernatant. Here we describe the development of a novel VIA, referred to as IMC LucR VIA that exploits replication-competent HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMCs) in which the complete proviral genome is strain-specific and which express the Renilla luciferase (LucR) gene to determine viral growth and inhibition. The introduction of the luciferase readout does provide significant improvement of the read out time. In addition to switching to the LucR read out, changes made to the overall protocol resulted in the miniaturization of the assay from a 48 to a 96-well plate format, which preserved sample and allowed for the introduction of replicates. The overall assay time was reduced from 13 to 8 days. The assay has a high degree of specificity, and the previously observed non-specific background inhibition in cells from HIV-1 negative volunteers has been reduced dramatically. Importantly, we observed an increase in positive responses, indicating an improvement in sensitivity compared to the original VIA. Currently, only a limited number of "whole-genome" IMC-LucR viruses are available and our efforts will focus on expanding the panel to better evaluate anti-viral breadth. Overall, we believe the IMC LucR VIA provides a platform to assess functional CD8 T-cell responses in large-scale clinical trial testing, which will enhance the ability to select the most promising HIV-1 vaccine candidates capable of controlling HIV-1 replication in vivo.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Development of a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the management of soil fertility by smallholder farmers: experience of the TSBF programme..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper outlines the development of a new methodology to modify and improve the indigenous practices of soil fertility management in Eastern and Southern Africa and suggests requirements for involvement by collaborating institutions. It provides a brief history of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TBSF) Programme in Africa, ongoing resource integration work in Zimbabwe, proposed work in Kenya and team development in Zimbabwe.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Development of a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the management of soil fertility by smallholder farmers: experience of the TSBF programme..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper outlines the development of a new methodology to modify and improve the indigenous practices of soil fertility management in Eastern and Southern Africa and suggests requirements for involvement by collaborating institutions. It provides a brief history of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TBSF) Programme in Africa, ongoing resource integration work in Zimbabwe, proposed work in Kenya and team development in Zimbabwe.

Musyoka SM, Wayumba GO, Mwathane I. Development of a proto-type land information management system for the peri-urban areas in Nairobi: Case study of Kitengela area. Nairobi: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya; 2010.
Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Stamm O, Latscha U, Janecek P, Campana A. "Development of a special electrode for continuous subcutaneous pH measurement in the infant scalp." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(2):193-5. Abstract

Using a combined special glass electrode it is possible to monitor pH ratios and pH variation in the subcutaneous tissue of the infant scalp continuously. Tests on a normal sample of newborn babies immediately after birth showed a significant correlation between tissue pH and capillary blood pH, with the trend of pH variation being broadly similar in both measurement media.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. Development of a streamflow model for rural catchments in Kenya..; 1993. AbstractWebsite

A stream flow model was developed for use in rural catchments in Kenya. In the model the physical environment was divided into three zones: the unsaturated zone (consists of multiple hydrological response units defined by homogenous land use and soil type in which a daily soil moisture balance is maintained), shallow saturated and deep saturated zones which were modelled as regional aquifers. Rainfall and evapotranspiration were distributed according to altitude, and runoff was determined using the curve number method devised by the US Soil Conservation Service: a function of five-day antecedent precipitation. Evapotranspiration was varied according to the soil moisture content, and the weather generator allowed Monte Carol simulations over a long period. The data consisted of daily rainfall, mean daily evaporation for each month, land use/vegetation and soil type. The ARC-INFO GIS package was used to assemble the topographical, hydrological, land use/vegetation type and soil information in different layer. The model was tested on the Naro Moru catchment (172kn2) in Kenya, which has climatic conditions that vary from the glaciated peaks of Mount Kenya (5,200 m) to the semi-arid Laikipia plateau (1,800 m). The model was calibrated over a two-year period and validated over a different two-year period. A comparison of the observed and simulated stream flow showed that minimal calibration was required. The simulated stream flow compared well with the observed values for both the calibration and the validation periods (70-85% for the 10-day period) indicating that the model is appropriate for ungauged catchments.

Wangai JK, Gathoni RN, Mustapha AO, Kaduki KA. "Development of a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer for NO2 measurements.". In: The Seventh International Workshop on Physics and Modern Applications of Lasers. Douala, Cameroon; 2004.
Mpho Mbele MM. "Development of adaptive environmental management system: A participatory approach through fuzzy cognitive maps.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Durban, South Africa ; 2016. Abstract

Mining industries develop environmental management systems/plans to mitigate the impact their operations has on the society. Even with these plans, there are still issues of pollution affecting the society. Though there are ICT-based pollution monitoring solutions, their use is dismal due to lack of appreciation or understanding of the disseminated information. This result in mining communities depending on their own local knowledge to observe, monitor and predict mining-related environmental pollution. However, this local knowledge has never been tested scientifically or analysed to recognize its usability or effectiveness. Mining companies tend to ignore this knowledge from the communities as it is treated like common information with no much scientific value. As a step towards verifying or validating this local knowledge, we demonstrate how fuzzy cognitive maps can be used to model, analyse and represent this linguistic local knowledge

Ogot M, Hey VJ, Gatari M, Nyangaya J, Panchal R. "Development of an Air Quality Monitoring Programme for Nairobi and Exploration of Avenues for PM2.5 Levels Reduction.". In: 2nd Kenya Air Quality Annual Conference.; 2017.
Mwondu JM, Ombui JN, Kironchi G, Onyuka A. "Development of an Eco-friendly and Sustainable Method of Dechroming Leather Wastes." Textile and Leather Review. 2021;4:364-391.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Development of an Equation/Model for Predicting Temperature in Stored Potatoes. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Mathenge EM, Killen GF, Oulo DO, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Knols BJG. "Development of an exposure-free bednet trap for sampling Afrotropical malaria vectors." Medical & Veterinary Entomology 16, 1-8. 2002;16:1-8.Website
Mathenge EM, GF K, DO O, LW I, PN N, BG K. "Development of an exposure-free bednet trap for sampling Afrotropical malaria vectors." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2002;16(1):67-74. AbstractWiley Online Library

An exposure-free bednet trap (the 'Mbita trap') for sampling of Afrotropical malaria vectors was developed during preliminary studies of mosquito behaviour around human-occupied bednets. Its mosquito sampling efficiency was compared to the CDC miniature light-trap and human landing catches under semi-field conditions in a screen-walled greenhouse using laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). When compared in a competitive manner (side by side), the Mbita trap caught 4.1+/-0.5 times as many mosquitoes as the CDC light-trap, hung beside an occupied bednet (P < 0.000 1) and 43.2+/-10% the number caught by human landing catches (P < 0.0001). The ratio of Mbita trap catches to those of the CDC light trap increased with decreasing mosquito density. Mosquito density did not affect the ratio of Mbita trap to human-landing catches. In a non-competitive comparison (each method independent of the other), the Mbita trap caught 89.7+/-10% the number of mosquitoes caught by human landing catches (P < 0.0001) and 1.2+/-0.1 times more mosquitoes than the CDC light trap (P = 0.0008). Differences in Mbita trap performance relative to the human landing catch under noncompetitive vs. competitive conditions were explained by the rate at which each method captured mosquitoes. Such bednet traps do not expose people to potentially infectious mosquito bites and operate passively all night without the need for skilled personnel. This trap is specifically designed to catch host-seeking mosquitoes only and may be an effective, sensitive, user-friendly and economic alternative to existing methods for mosquito surveillance in Africa.

Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Machangi JM;, Odhiambo BO;, Nje ru RW;, El-Bedewy, R.; Aura JA, El-Bedewy, R.; Aura JA. "Development of an Integrated aphid and virus disease management strategies for the farmer-based seed potato production system in Kenya."; 2002.
Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Machangi JM;, Odhiambo BO;, Nje ru RW;, El-Bedewy R;, Aura JA. "Development of an Integrated aphid and virus disease management strategies for the farmer-based seed potato production system in Kenya."; 2002.
Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Machangi JM;, Odhiambo BO;, Nje ru RW;, El-Bedewy R;, Aura JA. "Development of an Integrated aphid and virus disease management strategies for the farmer-based seed potato production system in Kenya."; 2002.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Development of an oral biosensor for salivary amylase using a monodispersed silver for signal amplification.". In: Analytical Biochemistry, 340(1), 136-144, (2005). Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch, A. O., Sadik, O. A., Bedi, G. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of protein amylase in human saliva is described. A novel design and the preparation of amylase antibodies and antigens, essential for the development of the biosensor, are reported. The biosensor sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary antibody (or antigen) self-assembled onto Au-electrode via covalent attachment. Molecular recognition between the immobilized antibody and the salivary amylase proteins was monitored via an electroactive indicator (e.g., K3Fe(CN)(6)) or a monodispersed silver layer present in solution or electrochemically deposited onto the solid electrode. This electroactive indicator was oxidized or reduced and the resulting current change provided the analytical information about the concentration of the salivary proteins. The limit of detection of 1.57 pg/ml was obtained, in comparison to detection limits of 4.95 pg/ml obtained using potassium ferrocyanide as the redox probe and 10 ng/ml obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cross-reactivity was tested against cystatin antibodies and was found to be less than 2.26%.
Nyambura M, Gatari M, Hillier S, Shepherd KD,... "Development of an X-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer." Food and nutrition …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Page 1. www.mtt.fi/foodafrica Development of an x-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer 16 June 2014, Helsinki, Finland. FoodAfrica midterm seminar Mercy Nyambura1*, 2, Michael Gatari1, Stephen Hillier3*, Keith D. Shepherd2, Esala Martti4 …

Wafula G, Mutoro PH. "The development of Archaeology in Kenya since the early 1960s.". 2004. Abstract

The paper sets out to elucidate the socio-economic environment under which archaeology as a discipline has developed in Kenya since the early 1960’s to the year 2000 with special interest in assessing the part played by various administrations since independence. The international trends in method and theory are also examined in addition to explaining why archaeological studies were conducted. The chapter starts by examining the challenges that archaeology faced at independence. The response to these challenges is discussed in three periods: the era of Neo-colonialism, between 1960 and 1965; the era of Afrocentrism, between 1965 and 1980; and the era of Recent Research, between 1980 and 2000. It is concluded that after attaining independence, the successive governments in Kenya have done little to promote the discipline owing largely to the lack of financial capacity, and consequently, on their dependence on foreign institutions both economically and academically. Nevertheless, it is noted that by the year 2000 the discipline had helped to solve most of the challenges it faced at independence

Kádár A, Glasz T. "Development of atherosclerosis and plaque biology." Cardiovascular Surgery (London, England). 2001;9:109-121. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a leading issue in mortality and morbidity in the civilized world. A number of hypotheses for atherogenesis indicate the complexity of initiation and development of this multifactorial disease. Morphologic types of lesions have long since been studied in order to understand plaque evolution and determinants of plaque complication, a frequent cause of acute ischemic accidents. Chemical and pathophysiological studies defined the wide spectrum of molecular interactions between cellular elements of atherosclerotic lesions. Recently, molecular biologic investigations provide a deeper insight into genetic predispositions for the disease and have widened our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. Until we can diminish the high prevalence of the disease, precise information is needed on the evolution of atherosclerosis in order to slow progression, select optimal therapies and prevent plaque complications and their consequences.

Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "The Development of Biosafety regulation in Africa in the context of the Cartegena Protocol: Legal and Administrative issue (11.1 Review of European community & International Environmental Law p.62.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Development of Catalytic Photometric Flow Injection Methods for Determination of Selenium.". In: Anal. Chem., 63, 692-699,. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract
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Development of Christian Doctrine. Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distance Learning ; 2009.
Kanyinga K, Owiti J. "Development of Civil Society in Kenya." Voices from Southern Civil Society: Interplay of National and Global Contexts in the Performance of Civil Society in the South. 2003;Policy Paper No. 6/2003.Website
Adholla M-, Ruigu G. "The Development of Coffee Production in K enya."; 1978.

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