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2015
Ndunda BE, Langat MK, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK. "Diterpenoid Derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus." NPC. 2015;10(4):557-558.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK. "Diterpenoid Derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst." Natural Product Communications (NPC). 2015;10(4):557-558.ndunda_et_al.pdf
Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya.". 2015.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina S. "Diversity of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies and their pests in Cameroon.". 2015.
G.O O, E.K G, R.J M. "DMARD use in rheumatoid arthritis: can we predict treatment response?" Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):50-58. Abstractdmard_use_in_rheumatoid.pdf

Abstract
Objective: To review the current and emerging predictors of treatment response by DMARD Sin Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients.Data source: Published original research work and reviews were searched in
English related to determinants of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis on DMARDS Study design: Only articles that emphasis on determinants of rheumatoid arthritis treatment response with DMARDS Data extraction: Online and library searches done.Data synthesis: Data added and summarized Conclusions: Treatment of RA has been based on the use of a group of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
(DMARDs), of which methotrexate is the most widely used. Although
comprehensive clinical experience exists for MTX and synthetic DMARDs, to date it has not been possible to preview correctly whether or not a patient will respond to treatment with these drugs. Predicting response to MTX and other DMARDs would allow the selection of patients based on their likelihood of response,
thus enabling individualized therapy and avoiding unnecessary adverse effects and elevated costs. Distinguishing responders from non-responders at treatment start as studies have failed to consistently
reproduce similar determinants. Variables possibly influencing drug effectiveness may be related to disease, patient, treatment, clinical or biological (genetic and non-genetic) factors. This study
seeks to review the current data regarding biomarkers of treatment response to DMARDS.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis, DMARDS, Determinants of treatmentresponse

Richard Bitange Nyaoga, Mingzheng Wang POM. "Does Capacity Utilization Mediate the Relationship between Operations Constraint Management and Value Chain Performance of Tea Processing Firms? Evidence from Kenya." International Strategic Management Review - Elsevier. 2015;3(1):81-95.
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Does Institutional Isolation Matter for Soil Conservation Decisions? Evidence from Kenya." SAGE Open. 2015;January-March 2015: 1–9. DOI: 10.1177/2158244015570977.
Gateri MW, Alfred OPERE, Wilson GITAU, Ndiwa NGAINAJ. "Domestic rainwater harvesting: a case study in Embu County, Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):50-59. Abstractdomestic_rainwater_harvesting_a_case_study_in_embu_county_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

This study assessed probable water that could be harvested during rainy seasons over Embu County of Kenya. Monthly rainfall data was obtained from Kenya Meteorological Department while percentage distribution of household by household size, main roofing material, number of rooms in the main dwelling and per capita volume of water required was sourced from Kenya Integrated Household Budget of Survey (KIHBS). Minimum water demand per household was computed based on KIHBS. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) 2009 population census was used to determine population and number of occupants in the main dwelling. Embu County receives bimodal rainfall during March-April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Rainfall is highly variable with 8190 and 7490 litres of harvested water during MAM and OND season respectively expected to last for approximately 43 days (MAM) while 39 days (OND) and thus not sufficient to satisfy minimum water demand levels for Embu population. The total potential harvestable water during MAM and OND accounted for 45.4 % and would go a long way in meeting water demands in the region. Notably, harvestable water was being used to supplement natural sources of water. Therefore, enhanced water harvesting during rainy season could provide an alternate source of domestic water.

Opiyo F, Wasonga O, Nyangito, Moses M, Schilling J, Munang, R. "Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Science,. 2015;6(3):295-309.
Yangyuoru PM, Antonio MD, Ghimire C, Biffi G, Balasubramanian S, Mao H. "Dual Binding of an Antibody and a Small Molecule Increases the Stability of TERRA G‐Quadruplex." Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2015;54(3):910-913.
M Hussein CKMAY, A Ruturi, Nangole FW, Khainga SO, Khainga SO. "Dual omental flap in obliterating post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae." KMA. 2015. Abstract

Background: Post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The omental flap has been widely used to manage this condition either through laparoscopic or open surgery with varied degrees of success. We present a modification of the omental flap by using two flaps of the omentum in obliterating the bronchopleural fistulae. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of dual omental flap in obliteration of postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae Design: A prospective clinical study. Setting: The cardiothoracic unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2010 and December 2013 . Subjects: Five patients with post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae managed in a period of four years. Results: Pneumonectomy were due to cancer of the lungs in two patients and tuberculosis in three patients. All the patients had previously attempted repair with a pleural patch without success. Dual omental flap was utilised to repair the fistulae. All patients had successful repair of the fistula and no recurrence was noted at one year of follow up. Conclusion: Dual omental flap offers an alternative technique in obliterating postpneumonectomy fistula. The two flap technique allows for one flap to completely seal the fistula while the second flap provides an additional airtight closure over the first flap and hence prevents any leakages. This ensures higher success rate with few recurrences.

Mulwa JK, Mariita NO. "Dyking processes in Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect in Kenya revealed using gravity and microseismic data.". In: 37th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop: The next 10,000 Megawatts. New Zealand: University of Auckland, New Zealand Geothermal Association; 2015. Abstract

Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect, located in the central Kenya rift valley (KRV), encompasses several features of geological significance that are indicators of possible geothermal potential. These include surface manifestations, such as fumaroles, steam jets, mud pools, hot springs, spouting geysers, and high rate of micro-seismic activity of about 500 earthquakes recorded within a period of three months in comparison to other geothermal fields and prospects along the Kenya rift valley (KRV).

A comparison of the results of gravity survey, undertaken between 2005 and 2006 for geothermal resource evaluation of Arus and Lake Bogoria geothermal prospects, to results of micro-seismic monitoring undertaken in 1985 during the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP 85) was undertaken to map the existence of heat source(s), presumably due to dyking, and define the brittle-ductile transition zone. The results indicate that the heat source is due to a series of north-south trending dyke injections occurring at depths of ~3 – 6 km in the vicinity of the Arus steam jets. The geothermal prospect is seismically active and approximately 95% of the seismic activity is probably associated with tectonic activity due to reactivation of north-south trending faults.

Further, only ~5% of micro-earthquakes can be correlated with the geothermal activity such as dyking, as mapped using gravity data, and hydrothermal processes. The change in seismic activity at Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect occurs at a depth of 8 – 15 km with a peak in micro-seismic activity at 12.5 km depth. We therefore conclude that 8-15 km represents the brittle-ductile transition zone in Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect.

Francis Opiyo, Oliver V. Wasonga MNSMJOMM, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015. Abstract
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Speicher DJ, Wanzala P, D'Lima M, Njiru A, Chindia M, Dimba E, Johnson NW. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings." Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2015;44:842-849. Abstract
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Johnson NW, Dimba E, Chindia M, Njiru A, D'Lima M, Wanzala P, Speicher DJ. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-constrained settings.". 2015. Abstract
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Nyongesa FW, Awour JB. "DISTANCE LEARNNG STUDY MODULE.". 2015. Abstract
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Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Mburu J, Yazan E, Majaliwa MGJ, MacOpiyo L, Bamutaze Y. "Drivers of forage availability: An integration of remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:19. Abstract
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Opiyo F, Oliver Wasonga, Nyangito M, Schilling J, Munang R. "Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. 2015;6:295-309. Abstract
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Nyangito M, Schilling J, Munang R, Oliver Wasonga, Opiyo F. "Drought Adaptation and Coping Strategies Among the Turkana Pastoralists of Northern Kenya.". 2015. Abstract
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2014
"Diabetic {Ketoacidosis} {Treatment} .". 2014. AbstractWebsite

Treatment & Management: Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes.

J.M. Mbaria, J. Nduhiu, J.M. Kahunyo, J.N Ombui, J.M. Nguta, J.G. Nderitu. "Drug and chemical Residues in Camel Milk in Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference. U.o.N, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 2014.conference_paper2_september_4th_2014_1.pdf
Mbaria J.M., Ombui J.N., J. N, Nguta J. M., J.M. K, J.G N. "Drug and chemical residues in camel milk in Nanyuki, Kenya .". In: 9th Biennial scientific conference and Exhibition. University of Nairobi Kenya ; 2014.
Amimo JO, Saif LJ, Junga J, Vlasova AN, Okoth EA, Njahira MN, Ogara WO, Djikeng A. "Detection and molecular characterization of selected swine enteric viruses in smallholder farms in Kenya and Uganda.". In: 9th Biennial Conference and exhibition of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Upper Kabete Campus, Nairobi; 2014.detection_and_molecular_characterization_of_selected_swine_enteric_viruses_in_smallholder_farms_in_kenya_and_uganda__9thbiennial_jamimo-18-08-2014_final.pdf
A D, D O, E O. "Development of the roadmap and guidelines for the prevention and management of high blood pressure in Africa: Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.". In: : Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting.; 2014. Abstract

Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economic changes are associated with a health transition characterised by a rise in cardiovascular risk factors and complications, which tend to affect the African population at their age of maximum productivity. Recent data from Africa have highlighted the increasing importance of high blood pressure in this region of the world. This condition is largely underdiagnosed and poorly treated, and therefore leads to stroke, renal and heart failure, and death. Henceforth, African countries are taking steps to develop relevant policies and programmes to address the issue of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in response to a call by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by the year 2025 (25 × 25). The World Heart Federation (WHF) has developed a roadmap for global implementation of the prevention and management of raised blood pressure using a health system approach to help realise the 25 × 25 goal set by the WHO. As the leading continental organisation of cardiovascular professionals, the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) aims to contextualise the roadmap framework of the WHF to the African continent through the PASCAR Taskforce on Hypertension. The Taskforce held a workshop in Kenya on 27 October 2014 to discuss a process by which effective prevention and control of hypertension in Africa may be achieved. It was agreed that a set of clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension are needed in Africa. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a roadmap for implementation of the prevention and management of hypertension in Africa under the auspices of the WHF.

Birech Z, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Tucson, Arizona United States; 2014.fio-2014-ftu1g.8_davydov_splitting.pdf
Naarding MA, Fernandez N, Kappes JC, Hayes P, Ahmed T, Icyuz M, Edmonds TG, Bergin P, Anzala O, Hanke T, Clark L, Cox JH, Cormier E, Ochsenbauer C, Gilmour J. "Development of a luciferase based viral inhibition assay to evaluate vaccine induced CD8 T-cell responses." J. Immunol. Methods. 2014;409:161-73. Abstract

Emergence of SIV and HIV specific CD8 T cells has been shown to correlate with control of in vivo replication. Poor correlation between IFN-γ ELISPOT responses and in vivo control of the virus has triggered the development of more relevant assays to assess functional HIV-1 specific CD8 T-cell responses for the evaluation and prioritization of new HIV-1 vaccine candidates. We previously established a viral inhibition assay (VIA) that measures the ability of vaccine-induced CD8 T-cell responses to inhibit viral replication in autologous CD4 T cells. In this assay, viral replication is determined by measuring p24 in the culture supernatant. Here we describe the development of a novel VIA, referred to as IMC LucR VIA that exploits replication-competent HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMCs) in which the complete proviral genome is strain-specific and which express the Renilla luciferase (LucR) gene to determine viral growth and inhibition. The introduction of the luciferase readout does provide significant improvement of the read out time. In addition to switching to the LucR read out, changes made to the overall protocol resulted in the miniaturization of the assay from a 48 to a 96-well plate format, which preserved sample and allowed for the introduction of replicates. The overall assay time was reduced from 13 to 8 days. The assay has a high degree of specificity, and the previously observed non-specific background inhibition in cells from HIV-1 negative volunteers has been reduced dramatically. Importantly, we observed an increase in positive responses, indicating an improvement in sensitivity compared to the original VIA. Currently, only a limited number of "whole-genome" IMC-LucR viruses are available and our efforts will focus on expanding the panel to better evaluate anti-viral breadth. Overall, we believe the IMC LucR VIA provides a platform to assess functional CD8 T-cell responses in large-scale clinical trial testing, which will enhance the ability to select the most promising HIV-1 vaccine candidates capable of controlling HIV-1 replication in vivo.

Prentice HA, Price MA, Porter TR, Cormier E, Mugavero MJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Dynamics of viremia in primary HIV-1 infection in Africans: insights from analyses of host and viral correlates." Virology. 2014;449:254-62. Abstract

In HIV-1 infection, plasma viral load (VL) has dual implications for pathogenesis and public health. Based on well-known patterns of HIV-1 evolution and immune escape, we hypothesized that VL is an evolving quantitative trait that depends heavily on duration of infection (DOI), demographic features, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and viral characteristics. Prospective data from 421 African seroconverters with at least four eligible visits did show relatively steady VL beyond 3 months of untreated infection, but host and viral factors independently associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal VL often varied by analytical approaches and sliding time windows. Specifically, the effects of age, HLA-B(⁎)53 and infecting HIV-1 subtypes (A1, C and others) on VL were either sporadic or highly sensitive to time windows. These observations were strengthened by the addition of 111 seroconverters with 2-3 eligible VL results, suggesting that DOI should be a critical parameter in epidemiological and clinical studies.

Menach OP, Patel A, Oburra HO. "Demography and histologic pattern of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in kenya." Int J Otolaryngol. 2014;2014:507189. Abstract

Background. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer worldwide. Objective. To determine the demographic characteristics of patients with laryngeal cancer, establish their tumor characteristics and relate it to their smoking and alcohol ingestion habits. Methods. Fifty cases and fifty controls were recruited of matching age, sex, and region of residence. History and pattern of cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion was taken and analyzed. Results. 33 (66%) of the cases and 3 (6%) among controls were current cigarette smokers. 74% had smoked for more than 30 years, P < 0.0001 OR 21.3 (95% CI: 2.6-176.1). There was a male predominance (96%) and most cases (62%) were from the ethnic communities in the highland areas of Kenya predominantly in Central and Eastern provinces. Very heavy drinkers had increased risk of P < 0.0001 OR, 6.0 (95% CI: 1.957-18.398) and those who smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol had poorly differentiated tumors G3, P < 0.001, OR 11.652 (95% CI 2.305-58.895), and G4, P=0.52 OR 7.286 (95% CI 0.726-73.075). They also presented with advanced disease (73.6%). Conclusion. Cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion are strong risk factors for development of late stage and poorly differentiated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya.

Korir A, Mauti N, Moats P, Gurka MJ, Mutuma G, Metheny C, Mwamba PM, Oyiro PO, Fisher M, Ayers LW, Rochford R, Mwanda WO, Remick SC. "Developing clinical strength-of-evidence approach to define HIV-associated malignancies for cancer registration in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85881. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa cancer registries are beset by an increasing cancer burden further exacerbated by the AIDS epidemic where there are limited capabilities for cancer-AIDS match co-registration. We undertook a pilot study based on a "strength-of-evidence" approach using clinical data that is abstracted at the time of cancer registration for purposes of linking cancer diagnosis to AIDS diagnosis.

Muia B. "Diagnosis of Crystal Arthropathies.". In: AFLAR REGIONAL RHEUMATOLOGY SYMPOSIUM EASTERN AFRICAN REGION-Rheumatology is moving on. Kisumu, Kenya; 2014.
K O. "Deadbeat 'justice' exposes flaws in judicial systems." The Standard, September 18, 2022.
Karimurio J. "Discrepancies in trachoma control policies and practices in the last decade.". In: 8th Annual Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Conference. Kisumu, Kenya; 2014.trachoma_keynote_presentation_2014_kash_conference.pdf
Gitao CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L. Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region. OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.978-3-659-61078-3_coverpreview2.pdf
Loiselle S, zar A´s C´, Adgo E, Ballatore T, Chavula G, Descy JP, Harper DM, Kansiime F, Kimirei I, Langenberg V, Ma R, Sarmento12 H, Odada E. "Decadal Trends and Common Dynamics of the Bio- Optical and Thermal Characteristics of the African Great Lakes." PLOS ONE. 2014;9(4):1-6. Abstract

The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world’s most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0u to 8u south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Nin˜o Southern Oscillation). Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

Daar AS, Jacobs M, Ndetei D. "Declaration on mental health in Africa: moving to implementation." Global Health Action. 2014;7. AbstractWebsite

rgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.

Keywords: Africa; mental health; WHO action plan; roadmap; basic services; policy; implementation; stigma; human rights; post-2015 Agenda; UN General Assembly

Responsible Editor: Peter Byass, Umeå University, Sweden.

Chege S, Kamucha G. "Design and Implementation of a Low Cost High Bandwidth Sampling Bridge.". In: Moi University 10th Annual International Conference, Symposium IV . Eldoret, Kenya; 2014.
Okojie MCPO, Bourke B, Masoumi D, Lindström B, Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Designing and Delivering Web-Based Instruction to Adult Learners in Higher Education.". 2014. Abstract

The essence of this chapter is to discuss theories and practices including
approaches that instructional designers consider when designing Web-based instruction for
adult learners. The importance of the chapter is to discuss best practice activities and
theories as well as technologies that enable adult online learners to be involved in the
design of their Web-based instruction. This represents recognition that adults have
accumulated a repertoire of knowledge and experiences that inevitably will enrich the

Kihu, S.M., Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod.. 2014.
Bergin, P. LFOO-MMOPLRBSG, and I. Mwangi, H. Coutinho CMMCFLGAPMJP. "Detection of Vaccine Induced Mucosal Antibodies in Phase I Hiv Preventative Vaccine Trials." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A187.
Ong'ayo MN, Osanjo GO, Oluka MN. "Determinants of Adherence to Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment among Pediatric Patients in Urban Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(1):1-7.
Balew S, Agwata J, Anyango S. "Determinants of Adoption Choices of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Crop Production by Small Scale Farmers in Some Regions of Central Ethiopia." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2014;Vol.4, No.4. Abstract

In Sub-Saharan Africa, climate change is set to hit the agricultural sector the most and cause untold suffering
particularly for smallholder farmers. Adoption of climate change adaptation strategies aims to minimize adverse
effects of climate change on crop yields. However, the capacity of smallholder farmers to choose from
appropriate climate change adaptation strategies in SSA is limited. It is therefore imperative to identify and
analyze factors that determine the capacity of these farmers to choose appropriate climate change adaptation
strategies. Such effort will help policy makers and development practitioners design policies that would help to
tackle the problem of food insecurity and poverty afflicting majority of the local people in various regions in the
continent. In this study, household data on crop farming systems in central Ethiopia was used and binary and
multinomial logit models developed to analyze the data. The binary logit model was used to identify
determinants of farmers’ decision to adapt to climate change at all. The multinomial logit model was employed
to analyse factors that affect farmers’ adoption choices. Results indicate that farmers´ decisions to choose from
several climate change adaptation strategies are influenced by various factors such as access to information on
climate change, input and output market, credit facility, extension services and social capital. The implication is
that policy makers and development practitioners should focus on improving information flow, access to input
and output market, the education level of the household head, and informal social networks that can speed up the
adoption of adaptation strategies. The multinomial logit model also shows that farmers´ decision to choose
among climate change adaptation strategies is influenced by the type of risk factor they faced and the occurrence
of drought or flood. Accordingly, policy makers and development practitioners should play a significant role by
promoting adaptation methods appropriate for particular climate change risk factor such as drought or flood.

Onyango MA, FA O, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei K. "Determinants of antibiotic dose adjustment in patients with chronic kidney disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2014;3(1):19-28. Abstract

Background: Reduced renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) necessitates appropriate dose alterations to avoid drug accumulation.

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic dosing in patients with CKD in the largest referral hospital in eastern Africa. Variables associated with inappropriate dosing were identified.

Methods: The design was a retrospective review of patients’ records. The study population was adult patients, with CKD admitted between January, 2006 and December, 2010. Data was abstracted from patient files. Logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with appropriate antibiotic dosing.

Results: Ceftriaxone and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics. Dose adjustment was required for 379 (59.9%) antibiotic prescriptions. Of these, 105 doses (27.7% [95% CI: 23.2 – 32.2%]) were appropriate and 274 (72.3% [95% CI 67.8 – 76.8%]) were inappropriate. The resultant dosing errors were: 271 (98.9%) and 3 (1.1%) cases of over and under dosing respectively. Key explanatory variables for appropriate dosing were: stage of renal disease (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.159 [95% CI: 0.082, 0.309]); administration; (adjusted OR 1.724 [95% CI:1.185, 2.508]); and treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (adjusted OR 0.101 [95% CI 0.024, 0.420].

Conclusion: Antibiotic doses in patients with CKD were often inappropriate.
Keywords: Antibiotic, dose adjustment, chronic kidney disease

Onyango MA, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Osanjo GO, Sinei KS. "Determinants of Appropriate Antibiotic Dosing in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(1):19-28.
Okello, J.J., Kirui, K.O., Gitonga, M Z, Njiriani, G., Nzuma, M.J. "Determinants of Awareness and Use ICT-based Market Information Services in Developing-Country Agriculture: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Kenya." Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture. 2014;53(3):263-282.
Maalu J MS. "Determinants of community participation in constituency development fund projects in Mvita Constituency, Mombasa County, Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS).. 2014;3 (8)(July 2014):842-849.
MWANGI MIRIE. "Determinants of Financial Performance of General Insurance Underwriters in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2014;5(13):210-215. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish the effect of corporate governance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Security Exchange (NSE). The target population consisted of the 49companies that had been continuously and actively trading at the NSE between January 2010 and December 2012. Secondary data was used covering the period 2010 to 2012 and analyzed using linear regression to test the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The study found that earnings management is negatively related to ownership concentration, board size and board independence but positively related to board activity and CEO duality. The study recommended the need for effective corporate governance practices in listed companies in Kenya to contribute to reduced earnings management and avert possible collapse of listed companies in Kenya.

MWANGI MIRIE, Iraya C. "Determinants of Financial Performance of General Insurance Underwriters in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2014;5(13): 210-215. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish the effect of corporategovernance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Security Exchange (NSE). The target population consisted of the 49companies that had been continuously and actively trading at the NSE between January 2010 and December 2012. Secondary data was used covering the period 2010 to 2012 and analyzed using linear regression to test the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The study found that earnings management is negatively related to ownership concentration, board size and board independence but positively related to board activity and CEO duality. The study recommended the need fore ffective corporate governance practices in listed companies in Kenya to contribute to reduced earnings management and avert possible collapse of listed companies in Kenya.

Kamau E, Kayima J, Otieno CF. "THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS ON MAINTENANCE HAEMODIALYSIS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2014;91(10):368-374. Abstract

Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly being recognised as a primary outcome measure in the treatment of end stage renal disease. In addition to being an important surrogate marker of quality of care in patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HRQOL measures have being shown to be robust predictors of mortality and morbidity.

Objective: To determine the health related quality of life and its determinants in patients on maintenance haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Renal unit, Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Adult patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis.

Results: The mean physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores were 39.09 ± 9.49 and 41.87 ± 10.56 respectively. The burden of kidney disease sub-scale, symptom and problems sub-scale and effect of kidney disease on daily life sub-scale scores were 16.15 ± 21.83, 73.46 ± 18.06 and 67.63 ± 23.45 respectively. No significant correlations were found between the health-related quality of life scores, socio-demographic and clinical factors assessed.

Conclusion: The health-related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis is reduced. The physical quality of life is more affected than the mental quality of life. No independent determinants of health-related quality of life were identified.

Mulwa JK, Kalai JM, Migosi J. "Determinants of implementation of public procurement regulations in Kenya’s secondary schools." International Journal of Educational Research and Reviews. 2014;2(1):9-16.
Mulwa JK, Kalai JM, Migosi J. "Determinants of implementation of public procurement regulations in Kenya’s secondary schools." International Journal of Educational Research and Reviews. 2014;2(1):9-16.
Ong’ayo E.O., S.K. M, S.O A. "Determination of basic mean hourly wind speeds for structural design in Nairobi County." International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies . 2014;Vol 7 (Issue 2 ).
Onyango Nelson O. MJ. "Determination of optimal vaccination strategies using an orbital stability threshold from periodically driven systems." Journal of Mathematical Biology. 2014;68(3):763-784.
Li Qun He, Njambi L MNMHDKMEM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics." Public Health Genomics. 2014;(DOI: 10.1159/000363645). Abstract

Abstract
Background/Aims: Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part
of cancer control and management, yet its development as an
essential medical service has been hindered in many low-andmiddle-
income countries. We report our experiences in developing
a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in
Kenya. Methods: A genetics task force was created from within
the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma
Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple inperson
and telephone discussions, delineating experiences,
opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally
sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded
and thematically categorized to develop a strategy for
the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma
clinical genetics service. Results: Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a
comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient
and family counseling, (2) community involvement, and
(3) medical education. Conclusions: A coordinated national
retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a
unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive
and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients.
The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer
genetics research, education and knowledge translation,
taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African
context

Key Words
Africa • Cancer • Clinical genetics • Genetic counseling •
Genetic testing • Retinoblastoma

He LQ, Njambi L, Nyamori JM, Nyenze EM, Kimani K, Matende I, Rono H, Njom V, Bett J, Mukuria M, Gachago M, Roberts H, Dimaras H. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services in Resource-Limited Countries: The Case of Retinblastoma in Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(4):221-227.
H LQ, L N, JM N, Gachago MM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services In Resource-Limited Countries: The Case Of Retinoblastoma In Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;4(17):221-227. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS:
Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part of cancer control and management, yet its development as an essential medical service has been hindered in many low-and-middle-income countries. We report our experiences in developing a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in Kenya.
METHODS:
A genetics task force was created from within the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple in-person and telephone discussions, delineating experiences, opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded and thematically categorised to develop a strategy for the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma clinical genetics service.
RESULTS:
Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient and family counselling, (2) community involvement, and (3) medical education.
CONCLUSIONS:
A coordinated national retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients. The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer genetics research, education and knowledge translation, taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African context.

HeLQ, Nyamori J NEMKMRNBMGRDKIHV. "Developing clinical genetic services in the resource limited countries: The case of Retinoblastoma in Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(4):221-227.
Alexandra Hiscox, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Martin Geier, Andreas Rose, Wolfgang R Mukabana, undefined. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):257.
A Kibet, Rose A, P Omusula, Takken W, M Geier, Mweresa CK, B Otieno, Mukabana WR. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control.". 2014.
O.Koteng D, Chen C-T. "Development of High-Strengths Lime-Pozzolana Pastes.". In: The second international Conference on chemically-activated materials (CAM'2010).; 2014.koteng.pdf
Apata(6) AO, Muobeleni TN, A A Fabuyide, Ogunmuyiwa EN, G.O.Rading, Jain PK, Witcomb WJ, Cornish LA. "Development of VC-Ni Eutectic Alloys for Wear Resistance." Advanced Materials Research, 1019. 2014:347-354.
J.N. M, Mbatiah M, Iribe M. Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali katika Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2014.
mungai lnw. "diabetes ketoacidosis.". In: paediatric diabetes . ISPAD; 2014.
Nguena MB, van den Tweel JG, Makupa W, Hu VH, Weiss HA, Gichuhi S, Burton MJ. "Diagnosing ocular surface squamous neoplasia in East Africa: case-control study of clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy assessment." Ophthalmology. 2014;121(2):484-491. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the reliability of clinical examination and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in distinguishing ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) from benign conjunctival lesions.
DESIGN:

Case-control study.
PARTICIPANTS:

Sixty individuals with conjunctival lesions (OSSN and benign) and 60 age-matched controls with normal conjunctiva presenting to Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.
METHODS:

Participants were examined and photographed, and IVCM was performed. Patients with conjunctival lesions were offered excisional biopsy with histopathology and a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test. The IVCM images were read masked to the clinical appearance and pathology results. Images were graded for several specific features and given an overall categorization (normal, benign, or malignant). A group of 8 ophthalmologists were shown photographs of conjunctival lesions and asked to independently classify as OSSN or benign.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Comparison of the histopathology diagnosis with the clinical and IVCM diagnosis.
RESULTS:

Fifty-two cases underwent excisional biopsy with histopathology; 34 were on the OSSN spectrum, 17 were benign, and 1 was lymphoma. The cases and controls had comparable demographic profiles. Human immunodeficiency syndrome infection was more common in OSSN compared with benign cases (58.8% vs. 5.6%; odds ratio, 24.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-204; P = 0.003). Clinically, OSSN lesions more frequently exhibited feeder vessels and tended to have more leukoplakia and a gelatinous appearance. Overall, the ophthalmologists showed moderate agreement with the histology result (average kappa = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.36-0.64). The masked grading of IVCM images reliably distinguished normal conjunctiva. However, IVCM was unable to reliably distinguish between benign lesions and OSSN because of an overlap in their appearance (kappa = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.57). No single feature was significantly more frequent in OSSN compared with benign lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of IVCM for distinguishing OSSN from benign conjunctival lesions were 38.5% and 66.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:

In East Africa, conjunctival pathology is relatively common and can present significant diagnostic challenges for the clinician. In this study, neither clinical examination nor IVCM was found to reliably distinguish OSSN from benign conjunctival pathology because of an overlap in the features of these groups. Therefore, IVCM cannot currently replace histopathology, and management decisions should continue to rely on careful clinical assessment supported by histopathology as indicated.

Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Karanja DN. "Diffuse Peritonitis Associated With Ventral Hernia In An Adult Doe." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2014;7(1):53-55.diffuse_peritonitis_associated_with_ventral_hernia_in_an_adult_doe.pdf
P K, AN K, WE M, E M, DN K. "Diffuse peritonitis associated with ventral hernia in an adult doe: A case report." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and veterinary sciences. 2014;7(1):53-55.
P. K, A.N. K, W.E. M, E.G.M. M, D.N. K. "Diffuse Peritonitis Associated With Ventral Hernia In An Adult Doe: Case Report." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2014;7(1):53-55.
P K, AN K, WE M, EGM M, Karanja DN. "Diffuse peritonitis associated with ventral hernia in an adult doe: Case report." Journal of agriculture and veterinary sciences. 2014;7(1):53-55.
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
Ghimire C, Park S, Iida K, Yangyuoru P, Otomo H, Yu Z, Nagasawa K, Sugiyama H, Mao H. "Direct quantification of loop interaction and π–π stacking for G-quadruplex stability at the submolecular level." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(44):15537-15544.
W M. "Discourse as Graduated from the Word." Reyono Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2014;3(2):42-53.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Discourse of Allienation in Kiswahili Poetry: A re-analysis of Muyaka wa Muhaji's Poetry." The University of Nairobi Literature Journal. 2014.
Kuria MW. "Disorders of Eating Chapter 12.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Disorders of Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Chapter 15.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Dissociative Disorders Chapter 9.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Ezzi MS, Anzala O, Maritim MC, Bhatt KM. "Distribution of Salmonella Typhi Antibodies in the Sera of Healthy Blood Donors at Kenyatta National Hospital." Online Journal of Medicine and Medical Science Research. 2014;3(3):19-23. Abstract

Typhoid fever is widespread in Kenya. Widal test interpretation requires knowledge of the baseline titres amongst healthy population. These normal agglutinin titres vary depending on the degree to which typhoid fever is endemic in each area, a factor which may change over time. It has been a decade since Widal titres in apparently healthy population has been assessed. Furthermore, no baseline Widal titres have been assessed in blood donors. The method applied was a cross sectional descriptive analysis whereby voluntary and healthy blood donors at Kenyatta National Hospital Blood Transfusion Unit were consecutively sampled and screened for Salmonella Typhi agglutinin titres using the Widal test from October 2012 to November 2012. Demographic and focused medical history was obtained by use of structured pretested questionnaires. Blood sample was taken for assessment of Widal titres. Among the 353 serum specimen tested, 75 (21.25%) sera were found to be positive for the Widal test and 278 (78.75%) were negative. The most frequently recorded titre of the reactive sera was 1: 40 for both the anti-O antibodies and the anti-H antibodies which occurred in 49% and 44% of the reactive sera respectively. About 20% of healthy blood donors had a positive Widal screening test, with 50% constituting a baseline titre of 1: 40 for both O and H antigens. A significant proportion of blood donors had titres ≥1: 80. Hence, the researchers recommend the cut off titres of ≥ 1:80 for diagnosis of typhoid fever with the appropriate clinical features.

Mwenda E, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Marani VN, Njagi L. "Distribution of spectrum in a direct sum decomposition of operators into normal and completely non-normal operators." International Journal of Modern Mathematical Sciences. 2014;11(3):118-124.
Ong'amo GO, LeGall P, Ndemah R, LeRu BP. "Diversity and host range of lepidopteran stemborer species in Cameroon ." African Entomology. 2014;22:625-635.
Rees H, Baeten J, Baron D, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, S C, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Palanee T, Steyn P, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90:354-356.
Rees H, Baeten BCCCCJDW, Baeten, J, Baron, D, Cates, W, Celum, C, Chipato T, Chombes, S, Donnell, D, Gichangi, Hofmeyr, J, Morrison, C, Mugo, N, Nanda, K, Palanee, T, Steyn, P, Taylor, D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90(2014):354-356.
Ngaina JN, Mutua FM, Muthama NJ, Kirui JWJ, Sabiiti G, Mukhala E, Maingi NW, Mutai BK. "Drought monitoring in Kenya: A case of Tana River County." International Journal of Agricultural Science Research . 2014;3(7):126-135 .
Ngaina JN, Mutua FM, Muthama NJ, Kirui JW, Sabiiti G, Mukhala E, NW Maingi BKM. "Drought monitoring in Kenya: A case of Tana River County." International Journal of Agricultural Science Research. 2014;3(7):126-135. AbstractAcademe Research Journals

Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to assess past, present and projected drought conditions
while Mann Kendall trend test and coefficient of variability is used for trend analysis. Observed data
from National Meteorological and Hydrological Centre in Kenya and simulated data based on Special
Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2 from Providing Region Climate for Impact Studies
(PRECIS) Model and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) RCP 4.5 Wm-2
and RCP 6.0 Wm-2
from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) were used. Observed
datasets (rainfall and temperature), projected temperature (A1B and A2, RCP 4.5 Wm-2
and RCP 6.0 Wm2
) and rainfall (A2 and RCP 6.0 Wm-2
) all showed monotonic trend. A1B scenario had no significant
trend. Decreasing patterns observed from SPI values based on observations showed increase in dry
conditions. Although projected rainfall showed a decreasing trend, the frequency and magnitude of
drought events increased under all future scenarios. Risk analysis based on observed data showed that
north and central region of Tana River county were susceptible to intense droughts conditions and
projected shift northwards under all scenarios. The susceptibility of the region to drought conditions is
thus expected to increase conflicts due to limited water resources, pasture and food insecurity in the
region and thus limit achievement of Kenya’s long term development envisioned in the Vision 2030.
Key words: Climate change, drought, livestock production, scenarios, semi arid.

Mwero(8) JN, Abuodha SO, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing Sugar Cane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA)." ICASTOR J. of Eng. 7 (2), . 2014:95-114.
Mwero, J.N, Abuodha SO, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability characteristics of concrete containing sugarcane waste fiber ash (SWFA)." INCASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2):95-114.
Mwero JN, O. AS, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;Vol. 7(2):95-114.
Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Okello-Odongo W, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning." International Journal of Computer and Information Technology. 2014;Volume 03(Issue 02).
Joyce G. N. Kithure, Shem O. Wandiga IJDKK. "Dynamics of Chlorpyrifos in Water from Upper Tana River in Kenya.". 2014.
N. KJG, O. WS, I. J, K KD. "Dynamics of Chlorpyrifos in water from upper Tana River in Kenya." Open Science Repository Chemistry. 2014. Abstract

Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface (WFB, 2008), and is vital for all known forms of life (WFB, 2008). The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals like Persistent Organic Pollutant 1(POPs), pesticides and pathogens. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used to kill variety of insects, especially ticks and was introduced in Kenya in 1965 (Meister, 1992). This study set out to determine the chlorpyrifos concentration residue levels in some selected samples from the upper Tana River, to confirm their state of contamination. Water, sediment and weed samples obtained from the upper Tana River in Kenya were screened for chlorpyrifos and found to be contaminated. The river profile was divided into three sections representing upstream, middle stream and downstream. Water samples were sampled using the amber bottles while the sediment samples were collected by scooping it with a shovel. Weed samples were plucked using hands, while the hard ones were cut with a clean stainless steel knife. The extraction of water samples was done by liquid-liquid partitioning method using dichloromethane, while sediment samples were extracted in acetone and hexane solvents by soxhlet extraction method. The extraction of weed samples was done using an orbital shaker in acetone. The analysis of the pesticides was done using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and the data analysis conducted using Microsoft excel, 2ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation Statistical Package for Social Scientists, (SPSS). Chlorpyrifos mean residue levels found in water samples 3(BDL to 6.73µg/L), were generally higher than those detected in weed samples of BDL-2.57 1.43 µg/kg, while sediment samples had the lowest levels of BDL and 1.43 µg/kg, as shown in Figure 1. The mid-stream samples had higher levels than both the up stream and the down stream, as can be observed in Figure 2, probably due to intense industrialisation and farming activities at the midstream.
- See more at: http://www.open-science-repository.com/dynamics-of-chlorpyrifos-in-water-from-upper-tana-river-in-kenya.html#sthash.EDmUfs2a.dpuf

Kithure JGN, Wandiga SO, I.Jumba, Kariuki DK. "Dynamics of chlorpyrifos in water from Upper Tana River in Kenya." Open sci.Repos. 2014;e23050487.
Gitao CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L. "Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region.". 2014. Abstract
n/a
Birech Z, Schwoerer M, Pflaum J, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Optical Society of America; 2014:. Abstract
n/a
Mureithi SM, Obando J, Munang R, Opiyo F, Nyangito M, Wasonga OV, others. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya.". 2014. Abstract
n/a
Gitonga L, Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK, Muriuki, N.S. "Determination of Plasmodium Parasite Life Stages and Species in Images of Thin Blood Smears Using Artificial Neural Networks." Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 2014;4:78-88. Abstract
n/a
Nyambura M, Gatari M, Hillier S, Shepherd KD,... "Development of an X-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer." Food and nutrition …. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Page 1. www.mtt.fi/foodafrica Development of an x-ray method for mineralogical analysis of Africa soils using a benchtop diffractometer 16 June 2014, Helsinki, Finland. FoodAfrica midterm seminar Mercy Nyambura1*, 2, Michael Gatari1, Stephen Hillier3*, Keith D. Shepherd2, Esala Martti4 …

Mwangi WE, Kipyegon AN, Mogoa EM, Karanja DN. "Diffuse Peritonitis Associated With Ventral Hernia In An Adult Doe." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2014;7. Abstract
n/a
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mogoa EGM, Karanja DN. "Diffuse peritonitis associated with ventral hernia in an adult doe: case report." IOSR-J Agric. Vet. Sci. 2014;7:53-55. Abstract
n/a
Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Odongo WO, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning.". 2014. Abstract
n/a
Lei F, Peng B, Özdemir ŞK, Long GL, Yang L. "Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators." Applied Physics Letters. 2014;105:101112. Abstract
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2013
Nganga G, Alexander M, Beushanusen H, Mumenya SW. Design for strength and durability. Kisumu, Kenya; 2013.
Kharlamov AN, Duckers HJ, van Beusekom HMM, Smits PC, Perin EC, Serruys PW. "Do we have a future with transcatheter adventitial delivery of stem cells?" International journal of cardiology. 2013;165:217-221. Abstract

Critically evaluating the methodology of the adventitial delivery of stem cells, some specific options should be underlined. Adventitia as the most superficial layer, consisting of connective tissue has to be distinguished of perivascular tissues. By strict definition, an adventitia is the outermost connective tissue covering any organ, or vessel. The "adventitial" delivery of stem cells with a 1mm micro-needle means a delivery to superficial so called pericardial myocardium, perivascular fat tissues, including a risk of perforation and injury of soft tissues. In fact, the mapping of the artery with visualization of the three-layer vessel structure and perivascular tissues as well as pericardial space with the state-of-the-art imaging approaches including IVUS (intravascular ultrasound) or OCT (optical coherence tomography) allows to find an optimal site for injection, prevents any technical complications and improves efficacy. NOGA magnetic navigation system still remains the optimal tool for the stem cell delivery to myocardium with appropriate visualization of necrosis and peri-infarct tissues. Potentially, more advanced imaging provides a chance to deliver infusate to the adventitial layer, which is a gate to the vessel wall for inflammation as well as a source of stem and progenitor cells, and myofibroblasts.

Mwabu G, G.Mutegi R, K.Muriithi M. "Demographic Transition and Demographic Dividends: Evidence from Kenya’s National Transfer Accounts.". In: NTA Meetings. Barcelona, Spain,; 2013.
Kanyinga K. "Debate revealed that Kenya will not change at all." Sunday Nation, February 16, 2013.
Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya Using Fecal Sampling." Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.). 2013. Abstractofula_et_al._2103.pdf

Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 has been reported in 11 African countries. Migratory waterbirds have the potential of introducing A/H5N1 into east Africa through the Rift Valley of Kenya. We present the results of a wild bird surveillance system for A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses based on avian fecal sampling in Kenya. We collected 2630 fecal samples in 2008. Viral RNA was extracted from pools of 3-5 fecal samples and analyzed for presence of avian influenza virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Twelve (2.3%) of the 516 sample pools were positive for avian influenza virus RNA, 2 of which were subtyped as H4N6 viruses. This is the first report of avian influenza virus in wild birds in Kenya. This study demonstrates the success of this approach in detecting avian influenza virus in wild birds and represents an efficient surveillance system for avian influenza virus in regions with limited resources.

Beatrice KA-, J KR. "Delayed cord clamping as routine treatment for HIV negative mothers.". In: Nutrition Conference. Naiberi River Campsite and resort, Eldoret; 2013.
Gitonga D, Omulo EOT, William Okelo-Odongo. "Dangerous wireless local area network (wlan) risks students and university employees need to know about.". In: IBM/Unesco-Hp Workshop on Trends in Distributed Computing Applications. Nairobi; 2013.
Jeremy G, R.M. O. "Decentralized Management of Wastewater as a Renewable Resource: A Multi - Disciplinary Approach to Sanitation T echnology Development.". In: the Safe Global Water & Sanitation Summit. Mt. Meru Hotel, Arusha. ; 2013.
Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Makanya A, Anagnostopoulou A, Djonov V. "Development and remodeling of the vertebrate blood-gas barrier." Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:101597. Abstract

During vertebrate development, the lung inaugurates as an endodermal bud from the primitive foregut. Dichotomous subdivision of the bud results in arborizing airways that form the prospective gas exchanging chambers, where a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB) is established. In the mammalian lung, this proceeds through conversion of type II cells to type I cells, thinning, and elongation of the cells as well as extrusion of the lamellar bodies. Subsequent diminution of interstitial tissue and apposition of capillaries to the alveolar epithelium establish a thin BGB. In the noncompliant avian lung, attenuation proceeds through cell-cutting processes that result in remarkable thinning of the epithelial layer. A host of morphoregulatory molecules, including transcription factors such as Nkx2.1, GATA, HNF-3, and WNT5a; signaling molecules including FGF, BMP-4, Shh, and TFG- β and extracellular proteins and their receptors have been implicated. During normal physiological function, the BGB may be remodeled in response to alterations in transmural pressures in both blood capillaries and airspaces. Such changes are mitigated through rapid expression of the relevant genes for extracellular matrix proteins and growth factors. While an appreciable amount of information regarding molecular control has been documented in the mammalian lung, very little is available on the avian lung.

Lally R, Moreira AS, Germaine K, Galbally P, Culhain J, Otieno N, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. "Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species.". In: Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Conference 2013 - Positive plant microbial interactions: their role in maintaining sustainable agricultural and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, Brigg, North Linconshire, U.K; 2013. Abstract

Endophytes are bacteria present in plants that form a symbiotic relationship with
their hosts and may promote plant growth and health (Ryan et al., 2008). We extracted
Pseudomonas endophytes from Miscanthus × giganteus; a series of strains were selected
for application to two oilseed rape (OSR) trials. Endophytes colonise plants (including
the root-surface) and allow the plant to utilise nutrients present in the rhizosphere. This
potentially provides a yield boost for colonised plants, allowing for efficient fertiliser
strategies and improved yield performance (Redondo-Nieto et al., 2013). This study has
provided evidence that the application of specialised live microbial biofertilisers can
enhance aspects of crop development when applied in the field. The results show that
there was a significant increase in crop stem and leaf of “Compass” a variety of Oilseed
rape. The results did not indicate that there was a significant increase within the overall
yield of the crop.

Chern M-J, Kuan Y-H, Giri N, Horng T-L, Odhiambo E. "Direct forcing immersed boundary simulation for lock-in phenomena and assessment for renewable energy.". In: The 12th International Conference on Fluid Control, Measurements, and Visualization. Nara, Japan; 2013.
Mitei. K, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Osuna. F, Opot. B, Ochola. S, Njiri. J, Wurapa. E. "Detection of Respiratory Viruses other than Influenza in Children in Kenya, 2007-2011.". In: XV International Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections. Rotterdam, Netherlands: The Macrae Foundation, Rancho Santa Fe, CA 92067; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Iraki XN. "Does Mau Mau Compensation Make Economic Sense." The Standard, June 11, 2013.
Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Nathan I. Danish national park process: chapter 3.3.; 2013. Abstract

document's citation: Boon, T. R. E., Lund, D. H., & Nathan, I. (2008). Danish national park process: chapter 3.3. Vienna: University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Data Models and Structure.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

By convention, data in the real world is deemed to exist in a continuous or analogue form usually in three dimensional space as discussed in Sect. 2.1. Such data needs to be digitized or made discrete before it can be input and processed by a digital computer. A GIS database can be viewed as an abstraction of reality. To convert object features observed or measured in the real world into the digital realm in a GIS database it is necessary to structure the data appropriately. Four (4) different generic types of primitive object features can be distinguished, namely: point features (0-D), line features (1-D), area features/polygons (2-D), and surface features (3-D). Incidentally, when surface features are captured in a discrete or non-continuous manner, this is then referred to as 2.5D. In general, an object feature is defined by three (3) properties in GIS, namely: position, attributes and relationship with other features referred to as topology.

KD O, H S, A S. "A decade of surgical volunteerism in Kenya: Impact and possibilities." Annals of African Surgery. 2013;10(1):55-60.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Decommissioning Audit for Lokapel Base Camp for Tullow Kenya B.V. Turkana County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2013.
"Carine Va n Malderen", Ogali" "I, Khasakhala" "A, Muchiri" "SN, Sparks" "C, Oyen" "HV, Speybroeck" "N. "Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization." International Journal for Equity in Health. 2013;12(3 ):14712-3.
Mwangi PW, Chemining'wa GN, Mburu MWK, Mureithi JG. "Decomposition and nutrient release rates of selected legume residues in a cold semiarid environment of Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and agricultural Research. 2013;3(2):1-13.decomposition_and_nutrient_release_rates_of_selected_legume.pdf
Muchiri J. "Defining the Self through Autobiography: Saga McOdongo's Deadly Money Maker." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2013;7(December 2013):119-131.
Mwabu G, Muriithi M. "Demand for Health Care in Kenya: The Effects of Information About Quality.". In: Econometric Methods for Analyzing Economic Development. Business Science Reference, Hershey, PA: IGI Global; 2013.
Muriithi MK. "Demographic Dividend, Economic Lifecycle and Education Profile for Kenya." Cote D’Ivoire, Abijan ; 2013.
Wekesa VD, Ogeng’o JA, Siongei CV, Elbusaidy H, Iwaret M. "Demographics of patients admitted with Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds in Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(3):67-70.
Mengwa VK, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Mwabora JM. A Density Functional Theory Study of Electronic Structure of Rutile (110) Surfaces with Catechol Adsorbate. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as semiconductor in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), amongst many other applications. Thus coupled with a suitable sensitizer such as catechol, the study of surface electronic structure of TiO2 will improve light harvesting and electron transfer processes in DSSC. The distribution of states in clean and catechol terminated four and five layer TiO2 (110) rutile surfaces were investigated. All calculations in this work were done by quantum espresso code which uses plane waves and pseudopotentials. The slabs were modelled by four and five layers with vacuum width of 20 Å. The results showed that the (110) stoichiometric TiO2 four layer surface had band gap of 2.1 eV, a value less than band gap value of 2.2 eV of similar catechol bound TiO2 surface. There was an increase in the band gap value of 0.32 eV for the catechol bound TiO2 (110) rutile five layer surface compared to that of clean stoichiometric TiO2 (110) surface. The HOMO in four and five layered TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to lie above the valence band edge. The LUMO in both surfaces was located in the conduction band, and hence the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. These findings have showed that the energy level alignment of catechol coupled to TiO2 is a suitable model to study electron transfer processes that occur in dye sensitized solar cell.

Mengwa VK, N. W. Makau, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Mwabora JM, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Gateru R. A Density Functional Theory Study of Electronic Structure of Rutile (110) Surfaces with Catechol Adsorbate. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as semiconductor in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), amongst many other applications. Thus coupled with a suitable sensitizer such as catechol, the study of surface electronic structure of TiO2 will improve light harvesting and electron transfer processes in DSSC. The distribution of states in clean and catechol terminated four and five layer TiO2 (110) rutile surfaces were investigated. All calculations in this work were done by quantum espresso code which uses plane waves and pseudopotentials. The slabs were modelled by four and five layers with vacuum width of 20 Å. The results showed that the (110) stoichiometric TiO2 four layer surface had band gap of 2.1 eV, a value less than band gap value of 2.2 eV of similar catechol bound TiO2 surface. There was an increase in the band gap value of 0.32 eV for the catechol bound TiO2 (110) rutile five layer surface compared to that of clean stoichiometric TiO2 (110) surface. The HOMO in four and five layered TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to lie above the valence band edge. The LUMO in both surfaces was located in the conduction band, and hence the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. These findings have showed that the energy level alignment of catechol coupled to TiO2 is a suitable model to study electron transfer processes that occur in dye sensitized solar cell.

Wawire MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional Study Of Luminescence In Polypyridine Ruthenium Complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2′;6′,2″-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photophysical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geometries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT → 3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ΔE , the difference between the View the MathML sourceeg* and lowest energy π* PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d × π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ΔE and high values of d × π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ΔE and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Wawire* MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional study of luminescence in polypyridineruthenium complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013;276 : 8-15. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2’;6’,2”-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photo-physical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geome-tries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT →3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ∆E, the difference between the e∗g and lowest energy π *PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d ×π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1 π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ∆E and high values of d ×π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ∆E and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. DENTAL BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE: MODULE II - AUXILLIARY DENTAL MATERIALS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.
Njoroge W, Wangati CK, Karanja PK, Musembi RJ, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. Deposition and Characterization of Thin Film Deposited by DC-RF Co-sputtering for Photovoltaic Application. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Solar cell has the potential of being the main drive to economic prosperity as it is one of the most promising sources of cheap, environmentally friendly and renewable energy. Crystalline silicon based technology currently dominate the solar energy market. However, it is generally expensive and the cell efficiency has reached 24.7% hence approaching theoretical expected maximum of 30%. In order to reduce cost of production, focus is shifting towards thin film based I-III-VI family chalcopyrite compounds where cheaper CuInxGa1-xSe2 absorber semiconductor is reported to have attained the highest efficiency of 20.3 %. This study intends to fabricate and characterize a compound of copper, aluminum, boron and selenium (CuAlxB1-x Se2 ) thin film. The compound is based on I-III-IV family of chalcopyrite which has generated a lot of interest as an absorber material for solar cells due to their high absorption coefficients. The research procedure will involve deposition of CuAlxB1-xSe2 thin film by DC and RF magnetron sputtering of CuAlB alloy and selenium targets respectively. The deposition is done using Edwards Auto 360 RF and DC magnetron vacuum system. Characterization of the resulting thin film based on structural and optoelectronic properties is done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible-IR Spectrometer, and the Hall Effect. The outcome of this research will provide fundamental practical science and engineering knowledge base on structural and optoelectronic properties of CuAlxB1-x Se2 compound as solar absorber material among other optoelectronic applications. In general the study will contribute towards achieving greater efficiency in production of “green” energy.

Egonyu JP, Kabaru J, Irungu L, Hass F. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi." Journal of Insect Science. 2013;13(82):1-7.
Njogu PM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Design, synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of hybrid compounds based on (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine." ACS Med. Chem. Lett.. 2013;4(7):637-641. Abstract

A series of hybrid compounds based on (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine, artemisinin and quinoline moieties was synthesized and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic stages of K1 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Two hybrid compounds incorporating (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine and artemisinin scaffolds were three- to four-fold more active than dihydroartemisinin, with nanomolar IC50 values against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain.

Oluoch FO &, Oboko RO. "Designing an M-learning system for Community Education and Information on HIV and AIDS in Kenya." International Journal of Societal Applications of Computer Science. 2013;2(3):238-247.
Mutoro JM, Imonje DR. "DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISTANCE LEARNING IN THE 21ST CENTURY."; 2013. Abstract

The debate around distance education has often been reduced to issues of access and quality. Much discussion surrounds designing instructions for distance learning. Good instructional design produces good outcomes and poor instructional designs produce poor outcomes. From a practical perspective, these are concerns that must be addressed and balanced when designing education to be delivered at a distance. This paper addresses these concerns based on designing instructions for distance learning. This paper draws data from different national and international sources. The paper begins with a review of the related literature. The study carried out in July 2010 on “critical review of instructional design process of distance learning system”. The study was carried out at Allama Iqbal University (AIOU). The study used survey design. Key findings of this study indicate that there is need to conduct need’s assessment before writing any course that need multimedia support i.e. audio and video-cassettes and computer diskettes may be provided along with study materials and finally, illustrations and self assessment. Designing of instructions for distance learning is mainly influenced by objectives, course content, experience and qualification of teachers and learners characteristics. Modern technology of e-learning is expensive and hence learners’ background will dictate on which mode at a distance will be more affordable and effective when designing instructions for distance learning. Designing of instructions for distance learning will be determined by evaluation, assessment,
44 UoN - ISO 9001:2008 Certified
and feedback procedures. Thus, this paper will further consider the following aspects: meaningful and meaningless instructions, feedback model, Dick and Carey system and Oar model. The paper will also discuss the theories of distance learning by Moore and Holmberg. In spite of its significance, designing instructions for distance learning has its challenges. These challenges include insufficient support from the stakeholders, and inadequate teaching and learning resources. We suggest that the key stakeholders to participate in transformation of educational system into distance education and training of the stakeholders in the handling of distance education materials.
Keywords; Designing instruction, distance learning and distance education, instructional models, meaningful learning meaningless learning, involvement evaluation, assessment and feedback.

Mukhwana H&MA. "Desk Graffiti Cohesion Strategies in the University of Nairobi Libraries." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(8).
Nderitu FW, Gikonyo GK, Sinei K. "Detection and Management of Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Antiretroviral Drugs among HIV/AIDS Patients in Kiambu Sub-County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;In press. Abstract

The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence, detection and management of various adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral drugs occurring in patients attending Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC) of Kiambu District Hospital. The study was a cross sectional survey where the patients included were those attending the CCC on a monthly basis. The results revealed that 65.2% of the patients had experienced symptoms suggestive of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Of these, 67.2% did not associate the symptoms to the medicines they were taking but rather to the AIDS syndrome. The most prominent reaction was peripheral neuropathy at 0.395 (0.344-0.447 at 95% confidence interval) while the least common was hepatotoxicity. Whereas 71.5% could tell the frequency of the daily dosage, 92.1% did not know the names of the medicines they were taking but could describe them by shape and colour. There was a significant association between occurrence and reporting of ADRs and age (P<0.001), weight (P=0.001), marital status (P=0.016), occupation (P<0.001), religious participation (P<0.001) and education level (P<0.001). Although the health care providers displayed adequate knowledge in management of these reactions, they complained of inadequacy of the current reporting tool (MOH 257) in capturing ADRs. The patients were ill equipped in recognizing the adverse drug reactions.

Boscow OO, Abala DO, Kiriti-Ng'ang'a T. "Determinants Kenya’s Exports to the European Union (EU) (1960– 2010)." Regional Development Studies. 2013;17. Abstract

This paper examines the determinants of Kenya’s exports to the EU since 1960 to 2010 . The study uses ordinary least squares and two stage least square regression using exports values as the dependent variable. The independent variables are foreign aid, real gross fixed capital formation, terms of trade and consumption which is used as an instrument for real gross domestic product in the two stage least square as well as a dummy variable capturing the effect of reciprocity as a proxy for assessing the effect of the trade relation. The results show that during periods when there was reciprocity, Kenyan export values were stagnant and low, unlike periods when ACP states were given preferential treatment i.e. when there was no reciprocity. It is therefore evident that the proposed EPAs may worsen the current situation for Kenya’s exports.
Key Words: Kenya, ACP-EU, Exports, determinants, EPAs

F. NJ, O LK. "Determinants of Commercial Mixed Farming on Small Farms in Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management . 2013;5(22):47-54. Abstract

Agriculture is a topic of concern for rural development programs in Kenya because of the high poverty incidents among farmers. Fundamentally, smallholder agriculture contributes substantially to total agricultural production and total employment. Despite the fact that Kenyan farmers largely practice mixed farming, some are unable to act commercially and consequently, unable to improve their livelihoods. This paper therefore aims at establishing the entrepreneurial indicators of farming activities that lead to improved rural livelihoods. Cross-sectional survey of 388 small farms in Thika was carried out to investigate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. The results show that the size of the farm, gender of the farmer, availability of electricity supply and running water on the farm are the main determinants of mixed farming. This study suggests that policies be put in place to discourage partitioning of farm land into uneconomical sizes. It also recommend that rural electrification and training programs on best farming practices be intensified in the rural areas to enable farmers to act commercially.
Key words: Commercial Mixed Farming, Farm Characteristics, Entrepreneurship, Logit and Probit models

Ayisi RK, Thuita FM, NJERU E, Wakoli AB. "Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding for six months in a peri urban settlement of Kangemi. A qualitative approach." European International Journal of Science and tecnology. 2013;2(10):53-60.
Musau LM, Migosi J, Muola JM. "Determinants of girls’ performance in science, mathematics and technology subjects in public secondary schools in Kenya." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2013;5(3):33-42.
Isabella K, Murrithi M, Kioko U. "Determinants of Health Insurance Choice in Kenya." European Scientific Journal, . 2013;Vol. 9(No. 13): ISSN: 7857-7881 .
Nthambi M, Nyikal R, Mburu J. "DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLDS' CHOICE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN KIBERA SLUM, KENYA." Journal of International Real Estate and Construction Studies; Hauppauge . 2013;3(2):143-162. AbstractWebsite

Each of the about 44 million citizens of Kenya has a duty to cooperate with the State and other persons to protect and conserve the environment for sustainable development. Responsibilities to the environment are particularly critical with respect to waste management. At the southwest of Nairobi city is the largest slum in sub-Saharan Africa, Kibera slum. Waste build up in the slum is a common phenomena with visible waste mountains along the roads and public places. The main objective of this study is to assess the determinants of households' choice of solid waste management options. Using the quantitative research methodology, a survey of 250 households was carried out in the slum and a multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select the sample. Waste management options hyphothesized in the study included solid waste reuse, burning, recycling and disposal. Data collected was analyzed by Stata software using a multinomial logit regression model (MNL). MNL was used to assess the effect of household socioeconomic and institutional attributes on the choice of household solid waste management options. Findings revealed that institutional factors such as contractual arrangements, waste management regulations of 2006, disposal returns, distance to the main road, years of schooling, family size,ownership of a slum/sack garden,community based recycling practise, disposal returns and waste segregation explain the households' choice of solid waste management options. As a result, the study recommends strong pro-poor waste management policies, community-based waste management approaches, support for informal waste recyclers, privatisation of waste management services and development of compost manure market among urban and peri-urban areas farmers.

Keywords: waste management options, household solid waste, multinomial logit model, determinants

Abala DO. "Determinants of manufactured exports in Kenya:An application of control function approach." DBA Africa management review. 2013;Vol. 3 no.1(1):50-72. Abstract

This paper uses firm level survey panel data to estimate parameters of export propensity and intensity in Kenyan manufacturing. The effects of unobservable factors that would otherwise bias the estimated parameters are removed using a control function regression procedure. The key finding of the study is that export propensity and intensity are strongly responsive to total factor productivity. In particularly a 10% increase in total factor productivity increases export propensity by 54%, but export intensity rises less steeply by 18%. We also find that ownership structure of the firm and unobserved factors specific to firms strongly influence exports. Taken together, the estimation results provide insights into the policies
needed to promote entry and stay of firms in export markets. The findings suggest that policy measures to improve export performance of Kenyan firms should focus on improving total factor productivity, encouraging foreign direct investment and stimulating modernization of manufacturing capital.

Keywords: Exports, manufacturing firms, total factor productivity, control function approach, Kenya.

Litondo KO, Ntale JF. "Determinants of Mobile Phone Usage for E-Commerce among Micro and Small Enterprises in the Informal Sector of Kenya." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2013;3(6). Abstractdeterminants_of_mobile_phone_usage_for_e-commerce_among_micro_and_small_enterprises_in_the_informal_sector_of_kenya.pdf

Studies done on the usage of Information and Commutation Technologies (ICTs) for e-commerce in the informal sector have mostly concentrated on the roles of computers and internet usage, and give contradicting results on the determinants and benefits of using these technologies. Evidence on factors leading to the mobile phones usage for business among Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya is lacking. This paper investigates determinants of mobile phone usage among informal MSEs in Kenya. Primary data was collected from a survey of 384 MSEs in Nairobi County. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of mobile phone usage in e-commerce. The results of the study show that education level is the prime determinant of mobile phone usage for e-commerce. Number of employees and gender of MSEs also have a significant effect on the mobile phone usage for e-commerce. The study recommends the training of MSEs in the mobile phones applications for business and the government should create an enabling environment for MSEs to use mobile phone for e-commerce.
Key words: Mobile phone usage, e-commerce, informal sector, MSEs, and Education

Migosi J, Ombuki C, Ombuki KN, Evusa Z. "Determinants of non-compliance of public procurement regulations in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2013;5(7):154-159.
Kamonjo FW, Migosi J. "Determinants of Secondary School academic performance differences of students drawn from Private and Public Primary Schools in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: Africa Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2013;1(1):77-91.
Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng J, Crawford A. Developing a genetic classification for gene pool management of spotted gums.; 2013. Abstract

Spotted gums (Genus Corymbia Section Politaria) occur as a species replacement series along the eastern seaboard of Australia, their distributions marked by regions of disjunction and sympatry. Their taxonomy remains controversial, with species assignment often challenging and reliant upon knowledge of geographic origin as well as subtle morphological or leaf oil variation. In this paper we explore a classification for spotted gums without assuming predefined geographic or taxonomic groups, instead using genetic structure at microsatellite marker loci (n=9) and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach implemented in STRUCTURE software. The C. torelliana outgroup (n=21; Section Cadagaria) formed a well resolved cluster (min. pairwise Fst = 0.19). Four populations were evident within the spotted gums (n=93) but structure was weak (pairwise Fst range 0.13 -0.05). Geography, both distance and topography were major determinants of structure, with migration among populations approximating a linear stepping-stone model. Corymbia maculata was resolved as a taxon and had the greatest genetic distance to any other population (min pairwise Fst 0.08). Three clusters were evident within the northern taxa but alignment with taxonomic groupings was poor. Corymbia citriodora material from north of a major disjunction in Central Queensland formed a Northern population. Corymbia citriodora, C. variegata and C. henryi material from below this disjunction but north of the Border Ranges, formed a Central population, whereas a Southern population was comprised of C. variegata and C. henryi from predominately south of the Border Ranges. Fewer ambiguous assignments occurred using genetic rather than taxonomic groups for self classification of the spotted gum reference population.

Mutui FN, Bao CV, Onyango V, Muhandiki V, and Mwaura F. "The Development and Practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in Kenya." European Scientific Journal October 2013 Edition. 2013;Vol 19(29):165-185.
Dugassa S, Lindh JM, Oyieke F, Mukabana WR, Lindsay SW, Fillinger U. "Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.". 2013.Website
Maina SM. "Development of disgust: effects of delay in re-development of occupied building; a case study of ADD building." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2013;volume 7(No. 7):509-518.
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Agullo JO, Hassan MA, Omuto CT, Gumbe LO, Obiero JPO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity.". 2013.Website
Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology,. 2013;3:154-164.Website
Mumenya SW. "Development of Textiles Customized as Reinforcement to Cementitious Materials.". In: Textiles, Types, Uses and Production Methods. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2013.
Sihanya B. Devolution and Education.; 2013.
Otieno CF, Otedo AEO, Oyoo GO, Omonge EO. "Diabetes Mellitus/ HIV Interphase: A Series of 10 Cases. ." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):53-56.
Christophe Long, Yannick Aussagues, Nicolas Molinier LMLVASVPPCMBF. "Dichapetalins from Dichapetalum species and their cytotoxic properties." Phytochemistry . 2013;94:184-191.
Maina J, Gitau A, Nyang’aya J. "Diesel Engine Emissions and Performance Characteristics under Cape Chestnut Biofuel." Journal of power and Energy Engineering. 2013;Vol 1,No.6 :9-14.

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