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Obosi OJ. "Decentralized Governance in the Management of Urban Health Care Systems in Developing Countries." Open Journal Of Political Science. 2019;9(1):189-202.
Jeremy G, R.M. O. "Decentralized Management of Wastewater as a Renewable Resource: A Multi - Disciplinary Approach to Sanitation T echnology Development.". In: the Safe Global Water & Sanitation Summit. Mt. Meru Hotel, Arusha. ; 2013.
Asfaw A;, Dauro D;, Kimani PM. "Decentralized participatory bean breeding in southern Ethiopia."; 2006. Abstract

In order to utilize farmers' knowledge on the crop and the environment, and to fit the crop to the specific needs and uses of farmers' communities, a four cycle decentralized participatory bean breeding was conducted in two locations in Sidama zone of the southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region. Forty four farmers selectors representing the community evaluated and then selected bean lines on-stations, the initial diverse germplasm pool of 147 lines at first selection cycle. In the following three cropping seasons, the farmers evaluated their selected lines on their farms and retained promising lines at the end of each selection cycle according to their own selection criteria. Their selections were evaluated by neighboring non-selector farmers (farmer-evaluators) using selection criteria set by farmer selectors. Group selection by selector farmers was attempted at cycle-4 on all individually selected lines grown on communal plots. The farmers effectively evaluated and selected bean lines that gave increased yield on their farm and met their specific preferences among large number of advanced lines. The farmers retained more large seeded beans as compared to small and medium seeded beans indicating that there is a shift in preference to large seeded beans in the region from their previously well-acquainted small red seed type. Bean lines selected by farmer following decentralized individual selection were farmer-specific except certain lines selected in common by some farmers. This lack of common selection to all farmers implies farmers' diverse preference for bean germplasm. In the selection process the farmers used growth habit, plant height, pod load, pod length, pod clearance from the base, early maturity, seed color, seed size and seed yield as selection criteria to retain or reject the bean lines. Seed color and seed yield were their decision making criteria whereas the rest were descriptor criteria to select good cultivars. The selection process indicated that farmers were capable of making significant contribution in identification of cultivars acceptable to them within a relatively short period. Moreover, the result suggests that conducting decentralized participatory individual selection and then participatory group selection with all farmer-selectors on all individually selection lines grown on communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their selection criteria can improve variety development and increase the chance of adoption of new varieties by other farmers in a community.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Decentralized Planning System in Kenya.". In: A Project paper writTen for ILO. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Mwiti BK. Deception in advertising: a case study of fruit juices in the local Kenyan market .; 2012. Abstract

Deception in advertising is an ongoing moral, and in some cases, controversial issue. What may appear to be a harmless advertisement to one person or group may be very misleading to another. With the increase in technology and the ever-increasing use of the Internet, consumers remain prime targets for advertising and marketing practices that are deceptive. The research thesis first gives background information on deception in advertising and describes different types of deception. It then examines what makes an advertisement deceptive, or what kind of advertisement would be defined 'as containing information that is deceptive and what role the designer plays in the advertising process/chain. It also gives information about juices and studies done on the production of juices, being that the case study revolves around fruit juices and the deception that occurs in their marketing. A field research was conducted to establish just how much deception there is in advertising, using fruit juices sold in the local Kenyan market as a case study. From the findings I was able to determine the level of deception the consumer is exposed to and the likely effects. Within the research were sought views of designers on why, if at all, they use deception in the adverts they produce. Discussions with designers, marketers and advertisers were heldto understand the point at which deceptive information was incorporated as part of the advertising process. Consumers were also interviewed to get an in-depth into what influences their purchasing powers. Retailers came n handy when informing me as to whether advertising was crucial in purchases made in their shopping outlets. The results from the field research proved that deception does exist and led me to conclude that advertising ought to be a moral concern & thus the need to inform consumers of this so that they can make more informed decisions about their purchases; and the need for designers to be held responsible for advertisements they create to market products and services.

M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Ndetei DM,Richter P, Kathuku DM,Sandermann S, Othieno C, Mundt Ch (1996): Symptomatology of Depression - Results from a Kenyan Population. 10th. World Congress of Psychiatry, S. 172, Madrid (A).". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Richter P, Sanderman S, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M, Ndetei D M & Mundt C (1995). Trans-cultural research on depression .". In: European Psychiatric Journal. European Psychiatric Journal; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H., Richter P., Sanderman S., Othieno C. J. Kathuku D. M., Detei D. M. and Mundt C (1995). Transcultural research on depression 0- study concept and preliminary results vortrag. World psychiatric Association .". In: World psychiatric Association . Curare; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
Olali T. "Deciphering the Swahili Panegyric of the Prophet: The Case of the Kasida ya Hamziyyah.". In: Africa, Cradle of Writing. New York: HSRC; 2011.
Waweru B, Ndeti N. "Decision Making in Community Driven Development: Whose Opinions Count in What?" International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 1):246-254.
Murigu J. "Decision-making criteria for investing in commercial real estate in Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Commercial real estate investments in the Kenya’s capital city-Nairobi reveal the following: A shrinking occupation demand; Disparities between expected and actual incomes; Difficulties in meeting debt servicing obligations and difficulties in completing construction projects within the specified cost and time frames. In spite of these problems, new, large and very expensive buildings continue to mushroom in the city. Therefore, there appears to be unexplained reasons that compel investors to continue investing in commercial real estate. It is against this background that research was undertaken to establish the basis of decision-making while investing in these properties. The research was based on two main objectives, namely; to identify and rank the factors that influence the decision to invest in commercial real estate and propose steps to be followed by investors in the decision to invest in these properties in order to, amongst other goals, minimise disparities between the expected and actual returns. A random sample of commercial buildings in the city was studied and it was established that, expected income was the most important factor influencing the decision to invest in commercial real estate followed by expected returns from the investment. While it was observed that the commercial real estate investor in Kenya is fairly rational and economically led, a lack of systematic and formal decision making rules and procedures was noted. The study’s main proposal is that the decision to invest in commercial real estate ought to be undertaken in a systematic manner. Effective decision making rarely occurs by chance but involves a logical, sequential and ordered approach. The researcher is also of the opinion that a standard school of appraisal should be developed and introduced in Kenya. Continuous professional development programmes should also be instituted.

Mutunga PK, Gichuhi W. "Decision-Making Power and Contraceptive Use among Couples of Child-Bearing Age in Kenya.". In: Gender Statistics for Evidence-Based Policies: Women’s Economic Empowerment, Health and Gender Based Violence. Nairobi: UN Women; 2021.
Daar AS, Jacobs M, Ndetei D. "Declaration on mental health in Africa: moving to implementation." Global Health Action. 2014;7. AbstractWebsite

rgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.

Keywords: Africa; mental health; WHO action plan; roadmap; basic services; policy; implementation; stigma; human rights; post-2015 Agenda; UN General Assembly

Responsible Editor: Peter Byass, Umeå University, Sweden.

Bedi, Kimalu A, K P, DK M, Nafula N. "The Decline in Primary School Enrolment in Kenya." Journal of African Economies . 2004;11(1).
A B, K KP, Nafula N, DK M. "The Decline in Primary School Enrolment in Kenya.". In: Economic reforms in developing countries.; 2008.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "The Decline of the Myopic American Imperial Project, the "Great Experiment" for Education, and a Conversation beyond the Boundaries.". In: Globalisation, Societies and Education, 6(4),409 - 414. Frontiers, 2011; 2008. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Paul Kamau. "Declining Confidence in Economic Performance in Kenya." Afrobarometer Briefing Paper No. 107. 2012.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Declining food security among resource limited in the Mumias Sugar Scheme in Western Kenya and potential for improvement." Working with Rural Communities, 2nd Edn., Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. 2011.
Peng B, Feng X-Q, Li Q. "Decohesion of a rigid flat punch from an elastic layer of finite thickness." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2020;139:103937. Abstract
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"Decolonising Language in Kenya by use of Kiswahili and Local Languages.". In: 1st International Conference on Decolonising Education. Embu University; 2018.
Muasya, Juliet N. "Decolonizing Religious Education to Enhance Sustainable Development in Africa: Evidence from Literature." East African Journal of Educational Studies. 2021;3(1):77-86.
Opiyo-Akech N. "Decommissioning Audit for Lokapel Base Camp for Tullow Kenya B.V. Turkana County." Report for National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), Kenya. 2013.
"Carine Va n Malderen", Ogali" "I, Khasakhala" "A, Muchiri" "SN, Sparks" "C, Oyen" "HV, Speybroeck" "N. "Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization." International Journal for Equity in Health. 2013;12(3 ):14712-3.
ODHIAMBO MRLUTHEROTIENO. "Decomposition analysis in analysing small fire performance Univerity of Stirling Library.". In: Accountant. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
Yamoah CF;, Mulongoy K;, Agboola AA;, Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Decomposition and nitrogen contribution by prunings of selected legumes in alley cropping."; 1985.
Mwangi PW, Chemining'wa GN, Mburu MWK, Mureithi JG. "Decomposition and nutrient release rates of selected legume residues in a cold semiarid environment of Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and agricultural Research. 2013;3(2):1-13.decomposition_and_nutrient_release_rates_of_selected_legume.pdf
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK, Rutunga V, Karanja NK. "Decomposition rates of biomass obtained from six month-old Tephrosia vogelii, Tithonia diversifolia and natural fallow vegetation at Maseno, Kenya. Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 1.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract

A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Decomposition rates of biomass obtained from six month-old Tephrosia vogelii, Tithonia diversifolia and natural fallow vegetation at Maseno, Kenya. Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Maobe, S.N.; Mburu ANMMOMWK; L. Decomposition, Mineralization And Nitrogen Loss Following Application Of Different Rates Of Mucuna Green Biomass Under Field Conditions In Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Knowledge on the relationship amongst mucuna green biomass application rate, decomposition pattern, mineralization and its distribution in rooting zone of maize is essential for efficient utilization of the legume as N source for maize production. Consequently, on-farm research was carried out for two seasons on sandy clay soil of southwest Kenya in 2004. The objective was to determine effect of different application rates of mucuna green biomass on its decomposition pattern, available soil N, distribution in rooting zone of maize, and leaching beyond the zone during the season when the biomass is incorporated into the soil. The treatments were mucuna applied at rates of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; and inorganic fertilizer-urea at 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 included for comparison. The approaches employed in evaluating the treatments were: Field incubation using micro-lysimeter technique and, direct field sampling method. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Results showed that mucuna decomposition pattern remained same irrespective of application rate. Soil available N (SAN) increased over time after application of either source of N. The SAN level reached a significantly higher peak at 2 weeks after application (WAA). Direct field sampling showed that at 2 WAA most of the N accumulated at 50–100 cm depth, regardless of the N source. Significant differences in SAN level attributed to application of the various rates of mucuna and fertilizer were notable at 2 WAA, but had disappeared by 4 WAA. At the 2 WAA, fertilizer and mucuna applied at 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 respectively gave comparable SAN level and had non-significant effect on it at 0-15 and 15–30 cm depths. It required 240 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna green biomass, or 120 kg N ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer-urea to substantially increase SAN level over the control. The loss of N beyond maize rooting zone was significantly higher from inorganic fertilizer than mucuna and the control, which were the same.

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Siclari M. "A decoupled stochastic approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem.". In: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1998:. Abstract

A novel approach to the jig-shape aeroelastic wing design problem is presented
in this paper. Unlike previous design efforts were the aerodynamic analyses where coupled
to the structural analyses throughout the optimization process, this work presents a truly
decoupled approach. The developed twolevel methodology performs aerodynamic shape
optimization at Level I to determine an optimal configuration, followed by structural shape
optimization at Level n to find the corresponding jig-shape. During Level n optimization, no …

Stone DM, Wessel T, Joh TH, Baker H. "Decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase, but not aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, messenger {RNA} in rat olfactory bulb following neonatal, unilateral odor deprivation." Molecular Brain Research. 1990;8:291-300. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral naris cauterization in rats results in occlusion of the affected naris and blockade of odorant access to ipsilateral olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory. These receptor cells project exclusively to the olfactory bubl (OB) and appear to regulate expression of the dopaminergic phenotype in a population of OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Unilateral odor deprivation results in a loss of normal stimulatory input to the OB and a marked and specific decrease in ipsilateral OB tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression. The expression of co-localized aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is not similarly affected. We have used this procedure in neonatal rats to examine the effect of stimulation deprivation on OB TH and AADC mRNA levels. Both Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed a pronounced decrease in ipsilateral as compared to contralateral OB TH mRNA levels 40 days after naris closure. In contrast, the levels of OB AADC mRNA were unaltered by naris closure. By in situ hybridization histochemistry, both TH and AADC mRNAs were localized to OB juxtaglomerular neurons. Odor deprivation was associated with an apparent region-specific reduction in TH mRNA within the ipsilateral OB glomerular layer. By densitometric analysis, the loss of TH-specific message was quantitatively consistent with the decrease in TH activity, suggesting that the observed plasticity of OB dopaminergic neurons following functional deafferentiation can be attributed to a selective, transneuronally-mediated down regulation of TH gene transcription.

Hlushchuk R, Ehrbar M, Reichmuth P, Heinimann N, Styp-Rekowska B, Escher R, Baum O, Lienemann P, Makanya A, Keshet E, Djonov V. "Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning." Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.. 2011;31(12):2836-44. Abstract

The concept of vascular pruning, the "cuting-off" of vessels, is gaining importance due to expansion of angio-modulating therapies. The proangiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are broadly described, but the mechanisms of structural alterations by its downregulation are not known.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among trucking company workers in Kenya: results of a behavioural risk-reduction programme. Jackson DJ; Rakwar JP; Richardson BA; Mandaliya K Chohan BH; Bwayo JJ; Ndinya-Achola JO; Martin HL Jr; Moses S.". In: AIDS. 1997 Jun;11(7):903-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of high-risk individuals suitable for HIV-prevention trials, and to measure changes in sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence after a behavioural intervention. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in trucking company depots in Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 556 male HIV-seronegative employees of trucking companies. INTERVENTIONS: HIV serological testing, individual counselling, condom promotion, STD diagnosis and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual risk behaviour and symptomatic STD incidence. RESULTS: Using time-trend modelling, significant declines in self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour were demonstrated during a 1-year follow-up. The percentage of men reporting any extramarital sex during the 3-month period prior to a follow-up visit decreased from 49% durig the first quarter of follow-up to 36% during the last quarter (P < 0.001). The decline in reported female sex worker contact was from 12% to 6% (P = 0.001). Approximately 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex and this percentage remained unchanged during the study period. The incidence of STD declined from 34 per 100 person years (PY) during the first quarter to 10 per 100 PY during the last quarter (P = 0.001). Significant reductions in gonorrhoea (15 to five cases per 100 PY
FARAH DRIBRAHIM. "DEEGAAN, POLITICS AND WAR IN SOMALIA."; 2002.
Wanga G, Davies SR. "Deep Machine Learning For Age And Gender Prediction." ICTACT Journal on Soft Computing. 2019;9(4):1999-2005.
Ngera E, Davies S. "Deep Machine Learning For Brain MRI Classification." ICTACT JOURNAL ON DATA SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING. 2019;1(1):26-31.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Deep-sea nematodes from the Indian Ocean:.". In: new and known species of the family Comesomatidae. Hydrobiologia 346: 25-57. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1997.
Onjala J. "Deepening China - Africa Cooperation: Implementation Mechanisms and Financing Options for three Networks and Industrialization in Kenya.". In: China-Africa Cooperation on Three Networks of Africa’s Infrastructure and Industrialization - AERC. Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi; 2015.
T
K MRMBOBUMATHEW. "THE DEFENCE OF FORUM NON-CONVENIENS UNDER THE WARSAW CONVENTION: Unpublished paper for LL.M Degree Course. Georgetown University Washington D.C.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1992. Abstract
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D
Muchiri J. "Defining the Self through Autobiography: Saga McOdongo's Deadly Money Maker." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2013;7(December 2013):119-131.
T.N. O. "Definition and Assessment of World Foreign Direct Investment Stock on the eve of the First World War’ In." Conference Proceedings. 2004;(Conference Proceedings. March-April 2004).
Maleche Z. "DEFINITIONS AND TYPES OF REGIONS FOR PLANNING.". In: Training Of Trainers (TOT) workshop on regional development policy and practices in Namibia: Phase VI. Rundu, Okavango division; 2011.
Gichaga FJ. "Deflections of Lateritic Gravel and Stone Base Pavements of Low Volume Tea Roads in Kenya.". In: Fifth International Conference on Low Volume Roads.; 1991.
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Deflections of Lateritic Gravel and Stone Base Pavements of low volume Tea roads in Kenya.". In: Fifth International Conference on Low Volume Roads. Held in May 1991 North Carolina. TRB. National Research Council. UN-HABITAT; 1991. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

Peng B, Murakami S, Monserrat B, Zhang T. "Degenerate topological line surface phonons in quasi-1D double helix crystal SnIP." npj Computational Materials. 2021;7:1-8. Abstract
n/a
Kihiko D. "Degloving penile trauma in a 12 year old boy: Case report." The Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(1):58-60.
Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Degradation of aflatoxin in maize using Ferulic acid (phydroxy-3-methyl cinnamic acid) catalyzed by Hydrogen peroxide." Journal of Food Sciences. 2020;1(1):1-17.
Hoang NT, Nguyen VT, Tuan NDM, Manh TD, Le P-C, Tac DV, Mwazighe FM. "Degradation of dyes by UV/Persulfate and comparison with other UV-based advanced oxidation processes: Kinetics and role of radicals." Chemosphere. 2022.Website
7. Thenya T, Verburg P, Wassmann, Verchot L, Mungai, D. "Degradation of the riparian wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin - Yala swamp case study." Degradation of the riparian wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin - Yala swamp case study. 2006.
M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Degradation Studies of Multilayer Coatings Exhibiting Angular Dependent Transmittance.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Beatrice KA-, J KR. "Delayed cord clamping as routine treatment for HIV negative mothers.". In: Nutrition Conference. Naiberi River Campsite and resort, Eldoret; 2013.
Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Delayed Nutrient Conversion for a Single Species Periodic Chemostat." Journal of Scientific Research and Reports. 2020;26(5):1-9. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we analyze a Chemostat model with periodic nutrient input modelled using Fourier series and incorporate delays in nutrient conversion. We show that both periodicity and delays have complementing influence in the long term behaviour of the species. Numerical results show that periodicity has bigger influence on species density variations for delays below the Hopf Bifurcation point, while for delays above the Bifurcation point,the delay effect is more influential.

Kimata, M.D., Makawiti, D.W., Tengekyon, K.M., Dadzie S, Waindi EN. "Delayed Recovery of Adrenocortical and Testicular Function after Chemotherapy of Human Trypanosomiasis. ." Acta Tropica . 1994;57:69-74 .
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Delaying Gratification as a Beautiful Choice. Human Sexuality in Africa: Beyond Reproduction. Ed. Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Richmond Tiemoko and Paullina Makinwa-Adebusoye. Sunnyside, South Africa: Fanele, 2007. 19-28 (Revised version of the African Region.". In: Sunnyside, South Africa. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis

"Delegate to the 5th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, UNEP Headquarters.". In: Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity,. Gigiri, Kenya.; 2000.
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Deletion Designs.". In: Journal of Science and Technology, 7, (2002), 323-332. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL. "Deletion Designs by M.K. Gachii and J.W.Odhiambo.". In: Journal of Science and Technology, 7, (2002), 323- 332,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Kimani MW, Okonkwo O. "Delivering Affordable housing in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Low-cost housing provision has been a major focus of government in post-apartheid urban South Africa. While successes can be noted, there is growing concern regarding the social and environmental sustainability of housing programs and the impacts upon both the surrounding environment and human health. Utilizing key informant interviews, survey research, Census data and documentary review, this essay identifies the major impediments to a sustainable low-cost housing provision in urban South Africa. The essay also points to hopeful signs in new policy directions, particularly attention to health issues and informal settlement upgrade programs. However, the major obstacles to a sustainable low-cost housing process, including macro-economic conditions, enduring historical legacies of race and class, the scale and rapidity of urban growth and institutional challenges show little indication of abating

N Kilonzo, SJ Theobald NAMKRTECHJ. "Delivering post-rape care services: Kenya’s experience in developing integrated services." Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). 2010;(DOI: 10.1002):hon.977.
Mutembei HM, Muasa BS, Origa R, Jimbo S, Ojango JMK, Tsuma VT, Mutiga ER, Okeyo AM. "Delivery of appropriate cattle genotypes to Eastern African smallholder farmers through in vitro embryo production technologies – the technical procedures, prospects and challenges." Royal Society Chemistry Journal. 2009;32:84-90.
English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya." Lancet. 2004;364(9445):1622-9. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya. Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N.". In: Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya. Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N.". In: Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya.". 2004;364:1622-1629. Abstractdelivery_of_paediatric_care_at_first_referal_hospitals_in_kenya.pdf

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya’s eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals,
antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems.
However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were
expressed. Caretakers’ views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

Aluvaala J, Okello D, Murithi G, Wafula L, Wanjala L, Isika N, Wasunna A, Were F, Nyamai R, English M. "Delivery outcomes and patterns of morbidity and mortality for neonatal admissions in five Kenyan hospitals." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2015;(61):255-259. Abstractdelivery_outcomes_and_patterns_of_morbidity_and_mortality_for_neonatal_admissions_in_five_kenyan_hospitals.pdf

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in neonatal and maternity units of five Kenyan district public hospitals. Data for 1 year were obtained: 3999 maternal and 1836 neonatal records plus tallies of maternal deaths, deliveries and stillbirths. There were 40 maternal deaths [maternal mortality ratio: 276 per 100 000 live births, 95% confidence interval (CI): 197–376]. Fresh stillbirths ranged from 11 to 43 per 1000 births. A fifth (19%, 263 of 1384, 95% CI: 11–30%) of the admitted neonates died. Compared with normal birth weight, odds of death were significantly higher in all of the low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) categories, with the highest odds for the extremely LBW (<1000 g) category (odds ratio: 59, 95% CI: 21–158, p<0.01). The observed maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality call for implementation of the continuum of care approach to intervention delivery with particular emphasis on LBW babies.

O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "A Delphi Study to Determine Factors which Contribute to Success in Administration of AA High Schools in Texas".". In: Doctoral dissertation]. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; Submitted. Abstract
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Margaret Maimbolwa, Omoni G, Enid Mwebaza, Angela Chimwaza, Rose Laisser, Christina Mudokwenyu-Rawdon, Carol Bedwell, Rebecc. "A Delphi survey to determine midwifery research priorities among midwives in sub-Saharan Africa." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2015;9(1):6-11. AbstractWebsite

Objective:

In sub-Saharan Africa, midwifery input into the generation of important research questions is limited. The authors aimed to address this issue by enabling midwives to set their own research priorities with the intention of developing a research strategy to conduct studies relevant to clinical practice.
Methods:

A survey was carried out in six countries (Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). The Delphi method was used with six panels of midwives (n=118) to attain a convergence of opinion on midwifery research priorities. Consensus-building was achieved by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data. Data were analysed using ranked means and proportions.
Findings:

Consensus was reached on 11 research questions which were considered regional priorities. These covered three key areas: midwifery training, clinical care and organisational issues. Conclusions: Midwives prioritised areas of research that had direct applicability to their own practice. All questions were at the applied end of the research spectrum. Priorities tended to cover broad areas within reproductive health, as opposed to being disease-focused. This is likely to reflect the desire to provide quality care that embraces the social aspects of health. Some of these research priorities are being taken forward by midwives in the group.
Keywords: Delphi method, Midwives, Research, sub-Sahara

M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Delusions: Essays on Social Construction of Gender, Ed. Kabira W. Masheti M. and Mbugua W.: African Womens Communication and Development Network, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
C. R, K. MS, K. NH, I. N’ang’aS, S.O. M, P.I O, S. G, P.C. K. "A Demand Analysis for Sahiwal Breeding Animals from the National Sahiwal Stud (NSS) Between 1971-2007." International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences. 2012;1(12):29-43.
Oketch H, Abaga A, Manda DK. "Demand and Supply of Micro and Small Enterprise Finance in Kenya.". In: K - REP working paper, K - REP. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1995.
Mwabu G. "The Demand for Health Care.". In: Encyclopedia of Public Health. San Diego: Elsevier; 2008.
Mwabu G, Carrin G. "The Demand for Health Care.". In: WHO Health Systems Policy, Finance and Organization. Academic Press; 2009.
Mwabu G, Muriithi M. "Demand for Health Care in Kenya: The Effects of Information About Quality.". In: Econometric Methods for Analyzing Economic Development. Business Science Reference, Hershey, PA: IGI Global; 2013.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Demand For Health Services in Rural Kenya, Germano M. Mwabu, Joseph K. Wang'ombe, and Violet Kimani, Paper presented at the Second Annual Meeting of Participants to the International Health Policy Program, Manila, Philippines, July/August 1989.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1989. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

Owiti E, Awiti M, Mwabu G. "The Demand for Healthcare by Orphans and Vulnerable Children: A Case of Migori District.". In: XV International AIDS Conference. Bangkok . Medimond, Italy; 2004.
Mwangi J. Demand for Insurance in Nairobi: An Econometric Study.. Kenyatta University; 1992. Abstract
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Machio P. Demand for Maternal Health Care Services in Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2008.
Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Elly D, Kaijage ES. "DEMAND SIDE FACTORS AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL FINANCE BY SMALL AND MEDIUM MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESSES DEVELOPMENT. WHITE SANDS HOTEL, DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA.; 2015. Abstractdemand_side_factors_and_access_to_external_finance_by_small_and_medium_manufacturing_enterprises_in_nairobi_kenya-2.pdf

This study investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. The findings of the study show that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include entrepreneur’s networks, ethnic orientation, firm growth and earnings volatility. The study recommends further probing of the role of good financial management practices such as preparation and usage of financial information on access to external finance in diverse settings and industries. It is also important for entrepreneurs and providers of the finances to establish and support sustainable networks that guarantee enterprise growth. Though ethnic orientation influence access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure there is efficiency in the market for external financing and certain entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on the basis of their ethnic background. As firm growth also influences access to finance, managers of the SMMEs should endeavor to attain steady and predictable earnings growth with minimal deviations. Such efforts would help minimize financial constraints caused when external funds are inaccessible.

Key Words: Demand side factors, Small and medium manufacturing enterprises

Ebrahim YH. The demise of hope - A dilemma of an architect: An autobiography. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2011.
Johnson HA. "The demise of the Hopewellian moundbuilders: a plausible conjecture." IMJ Ill Med J. 1975;148(5):528-30.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Democractic Myth in African Traditional Societies in Theory and Practice of Democracy in Africa ed.". In: By W. Oyugi et all, Heinemann, Nairobi. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1988. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Democractic Myth in African Traditional Societies in Theory and Practice of Democracy in Africa ed.". In: By W. Oyugi et all, Heinemann, Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract

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WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "DEMOCRACY FOR THE FEW: EXAMPLES FROM THE BUKUSU COMMUNITY, A KENYAN COMMUNITY, in Writers Speak: Essays on Literature and Democracy, an essay on pages 76-83, edited with an introduction by Kitula Kingei and Henry Idangasi, Writer's Association of Kenya.". In: Published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor: MI 481061346 U.S.A. March 15, 1989. Publication No. 88-16, 106.; 1985. Abstract

This dissertation is a study of twentieth-century American novels which can be used in a course by Kenyan and other East African students and teachers. The selected novels can be studied as models for exemplification of the most significant developments and trends in longer American narrative fiction in the period covered by the study. Because of time limits and for purposes of presenting quality fictional works to be covered in one semester, eight novels were analyzed in this study. These are: Sister Carrie (1900) by Theodore Dreiser, The Great Gatsby (1925) by F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, Intruder in the Dust (1948)by J.D Salinger, Invisible Man(1952) by Ralph Ellison, Go Tell it On The Mountain(1953) by James Baldwin and Brown Girl, Brownstones(1959)by Paule Marshall. Each of the selected novels represents a component of significance in American literature during the era designated .Sister Carrie

Ndiritu A, Nyaga G, Gikonyo N. "Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa.". In: Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa. Nairobi: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi and AISA, Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Democracy, Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction: Are they Compatible? The Lessons from Kenya. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Development Policy Management Policy Forum (DPMF) of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA); 2001.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Democratic Change in Africa: Ed Kabira, Odoul and Nzomo; AAWORD/Acts Publication, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Nzomo M, Adhiambo-Oduol J, Kabira WM. Democratic Change in Africa: Women's Perspective.; 1993.Website
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Democratisation and Governance in Africa: The Role of NGOs. A report on behalf of the United Nations Conference on NGOs, 1998.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract
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K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Democratisation and Governance: Challenges and Prospects (Illustrated with a case study of NGOs in Kenya, A Paper prepared for a conference on "African Regional Consultation For Non-Governmental Organizations". Organized by the Conference of Non-governmen.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
joshua Kivuva. "Democratization in Kenya: Peoples' dissatisfaction with the benefit-less transition." Afrobarometer Briefing Paper. 2015;(152).
Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Walter Oyugi in Said Adejumobi and Abdalla Bujra(eds.). "The Democratization Process in Kenya: Prospects and Obstacles.". In: Breaking Barriers, Creating New Hopes: Democracy, Civil Society and Good Governance in Africa. ADDIS ABABA: DPMF; 2002.
Nduiga DK, Joshi M, OGOLA EN. "Demographic and clinical characteristics of ambulatory atrial fibrillation at Kenyatta National Hospital." Cardiovascular Journal of Africa:. 2009:6-7.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Demographic and Technological Variables in Kenya's Employment Scene Eastern African Economic Review.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Characteristics .". 1986.Website
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Demographic characteristics of Nyandarua Districts of Nyandarua District. Republic of Kenya. Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Masiga MA. "Demographic characteristics of patients attending for surgical treatment of unerupted canines." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2002;3:129-132. Abstract
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J A, K O,.N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

.N O, J A. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstractomoro.pdf

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

K O, J A, N O. "Demographic Diversity in Top Management Team and Financial Reporting Quality in Commercial State Corporations in Kenya." Donnish Journal of Accounting and Taxation. 2015;1(1):001-016. Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effect of demographic diversity in Top Management Team (TMT) on financial
reporting quality in commercial state corporations. The study adopted correlational and longitudinal research design and
stepwise regression analysis of FRQ variables on a set of demographic diversity variables in TMT. The findings provide
considerable evidence to suggest that TMT demographic diversity are associated with financial reporting quality
measured by fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information, earnings management, timeliness in
reporting and disclosure quality. The research implication is that; in general, demographic diversity in TMT- gender, age,
education, tenure and functional background may have important implication for financial reporting quality under
different measures. The value of this paper is to extend Prior research by addressing the potential effects of TMT
demographic diversity on FRQ. The findings reported in this paper provide novel insight to empirical financial reporting
quality literature in commercial state corporations.

Muriithi MK. "Demographic Dividend, Economic Lifecycle and Education Profile for Kenya." Cote D’Ivoire, Abijan ; 2013.
Opiyo C, Agwanda A. "The Demographic Dividend: A gift or a curse.". In: Youth Research Compendium . Nairobi: Institute Of Economic Affairs ; 2011.
M’Ikiugu MH. "Demographic Factors that Affect Adoption of Biogas Technology in Kiambu County, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2018;3(1):48-57.mbali_et_al._2018-_mutemebi-_muthee.pdf
Kimani M, Makoteku O. "Demographic Models Applied at the Population Studies and Research Institute .". In: Kenya's Population Growth and Development. Nairobi: Heinman; 1988.
Ayiemba EHO. "Demographic Patterns .". 1985.Website
Mwabu G, G.Mutegi R, K.Muriithi M. "Demographic Transition and Demographic Dividends: Evidence from Kenya’s National Transfer Accounts.". In: NTA Meetings. Barcelona, Spain,; 2013.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Demographic trends in Muranga District Socio-Cultural profile.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1991. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "The Demographic trends in Muranga District Socio-Cultural profile.". In: Publication sponsored by the Ministry of Finance and Economics Planning and the University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract

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Ongeri L, Wanga V, Otieno P, Mbui J, Juma E, Vander Stoep A. "Demographic, psychosocial and clinical factors associated with postpartum depression in Kenyan women." BMC Psychiatry . 2018;18(318).
Wekesa VD, Ogeng’o JA, Siongei CV, Elbusaidy H, Iwaret M. "Demographics of patients admitted with Traumatic Intracranial Bleeds in Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent Afr J Surg. 2013;18(3):67-70.
Menach OP, Patel A, Oburra HO. "Demography and histologic pattern of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in kenya." Int J Otolaryngol. 2014;2014:507189. Abstract

Background. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer worldwide. Objective. To determine the demographic characteristics of patients with laryngeal cancer, establish their tumor characteristics and relate it to their smoking and alcohol ingestion habits. Methods. Fifty cases and fifty controls were recruited of matching age, sex, and region of residence. History and pattern of cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion was taken and analyzed. Results. 33 (66%) of the cases and 3 (6%) among controls were current cigarette smokers. 74% had smoked for more than 30 years, P < 0.0001 OR 21.3 (95% CI: 2.6-176.1). There was a male predominance (96%) and most cases (62%) were from the ethnic communities in the highland areas of Kenya predominantly in Central and Eastern provinces. Very heavy drinkers had increased risk of P < 0.0001 OR, 6.0 (95% CI: 1.957-18.398) and those who smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol had poorly differentiated tumors G3, P < 0.001, OR 11.652 (95% CI 2.305-58.895), and G4, P=0.52 OR 7.286 (95% CI 0.726-73.075). They also presented with advanced disease (73.6%). Conclusion. Cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion are strong risk factors for development of late stage and poorly differentiated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya.

Oucho JO. "Demography and Resource Development.". In: Socio-cultural Profiles: Siaya District. Nairobi: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1987.
Musyoki POARA;. "Demography, Urbanization and Spatial Planning in Tanzania and Uganda: A Bibliographical Survey.". Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press; 2012.
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, Gachanja AN, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2018;(190):251.
Maina EG, Gachanja AN, GATARI MJ, Price H. "Demonstrating PM2.5 and road-side dust pollution by heavy metals along Thika superhighway in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa." … monitoring and assessment. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study assessed the level of heavy metal in roadside dust and PM 2.5 mass concentrations along Thika superhighway in Kenya. Thika superhighway is one of the busiest roads in Kenya, linking Thika town with Nairobi. Triplicate road dust samples …

"Kanyinga K". "Demystifying politics of land tenure: Okoth-Ogendo and the concept of land in Africa.". In: The Gallant Academic: Essays in Honour of H. W. O. Okoth-Ogendo. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Nyabuga G. "Demystifying the alternative in alternative media.". In: Beyond Mainstream Conversations on Alternative Media . Nyeri, Kenya; 2011.
Nyabuga G. "Demystifying virtual-learning environments: Equalising or reinforcing opportunities.". In: A reformed optimist’s view’ at the ‘e-Learning: Increased Access to Education, Diversity in Applications and Management Strategies’. Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Dieterlen, F. KPJ, Oguge N. "Dendromus insignis." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
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MAKAU DRNZUMAJONATHAN. "Deng. H., and Nzuma. M.J., (2005). Assessing the Effects of NAFTA on Canada/US Agricultural Trade.". In: Paper is presented at the 2005 CAES-WEAI-WAEA Annual Meeting at San Francisco, CA July 6-8, 2005. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
Horty JF. "Denial of staff privileges upheld." Mod Healthc (Short Term Care). 1975;4(6):64-5.
Mengwa VK, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Mwabora JM. A Density Functional Theory Study of Electronic Structure of Rutile (110) Surfaces with Catechol Adsorbate. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as semiconductor in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), amongst many other applications. Thus coupled with a suitable sensitizer such as catechol, the study of surface electronic structure of TiO2 will improve light harvesting and electron transfer processes in DSSC. The distribution of states in clean and catechol terminated four and five layer TiO2 (110) rutile surfaces were investigated. All calculations in this work were done by quantum espresso code which uses plane waves and pseudopotentials. The slabs were modelled by four and five layers with vacuum width of 20 Å. The results showed that the (110) stoichiometric TiO2 four layer surface had band gap of 2.1 eV, a value less than band gap value of 2.2 eV of similar catechol bound TiO2 surface. There was an increase in the band gap value of 0.32 eV for the catechol bound TiO2 (110) rutile five layer surface compared to that of clean stoichiometric TiO2 (110) surface. The HOMO in four and five layered TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to lie above the valence band edge. The LUMO in both surfaces was located in the conduction band, and hence the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. These findings have showed that the energy level alignment of catechol coupled to TiO2 is a suitable model to study electron transfer processes that occur in dye sensitized solar cell.

Mengwa VK, N. W. Makau, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Mwabora JM, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Gateru R. A Density Functional Theory Study of Electronic Structure of Rutile (110) Surfaces with Catechol Adsorbate. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as semiconductor in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), amongst many other applications. Thus coupled with a suitable sensitizer such as catechol, the study of surface electronic structure of TiO2 will improve light harvesting and electron transfer processes in DSSC. The distribution of states in clean and catechol terminated four and five layer TiO2 (110) rutile surfaces were investigated. All calculations in this work were done by quantum espresso code which uses plane waves and pseudopotentials. The slabs were modelled by four and five layers with vacuum width of 20 Å. The results showed that the (110) stoichiometric TiO2 four layer surface had band gap of 2.1 eV, a value less than band gap value of 2.2 eV of similar catechol bound TiO2 surface. There was an increase in the band gap value of 0.32 eV for the catechol bound TiO2 (110) rutile five layer surface compared to that of clean stoichiometric TiO2 (110) surface. The HOMO in four and five layered TiO2 (110) surfaces was found to lie above the valence band edge. The LUMO in both surfaces was located in the conduction band, and hence the band gap of the molecule was in the range of 4.0 eV. These findings have showed that the energy level alignment of catechol coupled to TiO2 is a suitable model to study electron transfer processes that occur in dye sensitized solar cell.

Wawire MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional Study Of Luminescence In Polypyridine Ruthenium Complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2′;6′,2″-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1′-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photophysical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geometries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT → 3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ΔE , the difference between the View the MathML sourceeg* and lowest energy π* PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d × π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ΔE and high values of d × π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ΔE and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Wawire* MC, Jouvenot D, Loiseau F, Baudin P, Liatard S, Njenga L, Kamau GN, Casida ME. "Density-functional study of luminescence in polypyridineruthenium complexes." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2013;276 : 8-15. Abstract

A density-functional theory (DFT) study of five ruthenium complexes has been carried out with the goal of gaining deeper insight into factors governing luminescence lifetimes. The five compounds are [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (1), [Ru(L1)2]2+ (2), [Ru(tpy)2]2+ (3), [Ru(L1)(tpy)]2+ (4), and [Ru(L2)2]2+ (5), where bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine, tpy = 2,2’;6’,2”-terpyridine, L1 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylimidazolium] hexafluorophosphate and L2 = 1,1’-[2,6-pyridinediylbis(methylene)]bis[3-methylbenziimidazolium]. Experimental work, including the synthesis and photo-physical properties of 5 is also reported in the context of this study. Gas phase geometries optimized using X-ray crystallography geometries as start geometries were found to be close to the start geome-tries. Gas phase absorption spectra calculated using time-dependent DFT were found to be in good agreement with spectra measured in solution. A partial density of states (PDOS) analysis of the molecular orbitals shows that it is possible to recover a ligand field theory (LFT)-like picture. On the basis of this PDOS-derived LFT-like picture we propose two orbital-based luminescence indices, both motivated by the idea that luminescence quenching results from a low 3MLCT →3MC barrier. The first luminescence index is ∆E, the difference between the e∗g and lowest energy π *PDOS bands. The second luminescence index is d ×π, the product of the amount of π character in the t2g band with the amount of ruthenium d character in the 1 π* band. These luminescence measures are intended as qualitative rather than quantitative predictors. Low values of ∆E and high values of d ×π are shown to correlate with lack of luminescence for the five compounds studied in this paper, while high values of ∆E and low values of d × π correlate well with luminescence.

Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module V): Advanced Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module V): Advanced Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2021.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. DENTAL BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE: MODULE II - AUXILLIARY DENTAL MATERIALS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.
Ober-Oluoch JA, Kemoli A, Masiga, Dimba E. "Dental Caries and Periodontal health of Children with Cerebral Palsy.". 2011;2(1).
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Dental Caries experience among HIV positive 6-12 years old attending comprehensive care center, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: 26th KDA annual scientific Conference and 22rd International Association of Dental Researchers (IADR) East and Southern African Division, Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi. October 16th to 18th 2008. Tafa C, Mua B, Gathece L, Dimba E-; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.

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