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K D, NO G, MK A. "Dental caries experience amongst 3-15 year-old children with heart disease attending paediatric cardiology clinics in Nairobi, Kenya." Mod Appl Dent oral Health. 2018;2018; 1(3): 1-8(2018; 1(3): 1-8):2018; 1(3): 1-8.
Owino RO, Masiga MA, Macigo FG, others. "Dental caries, gingivitis and the treatment needs among 12-year-olds." East African Medical Journal. 2010;87:25-31. Abstract
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Makhanu M, Opinya G, Mutave RJ. "Dental fluorosis, caries experience and snack intake of 13-15 year olds in Kenya." East African medical journal. 2009;86:120-124. Abstract
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Makhanu M, Opinya G, Mutave RJ. "Dental fluorosis, caries experience and snack intake of 13-15 year olds in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86:120-124. Abstract
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MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Dental fluorosis, caries experience and snack intake of 13-15 year olds in Kenya M Makhanu, G Opinya, R.J Mutave.". In: East African Medical Journal vol 86 No3; 2009. East African Medical Journal; 2009.
R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Dental fluorosis: a review of literature with comments on tropical characteristics. East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):493-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):493-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Muriithi HM, Masiga MA, Chindia ML. "Dental injuries in 0-15 year olds at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African medical journal. 2005;82. Abstract
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Sumbi I, Edalia L, Bernard M. "Dental jewellery and oral piercings: Knowledge, attitude and practice among dentists in Nairobi." Journal of Kenya Dental Association.. 2019;10:724-730. Abstractdental_jewellery_-_kda.pdf

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Ober-Oluoch J, Abdulhalim H, Dimba EAO. "Dentinogenesis imperfecta–a case report.". 2010. Abstract
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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Denudation Chronology of the Cannock Chase Area, Staffordshire.". In: The East Midland Geograper, Vol.4 pp.77-78, December, 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Denudation surfaces and the Origina of Stone-lines in the Machakos Area of Kenya. Proceedings of the 23rd International Geographical Congress. International Geography 1976, Vol.1, Geomophology. Moscow.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1976. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Michieka RW;, Kinyanjui FK. "Deparment of Crop Science University of Nairobi."; 1987.
MUDUDA EO. "Deploying Trained Personnel for Improved Job Satisfaction." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Njoroge W, Wangati CK, Karanja PK, Musembi RJ, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. Deposition and Characterization of Thin Film Deposited by DC-RF Co-sputtering for Photovoltaic Application. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Solar cell has the potential of being the main drive to economic prosperity as it is one of the most promising sources of cheap, environmentally friendly and renewable energy. Crystalline silicon based technology currently dominate the solar energy market. However, it is generally expensive and the cell efficiency has reached 24.7% hence approaching theoretical expected maximum of 30%. In order to reduce cost of production, focus is shifting towards thin film based I-III-VI family chalcopyrite compounds where cheaper CuInxGa1-xSe2 absorber semiconductor is reported to have attained the highest efficiency of 20.3 %. This study intends to fabricate and characterize a compound of copper, aluminum, boron and selenium (CuAlxB1-x Se2 ) thin film. The compound is based on I-III-IV family of chalcopyrite which has generated a lot of interest as an absorber material for solar cells due to their high absorption coefficients. The research procedure will involve deposition of CuAlxB1-xSe2 thin film by DC and RF magnetron sputtering of CuAlB alloy and selenium targets respectively. The deposition is done using Edwards Auto 360 RF and DC magnetron vacuum system. Characterization of the resulting thin film based on structural and optoelectronic properties is done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible-IR Spectrometer, and the Hall Effect. The outcome of this research will provide fundamental practical science and engineering knowledge base on structural and optoelectronic properties of CuAlxB1-x Se2 compound as solar absorber material among other optoelectronic applications. In general the study will contribute towards achieving greater efficiency in production of “green” energy.

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Depreciation in Rwanda: Perspective of depression in Rural Rwanda based on Symptom and function criteria (co-author).". In: Journal of Nervous mental Disorders (USA) 2002, 190(9) 631-637. EAMJ; 2002. Abstract
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Othieno CJ, Okoth RO, Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Malla LO. "Depression among university students in Kenya: Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates." Journal of affective disorders. Submitted;165:120-125. AbstractWebsite

Background Depression is a common cause of morbidity but prevalence levels among
Kenyan university students are poorly understood. A better understanding of depression and
its correlates is essential in planning for appropriate interventions in this population group.
Method A random sample of 923 University of Nairobi students (525 male and 365 female)
were interviewed using a questionnaire to record sociodemographic variables. Depressive
symptoms were measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Short Depression ..

K. W, S. M, J.W. M, Z. Q, J. B, P. V. "Depression among women with obstetric fistula in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(1):31-3. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To establish the prevalence of depression and describe associated factors among fistula patients attending an obstetric fistula surgical camp in Kenya.

METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted focusing on obstetric fistula patients attending a national fistula camp held in August 2008 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and medical histories for all consenting patients before surgery. Depression measures were obtained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

RESULTS:
Of the 70 women interviewed, 2 (2.9%) and 12 (17.1%) reported a history of psychiatric illness and suicidal ideations, respectively. Depression was present in 51 (72.9%) patients, with 18 (25.7%) meeting criteria for severe depression. Depression was significantly associated with women older than 20 years of age (P=0.01), unemployment (P=0.03), lack of social support following fistula (P=0.04), and living with fistula for over 3 months (P=0.01).

CONCLUSION:
Women with obstetric fistula are predisposed to high levels of depression. A holistic management approach, including mental health care and family support, is recommended

S D, GO O, V O-H. "Depression and its association with disease activity and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Ho." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):15-21. Abstractdepression_and_its_association_with_disease_activity.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis
is a systemic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane,
resulting in the structural damage of cartilage, bone and ligaments. The
course of RA differs between patients, and its severity can range from selflimiting
disease to severe destruction and systemic complications. RA affects
patients physically, psychologically and socially. Patients experience pain,
joint swelling, stiffness, functional limitations and fatigue and overall poor
quality of life. In addition, they report anxiety and depressive symptoms
and concerns about increased physical limitations. Experiencing
psychological distress may inflate the subjective severity of patient-reported
symptoms such as pain and tenderness. Furthermore, patients experience a
loss of independence and restrictions in participation, i.e. a decrease in
socializing which may in turn propagate symptoms of depression. An accurate
description of the relationship between depression, disease severity and quality
of life is necessary for our setting. If an interaction exists, then there is a
group of vulnerable patients who could benefit from earlier identification
of depression and the impact their disease has on HRQoL and appropriate
management provided. Objective: To determine the prevalence
of depression and the relationship between depression, disease activity
and quality of life in ambulatory patients with rheumatoid arthritis at
the Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: A descriptive-cross sectional

MUTAYOBA, B.M., GOMBE, S., Waindi EN, KAAYA GP. "Depression of ovarian function and plasma progesterone and oestradiol - 17B in female goats chronically- infected with Trypanosoma congolense." Acta Endocrinologica (Copenh) . 1988;117:477-484.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Deregulation and management of interest rates, IPAR Discussion Paper # 38." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
Ogana W. "Derivation of an integral equation for three-dimensional transonic flows." AIAA Journal. 1979;Vol. 17(No. 3):pp. 305-307.
Ogana W, Spreiter JR. "Derivation of an integral equation for transonic flows." AIAA Journal. 1977;Vol. 15(No. 2):pp. 281-282.
C. O. Mito, G. Laneve, Castronuovo MM, and Ulivieri C. "Derivation of land surface temperatures from MODIS data using the general split-window technique." International Journal of Remote Sensing. 2006;27(12-14):2541-2552.
C. O. Mito, G. Laneve, and Castronuovo MM. "Derivation of land surface temperatures from MODIS data using general split-window technique.". In: Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing,. Valencia: Servicio de Publicaciones. Universitat de Valencia; 2002.
MWANGI IK, Muketha SM. "Deriving Value Chain Model Applications in Planning From Skills Audit In Rwandan Urbanization Sector. Presented at 2019 Annual National Planners Convention.". In: Annual National Planners Convention. Organized by the Kenya Institute of Planners (KIP). Diana Reef Beach Resort and Spa, Kwale, Kenya; 2019.
Abdille AA, Kimani J, Wamunyokoli F, Bulimo W, Gavamukulya Y, Maina EN. "Dermaseptin B2’s Anti-Proliferative Activity and down Regulation of Anti-Proliferative, Angiogenic and Metastatic Genes in Rhabdomyosarcoma RD Cells in Vitro." Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology. 2021;12:337-359. Abstract
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Chepchirchir A, Bii C, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Dermatophyte infections in primary school children in Kibera slums of Nairobi." East African medical journal. 2009;86. Abstract
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Chepchirchir A, Bii C, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Dermatophyte infections in primary school children in Kibera slums of Nairobi." East African medical journal. 2009;86. Abstract
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Chepchirchir A, Bii C, Ndinya-Achola LP. "Dermatophyte infections in Primary School Children in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. ." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(2)(Feb):59-68.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "A Derrailed Democtratic Transition.". In: Elections in Multiparty Context in Kenya.; 1995. Abstract
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Dimbuson. WB, Bedno. SA, Martin. S. Description of a Distinct Antigenic Drift Variant of Influenza A (H3N2) Circulating in Nairobi, Kenya. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: MediTech Media Conferencing, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30328; 2007. Abstract
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Kiarie, E G;, Kabuage LW;, Wakhungu JW;, Gitau GK;, Githure J;, Mutero CM. "A description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme.".; 2002.
Egonyu JP, Kabaru J, IRUNGU LUCYW, Haas F. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi.". 1999.Website
JP E, J K, LW I, F H. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi ." Journal of Insect Science . In Press.
Egonyu JP, Kabaru J, Irungu L, Hass F. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi." Journal of Insect Science. 2013;13(82):1-7.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Description of some phytoseiid mites from Brazil. Acarologia, 25: 125 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1984. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "Description of some Typhlodromus species from Tanzania (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae). Acarologia: 217.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1991. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Description of some unknown phytoseiid mites from Brazil (Mestostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Acarologia, 20: 477 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1978. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Magoha GAO. "Descriptive case series of patients presenting with cancer of the prostate and their management at Kenyatta National Hospital." ;East African Medical Journal . 2007;Vol 84(No. 9 ). Abstract

Objective : To study clinical prostate cancer in this locality with particular interest in incidence, clinical presentation and treatment.
Design: A descriptive prospective study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital affiliated to College of Health Sciences of the University of Nairobi between November 1998 and October 1999.
Patients: Sixty five patients with clinical prostate cancer were included in the study.Results: Age was reliably confirmed in 64 out of the 65 patients. 87.5 % of the patients were aged over 61 years with a peak incidence in the 66-70 year age group and a mean age of 67 years. Crude hospital incidence of 76.5 patients per 100,000 patients and a crude hospital death rate of 5.8 patients per 100,000 patients is reported. The majority of patients (87.5%) presented late with advanced disease stages III(C) and IV(D) prostate cancer.
Conclusion: The crude hospital incidence of cancer of the prostate is on the increase in this locality with a finding of76.5 per hundred thousand patients, higher than that reported by earlier researchers in this locality and elsewhere. This study suggests that prostate cancer incidence and the magnitude of risk in our locality must have been grossly underestimated in the past. The prostate cancer rate in Kenyans may be as great as noted in black men in the United States, Jamaica, Nigeria and Cameroon which may suggest some common enhancing genetic predisposition. There is need to further investigate this phenomenon. Cancer of the prostate in this locality presents late with clinically advanced disease.

J.;Ganga-Limando CKMSMM; K. "Descriptive Characteristics of Psychoactive Substance Dependent Patients in Nairobi,Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2012;42 (1)(June, 2012):1-4.
ABDULHALIM DRHUSSEIN. "DESCRIPTIVE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ORAL HEALTH STATUS OF CHILDREN WITH CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN NAIROBI ( A MASTERS THESIS).". In: A MASTERS THESIS. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
No abstracts available
Mwangi W, Mbiyu K. "A Descriptive Study of the Class Struggle and its Role in Redistributive land reforms." Africa Habitat Review Journal . 2016;10.
Esilaba AO;, Okoti M;, Keya GA;, Miriti JM;, Kigomo JN;, Olukoye G;, Wekesa L;, Ego W;, Muturi GM. The Desert Margins Programme Approaches in Upscaling Best-Bet Technologies in Arid and Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s land surface is primarily arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) which account for 84% of the total land area. The Desert Margins Programme (DMP) in Kenya has made some contribution to understanding which technology options have potential in reducing land degradation in marginal areas and conserving biodiversity through demonstrations, testing of the most promising natural resource management options, developing sustainable alternative livelihoods and policy guidelines, and replicating successful models. In extension of sustainable natural resource management, two types of strategies were used: (i) strategies for the promotion of readily available technologies and (ii) approaches for participatory learning and action research. Thus DMP-Kenya initiated upscaling of four ‘best-bet’ technologies. Under the rangeland/livestock management options, scaling-up activities include improvement of rangeland productivity, rangeland resource management through community-based range resources monitoring/assessment, and fodder conservation for home-based herds. Restoration of degraded lands included rehabilitation of rangelands using the red paint approach in conservation of Acacia tortilis, control of Prosopis, planting of Acacia senegal trees in micro-catchments, and rehabilitation of degraded areas through community enclosures. Improved land, nutrient, and water management involved upscaling water harvesting and integrated nutrient management (INM) technologies. Activities under tree-crop/livestock interactions included upscaling of Melia volkensii and fruit trees (mangoes) and enhancing biodiversity conservation through support of beekeeping as a viable alternative livelihood. Participatory learning and action research (PLAR) was used for technology development and dissemination. Capacity building and training was a major component of upscaling of these best-bet technologies

and Ogallo OGOLA. "DESERTIFICATION IN AFRICA." Promotion of Science and Technology (POST). 2007;Vol. XIII (No.1):22-25 .desertification_final.pdf
Ouma GO, Ogallo LA. "Desertification In Africa.". 2007.Website
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Desertification in Africa (abridged) in Chiri (Geography) Vol. 30, No. 12 pp. 22-30 (in Japanese).". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1985. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Desertification in Africa with special references to East Africa. GEOGRAPHICAL REPORTS OF TOKYO Metropolitan University, No.21. The memorial volume of Prof. Hiroshi Toya. Pp. 23-34.". In: Chapter 8 in Managing Protected Areas in Africa. Ed W.J. Lusigi, Unesco-World Heritage Publishers - pp. 57-61. UN-HABITAT; 1986. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Odingo RS. "Desertification revisited .". 1990.Website
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
Gatari M, Boman J. Design and Development of an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2008. AbstractWebsite

Contribution of scientific research to local and international journals from Africa and indeed Kenya is weak in comparison to other regions. One of the main problems is the non-availability of reliable and affordable analytical instrumentation. Energy-Dispersive X-ray …

Ebrahim Y. "Design and development of Temperature Template for bioclimatic analysis in tropical countries.". In: National Council for Science and Technology, Nairobi. KICC; 2010.
Chege S, Kamucha G. "Design and Implementation of a Low Cost High Bandwidth Sampling Bridge.". In: Moi University 10th Annual International Conference, Symposium IV . Eldoret, Kenya; 2014.
Qaiser S, Limo A, Gichana J, Kimani K, Githanga J, Waweru W, Dimba EAO, Dimaras H. "Design and implementation of the retinoblastoma collaborative laboratory." Ocular Oncology and Pathology. 2017;3:73-82. Abstract
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S Q, A L, J G, K K, W W, EA D. "Design and Implementation of the Retinoblastoma Collaborative Laboratory." Ocular Oncology and Pathology. 2017.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Layout of a special issue of the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE).". In: Newsletter; The Spider. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Layout of KAEA.". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Davies S, Mbuthia M. "Design and Optimization of A Mobile Device PCB-PIFL Multiband Antenna for GSM Applications." International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2015;4(10):9522-9528.
Gichaga FJ, Murunga PA, Atibu FS. "Design and Performance Of Flexible Pavements under Tropical Environment.". In: 9th Africa Regional Conference. Lagos, Nigeria.; 1987.
Rao KP, Maitho T, Kamamia EK, Patil AB, Sagre P. "Design and Pre-clinical Studies of Miconazole Soap Strips for Dermal Infections." International Journal of INST Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2011;1(1):68-76.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Design and Production of Corporate Brochure for Family Planning Private Sector.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Onyango W. "The Design and Production Process of Jua Kali Furniture in Kenya "Art or Chaos.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

The jua kali sector covers the informal manufacturer who operates informally makeshitfs on the outskirts of our major urban areas such as Gikomba and shauri moyo in Nairobi.This paper looks into design and production process of jua kali furniture,Jua kali designers approaches to the trade and tools used are also addressed.The issue of equipments and workshop sketches and photographs showing faults in their products have also been included for scrutiny and evidence of the chaotic situation

Wang B, Ma Y, Ge H, Luo J, Peng B, Deng Z. "Design and synthesis of self-healable superhydrophobic coatings for oil/water separation." Langmuir. 2020;36:15309-15318. Abstract
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MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Design and Synthesis of truncated and conformationally constricted glucagon analogues.". In: presented at the 16thAmerican Peptide Symposium, June 26-July 1, Minneapolis, Minnesota. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Design and the African Cultural Identity.". In: Design for Development Initiative, Durban. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
"DESIGN ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUILDING MATERIALS VULNERABILITY. DURABILITY AND AVAILABILITY .". In: Regional Workshop on Construction Materials. Kampala, Uganda.; 1985.
Ngatia EM, Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Mutara LN, MUNYAO ML, Nyamwange S, Wayoike G, others. "Design for Environment: A survey of Mobile Phone handsets Disposal in Kenya.". 2006. Abstract
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Nganga G, Alexander M, Beushanusen H, Mumenya SW. Design for strength and durability. Kisumu, Kenya; 2013.
Okudan G, Ogot M, Rao G, others. "Design Information Support Tool (DIST): Its Development and Effectiveness Investigation.". In: ASME 2006 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection; 2006:. Abstract
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Maina. Design Materials and processes VOL 1. Nairobi: ISBN 978-620-2-00534-0 Frajopa Printers and Publishers Mall, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 2. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2018.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 3. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 3. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes Vol 4. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2018.
Design Materials and Processes Vol 5. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2019.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes Vol 6. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2020.
OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Design of a Bicycle Trailer. A Technical Report, 1998. (Revised 1999, and 2001).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Common nearly best linear estimates of location and scale parameters of normal and logistic distributions, which are based on complete samples, are considered. Here the population from which the samples are drawn is either normal or logistic population or a fusion of both distributions and the estimates are computed when it is not yet known which of the two populations (between the normal and logistic) is true. The problem discussed in this paper involves two possible population types in a given sample. Samples of sizes  and  are used to validate these estimates and a comparison of their variances is made with those of the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for normal and logistic distributions.
OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Design of a Multi-Purpose Screw Jack. A technical Report, 2000. (Revised 2002).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2000. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Common nearly best linear estimates of location and scale parameters of normal and logistic distributions, which are based on complete samples, are considered. Here the population from which the samples are drawn is either normal or logistic population or a fusion of both distributions and the estimates are computed when it is not yet known which of the two populations (between the normal and logistic) is true. The problem discussed in this paper involves two possible population types in a given sample. Samples of sizes  and  are used to validate these estimates and a comparison of their variances is made with those of the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for normal and logistic distributions.
M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "Design of a Regional Minimum Raingauge Network.". In: Water Resources Dev. Vol. 9 No.4. International Journal of Climatology; 1993. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
C.P.K. Basalirwa, L.J. Ogallo MF. "The Design of a Regional Minimum Raingauge Network." Water Resources Development. 1993;9(4):411-424.
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "Design of an optimal size Rainwater Storage Tank, paper presented at the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International Conference, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Karogi JK. Design of district centres with special reference to Kayole .; 1982. Abstract

The main intention of this thesis is to establish design principles and evolve a design for Kayole District Centre within the North Eastern part of Nairobi city region. The design of Kayole District Centre should be seen as an evolution of design principles which can also be applied in designing other district centres now that decentralization of Nairobi City Centre is imminent. The first chapter is a discussion of one of the major design determinants; the context within which Kayole district centre will grow. In this chapter the geographical placement of Kayole District Centre in respect to other surrounding urban centres has been analysed in an attempt to establish the catchment population it will serve at various strategic years. The first chapter also shows the correlation between the catchment population arid the planned infrastructure. In this way it has been established that the planned infrastructure can support both Kayole District Centre and its catchment population for various strategic years. Chapters two and three are case studies of two suburban centres, Westlands and Eastleigh. The intention in these two chapters is a critical study, in an attempt to discern the forces behind the functional zoning movement patterns, structure, and urban form of the two centres. Westlands and Eastleigh have been chosen because they cater for different income Chapter five is the design of Kayole District groups and evolved from different urban cultures. Thus Westlands serves a high income group and is western in outlook. Eastleigh on the other hand serves a low income group and was an Asian settlement at its inception. In their nature the two case studies constitute a spectrum of the urban reality in Nairobi City region. The design determinants discerned in chapters two and three have been embodied in chapter four which is a conclusion of the case studies. In the fourth chapter as in the design, the more sensory determinants have been given greater emphasis. Centre. As far as has been possible, the design incorporates what has been learned in the case studies. The centre is in two sectors. The main sector constitutes a majority of commercial, residential, social and administrative facilities. This sector is complete in itself and is the only sector, that the design goes into detail. The second sector to the East has some major institutions and future extensions of commercial and residential activities of the Centre. The institutions in this sector are so specialized that it is beyond the scope of this thesis to design them to any detail. Only the required amounts of land has been set aside. Although the future commercial and residential activities have pot been designed to any detail, the design principles used in the design of the first sector, to the West should apply.

OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Design of Micro-Geothermal Power Plant. A Technical Report, 1996. (Revised 1998).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1996. Abstract
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OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Design of Micro-Hydropower System for use in Small Rivers. A Technical Report, 1990 (Revised in 1992, 1994).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1994. Abstract
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H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Design of Museum Spaces - PMDA, Mombasa Kenya.". In: PMDA, IAS, Mombasa, Kenya. IPPNW; 2005. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Design of Museum spaces. - PMDA, Mombasa Kenya.". In: PMDA, IAS, Mombasa, Kenya. IPPNW; 2003. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Design of on-farm hydraulic structures for regulating road drainage. Accepted by Engineering in Agriculture and Environment. Journal of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Design of Speech Database for Unit Selection in Kiswahili Text to Speech System.". In: E-Tech conference, Nairobi August 2004. FARA; 2004. Abstract
When developing a Concatenative Text to Speech System [1, 3, 4] (i.e. a form of synthesis where waveforms are created by concatenating parts of natural speech recorded from humans) it is necessary that all the acoustically and perceptually significant sound variations (allophones) in the language are recorded so that they are played back each time the system synthesises speech. Improvement on the system is made by assuming that co-articulation (mutual influence between adjoining sounds) does not extend beyond phone-phone boundary [1]. In this case all possible phone-phone combinations are read and recorded. Each unit of the two phone combination is referred to as the diphone. Synthesis is then based on concatenation of the diphones thus taking care of the overlap in the phone-phone boundary. An even better system can be realised when each diphone is captured within the context of several words and synthesis carried out by using the best selection from the recorded words. It is clear then that this procedure must use proper selection of the sentences from which the diphones are to be captured. In other words, such sentences must be phonetically balanced; implying that they must have the same phone distribution as used entirely in the language.
Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Mukabana R, Takken W, Smith TA. "Design of trials for interrupting the transmission of endemic pathogens." Trials. 2016;17(1):278.
Osanjo L, Amollo L. "Design Policy and Promotion Map." SEE Bulletin. 2010;3 (Issue 3 - May 2010):8.
Sanes JR, Zipursky LS. "Design principles of insect and vertebrate visual systems." Neuron. 2010;66:15-36. Abstract

A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal's view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers-retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus), and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates; and retina, lamina, and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance.

Gichaga FJ. "Design Standards, Performance and Maintenance of Roads in Kenya." Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nairobi; 1986.
Osanjo L, Ambole LA. "Design with Social Impact for Rural Communities in Africa.". In: Sustainable Energy for All by Design conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.osanjo__ambole_2016.pdf
Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Raspador for Simultaneous Extraction and Brushing of Sisal Fibers by Small-scale Sisal Farmers." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2021.1975597

Demand for natural fibers is on the rise as awareness of environmental protection keeps abreast. Sisal fibers, for instance, are largely utilized not only in the manufacture of mats, ropes, carpets, and sacks but also in the reinforcement of polymer composites. With the increased demand for sisal fibers, there is a need to equally increase the exploitation of sisal by small-scale farmers. UNIDO, for instance, recommended that appropriate small-scale machines that are accessible to small-scale holders should be developed. This research examines the progress in the development of small-scale machines and designs a raspador for simultaneous extraction and brushing of sisal fibers. This is to ensure that there is value and income addition for the small-scale farmers in East Africa and perhaps the rest of the world.

Abade OE, Kaji K, Kawaguchi N. "Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Routing Engine for a multipoint communication protocol: XCAST6." International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security. 2011;11(5):200-209.
Fajardo I, Lidtke AA, Bendoukha SA, Gonzalez-Llorente J, Rodríguez R, Morales R, Faizullin D, Matsuoka M, Urakami N, Kawauchi R, Miyazaki M, Yamagata N, Hatanaka K, Abdullah F, Rojas JJ, Keshk ME, Cosmas K, Ulambayar T, Saganti P, Holland D, Dachev T, Tuttle S, Dudziak R, Okuyama K-ichi. "Design, Implementation, and Operation of a Small Satellite Mission to Explore the Space Weather Effects in LEO." Aerospace. 2019;6. AbstractWebsite

Ten-Koh is a 23.5 kg, low-cost satellite developed to conduct space environment effects research in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Ten-Koh was developed primarily by students of the Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) and launched on 29 October 2018 on-board HII-A rocket F40, as a piggyback payload of JAXA’s Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT-2). The satellite carries a double Langmuir probe, CMOS-based particle detectors and a Liulin spectrometer as main payloads. This paper reviews the design of the mission, specifies the exact hardware used, and outlines the implementation and operation phases of the project. This work is intended as a reference that other aspiring satellite developers may use to increase their chances of success. Such a reference is expected to be particularly useful to other university teams, which will likely face the same challenges as the Ten-Koh team at Kyutech. Various on-orbit failures of the satellite are also discussed here in order to help avoid them in future small spacecraft. Applicability of small satellites to conduct space-weather research is also illustrated on the Ten-Koh example, which carried out simultaneous measurements with JAXA’s ARASE satellite.

Njogu PM, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Design, synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of hybrid compounds based on (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine." ACS Med. Chem. Lett.. 2013;4(7):637-641. Abstract

A series of hybrid compounds based on (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine, artemisinin and quinoline moieties was synthesized and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic stages of K1 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Two hybrid compounds incorporating (2R,3S)-N-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine and artemisinin scaffolds were three- to four-fold more active than dihydroartemisinin, with nanomolar IC50 values against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain.

M. DRGUANTAIERIC. "Design, synthesis and in vitro antimalarial evaluation of triazole-linked chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds.". In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. DMW; 2010. Abstract
A targeted series of chalcone and dienone hybrid compounds containing aminoquinoline and nucleoside templates was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimalarial activity. The Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides and terminal alkynes was applied as the hybridization strategy. Several chalcone-chloroquinoline hybrid compounds were found to be notably active, with compound 8b the most active, exhibiting submicromolar IC50 values against the D10, Dd2 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Oboko RO, Maina EM, Waiganjo PW, Omwenga EI, Wario RD. "Designing adaptive learning support through machine learning techniques.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. IEEE; 2016. Abstract

The use of web 2.0 technologies in web based learning systems has made learning more learner-centered. In a learner centered environment, there is need to provide appropriate support to learners based on individual learner characteristics in order to maximize learning. This requires a Web-based learning system to have an adaptive interface to suit individual learner characteristics in order to accommodate diversity of learner needs and abilities and to maintain an appropriate context for interaction and for achieving personalized learning. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how machine learning techniques can provide adaptive learning support in a Web-based learning system. In this research, two machine learning algorithms namely: Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric (HVDM) and Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC) were used. HVDM was used to determine those learners who were similar to the current learner while NBC was used to estimate the likelihood that the learner would need to use additional materials for the current concept. To demonstrate the concept we used a course in object oriented programming (OOP).

Oluoch FO &, Oboko RO. "Designing an M-learning system for Community Education and Information on HIV and AIDS in Kenya." International Journal of Societal Applications of Computer Science. 2013;2(3):238-247.
Okojie MCPO, Bourke B, Masoumi D, Lindström B, Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Designing and Delivering Web-Based Instruction to Adult Learners in Higher Education.". 2014. Abstract

The essence of this chapter is to discuss theories and practices including
approaches that instructional designers consider when designing Web-based instruction for
adult learners. The importance of the chapter is to discuss best practice activities and
theories as well as technologies that enable adult online learners to be involved in the
design of their Web-based instruction. This represents recognition that adults have
accumulated a repertoire of knowledge and experiences that inevitably will enrich the

Haile A;, Duguma G;, Mirkena T;, Tibbo M;, Iñiguez L;, Rischkowsky B;, Mwai OA;, Wurzinger M;, Sölkner J. "Designing and implementation of community-based breeding programs for adapted local sheep breeds in Ethiopia."; 2010.
Nyaory GM, Konditi DBO, Ouma HA, Musyoki S. "Designing Cavity–Backed Slot Antenna Array: A Numerical Implementation Using ADI-FDTD Method.". In: 6th JKUAT Scientific and Technological Conference. AICAD, Juja, Nairobi ; 2011. Abstract

ABSTRACT Slotted antenna arrays used with waveguides also known as Cavity-backed slot antenna arrays (CBSAA) are a popular set of antenna in navigation, radar and other microwave-frequency systems. For such antenna analysis and design in the sub-wavelength domain, there are currently three well established methods: The method of moments (MoM), the finite-element method (FEM) and the finite difference time-domain method (FDTD).
In this paper, a new finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is proposed in order to eliminate the Courant–Friedrich–Levy (CFL) condition restraint. We therefore present the conventional alternating direction implicit - finite difference time-domain method (ADI-FDTD) method.
The proposed ADI-FDTD method is applied by solving Maxwell’s equations in time domain. We model and simulate waveguide structures with a case study of T10 mode on rectangular CBSAA consisting of 8 slot elements backed by a single cavity and simple feed network. The characteristics covering the microwave frequencies are analyzed, for instance; input impedance, return loss, bandwidth, VSWR, and far field radiation patterns. Moreover, several numerical results are presented, along with measured data, which demonstrate the validity, efficiency, and capability of the technique. Index Terms - Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Arrays (CBSAA), Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD), Courant–Friedrich–Levy (CFL), and Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI)

Designing Distance Learning courses using e-learning Techniques science.. Institute of Computer, University of Nairobi; 2003.
Mutoro JM, Imonje DR. "DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISTANCE LEARNING IN THE 21ST CENTURY."; 2013. Abstract

The debate around distance education has often been reduced to issues of access and quality. Much discussion surrounds designing instructions for distance learning. Good instructional design produces good outcomes and poor instructional designs produce poor outcomes. From a practical perspective, these are concerns that must be addressed and balanced when designing education to be delivered at a distance. This paper addresses these concerns based on designing instructions for distance learning. This paper draws data from different national and international sources. The paper begins with a review of the related literature. The study carried out in July 2010 on “critical review of instructional design process of distance learning system”. The study was carried out at Allama Iqbal University (AIOU). The study used survey design. Key findings of this study indicate that there is need to conduct need’s assessment before writing any course that need multimedia support i.e. audio and video-cassettes and computer diskettes may be provided along with study materials and finally, illustrations and self assessment. Designing of instructions for distance learning is mainly influenced by objectives, course content, experience and qualification of teachers and learners characteristics. Modern technology of e-learning is expensive and hence learners’ background will dictate on which mode at a distance will be more affordable and effective when designing instructions for distance learning. Designing of instructions for distance learning will be determined by evaluation, assessment,
44 UoN - ISO 9001:2008 Certified
and feedback procedures. Thus, this paper will further consider the following aspects: meaningful and meaningless instructions, feedback model, Dick and Carey system and Oar model. The paper will also discuss the theories of distance learning by Moore and Holmberg. In spite of its significance, designing instructions for distance learning has its challenges. These challenges include insufficient support from the stakeholders, and inadequate teaching and learning resources. We suggest that the key stakeholders to participate in transformation of educational system into distance education and training of the stakeholders in the handling of distance education materials.
Keywords; Designing instruction, distance learning and distance education, instructional models, meaningful learning meaningless learning, involvement evaluation, assessment and feedback.

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

Deisser A-M, Wahome EPHRAIMW. "Designing preventive conseravation training for museums: a case of the National Museums of Kenya." Hekima (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.. 2009;IV(1):23-38.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Designing snacks to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural Kenyan schoolchildren. J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1093-6 . Review. PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murphy SP, Gewa C, Grillenberger M, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.". In: J Nutr . 2007 Apr; 137 ( 4 ): 1093-6 . Review. PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2007. Abstractdesigning_snacks_to_address_micronutrient.pdf

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. suzanne@crch.hawaii.edu

Three snacks were designed to improve nutrient intakes among school-age children living in rural Kenya. Snacks containing animal-source foods (milk and meat) provided more nutrients than an equicaloric vegetarian snack. The vegetarian snack provided extra vitamin A (primarily from fortified cooking fat; the milk snack was rich in calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12; and the meat snack supplied vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc. When changes in intakes from baseline to the feeding period were compared across the 4 groups, total energy intake increased the most for children in the meat group and the least for children in the control group. Differences in energy intakes across the 3 feeding groups were primarily caused by decreases in home intake for the vegetarian and milk snack groups. It is important to evaluate the change in home intakes as well as intakes from the foods provided by the study when evaluating the effect of feeding programs on nutrient adequacy.

PMID: 17374685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mukhwana H&MA. "Desk Graffiti Cohesion Strategies in the University of Nairobi Libraries." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(8).
Iraki XN. "Despite great wealth, the rich also cry." The Standard, January 13, 2015.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI, S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Detached Leaf Test as a Rapid Stress appraisal in Cowpea Germplasm, Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) for Draught Resistance.". In: Discovery and Innovation 42: 139-141. NISC Pty Ltd; 2000.
Mungai DN, Sogomo, K.L.; Gatahi MMM; FN. "Detailed Soil Survey of the ADC/MoA Farm, Garissa (Garissa District) .". 1980.Website
OdongoMahacla, KilonzoEM. "Detection and enumeration of Coliforms and Escherichia coli in water." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2008;32(1):7-17.
Amimo JO, Junga JO, W. O. Ogara, Vlasova AN, Njahira MN, Maina S, Okoth EA, Bishop RP, Saif LJ, Djikeng A. "Detection and genetic characterization of porcine group A rotaviruses in asymptomatic pigs in smallholder farms in East Africa: Predominance of P[8] genotype resembling human strains." Veterinary Microbiology. 2015;175(2-4):195-210.
DUNDON WG, Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, Loitsch A, Diallo A. "Detection and Genome Analysis of a Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus in Kenya in 2011." Transboundary and Emerging diseases. 2015;DOI:10.1111/tbed.12374:1-7.onlinelibrarytps.pdf
Mwaengo D, Lorenzo G, Iglesias J, Warigia M, Sang R, Bishop RP, Brun A. "Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR." Virus Res.. 2012;169(1):137-43. Abstract

Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. In this study, molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2007 East African outbreaks was performed using quantitative real-time PCR assay (qRT-PCR). Specific RVFV sequence-based primer/fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe sets were derived from the L and S RNA segments of the virus. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity. Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and 1000-fold were detected between Ae. mcintoshi and M. uniformis using both the L and S primer-probe-based assays. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the 2006-2007 outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host. The data confirms the utility of qRT-PCR for identification and initial quantification of virus in mosquito samples during RVFV outbreaks.

Nderitu FW, Gikonyo GK, Sinei K. "Detection and Management of Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Antiretroviral Drugs among HIV/AIDS Patients in Kiambu Sub-County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;In press. Abstract

The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence, detection and management of various adverse drug reactions associated with antiretroviral drugs occurring in patients attending Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC) of Kiambu District Hospital. The study was a cross sectional survey where the patients included were those attending the CCC on a monthly basis. The results revealed that 65.2% of the patients had experienced symptoms suggestive of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Of these, 67.2% did not associate the symptoms to the medicines they were taking but rather to the AIDS syndrome. The most prominent reaction was peripheral neuropathy at 0.395 (0.344-0.447 at 95% confidence interval) while the least common was hepatotoxicity. Whereas 71.5% could tell the frequency of the daily dosage, 92.1% did not know the names of the medicines they were taking but could describe them by shape and colour. There was a significant association between occurrence and reporting of ADRs and age (P<0.001), weight (P=0.001), marital status (P=0.016), occupation (P<0.001), religious participation (P<0.001) and education level (P<0.001). Although the health care providers displayed adequate knowledge in management of these reactions, they complained of inadequacy of the current reporting tool (MOH 257) in capturing ADRs. The patients were ill equipped in recognizing the adverse drug reactions.

Amimo JO, Saif LJ, Junga J, Vlasova AN, Okoth EA, Njahira MN, Ogara WO, Djikeng A. "Detection and molecular characterization of selected swine enteric viruses in smallholder farms in Kenya and Uganda.". In: 9th Biennial Conference and exhibition of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Upper Kabete Campus, Nairobi; 2014.detection_and_molecular_characterization_of_selected_swine_enteric_viruses_in_smallholder_farms_in_kenya_and_uganda__9thbiennial_jamimo-18-08-2014_final.pdf
Kenya EU, Okun DO, Gachuche DN, Abdulahi A, U. AL, Manohar R. "Detection and presumptive identification of Clostridium perfrigens in drinking water." Aquaculture. 2006;7(1): 27-36. Abstractabstract.pdfWebsite

Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities

Gikonyo C. "Detection Mechanisms Under Kenya’s Anti-Money Laundering Regime: Omissions and Loopholes’." Journal of Money Laundering Control. 2018:59-70.
Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. "Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine." Environ. Health Perspect.. 1985;62:105-8. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Maingi, N., Bjørn, H., Dangolla A. "Detection of anthelmintic resistance using the faecal egg-count reduction test (FECRT), the egg-hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). .". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 1997.
Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya Using Fecal Sampling." Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.). 2013. Abstractofula_et_al._2103.pdf

Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 has been reported in 11 African countries. Migratory waterbirds have the potential of introducing A/H5N1 into east Africa through the Rift Valley of Kenya. We present the results of a wild bird surveillance system for A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses based on avian fecal sampling in Kenya. We collected 2630 fecal samples in 2008. Viral RNA was extracted from pools of 3-5 fecal samples and analyzed for presence of avian influenza virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Twelve (2.3%) of the 516 sample pools were positive for avian influenza virus RNA, 2 of which were subtyped as H4N6 viruses. This is the first report of avian influenza virus in wild birds in Kenya. This study demonstrates the success of this approach in detecting avian influenza virus in wild birds and represents an efficient surveillance system for avian influenza virus in regions with limited resources.

Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift valley of Kenya using fecal sampling." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2013;13:394-400. Abstract
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KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "DETECTION OF BEEF AND PORK IN FRESH AND HEAT TREATED MEAT PRODUCTS USING ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
Raw and heat-treated pork and beef products were purchased from the outlets of two leading Kenyan manufacturing firms. Pure beef and pork sausages and pork sausages containing 1, 5 and 10% beef were prepared in the laboratory. Antigens from these products were extracted with phosphate buffered saline. The presence of beef and pork in these products was determined using absorbed goat antisera to cattle and pig thermostable muscle antigens in an enzyme immunoassay. The assay was able to detect beef in pork sausages at the level of 10% and 5% but not at 1%. Of the 44 commercial beef products labelled as containing only beef, 23 (52.3%) were shown to contain pork and 23 (50%) of the 46 pork products were shown to contain beef. Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens proved to be of great value in species identification not only of fresh unheated meats but also of heated (cooked, pasteurized and autoclaved) meat products in an enzyme immunoassay.
Koyaweda GW, Ongus JR, Machuka E, Juma J, Macharia R, Komas NP, Pelle R. "Detection of circulating hepatitis B virus immune escape and polymerase mutants among HBV-positive patients attending Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic." Int J Infect Dis. 2020;90:138-144. Abstract

Previous studies in the Central African Republic (CAR) have reported the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recombinant genotype E/D and a suspicion of immune escape mutants (IEMs), without further investigation into their impact on prevention and diagnosis. Consequently, this study investigated HBV mutations among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients attending Institut Pasteur de Bangui in the CAR.

Jaoko W. Detection of circulating immune complex associated parasite antigen in human loiasis: A new approach to diagnosis.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.

Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food chemistry. 2018;245:112-118. Abstract
n/a
Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food Chem.. 2018;245:112-115. Abstract

Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol. Beverage fraud involving counterfeiting of brand spirits is an increasing problem not only due to deception of the consumer but also because it poses health risks e.g. from possible methanol admixture. Suspicious spirit samples from Russia and Kenya were analysed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in comparison to authentic products. Using linear regression analysis of spectral integral values, 4 counterfeited samples from Russia and 2 from Kenya were easily identifiable with R2 < 0.7. Sensory analysis using triangle test methodology confirmed significant taste differences between counterfeited and authentic samples but the assessors were unable to correctly identify the counterfeited product in the majority of cases. An important conclusion is that consumers cannot assumed to be self-responsible when consuming counterfeit alcohol because there is no general ability to organoleptically detect counterfeit alcohol.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Detection of HIV infection during window period using polyclonal. B-cell activation test [letter] Jehuda-Cohen T; Mumo JM; Bwayo JJ; Pezzella M. AIDS. 1997 Jan;11(1):124-5.". In: 1997 Jan;11(1):124-5. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
H. A, T. T. A Detection Of Human Eyes by Window-Pair Chasing. Nairobi, Kenya; 1995.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in heel prick blood on filter paper from children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Nov;32(11):2858-60.". In: J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Nov;32(11):2858-60. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 7911092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mulei IR, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kenya.". In: DAFINET workshop. In collaboration with BangFish and ParaFish Control. Stigbojlen 7, University of Copenhagen,1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark, ; 2017.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Detection of outliers in geodetic networks using principal component analysis and bias parameter estimation.". In: Technical Report No. 2, Institute of Geodesy, University of Stuttgart, 1987, 104pp. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015;47(1):247-9. Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

"Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015;47(1):247-9. Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

Kihu, S.M., Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod.. 2014.
Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK, Muriuki NS, Gitonga L. "Detection of Plasmodium Parasites from Images of Thin Blood Smears." Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 2013;3:183-194. Abstract
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Mitei. K, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Osuna. F, Opot. B, Ochola. S, Njiri. J, Wurapa. E. "Detection of Respiratory Viruses other than Influenza in Children in Kenya, 2007-2011.". In: XV International Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections. Rotterdam, Netherlands: The Macrae Foundation, Rancho Santa Fe, CA 92067; 2013. Abstract
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Bergin, P. LFOO-MMOPLRBSG, and I. Mwangi, H. Coutinho CMMCFLGAPMJP. "Detection of Vaccine Induced Mucosal Antibodies in Phase I Hiv Preventative Vaccine Trials." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A187.
N MJ, K LC. "Detection of Voids on Concrete Surface Using Deep Learning Model." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(6):401-421.
Nyamwaya D, Wang'ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Lindahl J, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:696.
Nyamwaya D, Wang’ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Johanna Lindahl, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.". 2016.
Kiiru J, Mburu J, Asch F, Becker M. "Determinants and Consequences of Transactions Costs of Microfinance and their Impact on Rural poor Beneficiaries Incomes." International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. 2006:402.
Onsomu EN, Muthaka D, Ngware M, Manda DK. "Determinants and Strategies for Expanding Access to Secondary Education in Kenya." KIPPRA Discussion paper No. 63.. 2006.
Boscow OO, Abala DO, Kiriti-Ng'ang'a T. "Determinants Kenya’s Exports to the European Union (EU) (1960– 2010)." Regional Development Studies. 2013;17. Abstract

This paper examines the determinants of Kenya’s exports to the EU since 1960 to 2010 . The study uses ordinary least squares and two stage least square regression using exports values as the dependent variable. The independent variables are foreign aid, real gross fixed capital formation, terms of trade and consumption which is used as an instrument for real gross domestic product in the two stage least square as well as a dummy variable capturing the effect of reciprocity as a proxy for assessing the effect of the trade relation. The results show that during periods when there was reciprocity, Kenyan export values were stagnant and low, unlike periods when ACP states were given preferential treatment i.e. when there was no reciprocity. It is therefore evident that the proposed EPAs may worsen the current situation for Kenya’s exports.
Key Words: Kenya, ACP-EU, Exports, determinants, EPAs

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