Dr Ritho is a Lecturer at the Department of Agricultural Economics specializing in Resource Economics.




Ritho, N, C, Mulbah FFB, Mburu J.  2020.  Do Transaction Costs Influence Smallholder Rubber Farmers’ Choice of Selling outlets? Evidence from Liberia. Development in Practice (CDIP).


Ritho, CN, Nzuma JM, H.M M.  2019.  Is the type of agricultural extension services a determinant of farm diversity? Evidence from Kenya Development Studies Research.
Ritho, CN, Nzuma JM, Mwololo HM, Ogutu SO, Kabunga N.  2019.  Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya,. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development.


Ritho, C, Ng’ang’a SK, Herrero M, Fraval S, Journal TR.  2018.  Household-oriented benefits largely outweigh commercial benefits form cattl in Mabalane District, Mozambique. The Rangeland Journal. (40)6:565-576.


Ritho, C, Mwololo H, Nzuma J.  2017.  . Do farmer demographic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?, 27-29 April Global Food Symposium . , Gottingen University Germany


Ritho, CN, Irungu P, Korir JK, Affognon HD, Kingori WS, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S.  2015.  Grower adoption of an integrated pest management package for management of mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Embu, Kenya . International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. :35,80–98..
Ritho, CN, Mutoko MC, Benhin JKA, Mbatia OLE.  2015.  Technical and allocative efficiency gain form integrated soil management in maize farming system in Kenya. ournal of development and Economics. (7)4:143-152.


Ritho, N, C, Nzuma J, Moyo S, Herrero M.  2013.  An assessment of the factors influencing household willingness to pay for non-marketed benefit of cattle in the agro-pastoral systems of Mozambique. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(18)


C., R, K. NH, J OJ, I N’ang’aS, O. MS, I. OP, Kubowon PC.  2012.  Income Distribution and Livelihood Analysis among Horticulture Farming Households in Nyeri District, Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Sciences. 3(19):61-69.
C., R, K. MS, K. NH, I. N’ang’aS, S.O. M, P.I O, S. G, P.C. K.  2012.  A Demand Analysis for Sahiwal Breeding Animals from the National Sahiwal Stud (NSS) Between 1971-2007. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences. 1(12):29-43.



Gitonga, ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye C;, Ritho CN.  2009.  From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.


  2008.  Analysis of the Effect of Land Tenure on Technical Efficiency in Smallholder Crop Production in Kenya. Abstract

Agriculture is the backbone of the Kenyan economy contributing 26% to GDP and 70% to employment. Majority of the farmers in Kenya are smallholder farmers possessing less than 3 acres of land. The agricultural sector in Kenya has been facing several challenges among them declining yields. While the decline in yields could be associated with several other factors, it could also be as a result of the effect of insecure land tenure systems which are little understood. This study examines the technical efficiency of alternative land tenure systems among smallholder farmers and identifying the determinants of inefficiency with the objective of exploring land tenure policies that would enhance efficiency in production. The study is based on the understanding that land tenure alone will not be enough to indicate the levels of efficiency of individual farms, other socio economic factors such as gender, education and farm size would also be expected to be important determinants of efficiency. A stochastic frontier was used to estimate technical efficiency and relate it to land tenure and socio economic factors using data from 22 districts from the main agro–ecological zones. The study found that parcels with land titles have a higher efficiency level. Other factors such as education status of head, access to fertilizers, and group participation were also found to significantly influence technical efficiency. The study recommends that the process of land registration should be extended to other regions of the country but at the same time other factors such as access to inputs and improvement of education status should also be addressed.



NYAWIRA, DRRITHOCECILIA.  2004.  Review of Natural Resource Management Policy Studies in the East African Highlands Department of Agricultural Economics and ICRAF . BOOK TITLE, Small Enterprises Management and Development. : European Psychiatric Journal



NYAWIRA, DRRITHOCECILIA.  1980.  The Role of Women in Small-scale Farm Production in Kenya. Presented at the workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. : European Psychiatric Journal
NYAWIRA, DRRITHOCECILIA.  1980.  On-Farm Experiments: Some Experiences". Presented at the Second Symposium on Intercropping for the Semi-arid Areas (2nd SISA), 4th - 7th August, 1980 in Morogoro, Tanzania.. Second Symposium on Intercropping for the Semi-arid Areas (2nd SISA), 4th - 7th August, 1980 in Morogoro, Tanzania.. : European Psychiatric Journal

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