Dr. Christine Mbindyo

Christine Minoo Mbindyo, is a lecturer at the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi. She is both a Veterinarian and a Microbiologist. Her duties include teaching undergraduate and postgraduate students in areas of Microbiology, Poultry clinic consultancy and diagnostics. She is also involved in mentoring students on personal development and career progression.
She holds a Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine (BVM), Master of Science degree (MSc.), and Ph. D both in Applied Microbiology (Bacteriology option) all from the University of Nairobi.




Mbindyo, CM, Gitao GC, Plummer PJ, Kulohoma BW, Mulei CM, Bett R.  2021.  Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Genes of Staphylococci Isolated from Mastitic Cow’s Milk in Kenya. Antibiotics. 10, Number 7 AbstractWebsite

Increasing numbers of potentially zoonotic multidrug-resistant (MDR) staphylococci strains, associated with mastitis in dairy cows, are being reported globally and threaten disease management in both animal and human health. However, the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of these strains, including methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS), in Kenya is not well known. This study investigated the drug resistance profiles and genes carried by 183 staphylococci isolates from 142 dairy cows representing 93 farms recovered from mastitis milk of dairy cows in two selected counties in Kenya. Staphylococci isolates were characterized by phenotypic characteristics, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, partial sequencing and susceptibility testing for 10 antimicrobial drugs. Detection of seven resistance genes to the various antimicrobial drugs was conducted using PCR. Overall, phenotypic resistance among the staphylococci ranged between 66.1% for ampicillin and 3.5% for fluoroquinolones. Twenty-five percent (25%) of S. aureus and 10.8% of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates, were methicillin-resistant staphylococci phenotypically (defined as resistance to cefoxitin disk diffusion). The most common genes found in S. aureus and CoNS were blaZ and strB at 44.3% and 26%, and 78% and 50%, respectively. MDR was observed in 29.67% and 16.3% of S. aureus and CoNS, respectively. These findings pose a threat to bovine mastitis treatment and management as well as human health.


Gitao, CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L.  2014.  Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region. : LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing Abstract



Gitao, CG, Toroitich KC, Mbindyo C.  2012.  The possible effects of camel milk on management of diabetes type I. Abstract

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