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Egeru A, Wasonga O, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo GJ, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Dynamics of land use and land cover change in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2017. Abstract

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Lung’aho C, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.
and C. Lung’aho, G. Chemining’wa SHSM. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2012;7(17):2701-2712.Dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato
Lung’aho C, C. Lung’aho, Chemining’wa G, G. Chemining’wa, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Hutchinson. M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato_solanum_tuberosum_cultivars_in_central_kenya.
Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "The dynamics of religiosity and spirituality in Kenyan public Universities." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.6(6):63-80.ijern_vol_1_no.6_june_2013.pdf
9. Thenya T, Wassmann, R. M, Verchot L. "Dynamics of resource utilization in a tropical wetland." Indigenous strategies of wetland utilization. 2006.
Thenya T, Verburg P, Wassmann R, Verchot ML. "Dynamics of Resource Utilization in a Tropical Wetland." Spatial Statistical Analysis of Land use Change. 2006.
Söderbom M, Teal F, Wambugu A, Kahyarara G. "Dynamics of returns to education: Evidence from two developing countries." Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 2006; 68(3):261-288.
Karanja NK, Mutua GK, Ayuke FO, Njenga M, Prain G, Kimenju J. "Dynamics of soil nematodes and earthworms in urban vegetable irrigated with wastewater in the Nairobi River Basin, Kenya." Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2010;12:521-530. Abstract

The effects of heavy metals lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Cromium (Cr) on nematode communities and earthworm density and biomass were studied in the wastewater irrigated farms of the Nairobi river basin. The levels of Cr and Pb in the wastewater were below the threshold values considered to be toxic while those of Cd exceeded the permissible limit. Heavy metal accumulation in soils in the Kibera and Maili Saba farms were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and 98.7 mg Cd kg-1, 4.0 mg Cr kg-1 and 74.3 mg Pb kg-1, respectively. High heavy metal concentrations as well as soil organic matter were negatively correlated with plant feeding nematodes in the genera Criconema, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus and Scutellonema. Bacterial feeding nematodes genera Rhabditis, Plectus, Cephalobus and Acrobeles were predominant in the gardens treated with wastewater. An average density of 198 m-2 earthworms and a biomass of 68 g m-2 and 102 earthworms m-2 with 33g m-2 biomass were recorded in Kibera and Maili Saba, respectively. The earthworms isolated from both sites were all epigeic with the metal content in Maili Saba suppressing their populations. This study has demonstrated that the use of untreated urban wastewater for irrigation has adverse effects on nematode and earthworm abundance and diversity and their potential as bioindicators of heavy metal presence.
Key words: Heavy metal accumulation; soil fauna; diversity

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Dynamics of Suspended Sediment Exchange and Transport in a Degraded Mangrove Creek in Kenya.". In: Ambio, Vol. 31, No. 7-8, pp. 580-587, 2002. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Kitheka J U, R. G. Angwenyi and K.M. Mavuti.  . .
Makanya AN, Dimova I, Koller T, Styp-Rekowska B, Djonov V. "Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(4):e0152821. Abstract

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration.

Ogallo LA. "Dynamics of the East African Climate ." Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.(Earth planet. sci.). 1993;102(1):203-217.
Wairimu J, Ogana W. "The Dynamics of Vector-Host Feeding Contact Rate with Saturation. (http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/am.2013.410187.)." A Case of Malaria in Western Kenya, Applied Mathematics,. 2013;4:pp. 1381-1391.
Wairimu J, Wandera O. "The Dynamics of Vector-Host Feeding Contact Rate with Saturation: A Case of Malaria in Western Kenya." Scientific Research Publishing. 2013;4(10):1381-1391 . AbstractWebsite

In this study, we develop an expression for a saturated mosquito feeding rate in an SIS malaria model to determine its effect on infection and transmission dynamics of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya. The basic reproduction number is established as a sharp threshold that determines whether the disease dies out or persists in the population. Precisely, if , the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out and if , there exists a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally stable and the disease persists. The contribution of the saturated contact rate to the basic reproduction number and the level of the endemic equilibrium are also analyzed.

Prentice HA, Price MA, Porter TR, Cormier E, Mugavero MJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Dynamics of viremia in primary HIV-1 infection in Africans: insights from analyses of host and viral correlates." Virology. 2014;449:254-62. Abstract

In HIV-1 infection, plasma viral load (VL) has dual implications for pathogenesis and public health. Based on well-known patterns of HIV-1 evolution and immune escape, we hypothesized that VL is an evolving quantitative trait that depends heavily on duration of infection (DOI), demographic features, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and viral characteristics. Prospective data from 421 African seroconverters with at least four eligible visits did show relatively steady VL beyond 3 months of untreated infection, but host and viral factors independently associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal VL often varied by analytical approaches and sliding time windows. Specifically, the effects of age, HLA-B(⁎)53 and infecting HIV-1 subtypes (A1, C and others) on VL were either sporadic or highly sensitive to time windows. These observations were strengthened by the addition of 111 seroconverters with 2-3 eligible VL results, suggesting that DOI should be a critical parameter in epidemiological and clinical studies.

FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
A. FF, Kayima J, Otieno CF, WERE A, Ngare S. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):14-17.
Buregeya A, Buregeya A. "Dyslexia and dysgraphia in the reading and writing of English words by upper-primary pupils from select schools in Sabatia Sub-county in Kenya." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2017;6(Oct 2017):Oct 2017.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Dyslipedemia in HIV Infected patients at CCC Kenyatta N Hospital. Manuthu EM, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Karari E.". In: Cardiovascular J of South Africa. 2007;2:112. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Dzierszinski, F., Kibe, M., Mortuaire, M., Dendouga, N., Popescu, O. and Tomavo, S. (2001). Differential expression of two plant-like enolases with distinct enzymatic and antigenic properties during stage conversion of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma go.". In: Proceedings of 4th International congress on Toxoplasmosis p 37. University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two distinct enolase isoenzymes known as ENO1 and ENO2, respectively. To understand differential gene expression during tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion, we have characterized the two T.gondii enolase promoters. No homology could be found between these sequences and no TATA or CCAAT boxes were evident. The differential activation of the ENO1 and ENO2 promoters during tachyzoite to bradyzoite differentiation was investigated by deletion analysis of 5'-flanking regions fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter followed by transient transfection. Our data indicate that in proliferating tachyzoites, the repression of ENO1 involves a negative distal regulatory region (nucleotides -1245 to -625) in the promoter whereas a proximal regulatory region in the ENO2 promoter directs expression at a low level. In contrast, the promoter activity of ENO1 is highly induced following the conversion of tachyzoites into resting bradyzoites. The ENO2 promoter analysis in bradyzoites showed that there are two upstream repression sites (nucleotides -1929 to -1067 and -456 to -222). Furthermore, electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of DNA-binding proteins in tachyzoite and bradyzoite nuclear lysates that bound to stress response elements (STRE), heat shock-like elements (HSE) and other cis-regulatory elements in the upstream regulatory regions of ENO1 and ENO2. Mutation of the consensus AGGGG sequence, completely abolished protein binding to an oligonucleotide containing this element. This study defines the first characterization of cis-regulatory elements and putative transcription factors involved in gene regulation of the important pathogen T.gondii.

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