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2018
Angima C. "Do size and age affect performance of general insurance firms in East Africa?" International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(7):8-18.
Templer N, Probst L, Onwonga R, Kamusingize D, Ogwali H, Hauser M, Owamani A, Mulumba LN. "Does certified organic agriculture increase agroecosystem health? Evidence from four farming systems in Uganda." 2018 Impact Factor 2.243 International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2018;16(2):150-166 .
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "DOES KISSING UP TO THE BOSS PAY?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):1-10. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of ingratiation on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis thatingratiation influences career mobility (R2=.944, F=2011.237, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.971 which also confirms that there is a strong relationship between ingratiation and career mobility. The study recommends that objective means of performance appraisals be established and followed by superiors to ensure fair and credible ways of career mobility to its employees. The paper suggests if the same study can be replicated in other organizations using a longitudinal research design.

Omondi F, Tasiran AC, Ever E, Doddapaneni K, Shah P, Mostarda L, Gemikonakli O. "Does the assumption of exponential arrival distributions in wireless sensor networks hold?" mdx.ac.uk. 2018;26(2):81-100. Abstractauthor_version_inderscience.pdf

Wireless Sensor Networks have seen a tremendous growth in various application areas despite prominent performance and availability challenges. One of the
common configurations to prolong the lifetime and deal with the path loss phenomena
is having a multi-hop set-up with clusters and cluster heads to relay the information.
Although researchers continue to address these challenges, the type of distributions
for arrivals at the cluster head and intermediary routing nodes is still an interesting
area of investigation. The general practice in published works is to compare an empirical exponential arrival distribution of wireless sensor networks with a theoretical
exponential distribution in a Q-Q plot diagram. In this paper, we show that such comparisons based on simple eye checks are not sufficient since, in many cases, incorrect
conclusions may be drawn from such plots. After estimating the Maximum Likelihood parameters of empirical distributions, we generate theoretical distributions
based on the estimated parameters. By conducting Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistics for each generated inter-arrival time distributions, we find out, if it is possible to
represent the traffic into the cluster head by using theoretical distribution. Empirical
exponential arrival distribution assumption of wireless sensor networks holds only
for a few cases. There are both theoretically known such as Gamma, Log-normal
and Mixed Log-Normal of arrival distributions and theoretically unknown such as
non-Exponential and Mixed cases of arrival in wireless sensor networks. The work is
further extended to understand the effect of delay on inter-arrival time distributions
based on the type of medium access control used in wireless sensor networks

Olago D, Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M. "Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000years ago to present." Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:322-378. AbstractFull Text

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

KIMANI M, Mwangi W, Syagga P, Museleku E. "Drivers of Agricultural Land Subdivision in Dryland of Kenya: A Case of Kajiado County, Kenya." International journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(6).
"Drivers of Agricultural Land Subdivision in Drylands of Kenya: A Case of Kajiado County." The International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(6):195-212.
"Drought Frequencies, Persistence, and Impact in the Upper Tana Catchment in Kenya." Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2018;18(3):1-22.
Nyandega IA, Krhoda G. "Drought Frequency and Persistence in the Upper River Tana basin in Kenya." Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2018;18(3):1-22.
Mewa E. A, Okoth M. W KRCNMN. "Drying Modelling, Moisture Diffusivity and Sensory quality of Thin Layer dried Beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
E.A MEWA, M.W O, N. KC, N. RUGIRIM. "Drying modelling, moisture diffusivity and sensory quality of thin layer dried beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The dynamics of culture on environmental sustainability: A case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies. 2018;12(3)(ISSN 2329-1559):1-15.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, V. G. "The Dynamics of Culture on Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;12(3):1-15.
FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
A. FF, Kayima J, Otieno CF, WERE A, Ngare S. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):14-17.
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, GATARI MJ, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." … monitoring and assessment. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study assessed the level of heavy metal in roadside dust and PM 2.5 mass concentrations along Thika superhighway in Kenya. Thika superhighway is one of the busiest roads in Kenya, linking Thika town with Nairobi. Triplicate road dust samples …

Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food chemistry. 2018;245:112-118. Abstract
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Omollo EO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi MY, Mnene WN. "Determinants of pastoral and agro-pastoral households." Pastoralism. 2018;8:9. Abstract
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Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Developing Kenya." International Journal of Nuclear Security. 2018;4:2. Abstract
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Rice T, Stuart-Shor E. "Development and Implementation of an Evidence Based Protocol Using Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency to Improve the Appearance of Acne Scars.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 67. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS TWO COMMERCE SQ, 2001 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA …; 2018:. Abstract
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Peng B, Yue C, Zhang H, Fang Z, Weng H. "Dirac semimetals in Sodium Ternary Compounds from Material Design on Na3Bi." arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.01434. 2018. Abstract
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2017
Ogot M, Hey VJ, Gatari M, Nyangaya J, Panchal R. "Development of an Air Quality Monitoring Programme for Nairobi and Exploration of Avenues for PM2.5 Levels Reduction.". In: 2nd Kenya Air Quality Annual Conference.; 2017.
Mulei IR, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kenya.". In: DAFINET workshop. In collaboration with BangFish and ParaFish Control. Stigbojlen 7, University of Copenhagen,1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark, ; 2017.
Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Mwaguni S, Ayiemba E, Onyari J. "DANCING TO THE TUNE OF OPPORTUNITIES –HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALIGNED TO SHARE THE JACKPOT OF KENYA’S COASTAL TOURISM BENEFITS SPOIL THE BROTH.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
"Kanyinga K". "Demystifying politics of land tenure: Okoth-Ogendo and the concept of land in Africa.". In: The Gallant Academic: Essays in Honour of H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
S Q, A L, J G, K K, W W, EA D. "Design and Implementation of the Retinoblastoma Collaborative Laboratory." Ocular Oncology and Pathology. 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and processes VOL 1. Nairobi: ISBN 978-620-2-00534-0 Frajopa Printers and Publishers Mall, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 3. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2017.
Maina. Design Materials and Processes VOL 3. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2017.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

KARURI J, Waiganjo P, Daniel ORWA. "Determinants of Acceptance and Use of DHIS2 in Kenya: UTAUT-Based Model." Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries. 2017;11(1). Abstractfull text link

Background: In 2010, Kenya initiated the process of adoption and implementation of a web-based system (DHIS2) as the national HIS to facilitate management of routine health information for evidence-based decision making. To reap maximum benefit from this implementation, DHIS2 needed to gain acceptance from all categories of targeted users. This study, conducted between June and August 2014, sought to develop a new technology acceptance model that can better explain the key determinants of acceptance and use of DHIS2 in Kenya.
Methods: The model was adapted from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). An exploratory study was conducted primarily through the use of quantitative methods, but qualitative Key Informant Interview (KII) data was also collected in a pre-study to provide the background and contextual information used in refining the model. In the main phase of the study, a questionnaire was administered to health workers through cross-sectional survey both at national and regional levels.
Results: The total number of valid questionnaires returned was 269 against the 300 that were issued. This number represents slightly more than 20% of the approximately 1,100 health workers who have been trained on DHIS2 in Kenya, and these were drawn from at least 10 of Kenya’s 47 counties. Analysis of the survey data was done in two parts: descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS statistical analysis tool for the purpose of obtaining frequencies, means, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. Subsequently Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and specifically Partial Least Square path modeling (PLS), was used to analyze the conceptual model and test the proposed hypotheses.
Conclusion: The resulting model revealed that social influence was the most pertinent predictor of behavioral intention in the study setting, while facilitating condition and computer anxiety play a significant role in predicting actual use of DHIS2. Findings from this case study can be extended to explain acceptance and use of health IT in other similar settings. Future research can test more variables and moderators to increase the overall predictive levels of the model.

Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Demand for Healthcare Services in Private Hospitals in Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Marketing Management and Economics . 2017;4(3):9-30.
Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

Miruri R, Wanjohi J. "Determinants of performance of irrigation projects: Case of Nthawa irrigation project of Mbeere North Sub-county, Embu County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):447-463. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Water Irrigation has become one of the
vital income generating activities on land
,in that it enhances food security ,creates
employment opportunities ,improves
nutritional status of a nation and brings
about good health in a particular society.
The purpose of this study was to establish
the determinants of performance of
irrigation projects a case of Nthawa
irrigation project of Mbeere North Subcounty of Embu county Kenya. The study
sought to determine the effect of
management of the project, community
participation, resources adequacy,
technology and availability of sizable land
for irrigation on performance of irrigation
projects in Mbeere North Sub-county,Embu
county Kenya. The target population for
this study comprised the 500 registered
members in Nthawa Irrigation Project of
Mbeere North Sub- County, Embu County.
In addition, 19 key informants comprising
9 executive management committee
members from the project and 10 Ministry
of Water and Irrigation officials made up of
2 technical officers from the District
Irrigation Office and 8 Water Resource
Management Authority (WRMA) regional
officials. For this study, the sample size
was 130 respondents. On the Executive
committee members and officials, the
researcher did not sample since the target
population was small, hence the study
employed a census method that is by
capturing the entire population of
Executive Committee Members and
Ministry of Water and Irrigation Officials.
The primary data was collected using selfadministered questionnaires made up of
both open ended and closed ended
questions. The data collected was analyzed
using Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS Version 21.0). All the
questionnaires received were referenced
and items in the questionnaire were coded
to facilitate data entry. After data cleaning,
the data was presented inform of tables
showing frequencies, percentages, mean
score and standard deviation. From the
results, it was observed that management of
the projects , resource adequacy, and
technology used, community participation
and availability of sizable land for
irrigation all positively and greatly affect
the performance of public irrigation
projects in Kenya. It is thus recommended
that full participation of members in
irrigation project development should been
encouraged to enhance capacity to perceive
their own needs and members’ managed
irrigation projects should encourage a
maximum number of people to participate
at various stages of project development.

Muthini D, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ. "Determinants of Small-Scale Mango Farmers’ Market Channel Choices in Kenya: An Application of the Two-Step Cragg’s Estimation Procedure." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 2017;9(5):111-120. AbstractWebsite

The study estimates small-scale mango farmers’ choice of market channels using the Cragg’s two-step procedure where the farmer decides on the channel in the first step and the proportion sold to the selected channel in the second step. Cross section data was collected from a sample of 224 mango farmers selected through multistage sampling just after the mango season. The study was carried out in Makueni County in Eastern Kenya. The county is leading in production of mangoes in Kenya, having produced over 146,000 tonnes valued at over 18 million US dollars, in 2015. The data was analyzed using Cragg’s two step regression model. The first step assessed factors that determine choice of a particular channel, while the second step assessed factors that influence the proportion of produce sold to the channel. Results show that socio-economic factors significant in the first stage are not necessarily significant in the second stage. In some cases, the direction of effect reverses. Factors such as distance to tarmac road, number of mango trees in the farm, membership in producer marketing groups, training in mango agronomy, and access to extension services affect choice of export market channel. Only membership to mango marketing groups significantly influences proportion sold. Household income, distance to tarmac, number of trees, market information, and gender significantly affect choice of the direct market channel. The direct market channel earns farmers the largest margins, followed by the export channel. However, majority of farmers sell to brokers followed by export channel. It was found that despite being aware that they could fetch higher prices through direct selling, they lacked financial capacity, transport resources, and information on market locations and requirements. Policies need to enhance financial capacity of farmers, as well as expand efforts to disseminate timely and accurate market information.

Key words: Small-scale farmers, mango market channels, Kenya. Collapse

Muatha IT, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(10)(ISSN – 1991-637x):3549-3555.
Tesesia MI, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR) . 2017;12(51):3549-3555.
Opanga SA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Kuria K. "Determinants of the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis among neurotrauma patients at a referral hospital in Kenya: Findings and implications." Journal of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine. 2017:1-7.
Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Utilization of Health Care Services in Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(10).
and Joseph G. Kabiru PMEMN. "Determinants of workers’ welfare in cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2313-3759):1-17.
Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
)
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines
In

Rose LJ, Okoth S, Beukes I, Ouko A, Mouton M, Bradley CF, Makumbi D, Viljoen A. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica . 2017:213-93.
English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Kimani J, Osanjo GO, Sang R, Ochieng J, Mulaa F. "Development of Dromedary Antibody-based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Chikungunya virus Infections." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(2).
Wambua L, Bernd Schneider, Allan Okwaro, Joseph Odhiambo Wanga, Olive Imali, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Lavender Agutu, Cassandra Olds, Chris Stephen Jones. "Development of field-applicable tests for rapid and sensitive detection of Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae." Molecular and cellular probes. 2017;35:44-56.
Makanya AN. "Development of the Airways and the Vasculature in the Lungs of Birds.". In: The Biology of the Avian Respiratory System.; 2017.
Awad O, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA ON JUNCTIONAL AND LABYRINTHINE ZONES OF PLACENTA IN SPRAGUE DAWELY RAT." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(1):840-846. Abstractdifferential_effects_of_chronic_iron_deficiency.pdfWebsite

Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. Studies reveal its generalized effects on
histomorphometry of the placenta, without details on specific zones nor effect of gestational age. These data are
important for planning intervention. This study was, therefore, designed to describe the histomorphometric changes
associated with iron deficiency anaemia on placenta of albino rat. Fourty nine (49) Sprague – Dawely albino rats
were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was rendered anaemic by
removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days. Placentas were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and
21. Five cubic milimetre segments were fixed in 10 % buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and
embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut, deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and
Eosin. Micrographs were taken using Leica ICC 50 digital photomicrographic camera attached to a computer at
magnification x40 and the thickness of the labyrinth and junctional zones measured. Student t- test was used to
compare values for the experimental and control groups. The labyrinth in the chronic anaemia group was thinner
than in the control group at gestational days 17, 19 and 21. The junctional zone, on the other hand, was consistently
thicker in anaemic than in the control animals. The difference in thickness of junctional zone varied with gestational
age. At gestational day 17, the zone was significantly thicker in the anaemic group (628.9 μ) than in the control
(381 μ). On day 19 and 21, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the effects of
chronic iron deficiency anaemia on the labyrinth differ from those on the junctional zone of the placenta. This
differential effect appears to depend on the function and gestational age. The decrease in thickness of the labyrinth
may be designed to maintain placental diffusion capacity while increased thickness of the junctional zone constitutes
a compensatory physical and nutritional adaptation to hypoxia.

King-Okumu C, Wasonga OV, Jarso I, Salah YMS. "Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

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Okumu PO, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK. Diseases of domestic rabbits and associated risk factors in Kenya. Germany : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing ; 2017.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Disorders of the Claw and Their Association with Laminitis in Smallholder Zero Grazed Dairy Cows." International journal of veterinary science. 2017;6(2).
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):64-69.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PM, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Kipngetich B, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mukabi M. "Dissipation studies of Amitraz in cattle dips in Bureti, Kericho county- Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(5):248-253.
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry . 2017;144(2017):1-8.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BB. "Diversity, distribution and abundance of potential rift valley fever vectors in Baringo County, Kenya." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;4(4):42-48.ondiba_etal_2018.pdf
ODHIAMBO G O, J W, OLUOCH M F, J. OOKO. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4(3):213-228.
Odhiambo, G. WOOJJ & M. "Dividend Announcements and Market Value of Shares in the Agricultural Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. ." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017.
Mulanda ES, Awori RM, Chuhila Y, Adero MO, Amugune NO, Akunda E, Kinyamario JI. "A DNA-barcode for Melia volkensii Grke (Meliaceae) and its phylogenetic relationship with some economically important relatives." African Journal of Plant Science. 2017;10(3):58-67.
Kariuki Samwel Muiruri, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu E, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Dominant Allele Phylogeny and Constitutive Subgenome Haplotype Inference in Bananas Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear Markers." Genome biology and evolution. 2017;9(10):2510-2521.
Madadi VO, Ngotho MW, Masese FA. "Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(6):5-11.
Dr. Juliet Gathoni Muiga PRWR. "Drivers of Gated Community Developments in Urban Areas (Case Study: Nairobi, Kenya)." International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development -IJAUD. 2017;Volume 7(Issue 4):Pages 5-18.
Kaluku LNEN&. "Drugs and substance abuse in Kenyan secondary schools. Is it a reality?" IJRDO-Journal of Educational Research. 2017;2(3):182-190.
Adoyo Laji, Fatuma Daudi JACM(2017). "The Dual Pathways In The Process of Urban development and Their Influence on Flood Damage In Kisumu City, Kenya. ." Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2017;7, (10)(ISSN 2250):PP 332-340.
Akach JA, Michael K, Soderenko S, Mijthab M, Nicole F. DWSI Kenya Workshop Report.; 2017.
Egeru A, Wasonga O, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo GJ, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Dynamics of land use and land cover change in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2017. Abstract

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Buregeya A, Buregeya A. "Dyslexia and dysgraphia in the reading and writing of English words by upper-primary pupils from select schools in Sabatia Sub-county in Kenya." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2017;6(Oct 2017):Oct 2017.
Pere K, Mbatia B, Muge EK, Wekesa VW. "Dagaa (Rastrinoebola argentea) protein hydrolysate as a nitrogen source in microbial culture media." Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology. 2017;5:008-012. Abstract
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Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Alhusseini TI, Bedford FE, Bennett DJ, others. "The database of the Predicts (Projecting responses of ecological diversity in changing terrestrial systems) project." Ecology and Evolution. 2017;7:145-188. Abstract
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Qaiser S, Limo A, Gichana J, Kimani K, Githanga J, Waweru W, Dimba EAO, Dimaras H. "Design and implementation of the retinoblastoma collaborative laboratory." Ocular Oncology and Pathology. 2017;3:73-82. Abstract
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Muiruri J, Ambuko J, Nyankanga R, Owino WO, others. "Determination of maturity indices of three mango varieties produced in Embu County of Kenya.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:64-69. Abstract
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Muchane MN, Muchai M, Mungai G, Wambugu W. "Diversity, Potential Utilization and Management of Cacti in Northern Kenya." International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management. 2017;2:104. Abstract
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Thompson JF, Reid MS, Felix L, Donis-Gonzalez I, Mjawa B, Ambuko J. "DryCardTM-A Low-Cost Dryness Indicator for Dried Products." AIMS Agriculture and Food. 2017;2:339-344. Abstract
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2016
Roman F, Hensel O, Mbuge D. "Development of Grain Drying Facilities That Use Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP) to Optimise Drying and Control Aflatoxin Contamination in Kenya.". In: “Solidarity in a competing world — fair use of resources”. Vienna, Austria; 2016.
Mutuli GP, Mbuge DO. "Drying characteristics and energy requirement of drying coupea leaves and jute mallow vegetables. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE).". In: Engineering and Technology Innovation for Global Food Security Conference. Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Devolution good for Kenya but it might brew violence in 2017." Daily Nation, March 13, 2016.
MJ Nyetanyane MM. "Development of UmobiTalk: ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator for Sesotho language." Central University of Technology, Free State. 2016;15(1):115-132. AbstractFull text link

The need to conserve the under-resourced languages is becoming more urgent as some of them are becoming extinct; natural language processing can be used to redress this. Currently, most initiatives around language processing technologies are focusing on western languages such as English and French, yet resources for such languages are already available. Sesotho language is one of the under-resourced Bantu languages; it is mostly spoken in Free State province of South Africa and in Lesotho. Like other parts of South Africa, Free State has experienced a high number of non-Sesotho speaking migrants from neighbouring provinces and countries. Such people are faced with serious language barrier problems especially in the informal settlements where everyone tends to speak only Sesotho. As a solution to this, we developed a parallel corpus that has English as a source and Sesotho as a target language and packaged it in UmobiTalk - Ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator. UmobiTalk is a mobile-based tool for learning Sesotho for English speakers. The development of this tool was based on the combination of automatic speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. This application will be used as an analysis tool for testing accuracy and speed of the corpus. We present the development, testing and evaluation of UmobiTalk in this paper. Keywords: UmobiTalk, Automatic speech recognition (ASR), Machine translation (MT), Text to speech (TTS) and Parallel corpora

Osanjo L, Ambole LA. "Design with Social Impact for Rural Communities in Africa.". In: Sustainable Energy for All by Design conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.osanjo__ambole_2016.pdf
Oboko RO, Maina EM, Waiganjo PW, Omwenga EI, Wario RD. "Designing adaptive learning support through machine learning techniques.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. IEEE; 2016. Abstract

The use of web 2.0 technologies in web based learning systems has made learning more learner-centered. In a learner centered environment, there is need to provide appropriate support to learners based on individual learner characteristics in order to maximize learning. This requires a Web-based learning system to have an adaptive interface to suit individual learner characteristics in order to accommodate diversity of learner needs and abilities and to maintain an appropriate context for interaction and for achieving personalized learning. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how machine learning techniques can provide adaptive learning support in a Web-based learning system. In this research, two machine learning algorithms namely: Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric (HVDM) and Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC) were used. HVDM was used to determine those learners who were similar to the current learner while NBC was used to estimate the likelihood that the learner would need to use additional materials for the current concept. To demonstrate the concept we used a course in object oriented programming (OOP).

Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya." South Africa; 2016.poster-columbia.pptx
Makanya AN, Dimova I, Koller T, Styp-Rekowska B, Djonov V. "Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(4):e0152821. Abstract

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration.

Mpho Mbele MM. "Development of adaptive environmental management system: A participatory approach through fuzzy cognitive maps.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Durban, South Africa ; 2016. Abstract

Mining industries develop environmental management systems/plans to mitigate the impact their operations has on the society. Even with these plans, there are still issues of pollution affecting the society. Though there are ICT-based pollution monitoring solutions, their use is dismal due to lack of appreciation or understanding of the disseminated information. This result in mining communities depending on their own local knowledge to observe, monitor and predict mining-related environmental pollution. However, this local knowledge has never been tested scientifically or analysed to recognize its usability or effectiveness. Mining companies tend to ignore this knowledge from the communities as it is treated like common information with no much scientific value. As a step towards verifying or validating this local knowledge, we demonstrate how fuzzy cognitive maps can be used to model, analyse and represent this linguistic local knowledge

Berkley JA, Ngar M, JT, Mutai B, KA. "Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial ." Lancet Glob Health . 2016;4:464-73. Abstractdaily_cotrimoxazole_prophylaxis_to_prevent__mortality.pdf

Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality
from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital
are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM

Guthua SW, MW KAMAU. "Debilitating Lymphangiomatous Macroglossia –a case report:." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2016;7 (3):425-429.
Ndiritu A, Nyaga G, Gikonyo N. "Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa.". In: Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa. Nairobi: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi and AISA, Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Mwangi W, Mbiyu K. "A Descriptive Study of the Class Struggle and its Role in Redistributive land reforms." Africa Habitat Review Journal . 2016;10.
Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Mukabana R, Takken W, Smith TA. "Design of trials for interrupting the transmission of endemic pathogens." Trials. 2016;17(1):278.
Nyamwaya D, Wang'ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Lindahl J, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:696.
Nyamwaya D, Wang’ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Johanna Lindahl, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.". 2016.
Maina SW, Osanjo GO, Ndwigah SN, Opanga SA. "Determinants of discontinuation of contraceptive methods among women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2016;5(1):28-34.
Maina W, Osanjo G, Ndwigah S, Opanga S. "Determinants of discontinuation of Contraceptive Methods among Women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(1).
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, Chege M. "Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016. Abstract

East African Medical Journal 2016

Open Access Subscription or Fee Access
Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, M Chege

Abstract

Objective: To establish the determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children brought to Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A cross-sectional hospital-based quantitative and qualitative study
Setting: Kenyatta National hospital which is the largest teaching and referral hospital in East and Central Africa situated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: The respondents were the parents/guardians of children less than two years of age attending immunisation services at KNH and those admitted in the peadiatric wards with pneumonia.
Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, CI 1.5-22.4, p=0.01), parity (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.7, p=0.017), occupation (OR 6.5, CI 1.5-27.6, p=0.011), family income (OR 8.8, CI 1.4-55.6, p=0.001), knowledge (OR 6.5, CI 1.1-15.2, p=0.011) and attitude (OR 6.3, CI 1.9-26.8, p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that factors of the caregivers/parents that are statistically significant to the uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine uptake are Income, parity, education leve, age and occupation. Also a friendly attitude from health personnel was shown to motivate parents/guardians’ adherence to vaccination schedules

P.E. O, W.M. A, D.W. N, K.O. O, H.O. R, J.R. W,.RC. L, Njagi S.M., Mumenya S.W. K’A. "Determination of Background Ionizing Radiations in Selected Buildings in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiaion Therapy . 2016;7(3).
Okova, Dulo, Patts. "Determining Break Down of Hydrocarbons in Effluent Discharges from Petroleum Service Stations." Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering . 2016;Vol. 1(No. 5):112-117 .
Ogweno, J.O., Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A. "Determining the influence of Principals’ use of participatory decision making on the status of students’ discipline in secondary schools I Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Research. 2016:841-861.12.pdf
Ogweno J, Kalai J, Okoth UA. "Determining the Influence of the Principals’ Use of Participatory Decision Making on the Status of Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). 2016;1(7):841-861.
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko RO, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner Centered Approach for Technology Supported Instruction. Accepted for publication In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. 2016.
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI, Oboko R, Wario R. "Developing Pedagogical Skills for Teachers: A Learner-Centered Approach ." Handbook of Research on Learner-Centered Pedagogy in Teacher Education and Professional Development. 2016:128. AbstractFull Link Text

A Learner-Centered Approach for
Technology Supported Instructions ABSTRACT Bonface Ngari Ireri Africa Nazarene
University, Kenya Elijah I. Omwenga University of Nairobi, Kenya Robert Oboko University of
Nairobi, Kenya Ruth Wario University of Free State, South Africa Since technology alone without
the instructor or teacher cannot deliver learning to learners, the presence of the teacher or instructor
is very important. For any meaningful teaching and learning to take place in a class, the teacher
must gain learner's attention. Teachers who use learner centered approaches have a strong
trust in students, they believe that students want to learn, have great faith in student ability and
offer students ownership of class activities. They are able to manage their classroom.

Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
E. I, P S. "Development of cultural heritage tourism in Kenya: A strategy for diversification of tourism products.". In: Conservation of natural and cultural heritage in Kenya. LONDON: University College London (UCL) Press; 2016.
John Habwe RTAS&. "The Development of Kiswahili Prose and the Evolution of the Kiswahili Novel." In Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies St. Thomas College Kozhencherry Kerala, India . 2016;5(2):21-43 .
Kanyinga. "Devolution and New Politics of Development in Kenya." African Studies Review. 2016;59(3):155-167.
Mugambi I, Williams F, Muthomi J, Chege F, Oronje ML. "Diagnostic support to plantwise plant doctors in Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2016;8(11):232-239.
Williams S, White A, Waiganjo P, Orwa D, Klopp J. "The digital matatu project: Using cell phones to create an open source data for Nairobi's semi-formal bus system." Journal of Transport Geography. 2016;49:39-51. AbstractFull text link

In many of the world's growing cities, semi-formal buses form the basis of public transit systems. However, little open and standardized data exist on these systems. The Digital Matatus project in Nairobi, Kenya set out to test whether the geo-locative capabilities of mobile technology could be used to collect data on a semi-formal transit system and whether that data could be translated into the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data standard for wider use. The results of this work show that mobile technologies, particularly mobile phones, which are increasingly prevalent in developing countries, can indeed be used effectively to collect and deliver data in a modified GTFS format for semi-formal transit. Perhaps more importantly, through our work in Nairobi, we were able to identify the benefits and technical needs for developing data on semi-formal transit. Overall, the work illustrates (1) how the GTFS can be adapted to semi-formal systems and used by other cities with such transit systems, (2) that there is demand from technologists as well as transport communities for comprehensive data on semi-formal transit, (3) that releasing the data openly in the GTFS standard format can help to encourage the development of transportation applications, and (4) that including the entire transit community during the data development can create a community of users and mechanisms for institutionalizing a process of data updating and sharing. The engagement strategies our research team developed around the data collection process in Nairobi became just as important as the resulting data it produced.

Makori EO, Osebe NM. "Digital Technology Acceptance in Transformation of University Libraries and Higher Education Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice (E-journal). 2016;(1379).
Wanjare, J. & Kirui G(2016). "Discerning Cash Conversion Cycle Management Practices by Sugar Cane Out-grower Companies in Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2320-5407. 2016;Vol 5.
KM N, GO O, KM B, CS I. "Disease activity measurement in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016:19-24.disease_activity_measurement.pdf
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
Pauline Aluka1*, Fabrice Davrieux2, Kahiu Ngugi3*, Rose Omaria4, Gerard2 F,, J.N Kiiru, and MD2, Pinard. "The Diversity of Green Bean Biochemical Compounds in Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) as Evaluated by." Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture ·. 2016;12(2):1-13.the_diversity_of_green_bean_biochemical.pdf
Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.
T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
Hurisso TT, Norton U, Norton JB, Odhiambo J, Grosso SDJ, Hergert GW, Lyon DJ. "Dryland soil greenhouse gases and yield-scaled emissions in no-till and organic winter wheat–fallow systems." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2016;80(1):178-192.
Luciani R, Laneve G, Mito C, Jahjah M. "Developing a satellite based automatic system for crop monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift valley a case study.". In: ESA SP 740, LPS16, Proceedings of the conference held 9–13 May 2016. L. Ouwehand. Vol. 740.; 2016:. Abstract
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Gakungai DK. "Development of education in Kenya:Influence of the political factor beyond 2015 MDGs." Journal of education and Practice. 2016;7:55-60. Abstract
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Alphayo L, Wasonga OV, Odadi WO, Ngugi RK. "Differences of Soil Properties between Planned and Unplanned Grazing Sites in Semi-Arid Pastoral Rangelands of Northern Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211. 2016;5. Abstract
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2015
Iraki XN. "Does setting minimum, maximum land acreage make economic sense." The Standard, June 30, 2022.
Iraki XN. "Despite great wealth, the rich also cry." The Standard, January 13, 2015.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Durability characteristics of concrete containing sugarcane waste fibre ash.". In: Knowledge Exchange for Young Scientists (KEYS), symposium. Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 2015.
Onjala J. "Deepening China - Africa Cooperation: Implementation Mechanisms and Financing Options for three Networks and Industrialization in Kenya.". In: China-Africa Cooperation on Three Networks of Africa’s Infrastructure and Industrialization - AERC. Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi; 2015.
Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Kanyinga K. "Days when education was a status symbol long gone." Daily Nation, September 27, 2015.
Marangu D, Devine B, John-Stewart G. "Diagnostic accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests in urine for pulmonary tuberculosis: a meta-analysis." Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.. 2015;19(11):1339-47. Abstract

To determine the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis (TB) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in urine samples for individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015;47(1):247-9. Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

"Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in formalin-fixed tissues." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2015;47(1):247-9. Abstract

Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. Whereas most of the confirmatory diagnostic procedures require pathological samples to be stored frozen to preserve integrity of the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus RNA, samples for IHC tests are preserved in 10% formalin. In this study, nine formalin-fixed pathological samples from three goats suspected of PPR were processed for extraction of PPR viral RNA and analyzed for detection with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. The results showed that five out of the nine tested samples returned positive for presences PPR viral genome. This study has established that field pathological samples of PPR-suspected cases, collected and stored in 10% formalin for up 2 years, could be used for PPR virus RNA extraction for disease virus confirmation.

Ondiba I, Oyieke F, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Estambale BB. "Diversity and distribution of mosquitoes transmitting malaria and rift valley fever in Baringo County, Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovation week. UON, Nairobi; 2015.poster-moraa2_revised_gg.pdf
Kanyinga K. "Devolution dividend depends on how you chose your governor." Daily Nation, February 14, 2015.
C O’, G WR, M. V, M. K, S. N, N. H, S. G. "Dairy cattle Management, Health and Welfare in Smallholder farms: An organic Farming Perspective." Journal of Organic 2(1). 2015;2(1):3-20.
Waweru B, Ndeti N. "Decision Making in Community Driven Development: Whose Opinions Count in What?" International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 1):246-254.
Aluvaala J, Okello D, Murithi G, Wafula L, Wanjala L, Isika N, Wasunna A, Were F, Nyamai R, English M. "Delivery outcomes and patterns of morbidity and mortality for neonatal admissions in five Kenyan hospitals." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2015;(61):255-259. Abstractdelivery_outcomes_and_patterns_of_morbidity_and_mortality_for_neonatal_admissions_in_five_kenyan_hospitals.pdf

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in neonatal and maternity units of five Kenyan district public hospitals. Data for 1 year were obtained: 3999 maternal and 1836 neonatal records plus tallies of maternal deaths, deliveries and stillbirths. There were 40 maternal deaths [maternal mortality ratio: 276 per 100 000 live births, 95% confidence interval (CI): 197–376]. Fresh stillbirths ranged from 11 to 43 per 1000 births. A fifth (19%, 263 of 1384, 95% CI: 11–30%) of the admitted neonates died. Compared with normal birth weight, odds of death were significantly higher in all of the low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) categories, with the highest odds for the extremely LBW (<1000 g) category (odds ratio: 59, 95% CI: 21–158, p<0.01). The observed maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality call for implementation of the continuum of care approach to intervention delivery with particular emphasis on LBW babies.

Margaret Maimbolwa, Omoni G, Enid Mwebaza, Angela Chimwaza, Rose Laisser, Christina Mudokwenyu-Rawdon, Carol Bedwell, Rebecc. "A Delphi survey to determine midwifery research priorities among midwives in sub-Saharan Africa." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2015;9(1):6-11. AbstractWebsite

Objective:

In sub-Saharan Africa, midwifery input into the generation of important research questions is limited. The authors aimed to address this issue by enabling midwives to set their own research priorities with the intention of developing a research strategy to conduct studies relevant to clinical practice.
Methods:

A survey was carried out in six countries (Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). The Delphi method was used with six panels of midwives (n=118) to attain a convergence of opinion on midwifery research priorities. Consensus-building was achieved by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data. Data were analysed using ranked means and proportions.
Findings:

Consensus was reached on 11 research questions which were considered regional priorities. These covered three key areas: midwifery training, clinical care and organisational issues. Conclusions: Midwives prioritised areas of research that had direct applicability to their own practice. All questions were at the applied end of the research spectrum. Priorities tended to cover broad areas within reproductive health, as opposed to being disease-focused. This is likely to reflect the desire to provide quality care that embraces the social aspects of health. Some of these research priorities are being taken forward by midwives in the group.
Keywords: Delphi method, Midwives, Research, sub-Sahara

joshua Kivuva. "Democratization in Kenya: Peoples' dissatisfaction with the benefit-less transition." Afrobarometer Briefing Paper. 2015;(152).
J A, K O,.N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

.N O, J A. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstractomoro.pdf

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

K O, J A, N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

Davies S, Mbuthia M. "Design and Optimization of A Mobile Device PCB-PIFL Multiband Antenna for GSM Applications." International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2015;4(10):9522-9528.
Amimo JO, Junga JO, W. O. Ogara, Vlasova AN, Njahira MN, Maina S, Okoth EA, Bishop RP, Saif LJ, Djikeng A. "Detection and genetic characterization of porcine group A rotaviruses in asymptomatic pigs in smallholder farms in East Africa: Predominance of P[8] genotype resembling human strains." Veterinary Microbiology. 2015;175(2-4):195-210.
DUNDON WG, Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, John NM, Oyugi JO, Loitsch A, Diallo A. "Detection and Genome Analysis of a Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus in Kenya in 2011." Transboundary and Emerging diseases. 2015;DOI:10.1111/tbed.12374:1-7.onlinelibrarytps.pdf
Katabalo DM, Nyamu DG, Amugune BK, Karimi PN, Okalebo FA, Bosire KO, Muriuki G. "Determinants of Adherence to Anticonvulsant Therapy among Outpatient Epileptic Children in a Kenyan Referral Hospital ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2015;4(2):40-47.
M.Mwangi, J.Wanjugu. "The Determinants of Financial Performance in General Insurance Companies in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(1):288-297. Abstract

The contribution of the general insurance industry in Kenya to thegross domestic product is at 2.08%. This is low and hence the need toestablish factors that can influence improved performance of some of the keyplayers – the general insurance companies. The study was therefore toestablish the factors that affect the profitability of general insurers in Kenya.The study employed multiple linear regression, with return on assets as thedependent variable, and considered all the general insurance companies inKenya for the period 2009-2012. Profitabilitywas positively related toleverage, equity capital, management competence index and negativelyrelated to sizeand ownership structure. The study did not find a relationshipbetween performance and retention ratio, liquidity, underwriting risk andage. The study recommends that for general insurers in Kenya to performbetter they should increase leverage, equity capital and quality of staff.

Opiyo F, Wasonga OV, Nyangito MM, Mureithi SM, Obando J, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015;8(2):179-189.
Opiyo F, Oliver V. Wasonga, Nyangito MM, Stephen M. Mureithi, Obando J, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015;8(2):179-189.
Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Determinants of Secondary school learners’ performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan sub county, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;7(5):125-130.
Obiero JPO, Hassan. MA. Determining the effect of land use change on streamflow using soil water assessment tool (SWAT) Model. Pula/Sardinia/Italy: CRS4 Research Centre, Italy; 2015.
Andago A, Imungi J, Mwangi A, Lamuka P, Ruth Nduati. "Developemnt of a bovine blood enriched porridge flour for alleviation of anaemia among young children in Kenya." Food Science and Quality Management. 2015;39:73-83.
P A, J K, A K, J N. "Development of Policies Standards and Guidelines for the Reduction of Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Kenya." International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics . 2015;131( suppl 5).
D S, N J, P W, M D’lima, chindia ML, E D, A N. "Diagnostic challenges of oral and cutaneous Kaposi’s sarcoma in resource-limited settings." Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2015.
Kiama TN, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Ochungo P, Waithanji EM, Lindahl J, EK K'ethe, D. G. "Dietary exposure to mycotoxins within the Kenya dairy value chain and the role of gender.".; 2015.
B R, M C, G.O.Oyoo. "Different techniques to assess microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):46-49. Abstractrheumatology_full_flow1.pdf

Blood perfusion
Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a connective
tissue disease with multifactorial
aetiology and autoimmune pathogenesis.
SSc is characterized by structural and
functional alterations of microcirculation,
with important clinical implications, such
as Raynaud Phenomenon (RP) and digital
ulcers1,2. For these reason, morphological
and functional assessment of the peripheral
microvasculature is a must for diagnosis,
prognosis and therapy in SSc patients 2.
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) is
the best safe and non-invasive method
to detect morphological microvascular
abnormalities. NVC allows to distinguish
secondary RP from both primary RP and
healthy subjects, identify morphological
patterns that are specific to various SSc
stages (‘Early’, ‘Active’ and ‘Late’ patterns
of microvascular damage) and calculate
the Microangiopathy Evolution Score
(MES) to follow disease evolution3,4.
The video-capillaroscope makes
use of a magnification system (from 50x
up to 500x magnification), and it has an
optical/digital probe which can be moved
over the surface of the finger nails from
the 2nd to the 5th finger of both hands2.
The normal NVC image is characterized
by normal skin transparency, morphology
of the capillary to “U” or “hairpin shape”,
morphological/structural homogeneity,
10-12 capillaries / linear millimetre, one
capillary inside dermal papilla, diameters
of capillary branches <20 μm, and lack of
morphological atypia2. Nailfold capillaries
are frequently normal in primary RP,
but it is possible to observe capillaries
with efferent branch enlargement or
tortuous capillaries. Therefore in normal
conditions, or in the presence of primary
RP, the NVC examination is characterized
by a regular array of capillary loops
along the nailfold bed, without abnormal
Different techniques to assess microvascular damage in
systemic sclerosis
Ruaro B1, Sulli A1, Smith V2, Paolino S1, Pizzorni C1, Cutolo M1
enlargements nor capillary loss2.
Conversely, secondary RP is characterized
by the morphological signs that represent
the microvascular damage: these include
giant capillaries, microhaemorrhages,
capillary loss, presence of avascular
areas and angiogenesis. These sequential
capillaroscopic changes are typical of the
microvascular involvement observed in
more than 95% of SSc patients and are
described by the term “SSc pattern”2,3.
NVC technique identifies
morphological patterns specific to
various stages of SSc (‘Early’, ‘Active’
and ‘Late’ patterns)3,4. The ‘Early’
SSc pattern is characterized by few
enlarged/giant capillaries, few capillary
microhaemorrhages, no evident capillary
loss and a relatively well preserved
capillary distribution. The ‘Active’ SSc
pattern, a marker of disease progression, is
characterized by frequent giant capillaries
(more than 66%), frequent capillary
microhaemorrhages, moderate (up to 33%)
capillary loss, absent or mild ramified
capillaries and a mild disorganization of
the capillary architecture. In the ‘Late’
SSc pattern there is irregular enlargement
of the capillaries, severe (>66%) capillary
loss with evident avascular areas,
ramified or bushy capillaries and a severe
disorganization of the normal capillary
array, although giant capillaries and
microhaemorrhages are almost absent3,4
(Figure 1). NVC is also used to make a
quantitative assessment (i.e. quantify
certain characteristics and make semiquantitative
scoring) of the microvascular
damage. The usual capillaroscopic
parameters (diagnostic parameters,
such as irregularly enlarged capillaries,
giant capillaries, microhaemorrhages;
and progression parameters, such as
reduced capillary number, capillary
ramifications and capillary architectural
disorganization) are evaluated by a semiquantitative
scale. Score 0-3 has been
adopted for all these parameters3

 Gachene, C.K.K., Kathumo VM, Okello JJ, Ngigi M, Miruka M. "The Disappearing Forest: A case study of trends in land use and land cover change of the threatened Lower Tana River Forest Complex, Coastal Kenya.". In: Sustainable Land Management in Dry Lands of Kenya. Nairobi: UNDP, ISBN No. 978-9966-1805-51. Chapter 1, pp. 1-12.; 2015. Abstract

n/a

Henry M. "Disaster management activities within Livestock sector." KVA national conference, Safari Park; 2015.
Njoroge(4) KD, Rading GO, Kihiu JM, Witcomb MJ, Cornish LA. "The Dislocation Core Misfit Potential." Comput. Mater. Sci. 100. 2015:195-202.
Osoti A, Gwako GN, Liyayi B, Qureshi ZP. "Distinguishing Intrauterine Fetal Demise versus Abdominal Pregnancy in Low Resource Settings." East African Medical Journal. 2015;92(1). Abstractdistinguishing_intrauterine_fetal_demise_versus_abdominal_pregnancy_in_low_resource_settings.pdf

Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus abdominal pregnancies. We present a case of a 36 year old para 4+0 gravida 5 who presented with fetal demise at 16 weeks of gestation. Multiple abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds showed intra uterine fetal demise for which she underwent induction. The definitive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was established using transcervical Foleys catheter aided abdominal-pelvic ultrasound which showed an empty uterus and a gestational sac, placenta and a 16-week fetus with no cardiac activity in the right adnexa/iliac region.

Osoti A, Gwako GN, Liyayi B, Qureshi ZP. "Distinguishing Intrauterine Fetal Demise Versus Abdominal Pregnancy in Low Resource Settings, A Case Report." East African Medical Journal. 2015;92(1). Abstractfull_article.pdf

Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus abdominal pregnancies. We present a case of a 36 year old para 4+0 gravida 5 who presented with fetal demise at 16 weeks of gestation. Multiple abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds showed intra uterine fetal demise for which she underwent induction. The definitive diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy was established using transcervical Foleys catheter aided abdominal-pelvic ultrasound which showed an empty uterus and a gestational sac, placenta and a 16-week fetus with no cardiac activity in the right adnexa/iliac region.

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