O., DROYATSIDONALDP, M. PROFMACHARIAW.  2005.  Bacterial isolates in severely malnourished children at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi . East Afr Med J 82:343-48. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To identify bacterial isolates and determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern in children with severe Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) presenting at the Paediatric Filter Clinic (PFC) of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Hospital based cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Paediatric Filter Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a tertiary level teaching institution for the University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Children between two and sixty months presenting at the hospital outpatient filter clinic with severe malnutrition. RESULTS: Ninety-one children, forty six female and forty five males, were recruited for the study. Of these, sixty had Marasmus, twenty Kwashiorkor and eleven Marasmic-Kwashiorkor. HIV serology was positive in 43% of study subjects. There were 30 bacterial isolates from 26 subjects. Ten bacterial isolates were gram positive and twenty gram negative. Isolation rates did not vary by HIV serological status. Twenty one out of the 30 isolates were from blood culture. About 1/3 of the gram positive isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci, largely resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol and even Oxacillin. More than half demonstrated resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while 80% of all gram positive and negative isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Aminoglycosides, Gentamicin and Amikacin, and third generation Cephalosporins, Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime, were found to be effective against most gram-negative isolates. CONCLUSION: Nearly a third (28.9%) of children admitted with severe malnutrition at KNH have concomitant severe bacterial infections; primarily manifesting as bacteraemia. Gram-negative agents are responsible for most severe bacterial infections in children admitted at the KNH, regardless of their HIV serological status. Whenever possible, blood culture should be included in the initial septic screening of severely malnourished children at KNH. In the absence of culture and sensitivity information, ciprofloxacin should be considered among the first line options in the empirical treatment of severe bacterial infections among these children. Clinical trials to further evaluate in-vivo effectiveness of various single or combination antibiotics are recommended. PMID: 16167706 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O., DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP.  2005.  Daytime encopresis associated with gland mal epileptic seizures: case report.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40. PMID: 16261923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP.. East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Sphincteric incontinence of stool and urine are not unusual features of generalised epileptic seizures. Isolated secondary encopresis as a manifestation of an epileptic seizure is unusual. This report is of, a four year old boy, with daytime secondary non-retentive encopresis. The onset of encopresis was preceded by several episodes of nocturnal generalised tonic clonic epileptic seizures. An electroencephalogram showed features consistent with complex partial seizures. He was commenced on anti-epileptic treatment with phenytoin sodium, and by the third day of treatment, the patient had achieved stool control.


O., DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP.  2002.  Multiple cranial nerve palsies complicating tympanomastoiditis: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):665-6.PMID: 12678451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP.. East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):665-6.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Otitis media either acute or chronic, is not uncommon in childhood. Multiple cranial nerve palsies occuring as a complication of either form of otitis media is unusual. A case of a nine year old boy with chronic suppurative otitis media with associated mastoiditis complicated with ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve palsies is presented. A skull X-ray and MRI scan showed sclerotic mastoids. The outcome on antibiotic treatment was good.


O., DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL.  1999.  Incidence of rickets of prematurity at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. PMID: 10442123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.. East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.

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