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Publications


2013

Njagi, JM, Piero MN, Ngeranwa JJN, Kibiti CM, Njue WM, Maina D, Gathumbi PK.  2013.  Assessment of Antidiabetic Potential of Ficus Sycomorus on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a predominant public health concern, causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications. Many of the conventional drugs used for the management of this disease are not only expensive but also have numerous side effects. Herbal medications are cheaper and locally available. Many plants have been traditionally used to manage diabetes without authentication on their antidiabetic properties and assessment of their safety. In this study aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus sycomorus was assessed for its antidiabetic potential along with evaluation its preliminary in vivo toxicity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results show that the plant harbours remarkable antidiabetic potential. It safely lowered blood glucose level to levels below what insulin, the model drug, lowers, in a dose-dependent manner.

2012

Njagi, L. W., Ngugi MP, Kibiti CM, Ngeranwa JNJ, Njagi, L. W., Njue, M. Wilson, Maina D, Gathumbi PK.  2012.  Hypoglycemic effects of caesalpinia volkensii on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the target cells. Most conventional therapies for the management of type II diabetes include oral hypoglycemic drugs, exercise, diet and physical intervention therapies such as Acupuncture. Insulin is used in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs are expensive and have numerous side effects. Through ages different communities have used medicinal herbs for diabetes mellitus management. Today herbal remedies are gaining popularity because the efficacy of conventional medicine is on the wane. This study was designed to bioscreen aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii for its hypoglycemic potential. Its in vivo toxicity was also evaluated. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological information on the plant was gathered from the local traditional herbal practitioner. The three tested dose levels (50, 100, and 150mg/kg body weight) lowered blood glucose levels appreciably. Phytochemical screening results show that the aqueous extract has phytochemicals associated with antidiabetic activity. The analysis of trace metal composition of the aqueous extracts showed that it contained Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Chromium and Vanadium, all of which aid in lowering blood glucose levels. Preliminary in vivo histopathological analysis established that the extracts had no toxic effects on the organs and tissues. The study has established that the aqueous leaf extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii are effective and safe for management of diabetes mellitus.

Mulwa, 1. BM, Maina DM, Patel JP.  2012.  Multielemental Analysis of Limestone and Soil Samples of Kitui South (Kenya) Limestone Deposits. IJFPS. Vol. 2(No.4):pp.48-51.

2010

H.K., A, P. PJ, 0. AS, 0. OB, P. O, D. O, W. WG, L. N, M. MD, J. MM, LG. G, A. M, 0. HN, S. MT, G. M, J. O, V. A, R. K, O. MA.  2010.  Status and Prospects in Research Infrastructure Development in Nuclear Analytical Spectrometry and Radiometric Instrumentation Methodologies for Environmental Radiation and Associated Radioactivity Measurements and Modelling Studies in Kenya, 09/30. :1-2., Krakow: IAEA
Ntihabose, L, Patel JP, Maina DM, Angeyo HK.  2010.  NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda, 17th Sep, 2010. 3rd African IRPA Congress . , Laico Hotel, Rwanda
M., MRMAINADAVID, J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL.  2010.  MINERAL MICRONUTRIENT DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (XRF) ANALYSIS IN FOUR ON-FARM KENYAN WILD AFRICAN FRUIT TREE GERMPLASM Akundabweni LSM, Munene RW, Maina DM and Mangala JM. (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2010.  IONOMIC VARIATION CHARACTERIZATION IN AFRICAN LEAFY VEGETABLES FOR MICRONUTRIENTS USING XRF AND HPLC Akundabweni LSM, Mulokozi G and DM Maina. (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2010.  Radiactivity and dose assessment of limestone samples from Kitui South Limestone Deposits-Kenya B. Mulwa and J. P. Patel, D. M. Maina. (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of limestone samples collected from Kitui South have been measured using Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma ray spectrometry.  A total of 48 samples were collected from the limestone rock outcrops in the region.  The average activity concentrations varied from 28.3 to 47.4 with a mean value of 35.9 Bq/kg and 87.4 to 142.6 with an average of 108.5 Bq/Kg for 226Ra and 40K respectively.  232Th was below detection limits in all the samples.  The value of the absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose rates, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index were all below the maximum recommended values for radiological safety and showed good comparison within other studies in the world.    
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2010.  Bioavailability of Essential Trace elements in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Eastern parts of Kenya as determined using the EDXRF Technique. B. K. Nyilitya1, D. M. Maina1, L. W. Njenga2 and J. M. Onyari2. (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2010.  DISTRIBUTION OF CD AND ZN LEVELS IN SOILS AND ACACIA XANTHOPHLOEA BENTH. FROM LAKE NAKURU NATIONAL PARK KENYA. N. Dharani, J. M. Onyari, J. I. Kinyamario, D. M. Maina, K. M. Mavuti. (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2010.  Radiometric Characteristics of Artisanal Coltan Ore Extraction and Processing in Rwanda L. Ntihabose, J. P. Patel, H. K. Angeyo, D. M. Maina. (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
The use of products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) such as minerals, quarry, sand, clays, etc is widespread in Rwanda, but they are not subject to radiological quality control.  This paper presents the results of studies on the occupational radiation exposure due NORM in the extraction and processing of the Columbite-Tantalite (Coltan) mineral in the Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma areas of Rwanda, by artisanal miners.  Activity concentration of primordial radionuclides, 40K, 238U and 232Th series in coltan ore (extracted, processed), soil, and mine tailing sediment were determined by HPGe-based gamma-ray spectrometry.  The average activity             concentrations of 238U were 50.2-972.9 Bq kg-1, 64.3-2011.8 Bq kg-1 and 70.7-853.3 Bq kg-1 in Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma respectively.  These values are far higher than the world average of 35 Bq kg-1.  In all samples from the three regions, the activity concentrations of 40K were below average of 500 Bq kg-1 with the processed ore being   the lowest (< 30 Bq kg-1).  This implies that 40K is primarily in soil and not the ore.  The  average activity of 232Th (44.78-75.5 Bq kg-1) for processed coltan was greater than the world average, while the average activity for 232Th (26.7 Bq kg-1) in the extracted coltan was below the world wide average.  This indicates that 232Th is enhanced when processing coltan.  Based on these values and the working scenarios in artisanal coltan        mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculation.  The working scenarios considered included digging to exposure the coltan ore, drying the coltan in open air, grinding, and sieving the dried coltan.  The exposure pathways considered in the dose calculation included external exposure due to gamma-rays from bulk materials containing gamma emitting  radionuclides, external exposure due to sumersions in air containing radioactive dust and the internal exposure due to ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides.  Among the exposure pathways considered, inhalation of coltan bearing dust resulted in the highest does while crushing and sieving coltan in the mill; 0.27, 0.52, 0.25 mSv per annum on  average in Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma respectively.  These values are below 1 mSv y-1 which are the values recommended by ICRP for the public and occupational exposure respectively.  These results are however important in establishing radiological regulatory  protocol for occupational exposure in artisanal coltan mining since the area is a HBRA (X 11 the world average).  Key words:  Coltan; Processed coltan; Extracted coltan; Background radiation, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); High Background Radiation Areas (HBRA).    
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2010.  NORM and Associated Gamma Radiation Field in the Coltan Mining Areas of Rwanda L. Ntihabose, J. P. Patel, H. K. Angeyo, D. M. Maina. (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People

2009

2008

Braun, David R; Plummer, T; DP; FJMD; BLPRV; C;.  2008.  Oldowan behavior and raw material transport: perspectives from the Kanjera Formation.

2007

Mustapha, A O; Kalambuka, MOKMKHA; DM;.  2007.  Needs For Education And Training In Radiation Protection: Kenya Experience.
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2007.  Njenga L.W., Maina D.M., Kariuki D.N., Mwangi F.K. "Aluminium exposure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya". Journal. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People

2006

M., MRMAINADAVID.  2006.  Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi. Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the International Aerosol Conference, St. Paul Minnesota, USA, 10-15 September 2006: Poster presentation, abstract in the proceeding of the joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 17 - 2. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2006.  Inorganic and black carbon aerosol concentrations at a high altitude on Mount Kenya. J. Geophs. Res., under correction after review. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ.  2006.  Impact of road transport on air quality in Kenya; Roadside survey in the cities of Mombasa and Nairobi. Poster presentation, abstract in the proceedings of the, International Aerosol Conference, St Paul Minnesota, USA,10 -15 September 2006: Poster presentation, Joint CACP-IGAC-WMO Conference, Cape Town, South Afric, 17 -23 September 2006. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People

2005

M., MRMAINADAVID.  2005.  Trace element studies in traditional Kenyan diets. Journal. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ.  2005.  Gatari M.J., Boman J., Maina D.M., "Trace Element categorization of pollution sources in the Equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya". X-ray Spectometry, 34:118-123. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID, G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ.  2005.  Gatari M.J., Kimani W., Boman J., Maina D.M., Pettersson J., Zakey A.S., Oral presentation "Study of inorganic and black carbon aerosols at a high altitude site on Mount Kenya, East Africa".. Oral presentation, The 6th informal conference on atmospheric and molecular science at Helsingor, Denmark, 3 - 5 June 2005. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
J., MRMANGALAMICHAEL, M. MRMAINADAVID.  2005.  Trace Elements in some selected dietary staples in Kenya. Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2005.  Aluminium exporsure from vegetables and fresh raw vegetable juices in Kenya. 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Drinking of fresh vegetable raw juices for both cleansing and cure therapy has become very common in Kenya. Fresh raw vegetable juices have been recommended because they can boost the required minerals and vitamins in the body. This work was carried out to evaluate the amount of labile aluminium content in fresh raw vegetable juices and compare it with the total aluminium in vegetables. In addition, another objective was to determine the amount of aluminium leached out from aluminium pots during cooking. Out of 18 different vegetables analyzed, total alminium ranged from 0.096 mg g-1 to 1.06. mg kg-1; carrots contained the lowest values while parsely contained the highest values. Labile aluminium in fresh raw vegetable juice ranged from 0.003 mg ml-1 to 0.181 mg ml-1 and this gave 1 to 30% of the total aluminium. The amount taken per day during juice therapy, either as a detoxifier or a cure, ranged from 0.95 mg day-1 to as high as 40.22 mg day-1. But levels as high as 321.78 mg can be consumed depending on the volume of the juice consumed per day. The total aluminium consumed during juice therapy was found to be higher than that recommended by WHO. Aluminium pots were found to leach out some aluminium and the amount leached out was found to depend on the storage time and the age of the pot. Key words: Aluminium in vegetables, Nairobi, Kenya, vegetable juices, total and labile aluminium.
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2005.  Heavy Metal Content of Leafy Vegetables grown on sludge amended soils. Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.
M., MRMAINADAVID.  2005.  The Impact of Environmental Lead Poisoning on Iron and Haemoglobin Status in Kenya. 18th International Congress of Nutrition, Durban, South Africa . : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.

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