Dr.David Jakinda

Dr. David Jakinda Otieno is a Lecturer in the Department of Agricultural Economics at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. He  is an Alumni of the Association for Commonwealth Universities (ACU) with a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Agricultural Economics from Newcastle University, United Kingdom; Master of Science Degree (Agricultural Economics) from the University of Nairobi; and Bachelor of Science Degree in Agricultural Economics (First Class Honors) from Egerton University, Kenya.

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Otieno, DJ.  2013.  Market and Non-market Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Improved Beef Cattle in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya. Abstract

This study assessed various market and non-market factors that might have a considerable bearing on farmers’ adoption of improved beef cattle breeds in dry areas of Kenya. A binomial (binary) logit model was applied to analyse survey data from a multistage area sample of beef cattle farmers. Results showed that about 53% of farmers in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya have adopted improved beef cattle. The main factors that were found to have significant influence on farmers’ probability of adoption of improved beef cattle are peri-urban location, sale of cattle to abattoirs rather than in open air markets, and practise of agro-pastoral or ranch production systems. On the contrary, practice of nomadic production system, possession of experience in cattle production and larger farms did not have a favourable influence on adoption of improved cattle breeds. These findings offer important insights to development policy on provision of requisite services and institutional support in order to enhance the adoption of improved cattle breeds for better livelihoods in the typically resource-constrained arid and semi-arid areas.


Otieno, David, J, Hubbard L, Ruto E.  2011.  Technical efficiency and technology gaps in beef cattle production systems in Kenya:A stochastic metafrontier analysis. Abstract

In this study the stochastic metafrontier method is used to investigate technical efficiency and technology gaps across three main beef cattle production systems in Kenya. Results show that there is significant inefficiency in nomadic and agro-pastoral systems. Further, in contrast with ranches,these two systems were found to have lower technology gap ratios. The average pooled technical efficiency was estimated to be 0.69, which suggests that there is considerable scope to improve beef production in Kenya.



Otieno, DJ, Omiti J, Nyanamba T, McCullough E.  2009.  Market participation by vegetable farmers in Kenya: A comparison of rural and peri-urban areas. Abstract

Transformations in agri-food systems provide prospects for improving livelihoods of many farmers through enhanced participation in commercial agriculture. Indeed, various studies have been undertaken to establish factors that influence the level of market orientation in different areas. However, those studies do not show appropriate objective criteria to support decisions for either separating or merging data and the subsequent analyses for different sites. Consequently, policy inferences made from such studies may be misleading due to failure to statistically account for site-specific variations in data. This study fills the analytical gap evident in literature by using the Chow test and descriptive measures of statistical difference to compare the intensity of market participation among rural and periurban vegetable farmers in Kenya. Results show that there are significant differences in the percentage of output sold, distance from farm to market, and the unit price of sale for output between the Rural and Peri-Urban areas. These findings demonstrate the urgent need for appropriate statistical evidence to improve disaggregated analyses of agricultural market participation in different systems and environments. This would enable targeting of development strategies to effectively address the changing agricultural landscape; particularly enhancing food supply and ensuring better farm incomes. There is need to improve market information provision, develop farmers’ business skills, improve roads and or support establishment of high value vegetable market outlets at different scales in Rural and Peri-Urban areas.

Otieno, DJ;, Omiti J;, Nyanamba T;, McCullough E.  2009.  Application of Chow test to improve analysis of farmer participation in markets in Kenya. Abstract

High population growth rates and emergence of urban settlements provide opportunities as well as challenges to economic development in many countries. While the supply of labour and markets are potential positive outcomes of these processes, the underlying pressure on scarce resources is often intense. In low-income agriculture-dependent countries such as Kenya, inadequate food supply and lack of other basic social amenities characterize a large share of rural and urban population. The productive capacity and commercial orientation of agriculture and foodrelated sectors need to be improved in order to reduce famine, malnutrition and poverty. This would entail enhancing farmers’ access and participation in both input and out markets. Horticulture (especially vegetables) is one of the most important sectors in Kenya, where smallholder farmers account for nearly 70% of the output (McCulloch and Ota, 2002). About 23% of Kenya’s export revenue is derived from horticultural exports (CBS, 2006; Minot and Ngigi, 2003). Cultivation of vegetable crops (mainly cabbages, tomatoes, kales – sukuma wiki, onions and a variety of indigenous vegetables such as amaranthus) forms a crucial source of livelihood for many households in rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya (Omiti et al., 2004). Promoting investments in agricultural commercialization, more so in developing marketing channels are critical for poverty reduction (Geda et al., 2001). The potential benefits of higher product prices and lower input prices due to commercialization are effectively transmitted to poor households when markets function fairly (IFAD, 2001). In Kenya, recent research show evidence that prioritizing infrastructure development for vegetable production and marketing are necessary for improvement of most livelihoods (Omiti et al., 2006). Recent transformations in agri-food systems (particularly the rise of supermarkets and technological advances in developing countries’ agriculture during the last decade) offer opportunities for smallholder farmers (McCullough et al., 2008). However, these prospects might 2 be countered by population pressure, on-going global economic downturn and the adverse effects of climate change, if alternative policies and strategies are not urgently instituted to reverse the decline in real purchasing power of many households (Food Ethics Council, 2008). In order to support the process of sustained economic growth, there is need for a more refined and targeted analysis of pertinent issues that constrain farm-to-market distribution of food. The analytical role of agricultural economists must therefore expand to comprehensively capture site-specific dynamics of the agri-food systems. Previous studies on market participation (for example, Alene et al., 2008; Chianu et al., 2008; Makhura et al., 2002) have been based on single or multiple sites. However, the decision to pool data or perform separate analysis is often subjective. In these studies, authors provide elaborate discussions to differentiate sites in terms of geographic features, climatic conditions and socioeconomic profiles. Although the findings from such studies might offer useful insights on necessary policies, they lack rigorous objective criteria to support the choice between pooled versus disaggregated analyses. It is important to anchor market analysis on solid statistical criteria in order to give more credence to the resulting site-specific or nation-wide strategies. This would enable implementation of policy interventions that reliably address salient challenges which may vary across sub-regions within a country. As a standard practice, data from multiple sites should be tested to confirm similarities or differences, and to guide the process of data organization (pooling or separation) for analysis. This study contributes to knowledge on farm-level analysis of market participation through application of the Chow’s seminal test (Chow, 1960) to examine differences between data from two sites (rural and urban). A truncated regression model is applied in the analysis. The specific objectives of the study are: i. To assess difference in the level of market participation between rural and peri-urban farmers; ii. To estimate factors that influence the share of vegetable marketed by farmers.


Otieno, DJ;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Marenya PP.  2004.  Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists. Abstract

Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the household, main source of domestic water, distance to nearest health center, means of transport accessible, household sanitation and level of awareness on basic food preparation and handling methods. Both descriptive and econometric models were used for analysis of primary data from a random sample of 100 farm-households in Yala division, Siaya district of Kenya. This study was conducted in February 2004. Results of this study indicated that majority (74%) of the rural households were experiencing poor food utilization, and were thus generally food insecure. The study also revealed that gender and social amenities were significant in the food security equation. Specifically, there was high correlation between food-related illnesses and use of untapped water, more male children than females in a household, long distance to health centers, lack of quick means of transport, unsafe food disposal and poor food storage habits. In order to improve the food utilization and thereby security for the rural farm-households, the study recommends improvement in the provision of social amenities for both male and female household members equitably

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