Publications

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2019
Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Situation Analysis and Technology Value Proposition for Geriatric Care for Philanthropic Social Homes in Kenya.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The growth of the graying population all over the world is showing a great need of incorporating ICT to ensure healthy living. Geriatric persons in philanthropic social homes (PSH) in developing countries are not favored in terms of infrastructure, housing, caregiving as well as privacy since they are in a controlled communal environment. These philanthropic homes, commonly known as `Nyumba za Wazee' in Kenya are slowly gaining reputation as more of the elderly are ostracized because of inheritance or even abandonment. The aim of this paper is to bring fourth the status quo of the geriatric persons living in PSH, the challenges they face, which have tremendous ramifications that leads to strong incentives to usage of low cost technology to alleviate the lives of the elderly towards healthy living in their higher ages. The researchers, through the social department and Board of management of these social homes, carried a research for a period of 3 months in two PSHs, in Nairobi County and Kiambu County. Interviews and storytelling were the two data collection techniques used. The findings from these two PSHs, categorized the challenges as; physical, and psychological challenges. This research argues that low affordable technology solutions will curb these challenges to ensure adequate care and provide decent standards of living for the elderly in PSH.

2017
Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Towards a Deployment Model for eMonitoring of Geriatric Persons in Rural Developing Countries: Case of Kenya.". In: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317291029. Vol. 1. Namibia; 2017. Abstract

The United Nations and the African Union considers a person aged 65
years and above as a geriatric person. The graying population over the past decades
is showing an exponential growth rate compared to the declining fertility rate. This
population in the developing countries is not boastful of active ageing (successful,
independent ageing) as they are challenged by various health issues and
psychosomatic conditions. They require constant care and in some cases, specialized
care in familiar environments (their homes with relatives) or nursing homes (called
Nyumba za Wazee in Kenya). The researchers with support from literature believe
that technology can offer this specialized care (E-monitoring). This would be offered
in the comfort of their homes through continuous assessment of the geriatric person
relaying information to both the formal and informal caregivers. The objective of this
paper is to explore, summarize and analyse the various technologies in gerontology,
acceptance and adoption models, with the aim of identifying a suitable deployment
model that could be adopted in the context of a developing country.

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology . 2017;3(7):36-40. Abstractfull text link

The use of ICT in agriculture within
developing countries has quickly gained popularity
among development agencies, the private sector and
even the government. ICT for agriculture (ICT4Ag)
services such as trade platforms, notification platforms
and advisory/extension services have been developed.
This has been catalyzed by the growing number of
farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile
phones. Among the available services, advisory/extension
platforms have gained popularity among farmers and
agriculture stakeholders in the developing world. These
platforms have proven to be of importance to farmers
who are curious about new farming methodologies,
strategies to improve their yields, breeding techniques,
among other factors. The ICT platforms employed
include SMS, mobile applications, Interactive Voice
Response systems, social media platform such as
Facebook and Twitter, chat applications such as
Whatsapp, blogs, radio programs and tv programs. The
aim of this research was to assess the e-Extension
platforms used in Kenya, whose purpose is to advise
millions of farmers across different parts of the country
using ICT platforms. 28 government e-Extension officers
employed to advise farmers using ICT platforms were
interviewed. The officers represented 15 different
counties in Kenya. The study made important findings
that would inform the government, agriculture extension
content providers, and other stakeholders on critical
aspects to be considered in deploying and managing eextension
platforms among a population of diverse users
within a developing country.

KARURI J, Waiganjo P, Daniel ORWA. "Determinants of Acceptance and Use of DHIS2 in Kenya: UTAUT-Based Model." Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries. 2017;11(1). Abstractfull text link

Background: In 2010, Kenya initiated the process of adoption and implementation of a web-based system (DHIS2) as the national HIS to facilitate management of routine health information for evidence-based decision making. To reap maximum benefit from this implementation, DHIS2 needed to gain acceptance from all categories of targeted users. This study, conducted between June and August 2014, sought to develop a new technology acceptance model that can better explain the key determinants of acceptance and use of DHIS2 in Kenya.
Methods: The model was adapted from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). An exploratory study was conducted primarily through the use of quantitative methods, but qualitative Key Informant Interview (KII) data was also collected in a pre-study to provide the background and contextual information used in refining the model. In the main phase of the study, a questionnaire was administered to health workers through cross-sectional survey both at national and regional levels.
Results: The total number of valid questionnaires returned was 269 against the 300 that were issued. This number represents slightly more than 20% of the approximately 1,100 health workers who have been trained on DHIS2 in Kenya, and these were drawn from at least 10 of Kenya’s 47 counties. Analysis of the survey data was done in two parts: descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS statistical analysis tool for the purpose of obtaining frequencies, means, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. Subsequently Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and specifically Partial Least Square path modeling (PLS), was used to analyze the conceptual model and test the proposed hypotheses.
Conclusion: The resulting model revealed that social influence was the most pertinent predictor of behavioral intention in the study setting, while facilitating condition and computer anxiety play a significant role in predicting actual use of DHIS2. Findings from this case study can be extended to explain acceptance and use of health IT in other similar settings. Future research can test more variables and moderators to increase the overall predictive levels of the model.

Mukisa MT, Ochieng DO, Waiganjo PW. "Evaluating the sustainability of mHealt h systems in developing countries: the knowledge gap." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;6(7):1363-1367. AbstractJournal website

The use of mobile technology in healthcare, known as mHealth is being explored across the developing countries as part of the effort to tackle growing disease burden through, prevention and appropriate and prompt intervention strategies. Although the
outcomes of some of the implemented mHealth projects have been successful with very promising results, a significant number of the projects have failed after a short period of use. Studies carried out on the failed projects pointed to lack of sustainability. Review of
existing technology evaluation model against the cited challenges reveals significant deficiencies in the models and thus not suitable to evaluate sustainability of mHealth system in developing countries. It is clear that there exist a knowledge gap and hence the need to
develop and validate a suitable mHealth system sustainability evaluation model.
Keywords: Evaluation, mHealth, Model, Sustainability

Mukisa MT, Ochieng DO, Waiganjo PW. "Evaluating the sustainability of mHealt h systems in developing countries: the knowledge gap." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;6(7):1363-1367. AbstractJournal website

The use of mobile technology in healthcare, known as mHealth is being explored across the developing countries as part of the effort to tackle growing disease burden through, prevention and appropriate and prompt intervention strategies. Although the outcomes of some of the implemented mHealth projects have been successful with very promising results, a significant number of the projects have failed after a short period of use. Studies carried out on the failed projects pointed to lack of sustainability. Review of existing technology evaluation model against the cited challenges reveals significant deficiencies in the models and thus not suitable to evaluate sustainability of mHealth system in developing countries. It is clear that there exist a knowledge gap and hence the need to develop and validate a suitable mHealth system sustainability evaluation model.
Keywords: Evaluation, mHealth, Model, Sustainability

Klopp J, Orwa D, Wagacha PW, Williams S, White A. "Informal 2.0: Seeing and Improving Urban Informal Practices through Digital Technologies The Digital Matatus case in Nairobi." Field Actions Science Reports. The journal of field actions. 2017;(16):39-43. Abstractfull text link

Conceived out of collaboration between Kenyan and American universities and the technology sector in Nairobi, Digital Matatus shows how to leverage the ubiquitous nature of cellphone technology to collect missing data for essential infrastructure - including those with high levels of informality. The project captured transit data in standardized form for Nairobi’s semi-formal bus system, developed the first public transit map for such a system and made the map and data free to the public, spurring innovation and improved services for citizens.
While most cities develop sophisticated IT projects to make their organization smarter, the Digital Matatus case suggests the value of a much more modest and bottom-up approach: it encourages reliance on common technologies like cellphones to understand and improve existing urban services – that often involve informality – in emerging countries. By developing the first-ever high quality data set and map of the Matatu network (very common semi-informal mini-buses in Kenya), the projects promotes a new, low-cost and more practical vision of smart and transit-oriented cities.

2013
2012
Orwa OD, Mwololo WT, Okoyo OJ. "Mobile Interfaced Crop Diagnostic Expert System." Internal Journal of Services Economics and Management. 2012;4(1):4-26.
Orwa OD. User-Centric ICT Adoption Model for Rural Farming Communities in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
2011
Orwa OD, Okoyo OJ. Mobile Interfaced Crop Diagnostic Expert System. 1.0.0 ed. University of Nairoboi; 2011.
2009
2008
Orwa OD, JDMoore. "Regional and Cultural Accessibility for the Java Micro Edition Africa.". In: JavaOne. San Francisco, USA; 2008.
Orwa OD, Lucy M. "Innovative Design Approach for Technology Adoption for Semi-illiterate Users in Rural Kenya.". In: HCI for Community and International Development. Florence Italy; 2008.
Orwa OD, Sarah K, Nelson C. Remote 3D Recosntruction System . KCCT Nairobi: COSCIT; 2008.
2005
Orwa OD. Reform in Kenya's Education Sector; Case for Use of ICT. Nairobi, Kenya: NEPAD; 2005.
2004
Orwa OD. SIDA ICT Survey for the Governance, Law and Order Sector (GJLOS). Nairobi Kenya: Swedish International Development Agency; 2004.
2003
Orwa OD. ICT in Kenya's Economic Recovery. Nairobi: KEPSA and UNDP; 2003.
1996
Orwa OD. Multi-User Remote Processing System. China: Shanghai University; 1996.

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