Publications

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2013
Njagi JM, Piero MN, Ngeranwa JJN, Kibiti CM, Njue WM, Maina D, Gathumbi PK. "Assessment of Antidiabetic Potential of Ficus Sycomorus on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a predominant public health concern, causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications. Many of the conventional drugs used for the management of this disease are not only expensive but also have numerous side effects. Herbal medications are cheaper and locally available. Many plants have been traditionally used to manage diabetes without authentication on their antidiabetic properties and assessment of their safety. In this study aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus sycomorus was assessed for its antidiabetic potential along with evaluation its preliminary in vivo toxicity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results show that the plant harbours remarkable antidiabetic potential. It safely lowered blood glucose level to levels below what insulin, the model drug, lowers, in a dose-dependent manner.

2012
Njagi, L. W., Ngugi MP, Kibiti CM, Ngeranwa JNJ, Njagi, L. W., Njue, M. Wilson, Maina D, Gathumbi PK. "Hypoglycemic effects of caesalpinia volkensii on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the target cells. Most conventional therapies for the management of type II diabetes include oral hypoglycemic drugs, exercise, diet and physical intervention therapies such as Acupuncture. Insulin is used in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Through ages different communities have used medicinal herbs for diabetes mellitus management. Today herbal remedies are gaining popularity because the efficacy of conventional medicine is on the wane. This study was designed to bioscreen aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii for its hypoglycemic potential. Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. The three tested dose levels (50, 100, and 150mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose levels appreciably. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity. The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues. The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus.

Mulwa 1. BM, Maina DM, Patel JP. "Multielemental Analysis of Limestone and Soil Samples of Kitui South (Kenya) Limestone Deposits." IJFPS. 2012;Vol. 2(No.4):pp. 48-51.
2010
Ntihabose L, Patel JP, Maina DM, Angeyo HK. "NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda.". In: 3rd African IRPA Congress . Laico Hotel, Rwanda; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Bioavailability of Essential Trace elements in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Eastern parts of Kenya as determined using the EDXRF Technique. B. K. Nyilitya1, D. M. Maina1, L. W. Njenga2 and J. M. Onyari2.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "DISTRIBUTION OF CD AND ZN LEVELS IN SOILS AND ACACIA XANTHOPHLOEA BENTH. FROM LAKE NAKURU NATIONAL PARK KENYA. N. Dharani, J. M. Onyari, J. I. Kinyamario, D. M. Maina, K. M. Mavuti.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "IONOMIC VARIATION CHARACTERIZATION IN AFRICAN LEAFY VEGETABLES FOR MICRONUTRIENTS USING XRF AND HPLC Akundabweni LSM, Mulokozi G and DM Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "MINERAL MICRONUTRIENT DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (XRF) ANALYSIS IN FOUR ON-FARM KENYAN WILD AFRICAN FRUIT TREE GERMPLASM Akundabweni LSM, Munene RW, Maina DM and Mangala JM.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda L. Ntihabose, J. P. Patel, H. K. Angeyo, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Radiactivity and dose assessment of limestone samples from Kitui South Limestone Deposits-Kenya B. Mulwa and J. P. Patel, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract
Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of limestone samples collected from Kitui South have been measured using Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma ray spectrometry.  A total of 48 samples were collected from the limestone rock outcrops in the region.  The average activity concentrations varied from 28.3 to 47.4 with a mean value of 35.9 Bq/kg and 87.4 to 142.6 with an average of 108.5 Bq/Kg for 226Ra and 40K respectively.  232Th was below detection limits in all the samples.  The value of the absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose rates, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index were all below the maximum recommended values for radiological safety and showed good comparison within other studies in the world.    
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Radiometric Characteristics of Artisanal Coltan Ore Extraction and Processing in Rwanda L. Ntihabose, J. P. Patel, H. K. Angeyo, D. M. Maina.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract
The use of products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) such as minerals, quarry, sand, clays, etc is widespread in Rwanda, but they are not subject to radiological quality control.  This paper presents the results of studies on the occupational radiation exposure due NORM in the extraction and processing of the Columbite-Tantalite (Coltan) mineral in the Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma areas of Rwanda, by artisanal miners.  Activity concentration of primordial radionuclides, 40K, 238U and 232Th series in coltan ore (extracted, processed), soil, and mine tailing sediment were determined by HPGe-based gamma-ray spectrometry.  The average activity             concentrations of 238U were 50.2-972.9 Bq kg-1, 64.3-2011.8 Bq kg-1 and 70.7-853.3 Bq kg-1 in Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma respectively.  These values are far higher than the world average of 35 Bq kg-1.  In all samples from the three regions, the activity concentrations of 40K were below average of 500 Bq kg-1 with the processed ore being   the lowest (< 30 Bq kg-1).  This implies that 40K is primarily in soil and not the ore.  The  average activity of 232Th (44.78-75.5 Bq kg-1) for processed coltan was greater than the world average, while the average activity for 232Th (26.7 Bq kg-1) in the extracted coltan was below the world wide average.  This indicates that 232Th is enhanced when processing coltan.  Based on these values and the working scenarios in artisanal coltan        mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculation.  The working scenarios considered included digging to exposure the coltan ore, drying the coltan in open air, grinding, and sieving the dried coltan.  The exposure pathways considered in the dose calculation included external exposure due to gamma-rays from bulk materials containing gamma emitting  radionuclides, external exposure due to sumersions in air containing radioactive dust and the internal exposure due to ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides.  Among the exposure pathways considered, inhalation of coltan bearing dust resulted in the highest does while crushing and sieving coltan in the mill; 0.27, 0.52, 0.25 mSv per annum on  average in Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma respectively.  These values are below 1 mSv y-1 which are the values recommended by ICRP for the public and occupational exposure respectively.  These results are however important in establishing radiological regulatory  protocol for occupational exposure in artisanal coltan mining since the area is a HBRA (X 11 the world average).  Key words:  Coltan; Processed coltan; Extracted coltan; Background radiation, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); High Background Radiation Areas (HBRA).    
2009
2008
2007
Mustapha, A O; Kalambuka MOKMKHA; DM;. "Needs For Education And Training In Radiation Protection: Kenya Experience.". 2007.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Njenga L.W., Maina D.M., Kariuki D.N., Mwangi F.K. "Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya".". In: Journal. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
2006
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi.". In: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, International Aerosol Conference, St Paul Minnesota, USA,10 -15 September 2006: Poster presentation, Joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Afric, 17 -23 September 2006. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi.". In: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the International Aerosol Conference, St. Paul Minnesota, USA, 10-15 September 2006: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceeding of the joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 17 - 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mount Kenya.". In: J. Geophs. Res., under correction after review. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006.
2005
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Aluminium exporsure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya.". In: 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Drinking of fresh vegetable raw juices for both cleansing and cure therapy has become very common in Kenya. Fresh raw vegetable juices have been recommended because they can boost the required minerals and vitamins in the body. This work was carried out to evaluate the amount of labile aluminium content in fresh raw vegetable juices and compare it with the total aluminium in vegetables. In addition, another objective was to determine the amount of aluminium leached out from aluminium pots during cooking. Out of 18 different vegetables analyzed, total alminium ranged from 0.096 mg g-1 to 1.06. mg kg-1; carrots contained the lowest values while parsely contained the highest values. Labile aluminium in fresh raw vegetable juice ranged from 0.003 mg ml-1 to 0.181 mg ml-1 and this gave 1 to 30% of the total aluminium. The amount taken per day during juice therapy, either as a detoxifier or a cure, ranged from 0.95 mg day-1 to as high as 40.22 mg day-1. But levels as high as 321.78 mg can be consumed depending on the volume of the juice consumed per day. The total aluminium consumed during juice therapy was found to be higher than that recommended by WHO. Aluminium pots were found to leach out some aluminium and the amount leached out was found to depend on the storage time and the age of the pot. Key words: Aluminium in vegetables, Nairobi, Kenya, vegetable juices, total and labile aluminium.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., "Trace Element categorization of pollution sources in the Equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya".". In: X-ray Spectometry, 34:118-123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., Oral presentation "Study of inorganic and black carbon aerosols at a high altitude site on Mount Kenya, East Africa".". In: Oral presentation, The 6th informal conference on atmospheric and molecular science at Helsingor, Denmark, 3 - 5 June 2005. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J.,Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C, Space Measurements of near surface aerosols in the central district of Nairobi City, Kenya.". In: Poster presentation, abstrct in the preceedings, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2000), Ghent, Belgium, 28 August . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Concentration levels in Lates Niloticus, A Fish Species from Lake Victoria.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Lake Victoria is the main source of fish that is consumed in the major towns in Kenya, including the city of Nairobi. Some of the fish is also exported to Europe. Surveillance and assessment of heavy metals in the fish is important to ensure compliance with stipulated standards for human consumption. Obviously, noncompliance would lead to adverse health effects to the consumers as well as a ban on our fish exports.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Content of Leafy Vegetables grown on sludge amended soils.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "The Impact of Environmental Lead Poisoning on Iron and Haemoglobin Status in Kenya.". In: 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Investigation of the Essential Trace Element concentrations and Chemical safety of Pica Products consumed in some regions of Kenya and Tanzania.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Pica is the habit of eating non-food stuffs. Geophagia is a particular form of pica in which an individual consumes soil and soil related products. It is particularly common among pregnant women and young children. It is generally assumed that the cause of this habit is the lack of certain essential minerals such iron. However, these products may contain other non-essential elements that may cause harm to the consumers. It is therefore important to characterize them and evaluate the health status.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Lead Concentration in Milk and Cereal Products commonly consumed in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Environmental pollutants arise from many sources, and exposure may occur through different routes. Some pollutants of particular concern are airborne substances, which occur primarily in suspended particles. These include sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide and lead oxide, among others. Although lead is an environmental and public health hazard of global proportions, the global dimensions of poisoning emanating from this heavy metal remain poorly understood due to persistent lack of information. Leaded petrol (gasoline) causes more widespread human exposure to lead than any other single source. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead contamination in milk and some selected commercial flour brands in Kenya.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Microbial Quality of Ready-to-Drink Juice brands sold in the Kenyan Market.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Preservation of the juice is achieved mainly through canning, freezing or addition of microbial inhibitors, which include ascorbic acid, benzoic acid or their salts. In addition to the juice or their concentrates, acids, natural or artificial flavours and colours may also added. The ready-to-drink juices available in Kenya market are normally artificial flavours and colours may also added. The ready-to-drink juices available in Kenyan market are normally artificially made using a blend of colour, flavour and pH to simulate natural tastes and conditions. However, the safety of these juices has been a subject of debat in the recent past. Due to proliferation of the manufacturing industries and distribution points, their microbial quality is of concern as these products are highly consumed by children in urban areas in Kenya.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace element categorization of pollution sources in the equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry, 34:118-123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace element studies in traditional Kenyan diets.". In: Journal. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace Elements in some selected dietary staples in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
M. MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Urban Farming along Nairobi River: How Safe are the Food Crops.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Nairobi River originates from a swamp near Kikuyu town, about 24 kilometres west of Nairobi city centre and meanders across the city covering a stretch of about 30 kilometres. Within the city area, the river is contaminated by runoff waters; untreated effluent from residential areas and small-scale industries; and a significant volume of treated wastewaters from Kariobangi Sewerage Treatment Works. Its waters are used for various purposes, in particular agricultural, both within and outside the city environs. Most often the food crops grown along this river appear healthy and are attractive to customers. However, it is suspected that the waters used for irrigation purposes may contain high levels of heavy metals and these may end up being assimilated by these food crops and thereafter enter the food chain.
2004
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J.B.C., Application of Cd109 Source in evaluation of background industrial aerosols in Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. - 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Conference on X-ray Spectrometry (XRS2004), Alghero, Italy, 6 - 11 June 2004. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., "study of trace metals in PM10 at Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station on Mount Kenya, Kenya, east Africa". European Aerosol Conference at Budapest, Hungary, 6 - 10 September 2004.". In: Poster presentation, European Aerosol Conference (EAC2004), Budapest, Hungary, 6 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004.
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Maina D.M., Air pollution problems in the perspective of the Kenyan situation, regulation and awareness.". In: Oral Presentation, International workshop on Environmental Health education in the Eastern African region: challenges and the way forward at Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. 24 - 26 March 2004. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2004.
2003
MANGALA MJ, Korier KA, Maina DM, Kinyua AM. Determination of Trace Elements in Mineral Water Samples using Total Reflection X ray Fluorescence (TXRF).; 2003. Abstract

Preliminary results of trace element analysis by TXRF of drinking tap water, various brands of local and imported bottled water samples sold in Nairobi as mineral are presented. The levels of potassium(K) ranged from 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml, calcium(Ca) 2.2 to 120 μg/ml, titanium(Ti) 11 to 60 μg/l, manganese(Mn)8 to 670 μg/l, iron(Fe)31 to 50 μg/l, copper(Cu) 8 to 30 μg/l, bromine(Br) 9 to 248 μg/l, rubidium(Rb )10 to 40 μg/l, and strontium(Sr)10 to 1000 μg/l. It was found that the local mineral water samples contained higher levels of trace elements especially Mn, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr compared to the imported brands. Principal component analysis of the results revealed three factors with the highest component loadings clustering Rb, Sr, Ca in the first eigenvalue; Ti, Fe, Br, Zn, in the second; Zn, Mn, K in the third. A limited spread of 5–6 mm for a 10μl samples was achievable by completely drying the quartz Suprasil sample carrier in a low pressure (300mbar) oven at temperature of 70oC for 10 hours.

M. MRMAINADAVID. "Development of Technical Capabilities for Sustainable Radiation and Waste Safety .". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-107, p. 9 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards effective and sustainable systems - Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement in Kenya.". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-107, p. 374 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003.
2002
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Trace Element Categorization of Pollution Sources in the Equator Town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: Oral Presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, European Conference on Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry(XRS2002), Berlin, Germany: 16 - 21 June 2002. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002.
M. MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Indoor Radon (222 Rn) Levels in Coastal and Rift Valley Regions of Kenya.". In: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-CN-91/56, p. 401-405,. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002.
2001
M. MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., Inorganic elemental concentrations in near surface aerosols sampled on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya.". In: Atmospheric Environ., 35: 6015-6019. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001.
1996
1987
Hołyńska B, Muia LM, Maina DM. "Evaluation of fundamental parameters method for biological materials and soil analysis by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry.". 1987. AbstractWebsite

Two methods of determination of trace elements in plant materials, viz. the fundamental parameters method (FPM) and the empirical method with the use of standard samples, were compared. Hay CRM and fresh tea leaves were used in measurements. Good agreement was achieved for the determination of a number of elements by both methods. Also Soil-7 Certified Reference Material (CRM) was analysed using emission-transmission method for absorption correction and FPM for concentration determination. The agreement with CRM was found to be reasonably good for several elements.

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