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Publications


2014

Odhiambo, DO.  2014.  Audience Reception of Communication Messages in Promoting Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: A Study of the Luo Community in Western Kenya. , Nairobi: Moi University Abstractphd_thesis__audience_reception_of_communication_messages_in_promoting_male_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention.pdf

Despite the promising role of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in HIV prevention, its promotion as a prevention strategy remains a challenge and a persistent barrier to meeting the national target of circumcising 860,000 men in Nyanza by 2015. Part of this failure is attributed to the initial rejection of VMMC by the Luo council of Elders, largely due to the myths and misperceptions of VMMC, and the resultant negative cultural connotations. By helping to change retrogressive norms and cultural values, VMMC communication is strategic in legitimizing MC as a necessary strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This is achieved by creating a climate in which talk about sex and HIV transmission is considered acceptable, valuable and proper rather than shameful, unacceptable and against the social norms. Successful uptake of VMMC in this community therefore necessitates a renegotiation of meaning of VMMC for health purposes. This study sought to analyze the audience reception of the communication strategies used in scaling-up VMMC uptake among the Luo community. Specifically, the study aimed to determine how communication strategies used in promoting VMMC have influenced the decision making processes regarding its adoption as a HIV prevention strategy. A mixture of probability and non-probability sampling procedures were applied to identify 800 men and women aged 15- 60 years, who participated in the study. A mixed approach involving a questionnaire survey, in-depth Key informant interviews and focus group discussions was then used to generate data. Statistical analysis was conducted to draw conclusions from quantitative data, while Qualitative data was analyzed through coding and identification of emerging themes. Findings suggest that mass media channels were initially used to communicate prescriptive messages with minimal attempts to raise critical consciousness to stimulate VMMC uptake among targeted audiences. However, these messages were found to have some influence on decisions to undergo VMMC among the younger age groups (18-25 years). Messages that were narrowly framed to exclude other health benefits of VMMC contributed in the low rate of uptake and low acceptability of VMMC among older men. Based on the findings, it is recommended that VMMC services be integrated in other health interventions besides HIV prevention to promote benefits for men and women. There is also a need to review the VMMC communication strategy to include use of participatory communication in which opinion leaders, peer educators, and role models play a central role in capturing positive narratives that promote VMMC.

1998

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1998.  Emerging psychosocial needs for people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing private commercial anti-retroviral treatment in some selected Hospitals in Nairobi - Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1998.  Legal, ethical and Gender implications of implementation of programmes on the Reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1998.  Emerging psychosocial needs for people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing private commercial anti-retroviral treatment in some selected Hospitals in Nairobi - Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

1997

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1997.  The role of psychosocial support to children infected and affected by HIV/AIDS: A WOFAK Experience. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

1996

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1996.  The role of legal education and awareness in reducing stigma and discrimination among HIV positive people. presented at the XIIth international conference on AIDS/STDs Vancouver Canada 7th - 12th July 1996. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

1994

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1994.  Gender, Policy & HIV: Reproductive Rights. A paper presented at the 10th International Conference in STD / AIDS, Yokohama, Japan, August 1994. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1994.  Integrating AIDS Education in young women. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1994.  Law, Ethics and HIV: Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1994.  istening skills as an active process. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

1993

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1993.  The Role of People Living with HIV and AIDS in AIDS Education and Awareness. A poster and oral presentation at the 8th International Conference of AIDS in Africa: Morocco, Marakech 12th - 16th December 1993. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1993.  Effective ways of communicating the dangers of HIV infection among rural women in Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1993.  Women and AIDS: The Vulnerability Issue. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1993.  Attitudes & problems of implementing a policy of English across the Curriculum. A Paper presented at a National Seminar Analysis English across the Curriculum, Nairobi 1993. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

1992

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1992.  Dissemination or Method. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1992.  8-4-4 system of education and the teaching of English The way forward Research Paper. presented at the international conference on communication and education, Nairobi, 1992. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1992.  Analysis of Time Use among First Year Students of Moi University. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY, MRSOMOLLO.  1992.  Sensitizing students to small group work. A paper presented at the International Conference of Communication Skills, Nairobi, 1992. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

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