Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - PROFILE

Position: Lecturer
Institution: University of Nairobi,
Plant Science and Crop Protection Department
Country: Kenya
PhD: Crop Protection/ Virus diagnostics and vector dynamics in passion fruit orchards. University of Nairobi, 2012

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Stomeo, F;, Wamalwa M;, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A.  2013.  Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery.
Oluoch-Kosura, WA, Muriuki AW, Olubayo FM.  2013.  WHY PESTS AND DISEASES REGULATION SHOULD CONCERN MANKIND. AbstractWebsite

Nature, through balancing mechanisms, provides ecosystem services, comprising provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services for the survival of mankind (MEA, Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 2005). The balance and stability is usually upset by interventions or development activities, thereby threatening survival. Maintaining the balance guarantees sustainable development. Pests and disease regulation provides one component of managing the ecosystem. This chapter highlights why pest and disease regulation is important in contributing to sustainable agricultural production and development. Continued multidisciplinary research efforts are needed to enable understanding of the biological interactions between pests, beneficial and host communities on one hand and the interactions between and among cost-effective pest management methods, soil health, climate change, food security and human well-being on the other hand. The holistic approach in developing the understanding of the role of pest and disease regulation in the ecosystem will ultimately contribute to the development of appropriate strategies for the achievement of human well-being

W, O-K, F.M O, D K, W MA.  2013.  Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication. Ecosystem Services and Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere. , Dordrecht: Springer Science
D.C, K, F.M O, M. H, E.M A, Kimenju, J.W.  2013.  Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. (special)
C., KD, M. OF, Kimenju, J.W, M. H, E.M A.  2013.  Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication. International Journal of Horticulture and Crop Science Research. 3(1):1-18.monitor_passionfruit_orchards.pdf


Were, S;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A.  2011.  Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller)..
Olubayo, FM, Kilao D C, S O, I.S. S, J.M. K.  2011.  Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production. 6(2):23-28.homoptera_pests_of_citrus.pdf


Kilalo, DC.  2004.  Survey of the arthropod complex and monitoring and management of homopteran pests of citrus (citrus spp) and their natural enemies. Abstract

Citrus production in Kenya is hindered by several constraints. These include pests and diseases, inadequate disease-free planting materials, drought, low soil fertility and poor orchard management in order of decreasing importance. This study was undertaken to determine important pests of citrus and their natural enemies, to monitor the seasonal fluctuations of major homopteran pests and to evaluate the efficacy of various pesticides on homopteran pests in the farmers’ fields. To determine important pests of citrus, a survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire administered to 63 citrus farmers drawn from three major agro-ecological zones present within Bungoma and Machakos districts. This was followed by an on-spot assessment of insect species on randomly selected citrus trees in each farm. To monitor the seasonal population fluctuations, four randomly selected farms in two locations, Upper midlands (UM) and Lower midlands (LM) zones were used. In each farm, four citrus trees were marked for monitoring homopteran pests and the natural enemies fortnightly for two seasons. In the same zones, three orchards were used to evaluate the efficacy of selected pesticides on the homopteran pests. Pesticides used included Metasystox (Oxydementon methyl), Confidor (Imidacloprid), DC Tron (petroleum spray oil) and a mixture of Metasystox and DC Tron. These were applied as foliar or soil drench and in two regimes fortnightly or monthly applications. Homopteran pests were counted fortnightly in the experiment. A hundred and seventeen insects species were found associated with the citrus plants. Eighty-seven of them were pests while 30 were their natural enemies. The most important pest species were citrus whiteflies, citrus psyllids, aphids, blackflies, scale insects, leafhoppers, and leaf miner. All were widely distributed in the three agroecological zones. The natural enemy complex comprised of the spiders, coccinellids, chrysopids, mantids, tachnids, syrphids and reduviid bugs. However, important and conspicuous natural enemies were the spiders and the coccinellids. Farmers relied on their own knowledge to make pest management decisions; hence the pest control strategies applied were inadequate. Monitoring showed that homopteran pest populations varied with seasons and location. Whitefly, aphid and citrus psyllid populations significantly fluctuated with seasons (P<0.05) whereas aphid, blackfly and citrus psyllid populations significantly varied with location (P<0.05). The insect pest load was heaviest during the vigorous flush growth periods, which were preceded by rainfall and the loads were light during the hot and dry months. Treatment schedules significantly reduced the pest populations and the natural enemies (P<0.001). Metasystox schedules had the least populations, particularly in the UM zone. Their effect was, however, not different from Confidor and DC Tron schedules, which effectively lowered homopteran pest populations. Soil drench and foliar methods of applications did not differ nor did the fortnightly and monthly regimes of applications in their effect on homopteran pests. The findings have shown that citrus are associated with many insect species. Some of the pests observed are known vectors of diseases pointing to the need for effective pest management to prevent the spread of diseases. The rich diversity of natural enemies dominated by the spiders and coccinellids indicates that the pests are under some form of natural control. Natural enemies require conservation to play a significant role in suppressing pest populations. Flush growth identified as the critical period for protection of citrus should be the target of any pest control strategy to prevent increases of pest populations. Pesticides demonstrated to effectively reduce pest populations in the farmer’s fields could be used as a component of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy of citrus pests. Monthly schedules of Confidor or DC Tron as soil drench and foliar applications, respectively, would help optimise the use of synthetic pesticides while conserving natural enemies. An IPM strategy utilizing scouting and judicious use of insecticides among other components would help citrus farmers to deal effectively with insect pest problems in their orchards. Farmers need training on insect pest and natural enemy identification as well as effective use of pesticides to help bridge the knowledge gap identified in crop protection practices among them.



Ngeranwa, JJ.  1994.  The ability of Stomoxys calcitrans and mechanical means to transmitTrypanosoma (brucei) evansi from goats to camels in Kenya. Abstract

Stomoxys calcitrans failed to transmitTrypanosoma (b.) evansi from infected goats to other goats or camels, but the trypanosomal infection was transmitted by needle prick from infected goats to camels.

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