Bio

Prof C.J OTHIENO

Psychiatry

Publications


2013

Othieno, C, Jenkins R, Okeyo S, Wallcraft J, Jenkins B.  2013.  Perspectives and concerns of clients at primary health care facilities involved in evaluation of a national mental health training programme for primary care in Kenya. Abstract

Perspectives and concerns of clients at primary health care facilities involved in evaluation of a national mental health training programme for primary care in Kenya.

2012

Othieno, CJ, Khaemba MN, Misikho R, Mueni F, Mugambi LN, Obondi C, Okwara L.  2012.  Perceptions of service providers regarding special needs offenders in Kenya. Abstract

The Government of Kenya formed a multidisciplinary committee to address the issues of special needs offenders (SNO) in 2009. Because of the widely varying concepts of who could be included in this category, this study was necessary to clearly define and prioritise the interventions. Thus the views of 425 personnel who work with offenders in Kenyan institutions were assessed to determine their perception regarding SNOs and their modes of management. Qualitative methods and the Attitude Towards Prisoners (ATP) Scale were used to gauge the perceptions. The workers identified the following as special needs offenders: the mentally disabled (28.6%), orphans and vulnerable children (21.9%), the physically disabled (14.8%) and child offenders (11.9%). Overall the workers attitude towards offenders was positive but they relied mainly on intuition in identifying the SNOs and used counselling as the main mode of intervention. The study therefore recommends the development of assessment tools, and screening procedures at the intake so as to identify SNOs; establishment of special rehabilitative programmes for the categories of SNOs identified especially the following: intellectual disability and those with mental illness, alcohol and substance users, vulnerable children and those children whose mothers are in prison and the sexual offenders. Other challenges regarding the management of SNOs in Kenya are discussed

2011

2009

JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  2009.  Othieno, CJ; Obondo, A; Mathai, M; Loewenson, R EQUINET PRA paper: Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya. Equinet. : Equinet Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study aimed to explore the understanding of and factors in adherence to ARV treatment in people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who are engaged in harmful alcohol use and to intervene on prioritised factors to improve adherence, using participatory research and action (PRA) methods. We sought to determine the perceptions of and understanding of alcohol abuse and ARV treatment among PLWHA, their peers, family members and health workers. We aimed to increase collaboration between the mental health workers from clinic and hospital level and the community to respond to identified barriers to improve adherence to ARV treatment in PLWHA who use alcohol in a socio-economically deprived urban area in Nairobi (Kariobangi). The work was implemented within an EQUINET programme that aimed to build capacities in participatory action research to explore dimensions of (and impediments to delivery of) Primary Health Care responses to HIV and AIDS. The majority of the PLWHA included in the study were socially disadvantaged, unemployed, and with low education. Social support was equally poor since a large number were widowed, separated or divorced. Most of the PLWHA who participated were single or divorced women, some of them admitted that they sometimes engaged in commercial sex to cater for their basic needs. These factors, together with poor health, limited their economic opportunities and security. In this context, alcohol use, noted by PLWHA, community members and health workers to be prevalent in the community, is not only encouraged by poor living and social conditions, but also by cost (it is relatively cheap) and by the social pressure to use alcohol to escape the mental stress caused by poverty. This is exacerbated by social attitudes that do not discourage alcohol use, and misconceptions that in fact encourage alcohol use, such as that alcohol can kill the HIV virus. This study suggests that the problem of alcohol abuse is poorly recognised for both communities and health workers: It was generally under reported to services, with low numbers of people on ARVs reported to have alcohol related problems, so that health workers see only a small share of the problem. A survey of the local health centres providing ARVs showed that screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available. For PLWHA on ARVs, there are already challenges in dealing with the timing, frequency of medication and appointments and the availability and cost of food to support treatment. For PLWHA who use alcohol these difficulties are compounded. There are a range of services in the community that could potentially address these barriers that are involved in nutrition, psychosocial, medical care, PHC, HIV prevention and treatment services, counselling, social, legal, information and referral support for PLWHA. However these do not explicitly deal with the treatment of alcohol and drug related problems in the community or the needs of PLWHA on ARVs who use alcohol, and their adherence to treatment. Reflecting on these problems, the participants implemented a programme of counselling and education. The health workers were taught how to use the AUDIT in identifying problem drinkers and how to recognise and manage alcohol related disorders such as withdrawal fits. The PLWHA and their family members were encouraged to support one another and to identify symptoms of harmful alcohol use among themselves. The process was perceived by those involved to have reduced the harmful use of alcohol in those involved; to have made some improvements in community and health service support; in management of mental health and communication with families and in reducing stigma around alcohol use and HIV. The scores of the PLWHA on the repeat AUDIT questionnaire were however significantly lower than the baseline level.

2008

JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  2008.  Wagoro M C A, Othieno C J, Musandu J & Karani A (2008). Structure and Process Factors That Influence Patients. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. : Equinet Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

2007

Othieno, J.  2007.  Twin Cities care system assessment: process, findings, and recommendations. Abstract

The Twin Cities Care system lacks services that are most needed in the later stages of HIV disease. Services in highest demand included housing, transportation, and translation; available translations services are generally limited to Somali, Oromo, and Amharic, the languages most widely spoken by the three largest African immigrant and refugee groups in the Twin Cities. The care system is not well-integrated, and most of the work of moving clients within the system is done by case managers and care advocates. The main technical competencies identified by providers as lacking are understanding mental health from the perspective of African-born people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and addressing sexual issues, especially with women. African providers with foreign certifications not recognized in the United States are not able to use their professional skills. African clients are not well-informed about HIV, and African women are more likely than men to seek and stay in care.

Othieno, J.  2007.  Understanding how contextual realities affect African born immigrants and refugees living with HIV in accessing care in the Twin Cities. Abstract

The Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation (RARE) portion of the CSAD Project in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota) was designed to identify barriers to care faced by African refugees and immigrants. Data were collected from cultural experts and African people living with HIV (PLWH) who were out of care, who had newly entered care, or who were in and out of care. Findings from RARE can be categorized into five main themes: HIV/AIDS within the African context, experiences of African PLWH, unfamiliarity with HIV and support services that facilitate access to care, cultural and religious dilemmas in seeking or remaining in care, and accessing African PLWH and getting them into care. Most of the issues identified were manifestations of stigma, gender, religion and/or faith, as well as the two main underlying cross-cutting themes of knowledge and fear. The top barriers to care included fatalistic views about HIV, fear of isolation, fear of deportation, lack of knowledge of the care system and HIV-related services, and employment issues

M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2007.  Ndetei D M, Ongecha F A, Khasakhala L, Syanda J, Mutiso V, Othieno C J, Odhiambo G & Kokonya D A (2007). Bullying in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 19 (1), 45-55.. Journal. : Equinet Abstract
Background: The prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools in particular and in Kenyan schools in general is not known. Knowledge of the extent of the problem is essential in developing effective interventions. Aim: To study the prevalence and frequency of bullying in Nairobi public secondary schools, Kenya. Methods: A self-report sociodemographic questionnaire and the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire of 1991 were administered to 1 012 students from a stratified sample of public secondary schools in Nairobi. Results: Between 63.2% (640) and 81.8% (828) of students reported various types of bullying, both direct and indirect, with significant variations found for sex, age, class and year of study, whether in day or boarding school, and the place where bullied. Being bullied was significantly associated with becoming a bully, in turn. Discussion: Bullying is highly prevalent in Kenyan schools. Further studies are needed to characterise bullies and victims in terms of personality and environmental factors that may be associated with or conducive to bullying, as well as to determine the long-term prognosis for both bullies and victims. Further research is also required to determine the most appropriate intervention.
W, DRKURIAMARY, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2007.  Mareko G M, Othieno C J, Kuria M W, Kiarie J N & Ndetei D M (2007). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a case report. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.. : Equinet Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2007.  Kanyanya I M, Othieno C J & Ndetei D M (2007). Psychiatric morbidity among male sex offenders at Kamiti Prison, Kenya, East African Medical Journal,, Vol. 84 no 4, 151-155.. East African Medical Journal,, Vol. 84 no 4, 151-155.. : Equinet Abstract
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and distribution of psychiatric morbidity among convicted male sex offenders and to establish factors associated with sexual offending. Design: A Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Setting: Kamiti Maximum Security Prison, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Seventy six male convicts. Results: Forty seven (61.8%) had defilement-related convictions, 23 (30.3%) had rape-related, while six (7.9%) had other convictions. Twenty seven (35.5%) out of 76 had a DSM-IV Axis I disorder, majority of whom (71.1 %) were dependent on or abused substances, and 26 (34.2%) had an Axis II disorder, most of whom had antisocial and impulsive personality disorders (46.2%). Of these 12 (15.8%) had an Axis I diagnosis alone, 11 (14.5%) had an Axis II diagnosis alone while 15 (19.7%) had both Axis I and II diagnoses, that is, co-morbidity. Exposure to erotica was statistically associated with both Axis I and II (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0003 respectively) and pre-occupation with thoughts about sex was associated with Axis II disorders (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Most of those with psychiatric morbidity targeted children and had antisocial or impulsive personality disorder. Awareness campaigns to enlighten the public of the fact that children are the most common victims and research to determine ways of treating and rehabilitating sexual offenders could reduce the vice.

2006

R, DROWITIFREDRICK, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Owiti F, Sebit M B, Kilonzo G. Organic disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 329-347.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Ndetei D M, Othieno C J, Kilonzo G & Mburu J. Epilepsy, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 348-359.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Ndetei D M, Othieno C J & Kilonzo G. Mood disorders. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 190-213.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 190-213.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Othieno C J & Ndetei D M. Sleep disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 389-401.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 389-401.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Othieno C J, Abdelrahman A, Ndetei D M, Sebit M B, Musisi S, Kilonzo G & Zsabo P. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research F. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, 87-303.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Othieno C J, Abdelrahman A, Sebit M B, Musisi S, Ndetei D M & Ovuga E, HIV/AIDS Mental Health. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 3. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp 320-328.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Othieno C J, Rono R, Sebit M B & Ndetei D M. Memory and Forgetting, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 62-65.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 62-65.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. PMID: 16866223 [PubMed - indexed. Africa Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies, 6(1): 54-63. 2007. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Othieno C J, Rono R & Ndetei D M. Human Learning, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, 55-58.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, 55-58.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2006.  Othieno C J, Rono R & Ndetei D M. Human Motivation and Emotions, In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 59-61.. In Eds. Ndetei et al., (2006). The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. The African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Nairobi, pp. 59-61.. : Equinet Abstract
{ University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale

2005

JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  2005.  Njenga F G & Othieno C J. (2005). Mental Health Research in Africa, pp 298-302. In Eds. Njenga F G, Acuda W, Patel V & Maj M. Essentials of Clinical Psychiatry for sub-Saharan Africa. Masson. Milano, Italy.. Journal. : Equinet Abstract
This chapter captures the origins and current status of mental health research in Africa and emphasizes the challenges, current and past, pointing out ways in which they might be overcome. It also gives brief hints to think further on the potential of mental health research in Africa. Of course, the chapter is not intended to be a comprehensive overview or a complete guide to research.
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2005.  Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V. Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children. World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2.. World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2.. : Equinet Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi/Africa Mental Health Foundation, Ralph Bunche Road, P.O. Box 48423-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; A descriptive study was carried out in pregnant women who were affected by the 1998 bomb blast in Nairobi, Kenya, and their babies who were in utero at the time of the blast. The psychological effects of the event on the exposed women were severe. After three years, the average score on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised was still higher than 29 for the three subscales combined, suggesting that most of the study group was still suffering from clinical post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The scores on all Childhood Personality Scale (CPS) subscales were significantly higher in children of the study group than in controls. The mothers' PTSD symptom levels at one month after the blast correlated with the children's CPS profiles.

M., DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, A DROBONDOANNE, MAINA DRMBURUJOHN, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2005.  Kisivuli J A, Othieno C J, Mburu J M, Kathuku D M, Obondo A A & Nasokho P W (2005). Psychiatric morbidity among leprosy patients in Teso and Busia Districts of Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 82 no9, 452-456.. Journal. : Equinet Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among leprosy patients in western Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Busia and Teso districts in western Kenya. SUBJECTS: A sample of 152 male and female, adult leprosy patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (PM) was 53.29%. The PM was positively correlated with physical disability and marital status but not with age, sex, education, type of leprosy, or duration of the illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among Kenyan leprosy patients compared to studies carried out in India (56% to 78%). It was high compared to the rate of psychiatric morbidity in those seeking medical help in primary health care centres in Kenya, which was recently estimated to be 10%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PM in leprosy patients in western Kenya was lower than that in studies carried out in India. This could be attributed to de-institutionalisation and re-integration of leprosy sufferers back into their local communities. Since the rate was more than double that in the general Kenyan population and seemed to be related to presence of physical disability, an appraisal of psychiatric services offered to these patients is needed.
JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  2005.  Makanyengo MA, Othieno CJ, Okech VC. Consultation liaison psychiatry at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Feb;82(2):79-84.. East Afr Med J. 2005 Feb;82(2):79-84.. : Equinet Abstract

Objectives: To describe the psychiatric services offered at Kenyatta National Hospital and the types
of patients and cases seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A retrospective study based on case notes and other hospital records.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects : All patients seen in the various psychiatric clinics and those who attended the Patient
Support Centre Unit in the hospital in the year 2002.
Results : In the year 2002, 598,119 patients were treated at KNH out of which 6,878 (1.15%) were
seen in the psychiatric clinics: 1,709 adults and 1,412 children were referred to the various psychiatric
clinics. At the hospital's Patient Support Centre (PSC) 3,454 patients were seen, mostly for pre and
post-HIV test counselling. Consultations from the wards accounted for 332 (9.6%) of the cases referred
to PSC. The main diagnoses among the latter in order of frequency were alcohol related psychiatric
disorders, acute and transient psychoses, depressive disorders, dissociative and conversion disorders
and dementia.
Conclusion : In view of the high load of acute and transient psychotic states, as well as substance
related disorders, it is recommended that the hospital should establish acute wards for the
comprehensive management of such patients. An alcohol and drug detoxification and rehabilitation
centre should also be developed at the hospital. Services to those with HIV related disorders should also
be improved.

2004

M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2004.  Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kathuku DM, Othieno CJ, Ndetei DM.Post traumatic stress disorder among motor vehicle accident survivors attending the orthopaedic and trauma clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):362-6. PMID: 15490. Journal. : Equinet Abstract
Mathari Hospital, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence rate of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated risk factors among motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors attending the orthopaedic and trauma clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety seven adult males and sixty seven female patients. METHOD: The 264 patients were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect the socio-demographic data, the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Diagnosis was made using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). RESULTS: The mean age was 34.63+/-12.71 years (range 18-65). Overall, the prevalence rate of PTSD was 13.3%. None of the cases had been previously diagnosed as having PTSD. Females had a higher rate of 17.9% (n = 67), compared to the males 11.7% (n=197). The majority of those with PTSD (42.9%) were young, 20 - 29 years. Other risk factors were having post-primary education (62.9%), experiencing the first motor vehicle accident (14.1%), previous psychiatric illness, and other medical illnesses. The type of accident, role/status and immediate reactions to the accident were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD following motor vehicle accidents is common. Although the MVA survivors do develop significant rates of PTSD, it is not easy to identify those at risk but some of the parameters documented in this study may help. A multi disciplinary approach is therefore essential in the management of the RTA survivors at the orthopaedic and trauma clinics if their physical and psychological needs are to be adequately addressed PMID: 15490709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2004.  Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Gakinya B, Ndumbu A, Omar A, Kokonya DA, Ongecha FA, Mutiso V, Oketch V, Mwangi J.Traumatic grief in Kenyan bereaved parents following the Kyanguli School fire tragedy. World Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;3(1):50-3. PMID: 16633455 [PubMed]. World Psychiatry. 2004 Feb;3(1):50-3.. : Equinet Abstract
Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.

2003

JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  2003.  Othieno C J. Psychiatry of HIV/AIDS. East Afr Med J. 2003 Oct;80(10):501-2.. East Afr Med J. 2003 Oct;80(10):501-2. : Equinet Abstract
Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.

2002

M., DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2002.  Gatere N, Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM. Prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):547-9. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):547-9. : Equinet Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mathari Hospital, Nairobi, the main psychiatric referral hospital in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and two randomly selected in-patients seen in the hospital between January and April 2000. RESULTS: The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 11.9%. Neither the psychiatric diagnosis nor the sex was significantly associated with tardive dyskinesia. The antipsychotic dosage was also not associated with tardive dyskinesia but an increase in age was significantly associated with the abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia among patients at Mathari Hospital is much lower than that found in western countries but similar to that from Asian studies. These findings indicate the possibility of racial differences in the aetiology of TD. Prospective cross-racial studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

2001

JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  2001.  Othieno C. J., Okech V. C. A., Omondi J. A. and Makanyengo M. A., (2001).How Kenyan physicians treat mental disorders. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 78, No.4: 204-207.. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 78, No.4: 204-207.. : Equinet Abstract

Objectives: To determine the psychological problems the non-psychiatric doctors commonly encounter, the treatment offered and/or referrals made and to determine any obstacles met in providing psychiatric treatment or making referrals. Design: Cross- sectional survey. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Doctors working at Kenyatta National Hospital. Results: One hundred and thirty (94 males and 36 females) doctors subm .t .J usable questionnaires. Seventy eight per cent of the respondents were below 35 years and 57 had less than five years experience. The commonest psychiatric disorders seen by doctors were anxiety, depression, psychosomatic disorders and organic psychoses similar to findings in previous prevalence studies. Drugs therapy with anxiolytics antidepressants and antipsychotics were commonly utilised. Brief counselling was the verbal form of treatment most commonly used. Referral to mental health workers was less often done. Obstacles cited by the doctors were the patients' resistance to referral, lack of coordination and insufficient knowledge to treat the disorders. Conclusion: The doctors recognise that psychiatric disorders are common among their patients but they have major obstacles in managing them. These findings are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

A, DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2001.  Othieno C. J., Obondo A. A., Kathuku D. M., and Ndetei D. M. (2001). Patterns of substance use among Kenya street Children.Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150. Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol. 12, no. 2: 154-150. : Equinet Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia among psychiatric in-patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Mathari Hospital, Nairobi, the main psychiatric referral hospital in Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and two randomly selected in-patients seen in the hospital between January and April 2000. RESULTS: The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia was 11.9%. Neither the psychiatric diagnosis nor the sex was significantly associated with tardive dyskinesia. The antipsychotic dosage was also not associated with tardive dyskinesia but an increase in age was significantly associated with the abnormal movements. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia among patients at Mathari Hospital is much lower than that found in western countries but similar to that from Asian studies. These findings indicate the possibility of racial differences in the aetiology of TD. Prospective cross-racial studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

2000

M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  2000.  Othieno C. J., Kathuku D. M., and Ndetei D. M. (2000). Substance use in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya. East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 no. 11; 592-595.. East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 no. 11; 592-595.. : Equinet Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional prevalence survey. SETTING: Urban health centres of Jericho and Kenyatta University (KU) and rural health centres in Muranga district. SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifty adult patients (seventy eight males and seventy two females) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Semi-structured questionnaires and the DSM IV diagnostic criteria were used to record the socio-demographic data and to determine substance dependence or abuse. RESULTS: The substances commonly used in descending order of frequency were alcohol, tobacco, khat and cannabis. Only alcohol and tobacco were extensively used. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcohol use for the two urban health centres were 54% and 62% compared to 54% for the rural health centres. For tobacco the lifetime prevalence rates were 30% for Jericho, 28% for KU and 38% for Muranga. The differences between the rural and urban samples were not statistically significant. More males than females had used alcohol (average lifetime use 80.8% for males compared to 30.6% for females: p<0.05) and tobacco (average lifetime use 56.4% for males compared to 5.6% for females p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The rates of substance abuse were generally low with the exception of alcohol and tobacco. Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted. It is suggested that preventive measures and education should be emphasised at the primary care level.

1999

JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  1999.  Othieno C. J. (1999). Somatization among Kenyan neurotics . Ife Psychologia an International Journal. Vol 7 no 2: 163-178. : Equinet Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

M., DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  1999.  Ndetei D. M, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M & Dech H. Trans-cultural Psychopathology and Mental Health Services . Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany.. : Equinet Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

1998

M, PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB.  1998.  Ndetei D. M., Kathuku D. M., Othieno C. J. Et al (1998). Final report on economic politico-social aspects of illicit drug trades i n Kenya. A United Nations Drug Control Programme Study. University of Nairobi. Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany.. : Equinet Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

1996

JOSEPH, DROTHIENOCALEB.  1996.  Sandermann S, Dech H, Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM (1996): Die Generierung einer kulturspezifischen Symptomskala zur Depressionsmessung. , 19: 283-294.. Curare. : Curare Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

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