Publications


2005

O, PROFORINDADA.  2005.  Rajab JA, Muchina WP, Orinda DA, Scott CS.Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7.. East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks–Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) and Western Region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution, mean, median, and 95% percentile ranges of haemoglobin (Hb), red cell parameters (red cell count, haematocrit, MCV, MCH and MCHC), total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, and platelet counts in the two donor populations. RESULTS: A significant number of donations (16.5% in Kisumu and 3.4% in Nairobi) showed haemoglobin levels below the recommended National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) guideline of 42g/unit. Compared to Kisumu, Nairobi donors had significantly (p < 0.001) higher Hb, MCV and MCH values while the red blood cell counts and MCHC values were similar (p > 0.05). A low MCV (< 78 fl) was observed in 12.4% and 3.4% of Kisumu and Nairobi donors respectively. Both populations showed similar but significant frequencies (Kisumu, 21.3%; Nairobi, 18.7%) of mild neutropenia (< 1.5 x 10(9)/1), while eosinophilia (> 0.5 x 10(9)/1 in the tropics the cut off is > 0.6 x 109) was more prominent in Kisumu donors (18.8% versus 8.5%). Platelet counts were also significantly lower in Kisumu donors, with the prevalence of thrombocytopenia (< 150 x 10(9)/1) being considerably higher (15.9% versus 3.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of Kenyan donors showed abnormal haematology profiles that may indicate underlying pathology. Such abnormalities are not detected by current blood transfusion services screening practices and there may be a need to strengthen donor selection criteria to protect both donors and recipients.
O, PROFORINDADA, A DRRAJABJAMILLA, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE.  2005.  Rajab JA, Waithaka PM, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Analysis of cost and effectiveness of pre-transfusion screening of donor blood and anti-malarial prophylaxis for recipients. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malaria in donor units in a low and a high endemic region in Kenya and evaluate the cost effectiveness of recipient anti-malarial prophylaxis and pre-transfusion screening (using an automated method) as options to prevent post transfusion malaria. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks, Nairobi and its environs (National Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) a low malaria endemic region and western region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu) high malaria endemic region. SUBJECTS: All the donated units were included in the study for analysis, during the duration of study, from the two study sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of malaria in donor units in low endemic area (Nairobi) and high endemic area (Kisumu). Cost per case prevented for the two options, Option I Prophylactic administration of anti-malarial (sulfadoxine pyrimethamine SP) drugs to recipients, and Option II pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. RESULTS: A malaria prevalence of 0.67% was found in Nairobi and its environments (low endemic) and 8.63% for Kisumu and its environments (high endemic area). The cost analysis showed a cost per case prevented of Ksh.105 (US$1.4) adult, Ksh.52.5 (US$0. 69) and paediatric for the option of recipient prophylaxis using an SP based drug. The cost escalated to Ksh.592 (US$7.79) adult Ksh.444 (US$5.84) paediatric if the prophylaxis was upgraded to the recommended artemisinin derivative (ACT-artemisinin based combination) and for the option of pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique the cost was Ksh.2.08 (US$0.03). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria in donors showed the expected regional variation in the low and high endemic areas and was comparable to data obtained elsewhere. If malaria positive donor units were to be excluded from the national blood supply, an estimated 5% (compared to 1.3% for human Immunodeficiency virus, 3.6% for hepatitis B virus and 1.3% for hepatitis C virus) would be wasted. The cost per case prevented of transfusion-associated malaria is considerably higher for recipient antimalarial prophylaxis than pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. The cost escalates by five to seven times if the newer artemesinin based combination antimalarial drugs are adopted.

2001

O, PROFORINDADA.  2001.  Musoke RN, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA, Mbiti MJ.Do healthy very-low-birth-weight infants fed on their own mothers' milk require sodium supplementation? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:431-7. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:431-7.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary.

1995

O, PROFORINDADA.  1995.  Guidelines for Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management in Laboratory Medicine.M. J. N. Mbiti and D.A.O. Orinda C.C.A.K. Publication First Edition 1995.. C.C.A.K. Publication First Edition 1995.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers' milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was unnecessary.

1994

O, PROFORINDADA.  1994.  Nyakundi PM, Kinuthia DW, Orinda DA. Clinical aspects and causes of rickets in a Kenyan population. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions.
O, PROFORINDADA.  1994.  Nyakundi PM, Kinuthia DW, Orinda DA. Clinical aspects and causes of rickets in a Kenyan population.East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):536-42.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Nairobi. Twenty nine patients with rickets were studied in a one year period. The majority of patients (17/29) were below 2 years of age. Most of them had nutritional rickets resulting from a combination of factors. Premature delivery, nonexposure to sunlight, nutritional marasmus and inappropriate dietary intake. Some had familial hypophosphataemic rickets, others had renal tubular acidosis while the rest had rickets with a familial tendency. Both the previous hospital records and the present study indicate that rickets is a persistent problem in children in the community and should be suspected in children who present with features of failure to thrive, among other conditions. PMID: 7867549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1994.  Related Articles, LinksMbiti MJ, Orinda DA, Ojwang PJ.Reference intervals for some biochemical parameters in the aged Kenyan population.East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7.. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Serum levels for sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphate, urea nitrogen and creatinine were determined in 1101 male and 181 female patients aged 50 years and above. The determinations were carried out on the SMA II (Technicon Instruments Corp. Tarrytown, NY 10591) with a view to establish the reference intervals for this age group. Quality control of the analytical methods was carried alongside with the determinations. The data collected was used to determine the reference intervals using a simple statistical method. The results indicate that sodium and calcium intervals are low with values of 131-142 mMol/L and 1.94-2.32 mMol/L respectively, in the aged Kenyan population as compared to subjects living in the temperate environment while the interval for inorganic phosphate is comparatively high with a value of 1.2-1.97 mMol/L. Reference values for urea nitrogen, potassium and creatinine were found to be similar to those quoted for caucasians.
O, PROFORINDADA.  1994.  Johansen MV, Simonsen PE, Butterworth AE, Ouma JH, Mbugua GG, Sturrock RF, Orinda DA, Christensen NO. A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya.Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8.. Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund. The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p < 0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p < 0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.
O, PROFORINDADA.  1994.  Reference Intervals for some biochemical parameters in the aged Kenyan black population.Mbiti M. J. N., Ojwang P. J. , D.A.O. Orinda E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 71, No. 12, 1994.. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):84-7.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Serum levels for sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphate, urea nitrogen and creatinine were determined in 1101 male and 181 female patients aged 50 years and above. The determinations were carried out on the SMA II (Technicon Instruments Corp. Tarrytown, NY 10591) with a view to establish the reference intervals for this age group. Quality control of the analytical methods was carried alongside with the determinations. The data collected was used to determine the reference intervals using a simple statistical method. The results indicate that sodium and calcium intervals are low with values of 131-142 mMol/L and 1.94-2.32 mMol/L respectively, in the aged Kenyan population as compared to subjects living in the temperate environment while the interval for inorganic phosphate is comparatively high with a value of 1.2-1.97 mMol/L. Reference values for urea nitrogen, potassium and creatinine were found to be similar to those quoted for caucasians.

1993

O, PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA.  1993.  Mbiti MJ, Ojwang PJ, Orinda DA. External quality control performance in clinical chemistry: experience in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20.. East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.
O, PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA.  1993.  Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA. Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.. East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
O, PROFORINDADA.  1993.  External quality control performance in Clinical Chemistry experience in Kenya M. J. N. Mbiti, P. J. Ojwang and D.A.O. Orinda E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 70, No. 4 April, 1993.. East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.

1992

O, PROFORINDADA.  1992.  Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA. Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis.East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism.
O, PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA.  1992.  Mbiti MJ, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA. Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk: II. Effects on protein and bone metabolism.East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):627-30.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):627-30.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kenyatta National Hospital, University of Nairobi, Kenya. We determined serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin levels in a group of 66 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. We used these parameters as markers to study the effect of sodium supplementation on protein and bone metabolism in VLBW infants fed on their mothers' milk. 41 of the infants were supplemented with 3 mMol/kg/day sodium chloride for a duration of six weeks of postnatal life. The remaining group were fed only on their mothers' milk. Results indicated significantly increased serum levels of calcium (P < 0.01) in the non-supplemented group while inorganic phosphate and total protein levels showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in the supplemented group. Both groups had increased levels of osteoblastic activity accompanied by high rate of protein synthesis in the supplemented group compared to the non-supplemented one. These findings together with a significant difference in growth rate (P < 0.01) observed between the two groups indicate that sodium supplementation may have a significant effect on the rate of bone mineralization and protein synthesis in VLBW infants.

1991

O, PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA.  1991.  Conversion from cyclosporin to azathioprine in renal allograft recipients. East Afr Med J. 1991 Sep;68(9):720-6.. East Afr Med J. 1991 Sep;68(9):720-6.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Renal function in five patients who were on a combination of Cyclosporin A (CyA) and Prednisone for 2-6 years following renal transplantation, were evaluated, in order to consider change from CyA-prednisone combination to conventional therapy. (Azathioprine-prednisone combination). This was necessitated by CyA nephrotoxicity, its high cost and unreliable monitoring. The maintenance dose of CyA ranged between 200 and 400 mg per day. The BUN levels during CyA treatment ranged from 6 to 15 mmol/l (normal 3.7-6.7 mmol/l), and plasma creatinine from 200 to 300 Umol/l (normal 67-107 Umol/l). The serum electrolytes were normal. The urine outputs were normal. Rejections were treated by pulses of one gram of methyl-prednisolone daily for 3 days. Maintenance prednisolone ranged from 10-15 mg per day. After tapering off the CyA and eventually stopping it, Azathioprine 100-150 mg daily with prednisolone 10-15 mg per day were instituted. There were significant drops in creatinine and BUN levels after the change over, with general well being and good urinary outputs. The patients refused consent for renal biopsy to prove CyA histologic toxicity.

1990

O, PROFORINDADA.  1990.  Cholelithiasis in the Kenyan African. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60.. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
A prospective and retrospective review of 20 cases of cholelithiasis diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and June 1989 was done. Females were more often affected (6 times) than their male counterparts. 94% of the females were parous with a mean parity of 5.6. Most patients were in the 4th decade at the time of diagnosis. Qualitative analysis for gall-stones showed evidence of cholesterol in all stones analysed with calcium being detected in only one female patient.

1989

O, PROFORINDADA.  1989.  Fasting insulin levels in normal Kenyan Africans and a case report on insulinoma.E. O. Ogutu and D.A.O. Orinda,E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 66 No. 12, December 1989.. E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 66 No. 12, December 1989.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
The mean fasting insulin level in 30 apparently normal Kenyan Africans was determined by Radio-Immuno Assay (RIA) technique based on coat A-count. The mean value was found as 16.33 microIu/ml with a standard deviation (s.d) of 10.51 microIu/ml. The mean at 95% confidence interval (CI) for the population studied was 16.33 +/- 1.92. The findings are similar to what have been reported among the caucasians. This paper also reports on a case of insulinoma in a young female patient at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

1988

O, PROFORINDADA.  1988.  Orinda DA, Braddick M, Meme J, Achola JO, Achola P. Concentrations of thyroid hormones in maternal and cord blood from a normal Kenyan population.Clin Chem. 1988 Nov;34(11):2371.. Clin Chem. 1988 Nov;34(11):2371.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Dept. of Human Pathol., Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 3180436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1986

O, PROFORINDADA.  1986.  Focal paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. A. M. Adam, and D.A.O. Orinda, J. Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959.. Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Dept. of Human Pathol., Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 3180436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1985

O, PROFORINDADA.  1985.  A clinical, biochemical and histochemical study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8.. East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

1983

O, PROFORINDADA.  1983.  Tolerability of Sulphametrole/Trimethoprim (Lidaprim) in patient with G6PD-A Deficiency.D.A.O. Orinda, I. Bowner, J. O. O. Ndinya Achola, N. Nsanze and R. H. Ellison.Presented at the 3rd Conference of African Union Against Veneral Disease and Trepanematos. 3rd Conference of African Union Against Veneral Disease and Trepanematoses. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

1981

O, PROFORINDADA.  1981.  Kasili EG, Orinda DA, Mudasia J.Serum lysozyme (muramidase) levels in the normal and various pathological states in Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 7249984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1981.  Serum Lysozymes (Muramidase) levels in the normal and various Pathological States in Kenyan African.E. G. Kasili, D.A.O. Orinda, and J. Mudasia E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 58 No. 3, Marhc (1981).. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):163-70.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 7249984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1980

O, PROFORINDADA.  1980.  Odonga AM, Wambwa JR, Orinda DA.Acute intermittent porphyria in an East African female.East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. No abstract available.. East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1980.  Acute Intermittent Porphyria in an East Africa Female.A.M. Odonga, J. R. Wambwa and D.A.O. Orinda,E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 57, No. 10 p 716, (1980). East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1978

G, PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA, G PROFGATEIDAVID.  1978.  Gatei DG, Odhiambo PA, Orinda DA, Muruka FJ, Wasunna A. Retrospective study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.. Cancer Res. 1978 Feb;38(2):303-7.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
O, PROFORINDADA.  1978.  Rate of Tumour inhibition by Activated Macrophages in Vitro D.A.O. Orinda, E. A. Med. Journal, Vol 55 No. 4 April 1978. East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 679868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1978.  Orinda DA.Rate of tumour inhibition by activated macrophages in vitro.East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. No abstract available.. East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 679868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1978.  Plasma Oestradiol . E. A. Med. Journal, Vol. 55 No. 4 April 1978.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A., PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA.  1978.  Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya. Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).

1977

G, PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA.  1977.  Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans. East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20.. East Afr Med J. 1977 Nov;54(11):615-20.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1977.  Beta-glucuronidase in human mammary carcinomas. East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8.. East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8.. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.

1975

O, PROFORINDADA.  1975.  O'Malley JA, Ho YK, Chakrabarti P, DiBerardino L, Chandra P, Orinda DA, Byrd DM, Bardos TJ, Carter WA.Antiviral activity of partially thiolated polynucleotides. Mol Pharmacol. 1975 Jan;11(1):61-9. No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for . Molecular Pharmacology II, 61-69, (1975).. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1975.  Antiviral Activity of Partially Thiolated Plynucleotides. J.A. D. Molecular Pharmacology II, 61-69, (1975).. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1973

O, PROFORINDADA.  1973.  Activirale Aktivitat von Inhaltastoffen der Composite Echinacea purpurea.D.A.O. Orinda, et al Arrneim. Forsch. (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973). (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973). : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1972

O, PROFORINDADA.  1972.  Antitumour Activity of Polyinosinic-polycytidylic Acid in combination with some Biologically Active Compounds. D.A. O. Orinda, D. Gerricke and P. Chandra Z. Fur Krebesforechung 78, 219 . Fur Krebesforechung 78, 219 . : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O, PROFORINDADA.  1972.  Orinda DA, Gericke D, Chandra P..Antitumor activity of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid in combination with some biologically active compounds.Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1972;78(3):219-24. No abstract available.PMID: 4345829 [PubMed - . Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1972;78. : Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*) Abstract
No abstract available.PMID: 4345829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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