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Dimaras H, Dimba EA WGKWJK. "Digital cancer pathology in Africa." Lancet Oncol.. 2013;14(8):289-290.
H D, EA D, W W, J G, K K. "Digital cancer pathology in Africa." Lancet Oncol. 2013.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Digital Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

One of the most fundamental developments in the history of photogrammetry has been the transition from analytical to digital photogrammetry. This was realized in the early 1990s through softcopy-based systems or Digital Photogrammetric Workstations (DPWs). Today, on the one hand, initial applications of digital photogrammetry in performing routine and operational procedures, such as aerial triangulation and map revision, as well as in generating geospatial datasets, including digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital orthophotos, have been essentially standardized. On the other hand, system development in automated feature extraction for diverse geospatial features have been continually improved and refined.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Disaster Monitoring and Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Since time immemorial, natural disasters have continued to plague the history of mankind. They have varied in type, frequency, coverage and severity ranging from earthquakes, landslides, droughts, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions etc. Over the last century, the frequency, severity and impact of natural disasters has increased substantially.

Mutuli SM, Kihiu JM, Njoroge KD. "A Dislocation Density Evolution Model of Metal Plasticity.". 2013.Website
Mboroki DG. Distance Education Versus the Mainstream:. Germany: LAP Academic Publications; 2013.
Omuombo C, Huguet A, Olago D, Williamson D. "Distribution of Glycerol Diakyl Glycerol Tetraethers in Surface Soil and Crater Lake Sediments from Mount Kenya, East Africa." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2013. AbstractFull Text Link

Glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), a palaeoclimate proxy based on the relative abundance of lipids produced by archaea and bacteria, is gaining wide acceptance for the determination of past temperature and pH conditions. This study looks at the spatial distribution and abundance of GDGTs in soil and sediment samples along an altitudinal transect from 3 crater lakes of Mt. Kenya (Lake Nkunga, Sacred Lake and Lake Rutundu) ranging in elevation from 1700m - 3080m above sea level. GDGTs were extracted with solvents and then analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS). Mean annual air temperature and pH were estimated based on the relative abundance of the different branched GDGTs, i.e. on the MBT (Methylation index of Branched Tetraethers) and CBT (Cyclization ratio of Branched Tetraethers) indices. Substantial amount of GDGTs were detected in both soil and sediment samples. In addition, branched GDGT distribution was observed to vary with altitude. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the branched GDGTs to understand the environmental parameters controlling the distribution of these lipids. The MBT/CBT proxy is a promising tool to infer palaeotemperatures and characterize the climate events of the past millennia in equatorial east Africa.

Okoth S. "Diversity of nematodes and nematode destroying fungi as influenced by land use in Taita Taveta, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5(12):154. Abstract28527-107841-1-pb.pdfWebsite

Land intensification is thought to lead to soil degradation and consequently to loss of soil biodiversity. A study was undertaken to assess the effect of land use on nematode community and nematode destroying fungi in Taita districts, Kenya. Soil samples were collected from land under various uses which were natural forest, plantation forest, tea, coffee, napier grass, fallow, maize/beans intercrop and horticultural crops production. Chemical analysis of the soil properties was done to determine the amount of carbon, nitrogen and potassium in every land use system. The level of carbon declined with land-use intensification with the highest organic carbon level of 7.6% being recorded in soils from the forest while land with high disturbance recorded 1.6% carbon. Similarly, the intensively cultivated soils had lower nitrogen and phosphorous levels compared to the forest. Nematode and nematode destroying fungi were isolated from the soil and identified. Eighty five isolates, distributed in eight genera and fourteen taxa of nematode destroying fungi were identified. The frequency of isolating nematode destroying fungi increased with increased in land use intensity. All the sampled land use types were significantly (P-value = 3.81x10-07) different in occurrence of nematode destroying fungi. The ratios of free-living to plant parasitic nematodes were 5.18 and 0.54 in the natural forest and annual crop production systems, respectively. The frequency of isolation of nematode destroying fungi was positively correlated to abundance of plant parasitic nematodes.

Wachira, P.M, Kimenju, J.W, Okoth, S.A, Kiarie J.W. "Diversity of nematodes and nematode destroying fungi as influenced by land use in Taita Taveta, Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2013;5(12):154-161.
Muriu P. "Do institutions matter for microfinance profitability? Evidence from Africa.". In: Academy of Management Perspectives.; 2013.
Muriu P. "Do microfinance profits converge? Evidence from a dynamic panel analysis’." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2013.
Kiiru J, Onsumu E, Wamalwa F. "Does Education and Training Matter for Youth Employment? Lessons from Kenya." Journal of Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Banking (JEIEFB). 2013;1(2).
Awori K, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili. "Does The Pattern Of Innervation Of Brachialis By The Musculocutaneous Nerve Influence The Presence Or Absence Of The Radial Nerve Contribution?" Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):142-144. Abstract

The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution by the radial nerve however ranges from 30 to 100%. It is not clear if the presence or patterns of supply to this muscle by either nerve are interdependent. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of innervation of brachialis by the nusculocutaneous nerve and relate it to the presence and contribution from the radial nerve. Fifty seven arms (25 male and 4 female); 29 right and 28 left from formalin-fixed adult cadavers were used. The pattern of musculocutaneous branch to brachialis was recorded based on the classification by Yang et al. into either type I or II. The presence and number of branches by the radial nerve to the same muscle were determined and related to the pattern from brachialis. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied brachialis in all (100%) of the cases while the radial nerve did so in 33 arms (57.9%). Type I was the predominant pattern in both left and right arms (91.2%) with no correlation between the type of innervation by musculocutaneous nerve and the radial nerve contribution.

Abala DO, Mwabu G, Mwega FM. "Does Total Factor Productivity Matter For Exports? Kenyan Evidence." African Journal of Social Science. 2013;Vol. 3(Number 2):30-44.
Abala D, Mwabu G, Mwega F. ""Does Total Factor Productivity Matter for Exports? Kenyan Evidence"." African Journal of Social Sciences,. 2013;3(2):30-44.
Mulaku M, Opiyo N, Karumbi J, Kitonyi G, Thoithi G, English M. Does use of Hydroxyurea in childhood sickle cell disease, prevent Sickle cell complications?. Sarova,white sands Mombasa; 2013.kpa_plenary_200413_mm.ppt
"Domestic Implementation of the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Kenyan Case." The Law Society of Kenya Journal . 2013;33(9):1. Abstractsituma.docxsituma.pdf

Children rights are now being taken over by various international and national organizations and major UN agencies have adopted policies and programmes on children rights and child development. The 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child marked a welcome break from the past history of rhetoric by the international community regarding the recognition and enforcement of children rights. The Convention has been ratified by all the member states of the UN. Kenya ratified it on 30th July 1990.

This article discusses the legal framework of children rights in Kenya with particular focus on the UN Convention, the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, and Kenya’s Children Act of 2001. The article argues that Kenya’s Children Act, which sought to domesticate the state’s obligations towards the child as provided in the UN Convention and the African Charter, is largely flawed and leaves several gaps that raise issues concerning the State’s commitment to discharge its international law obligations towards the child. The enforcement of the Act by judicial institutions as well as administrative structures raises issues as to whether Kenya has fully discharged its obligations under international law.

Ondicho TG. "Domestic Violence in Kenya: Why Battered Women Stay." International Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences. 2013;1(4):105-111.why_battered_women_stay.pdf
C. KD, M. OF, Kimenju, J.W, M. H, E.M A. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication." International Journal of Horticulture and Crop Science Research. 2013;3(1):1-18.monitor_passionfruit_orchards.pdf
D.C K, F.M O, M. H, E.M A, Kimenju, J.W. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication." East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 2013;(special).
W O-K, F.M O, D K, W MA. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication.". In: Ecosystem Services and Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere. Dordrecht: Springer Science; 2013.
Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, G.N.Thoithi, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, King’ondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Drug quality control in Kenya: observations in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(2):33-43.
Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. "Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic (PV Devices' Outdoor Performance: A Comparative Study." International Journal of Emerging Technological in advanced Engineering . 2013. Abstract

The performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) has been investigated under different air mass (AM), irradiance intensity and temperature conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. The good response of the DSSM to short wavelength radiation made it perform well at increased AM values as compared to what is reported of Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) devices. The DSSM performed better compared to what is reported of a-Si PV devices under irradiance and temperature dependence. The results are useful in PV sizing, especially in the area of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in Kenya and the tropics.

Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "The dynamics of religiosity and spirituality in Kenyan public Universities." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.6(6):63-80.ijern_vol_1_no.6_june_2013.pdf
Wairimu J, Ogana W. "The Dynamics of Vector-Host Feeding Contact Rate with Saturation. (" A Case of Malaria in Western Kenya, Applied Mathematics,. 2013;4:pp. 1381-1391.
Wairimu J, Wandera O. "The Dynamics of Vector-Host Feeding Contact Rate with Saturation: A Case of Malaria in Western Kenya." Scientific Research Publishing. 2013;4(10):1381-1391 . AbstractWebsite

In this study, we develop an expression for a saturated mosquito feeding rate in an SIS malaria model to determine its effect on infection and transmission dynamics of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya. The basic reproduction number is established as a sharp threshold that determines whether the disease dies out or persists in the population. Precisely, if , the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out and if , there exists a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally stable and the disease persists. The contribution of the saturated contact rate to the basic reproduction number and the level of the endemic equilibrium are also analyzed.

Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Penman I. Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013. Abstract
Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift valley of Kenya using fecal sampling." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2013;13:394-400. Abstract
Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK, Muriuki NS, Gitonga L. "Detection of Plasmodium Parasites from Images of Thin Blood Smears." Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 2013;3:183-194. Abstract
Moore KL, Persaud TVN, Torchia MG. The developing human: clinically oriented embryology.. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders; 2013. Abstract
Obamba MO, Kimbwarata J, RIECHI ANDREWR. "Development Impacts of International Partnerships.". In: Internationalisation of African Higher Education. SensePublishers; 2013:. Abstract
RIECHI ANDREWR. "DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS: A KENYAN CASE STUDY." Internationalisation of African Higher Education: Towards Achieving the MDGs. 2013:151. Abstract
Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki. "Development of Laser Education and Research Towards Biophotonics at Nairobi.". In: 12th International conference on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics. 22; 2013. Abstract
Dimaras H, Dimba EAO, Waweru W, Githanga J, Kimani K. "Digital cancer pathology in Africa." The Lancet Oncology. 2013;14:e289-e290. Abstract
Peng B, van Blaaderen A, Imhof A. "Direct observation of the formation of liquid protrusions on polymer colloids and their coalescence." ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2013;5:4277-4284. Abstract
Odipo G. "Diaspora, Remittances and Development in IGAD States.". In: 2nd IGAD Regional Consultative Process On Migration (RCP); Migration & Development. United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa.; 2012.
Eileen M. Stuart-Shor, Anna K. Karani AMPJKJMCJDMKBSS. "Distribution of CV risk factors in a convenience sample of community dwelling Kenyans .". In: World congress of cardiology. Dubai, UAE; 2012.wc_of_cardiology.pdf
Musyoka SM, Karanja FN. Determination of minimum and maximum land holding. Case Study: Kajiado County, Transnzoia County and Kisii County. Nairobi: Instituition of Surveyors of Kenya; 2012.
Nyaory GM, K’Onditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Distribution of Electromagnetic Field Radiation from a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna, ADI-FDTD Perspective.". In: KSEEE-JSAEM 2012 International Engineering Conference.; 2012.
Koh VT, Tham Y-C, Cheung CY, Wong W-L, Baskaran M, Saw S-M, Wong TY, Aung T. "Determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53:5853-5859. Abstract

{PURPOSE: To determine the distribution, variation, and determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in nonglaucomatous eyes measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). METHODS: Six hundred twenty-three Chinese adults aged 40 to 80 years were consecutively recruited from a population-based study. All subjects underwent a standardized interview, ophthalmic examination, and automated perimetry. HD-OCT with macular cube protocol was used to measure the GC-IPL thickness. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between GC-IPL thickness with ocular and systemic factors. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of study subjects was 52.84 ± 6.14 years, 50.1% were male, and all subjects had normal visual fields with no signs of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. The mean overall, minimum, superior, and inferior GC-IPL thicknesses were 82.78 ± 7.01 μm, 79.67 ± 9.17 μm, 83.30 ± 7.89 μm, and 80.16 ± 8.31 μm, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, GC-IPL thickness was significantly associated with age (β = -0.202, P {\textless} 0.001), female sex (β = -2.367, P {\textless} 0.001), axial length (β = -1.279

Kiamba A. "Diplomatic missions and international political economy.". In: Induction Course for Ambassadors of South Sudan. Mombasa; 2012.
Wairire GG. "The Development of Social Work Education in Africa.". In: World Conference for Social work themed ‘Social Work and Social Development 2012: Action and Impact. Stockholm- Sweden; 2012.
Kiamba A. "The Dragon in Africa.". In: China’s rise and emerging role in Africa Lecture of opportunity. Germany; 2012.
Wachira P.M, Kimenju J, Kiarie J, Mwaniki S. "Diversity of nematode destroying fungi in banana-based farming systems in Maragua, Kenya.". In: 12th Workshop on sustainable horticultural productions in the tropics. Bondo University College, Bondo - Kenya; 2012.
Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo DW, Dehayem-Massop A. "Developments in Medical Elementology and Spectral Diagnostics of Disease via Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Trace Spectroanalytics and Imaging Towards Applications in Nanomedicine.". In: First Pan-African Summer School in Nanomedicine. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Odongo O, Manderick B. "Distributed Computing, Agents and Trends: An introduction.". In: UNESCO-HP Brain Gain workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Mulongo AW, Ayienga E. "Distributed Energy Control in Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring Based on Adaptive Sampling.". In: UNESCO-HP Brain Gain Workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Kiarie J, Inambao M, Kilembe W, Farquhar C, Celum C. "Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):358-65. Abstract

Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1.

Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Kiarie J, Inambao M, Kilembe W, Farquhar C, Celum C. "Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):358-65. Abstract

Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1.

Subramanian S, Pappu HR, Birithia R, Muthomi JW, Sseruwagi P, Narla RD. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Eastern Africa.". In: 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV). Antequera, Málaga, Spain; 2012.
Rading GO. D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Dark Current Voltage (I-V) Characteristics of a Commercialized Dye-Sensitized Solar Module Ideal for use in the Tropics." International Journal of Professional Practice. 2012;3(1&2):165-168.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Dark J-V Characterization of a Dye-Sensitized Module." International Journal of Professional Practice (IJPP),. 2012;3(1&2):165-168. AbstractWebsite

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Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita, S.M., Mwabora JM. "Dark J-V Characterization of a Dye-Sensitized Module." International Journal of Professional Practice (IJPP), . 2012;3(1&2):165-168.
Ikobwa JM. "David Hohl als Zeuge des Genozids in Ruanda in Lukas Bärfuss’ „Hundert Tage“." Jahrbuch für Internationale Germanistik. 2012;108(Reihe A: Kongressberichte):107-117.
Mwiti BK. Deception in advertising: a case study of fruit juices in the local Kenyan market .; 2012. Abstract

Deception in advertising is an ongoing moral, and in some cases, controversial issue. What may appear to be a harmless advertisement to one person or group may be very misleading to another. With the increase in technology and the ever-increasing use of the Internet, consumers remain prime targets for advertising and marketing practices that are deceptive. The research thesis first gives background information on deception in advertising and describes different types of deception. It then examines what makes an advertisement deceptive, or what kind of advertisement would be defined 'as containing information that is deceptive and what role the designer plays in the advertising process/chain. It also gives information about juices and studies done on the production of juices, being that the case study revolves around fruit juices and the deception that occurs in their marketing. A field research was conducted to establish just how much deception there is in advertising, using fruit juices sold in the local Kenyan market as a case study. From the findings I was able to determine the level of deception the consumer is exposed to and the likely effects. Within the research were sought views of designers on why, if at all, they use deception in the adverts they produce. Discussions with designers, marketers and advertisers were heldto understand the point at which deceptive information was incorporated as part of the advertising process. Consumers were also interviewed to get an in-depth into what influences their purchasing powers. Retailers came n handy when informing me as to whether advertising was crucial in purchases made in their shopping outlets. The results from the field research proved that deception does exist and led me to conclude that advertising ought to be a moral concern & thus the need to inform consumers of this so that they can make more informed decisions about their purchases; and the need for designers to be held responsible for advertisements they create to market products and services.

Paul Kamau. "Declining Confidence in Economic Performance in Kenya." Afrobarometer Briefing Paper No. 107. 2012.
Kihiko D. "Degloving penile trauma in a 12 year old boy: Case report." The Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(1):58-60.
C. R, K. MS, K. NH, I. N’ang’aS, S.O. M, P.I O, S. G, P.C. K. "A Demand Analysis for Sahiwal Breeding Animals from the National Sahiwal Stud (NSS) Between 1971-2007." International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences. 2012;1(12):29-43.
Musyoki POARA;. "Demography, Urbanization and Spatial Planning in Tanzania and Uganda: A Bibliographical Survey.". Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press; 2012.
J.;Ganga-Limando CKMSMM; K. "Descriptive Characteristics of Psychoactive Substance Dependent Patients in Nairobi,Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2012;42 (1)(June, 2012):1-4.
Mwaengo D, Lorenzo G, Iglesias J, Warigia M, Sang R, Bishop RP, Brun A. "Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR." Virus Res.. 2012;169(1):137-43. Abstract

Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. In this study, molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2007 East African outbreaks was performed using quantitative real-time PCR assay (qRT-PCR). Specific RVFV sequence-based primer/fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe sets were derived from the L and S RNA segments of the virus. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity. Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and 1000-fold were detected between Ae. mcintoshi and M. uniformis using both the L and S primer-probe-based assays. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the 2006-2007 outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host. The data confirms the utility of qRT-PCR for identification and initial quantification of virus in mosquito samples during RVFV outbreaks.

Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK, Kamande IM. "Determinants of alcohol consumption of university- student athletes: The case of University of Nairobi,Nairobi,Kenya." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;4(5):354-361.
Mensah ER;, Karantininis K;, Adégbidi A;, Okello JJ. "Determinants of Commitment to Agricultural Cooperatives: Cashew Nuts Farmers in Benin."; 2012. Abstract

Forming and using cooperatives as marketing channel is usually advised to African smallholder farmers for overcoming the constraint of market access. However, limited evidence of cooperative behavior in marketing has been observed. In this paper, we estimate a two-stage model of commitment to cooperatives by cashew nut farmers in Benin, West Africa. In the first stage, we use data on 109 non-members and 168 members and estimate a binary Logit model of farmer’s discrete choice with respect to committing to membership. In the second stage, we use the members’ data to estimate a Tobit model of the proportion of produce delivered to the cooperative, after controlling for the endogeneity of the proportion of presales. Empirical results reveal that the commitment to membership depends on the assessment of prices offered by the marketing channels, the farmer’s preferences for the specific attributes of the channels, the total farm size, and some psycho-sociological factors; the commitment to business depends on prices and transaction costs in the channels. Our findings call cooperatives for improving commitment by considering the subjective and economic reasoning of the farmers, and setting formal contracts between members and their organization.

Migosi J. Determinants of Research Productivity of University Faculty: Experiences from a developing country. Germany: Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2012.
Kibui AW. "Determinants of the girl child participation in secondary school education in Central Division of Mandera East District Kenya." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research, University of Nairobi. 2012;Vol V, No. 1, 2011(ISSN 2079-3383):p. 130.
H K, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." International Journal of Plant Production. 2012;6(2):209-224.
H K, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." . International Journal of Plant Production. 2012;6 (2):209-224.
Karaya H, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination Stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." International Journal of Plant Production . 2012;6(2):209-223.abstract_levels_of_striga_germination_maize_gene_bank_karaya_ariga_et_al_2012.pdf
Chege WH;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG. "Determination of seasonal parasite carriage of village chicken in Mbeere, antiparasitic treatments used and effectiveness of selected anthelmintics."; 2012. Abstract

The overall objective of the study is to determine parasite carriage of village chicken of Mbeere district, Eastern province of Kenya. The study was conducted for over two seasons, the dry (January to March) and wet (October to December) season. Subsequently efficacy testing of selected antiparasitic drugs will be conducted. Twenty four birds of three age groups (chicks, growers and adults) were randomly selected from homesteads. The study showed that all chicken (100%) harboured ecto and endoparasites and 79.1% were infected with haemoparasites. With respect to ectoparasites, all the birds (100%) were infested, with lice, while 75% were infected with mites, 66.7% with ticks and 54.1% with fleas. The most prevalent nematodes were the caecal worms (91.7%), Tetramere species (54.1%), Gonglylonema (29.1%) and Coccidial oocyst (20.8%). Cestodes were also present in 91.7% of the samples. Haemoparasites had a prevalence of 83.3%. This study has shown that endo and ectoparasites are a common health problem in the village chicken in Mbeere District, Kenya. The studies for wet season and for drug sensitivity testing are still on-going.

Kibugi R. "Development and Balancing of Interests in Kenya.". In: Balancing of Interests in Environmental Law in Africa . Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press; 2012.
Otieno NA, Culhain J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species. 29 July-2 August,Kyoto, Japan: International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions; 2012. Abstract

Internal plant tissue colonisation has made endophytic bacteria valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance particularly for those bacteria having traits such as plant growth promotion (PGP). This project involved screening and identifying endophytic bacterial strains, sourced from the bacterial collection available at the Institute of Technology Carlow, with the potential to enhance growth rate in bio-energy plant crop species. In the initial stage under greenhouse condition, a total of 140 strains in master mix (MM) groups of 10 strains, were inoculated into Rye Grass. The inoculated Rye Grass seeds were sown in pots and arranged in complete randomised design and their growth was monitored for a period of 3 months. The plant fresh weights (FW) and dry weights (DW) were used as growth parameters. Three MMs (comprising 30 strains) showed PGP potential in Rye Grass, significantly increased the mean FW and DW of Rye Grass plants compared to the negative controls. The 30 selected strains were further characterised for PGP traits under in vitro study. Results showed three strains inhibited Pythium spp. growth in dual culture assay, whereas the culture filtrates to quantify gluconic acid production necessary for inorganic phosphate solubilisation, had six strains recording more than 20mg/ml of gluconic acid production. Ten strains showed Indole acetic acid (IAA) production in the range (10-18 µg/ml) while three strains showed 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity. This study indicates that the selected bacterial endophytes have the potential for PGP and development in plant crops.

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Dhana na Sifa Bainifu za Hadithi Fupi.". In: Kunani Marekani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers Ltd; 2012.
Pantazis N, Morrison C APNLSRAMCJLKPMCAT, in and Group. TCASCADECECANRSP-CISG; 1220. "Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa." PLoS One.. 2012;7(3):e32369.
MARTINON MUMMA-CA. "Discovering The Role Of The Church In The Protection Of Civilians In Peace Support Operations.". In: In L. Magesa & M. C. Kirwen (Eds.), Exploring The Faith Of Mission In Africa: Celebration Of Maryknoll’s 100 Years In Mission,. Nairobi: Maryknoll Institute Of African Studies.; 2012.5._the_role_of_the_church_in_protecting_civillians.pdf
M MH, LW I, PN N. "The diseases of coffee under the changing climate: the established situation in Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technolog. 2012;2(2):265-267.
Moses MP, Abungu NO. "Distributed Slack Bus Model for a Wind-Based Distribution Generation using Combined Participation Factors." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2012;2(10):459-469. Abstractijetae_1012_80.pdfClick here to read more...

With the increased penetration of distributed generation into the power distribution system, the traditional
load flow analysis that assumes a single slack bus has become impractical. The existing literature focuses on slack bus placement taking only real power losses into place. However with increasing need of reactive power in maintaining voltage stability at the consumer end; reactive power generation management cannot
be ignored any further. Thus a distributed slack bus model taking into consideration both real and reactive power losses is of paramount importance. The wind based doubly fed induction generator is an attractive option for both real and reactive power loss compensation since it is economically attractive, can be grid
connected and it has the capability to generate and absorb reactive power. A distributed slack bus model
using combined participation factors is developed in this paper to distribute the slack(real and reactive power losses). The combined participation factors are formulated using the method of Lagrange
multipliers and the distributed slack bus model employs a Genetic Algorithm of a Newton Raphson Solver.

Abong’ GO, Kabira JN. "Diversity and Characteristics of Potato Flakes in Nairobi and Nakuru, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research (D). 2012;12(10):35-39.potato_flakes_survey_kenya.pdf
Muchemi AW, Awino ZB. "Diversity In the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance.". In: African Casebook, synergies in African Business and Management Practices Vol.1, 2012 . Nairobi: AJBUMA Publishing; 2012.
michael_k._chirchir_and_githii_wainaina. dms_111_manual.; 2012.dms_111_manual_by_michael_k._chirchir_and_githii_wainaina.pdf
Kimwele C.N, Karisa B.K. SJ'a HSMEMJOO. "DNA species surveillance: Monitoring bushmeat poaching and trading in Kenya using partial cytochrome b gene." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;11(78):14276-14286.
.Mony F. "Does the Hat Fit."; 2012.
Njoroge KD. "Dynamic Analysis of Dislocation Cores in a-Fe Lattice Using the Embeded Atom Model." International Journal of Computational Engineering Research. 2012;2(3):851-859.
Gathungu MJKJM &. "Dynamic capabilities, Talent Development and from performance." DBA Africa Management Review . 2012;2(3):83-100.
Lung’aho C, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.
and C. Lung’aho, G. Chemining’wa SHSM. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2012;7(17):2701-2712.Dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato
Lung’aho C, C. Lung’aho, Chemining’wa G, G. Chemining’wa, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Hutchinson. M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato_solanum_tuberosum_cultivars_in_central_kenya.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Development, Acceptability and Nutritional Characteristics of Low-cost, Shelf-stable Supplementary Food Product for Vulnerable Groups in Kenya.". In: Food and Nutrition Bulletin. Kunyanga CN; 2012. Abstract
Kaniu MI, Angeyo KH, Mwala AK, MANGALA MJ. "Direct rapid analysis of trace bioavailable soil macronutrients by chemometrics-assisted energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry." Analytica chimica acta. 2012. AbstractWebsite

Precision agriculture depends on the knowledge and management of soil quality (SQ), which calls for affordable, simple and rapid but accurate analysis of bioavailable soil nutrients. Conventional SQ analysis methods are tedious and expensive. We demonstrate …

Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Opot. BH, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Osuna. F, Nyambura. JM, Ocholla. SO, Mitei. KM, Wurapa. EK. "Drastic decline of pandemic (2009) H1N1 Influenza cases in sentinel surveillance sites in Kenya; May 2011-May 2012.". In: International Society for Influenza and other respiratory virus diseases conference. Munich Germany.; 2012. Abstract
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Drivers of use of information and communication services by farm households: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya.". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Kamau, Paul George Michuki DMCDA. "Dynamics of Labour Availability and Technical Skills in the Kenyan Garment Industry." ACFRN Working Paper 12.06.; 2012. Abstract
Nyaory GM, Konditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Designing Cavity–Backed Slot Antenna Array: A Numerical Implementation Using ADI-FDTD Method.". In: 6th JKUAT Scientific and Technological Conference. AICAD, Juja, Nairobi ; 2011. Abstract

ABSTRACT Slotted antenna arrays used with waveguides also known as Cavity-backed slot antenna arrays (CBSAA) are a popular set of antenna in navigation, radar and other microwave-frequency systems. For such antenna analysis and design in the sub-wavelength domain, there are currently three well established methods: The method of moments (MoM), the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite difference time-domain method (FDTD).
In this paper, a new finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is proposed in order to eliminate the Courant–Friedrich–Levy (CFL) condition restraint. We therefore present the conventional alternating direction implicit - finite difference time-domain method (ADI-FDTD) method.
The proposed ADI-FDTD method is applied by solving Maxwell’s equations in time domain. We model and simulate waveguide structures with a case study of T10 mode on rectangular CBSAA consisting of 8 slot elements backed by a single cavity and simple feed network. The characteristics covering the microwave frequencies are analyzed, for instance; input impedance, return loss, bandwidth, VSWR, and far field radiation patterns. Moreover, several numerical results are presented, along with measured data, which demonstrate the validity, efficiency, and capability of the technique. Index Terms - Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Arrays (CBSAA), Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD), Courant–Friedrich–Levy (CFL), and Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI)

Kassa R, Wentzell MKKMMDT-KJVS. "Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of tetanus toxin-derivatives in neurodegerative diseases.". In: the American Society of Neurochemistry (ASN). Saint Louis, mi, USA; 2011.
Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

joshua Kivuva. "devolved governance in the post 2010 kenya.". In: Workshop for provincial administration and senior police officers on devolution and the security sector. Eldoret, Kenya.; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "devolution and the politics of marginalization in Kenya.". In: FES workshop on The national cohesion and devolution forum: the ethnic challenge of devolution. Migori County Hall.; 2011.
and AA, Odipo G. "Drivers of migration in East African Community.". In: the Regional meting of The Research Consortium Migration out of Poverty.; 2011.
Nyabuga G. "Demystifying the alternative in alternative media.". In: Beyond Mainstream Conversations on Alternative Media . Nyeri, Kenya; 2011.
Kamau L, Skilton RA, Odongo DO, Mwaura S, Githaka N, Kanduma E, Obura M, Kabiru E, Orago A, Musoke A, Bishop RP. "Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida)." Insect Mol. Biol.. 2011;20(1):105-14. Abstract

The transcriptional control of gene expression is not well documented in the Arthropoda. We describe transcriptional analysis of two exceptionally divergent homologues (Ra86) of the Bm86 gut antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Bm86 forms the basis of a commercial vaccine for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. appendiculatus Ra86 proteins contain 654 and 693 amino acids, with only 80% amino acid sequence identity. Reverse-transcription PCR of gut cDNA showed transcription of only one genotype in individual female ticks. PCR amplification of 3' untranslated sequences from genomic DNA indicated that both variants could be encoded within a single genome. When both variants were present, one of the two Ra86 genotypes was transcriptionally dominant.

Hlushchuk R, Ehrbar M, Reichmuth P, Heinimann N, Styp-Rekowska B, Escher R, Baum O, Lienemann P, Makanya A, Keshet E, Djonov V. "Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning." Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.. 2011;31(12):2836-44. Abstract

The concept of vascular pruning, the "cuting-off" of vessels, is gaining importance due to expansion of angio-modulating therapies. The proangiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are broadly described, but the mechanisms of structural alterations by its downregulation are not known.

Munayi S, Chumba JM, Andanjah M, Wanderi PM. "The Development of Sports Tourism in Kenya.". In: 9th Biennial Conference of the African Association for health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. Kyambogo University; 2011.
Chepken K c, Blake E, Marsden G. Day Labour Mobile Electronic Data Capture and Browsing System. Cape Town South Africa: ACM; 2011.
Onyancha CK, Eliud M. Mathu, Mwea SK, Ngecu WM. "DEALING WITH SENSITIVE AND VARIABLE SOILS IN NAIROBI CITY." International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences. 2011;Vol. 9(No. 2):pp 282-291.dealing_with_sensitive_and_variable_soils_in_nairobi_city.pdf
Olali T. "Deciphering the Swahili Panegyric of the Prophet: The Case of the Kasida ya Hamziyyah.". In: Africa, Cradle of Writing. New York: HSRC; 2011.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Declining food security among resource limited in the Mumias Sugar Scheme in Western Kenya and potential for improvement." Working with Rural Communities, 2nd Edn., Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. 2011.
Maleche Z. "DEFINITIONS AND TYPES OF REGIONS FOR PLANNING.". In: Training Of Trainers (TOT) workshop on regional development policy and practices in Namibia: Phase VI. Rundu, Okavango division; 2011.
Ebrahim YH. The demise of hope - A dilemma of an architect: An autobiography. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2011.
Opiyo C, Agwanda A. "The Demographic Dividend: A gift or a curse.". In: Youth Research Compendium . Nairobi: Institute Of Economic Affairs ; 2011.
Ober-Oluoch JA, Kemoli A, Masiga, Dimba E. "Dental Caries and Periodontal health of Children with Cerebral Palsy.". 2011;2(1).
K. W, S. M, J.W. M, Z. Q, J. B, P. V. "Depression among women with obstetric fistula in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(1):31-3. Abstract

To establish the prevalence of depression and describe associated factors among fistula patients attending an obstetric fistula surgical camp in Kenya.

A cross-sectional study was conducted focusing on obstetric fistula patients attending a national fistula camp held in August 2008 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and medical histories for all consenting patients before surgery. Depression measures were obtained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

Of the 70 women interviewed, 2 (2.9%) and 12 (17.1%) reported a history of psychiatric illness and suicidal ideations, respectively. Depression was present in 51 (72.9%) patients, with 18 (25.7%) meeting criteria for severe depression. Depression was significantly associated with women older than 20 years of age (P=0.01), unemployment (P=0.03), lack of social support following fistula (P=0.04), and living with fistula for over 3 months (P=0.01).

Women with obstetric fistula are predisposed to high levels of depression. A holistic management approach, including mental health care and family support, is recommended

Esilaba AO;, Okoti M;, Keya GA;, Miriti JM;, Kigomo JN;, Olukoye G;, Wekesa L;, Ego W;, Muturi GM. The Desert Margins Programme Approaches in Upscaling Best-Bet Technologies in Arid and Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s land surface is primarily arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) which account for 84% of the total land area. The Desert Margins Programme (DMP) in Kenya has made some contribution to understanding which technology options have potential in reducing land degradation in marginal areas and conserving biodiversity through demonstrations, testing of the most promising natural resource management options, developing sustainable alternative livelihoods and policy guidelines, and replicating successful models. In extension of sustainable natural resource management, two types of strategies were used: (i) strategies for the promotion of readily available technologies and (ii) approaches for participatory learning and action research. Thus DMP-Kenya initiated upscaling of four ‘best-bet’ technologies. Under the rangeland/livestock management options, scaling-up activities include improvement of rangeland productivity, rangeland resource management through community-based range resources monitoring/assessment, and fodder conservation for home-based herds. Restoration of degraded lands included rehabilitation of rangelands using the red paint approach in conservation of Acacia tortilis, control of Prosopis, planting of Acacia senegal trees in micro-catchments, and rehabilitation of degraded areas through community enclosures. Improved land, nutrient, and water management involved upscaling water harvesting and integrated nutrient management (INM) technologies. Activities under tree-crop/livestock interactions included upscaling of Melia volkensii and fruit trees (mangoes) and enhancing biodiversity conservation through support of beekeeping as a viable alternative livelihood. Participatory learning and action research (PLAR) was used for technology development and dissemination. Capacity building and training was a major component of upscaling of these best-bet technologies

Rao KP, Maitho T, Kamamia EK, Patil AB, Sagre P. "Design and Pre-clinical Studies of Miconazole Soap Strips for Dermal Infections." International Journal of INST Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2011;1(1):68-76.
Abade OE, Kaji K, Kawaguchi N. "Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Routing Engine for a multipoint communication protocol: XCAST6." International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security. 2011;11(5):200-209.
Jane M, Mburu J, Nyikal R, and Kironchi G. "Determinants of adoption of conservation tillage practices in maize-cowpea cropping systems: the case of Makueni District, Kenya." Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management . 2011;2(11):354-361. AbstractWebsite

The low soil moisture cannot support productive agriculture to meet the increasing population in the low rainfall tropical areas. Ripping and tied-ridging are some of the recent technologies introduced by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, and is used to conserve moisture in the semi-arid areas. Although farmers are aware of the technical gains of these technologies, the adoptionrates have remained below the expectations of researchers and policy makers. The objective of this study was to analyze household and technology characteristics that influence the adoption of ripping and tied-ridging techniques of conservation tillage. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to interview a random sample of 177 farmers. Using a logit model, different factors that influenced farmers’ use of ripping and tied-ridging were identified. The significant variables include availability of off-farm employment, closeness to local markets, group membership, availability of family labour, contact with extension services and conservation tillage promoters, and farmers’ farming experience. The paper recommends that future demonstrations of ripping and tied-ridging should target farmers who cannot easily access markets for farm inputs and outputs. Moreover, non-adopters should be encouraged to join or form new groups to establish contacts with extension services, and organizations promoting the tillage practices if adoption rates of these technologies are to be improved in the study area. Key words: Adoption, adoption rate, conservation tillage, ripping, tied-ridging, semiarid areas, Kenya.

and Mutune, J.M. MNKJRG. "Determinants of adoption of conservation tillage practices in maize-cowpea cropping systems: The case of Makueni District, Kenya." Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management. 2011;2(11):354-361.
E.N. PN. "Determinants of condom use among female sex workers in Kenya: a case-crossover analysis.". 2011. Abstract

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 May;20(5):733-8. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2436. Epub 2011 Mar 25.
Determinants of condom use among female sex workers in Kenya: a case-crossover analysis.
Gallo MF, Warner L, Bell AJ, Bukusi EA, Sharma A, Njoroge B, Ngugi E, Jamieson DJ, Eschenbach DA.

Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, USA.

We evaluated predictors of consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs), a core group for controlling the spread of HIV.

In an analysis of data collected in 2004-2005 from 140 Kenyan FSWs who completed questionnaires administered during a baseline study visit and three bimonthly follow-up visits, we used a case-crossover design to identify predictors of consistent condom use during all coital acts in the preceding 2 weeks, overall and by partner type.

Participants (n=140) completed the baseline visit and 390 bimonthly follow-up visits. Alcohol use during sex was negatively associated with consistent condom use with helping partners (defined as regular sex partners to whom the woman could go for help or support if needed) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-6.5) but not associated with condom use with other partners. Coital frequency was associated with condom use with other partners only. Women who reported 1-5 (AOR 11.0, 95% CI 4.3-28.3) or 6-9 recent coital acts (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.8) with other partners were more likely to report consistent condom use with those partners than were women who reported ≥10 acts. Having a recent partner delay payment was inversely associated with consistent condom use with helping, other, or all partners.

Correlates of consistent condom use differed by partner type. By using a case-crossover design, we were able to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with consistent condom use by FSWs who used condoms consistently with a given partner type during some periods but not others.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kibera LW, Kibera FN. "The Determinants of Learning Achievement of Public Primary School Children in Kenya." Journal of African International Business and Management . 2011.
Ndege TM, Migosi JA, Onsongo J. "Determinants of Research Productivity among academics in Kenya." International Journal of Economics Education and Development. 2011;2(3):288-300.
Ogolla K, Awino ZB, Muchemi AW. "Determinants of Strategic Forces That Shape Competition in Handicraft Industry in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Volume 1(12):58-67.
Ogollah K, Bolo AZ, Muchemi AW. "Determinants of Strategic Forces That Shape Competition in Handicraft Industry In Kenya ." Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(2):58-67.ogollah_et_al1.pdf
Murimi E, Kihiu J, Nyakoe G, Mutuli S, Kimotho J. "Determination of resonant frequency of a piezoelectric ring for generation of ultrasonic waves.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Ultrasound technology has become an important aspect in material handling and machining. Standing and traveling ultrasonic waves have been applied in powder transportation, feeding, dosing and supply of small amounts of powder with high quantitative accuracy and precision. Piezoelectric actuators are the most commonly used to generate the ultrasonic waves in various devices. Hence, these devices have presented a unique, economic and simple means of accurate handling of powder. This paper describes the determination of the resonant frequency of a piezoelectric ring that can be applied for generation of the ultrasonic waves. The resonant frequency is important in determining the highest amplitude of the vibration of the ring.

Mulwa JK, Kimata F. "Determination of source parameters for the May 20, 1990 Southern Sudan earthquake by inversion of teleseismic body-waves.". In: Operating Management of Earthquake, Tsunami and Volcano Eruption Observation Systems. Nagoya: Research Center for Seismology, Volcanology and Disaster Mitigation, Nagoya University; 2011. Abstract

The May 20, 1990 earthquake which occurred in southern Sudan is so far the strongest earthquake to occur in the eastern part of African continent within the past 21 years. It caused damage in southern Sudan as well as severe shaking in parts of Uganda and Kenya, and was accompanied by aftershocks on May 24, 1990 of moment magnitudes Mw = 6.5 and 7.1.

Inversion of teleseismic body-waves has been undertaken for the purpose of this study in an attempt to reassess the seismo-tectonics of northern and central Kenya as well as southern Sudan. The results show that the best solution for the inversion of teleseismic body waves for the May 20, 1990 earthquake consists of only one event with a source mechanism of 315o/84o/-3o (strike/dip/rake) and the fault plane is characterized by left-lateral strike-slip fault mechanism. The focal depth for this earthquake is 12.1 km, seismic moment Mo = 7.65 x 1019 Nm and moment magnitude, Mw = 7.19 (7.2). The fault rupture started 15 seconds earlier and lasted for a duration of 17 seconds along a fault plane having dimensions of length  60 km and width  40 km. The average dislocation along the fault is 1.1 m and the stress drop,  is 1.63 Mpa.

The distribution of historical earthquakes from southern Sudan through central Kenya shows a NW-SE alignment of epicenters. On a local scale in Kenya, the NW-SE alignment of epicenters is characterized by earthquakes of local magnitude Ml  4.0. This NW-SE alignment of epicenters confirms the existence of an active fault zone, the Aswa-Nyangia fault zone, from southern Sudan through central Kenya and further into the Indian Ocean. However, owing to lack of waveform data for these historical earthquakes, it is not possible to determine the source mechanism of the fault. Further work on inversion of short period waveform data is required so as to precisely determine the fault mechanism of this NW-SE trending fault zone in the central and southeastern parts of Kenya.

Yangyuoru PM, Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Determination of Sphingosine Kinase 2 Activity using Fluorescent Sphingosine by Capillary Electrophoresis." Electrophoresis. 2011;32(13):1742-9.
Omuga DB. "Determination Of The Daily Nursing Procedures Performed To Children Admitted With Medical Conditions At Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2011;39(2):16-23. Abstract

The daily nursing procedures are those aspects of nursing that occur most frequently, affect a large number of patients andplace patients at ·riskby not providing care correctly or providing care that is not indicated. There has been an increasing outcry of falling standards of health care in hospitals. Many a times health care providers including the nurse do not follow recommended procedures or do not carry out required tasks at all. Checks on procedures performed to hospitalized children and their parents has been documented as one way of evaluating the quality of care. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried at KNHwith the aim of determining the daily nursing procedures and the adherence to oral drug administration' procedure. The children whose parents/ guardians participated in the study were selected through systematic random
sampling using the admission registers while the nurses were purposely selected. A total of 256 parents/guardians staying with the selected children, 78 nurses and 4 nurse in- charges were recruited into the study. Data was analysed by use of the "Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)".Drug administration was established as one of the procedures that almost all nurses carried out on a daily basis. However, the procedure for administration of oral medications was not adhered to by all the nurses observed. Other daily procedure.s.mentioned invariably included nutritional care (50%),hygiene (50%),taking of
vital observations (46.4%),comfort caring (44%);health education (36%)and infection control (2.5%).It was concluded that there is minimal performance of the expected daily nursing procedures and non-adherence to the laid down procedures for the administration of oral medications thus indicating that the quality of care is sub-optimal. The study recommended that standards of paediatric nursing be developed and emphasis be laid on the performance of the daily procedures and adherence to the laid procedures for oral drug administration to minimize drug errors.

C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Developing an Authentic African Architecture." Africa Habitat Review . 2011;5. Abstract

The idea of the existence of an African Architecture has been problematic over the years since the onset of European occupation. Early scholars of non-Western built forms saw them as not constituting architecture but as shelter or mere dwellings (Oliver, 1987). Others classed these built forms as primitive or indigenous architecture (Guidoni, 1987 Gardi, 1973)while others have classed built forms on the African continent as African Architecture (Kultermann, 1969).Globally, most indigenous societies build their structures using local resources and quite often adapted to the climate of the locality. In addition, traditional built forms tend to respect historical precedents and local customary practices. In this regard, it can be argued that traditional architecture is green architecture without the benefits of sophisticated technologies. The above notwithstanding, most Western architecture imported to the continent, had little regard for local practices and quite often ignored local climate. In attempting to train architects for contemporary practice, this paper argues for hybrid architecture. This is because there is no current pure African architecture in existence. What happened over time was the Africanisation of Western and Eastern architectural models to suit the African condition. The resultant architecture has been a hybrid of these various architectures, what Mazrui refers to as the Triple African Heritage. This architecture is a spatial counter form for the contemporary African society and can be seen to be authentic

Ondieki EO. "Developing Resources for the Training of Architects." Africa Habitat Review Journal - . Nairobi, SBE Publication- UoN. 2011;Vol:5(5)(2010):296-302.Website

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