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Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CN, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, E. S-G. " Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya. ." Cogent Food & Agriculture. . 2021;7(1):1898762..
Nicholas B, Derrick S, Dorcas C, Patrick M, Joshua O, Thomas LF. "). Food Safety & Animal Welfare in the Pork Value Chain of Nairobi.". 2021:DOI: 10.17638/
Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee M, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G. ", Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;16(10):e0255321.
Kalele DN, Ogara WO, Oludhe C, Onono JO. ", Climate change impacts and relevance of smallholder farmers’ response in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya." Scientific African. 2021;12:
EA O. 1. Advances in Parasitology: Helminthology. MUMBAI: EXCELLER PUBLISHERS; 2021.
GIKONYO NAOMI, Ndiritu A. "1. Transformational Leadership in Adopting Online Learning. Kenya policy briefs .Volume 2 No. 1.". 2021. Abstract

Key messages
Effective training is a key determinant for adopting online learning in educational institutions.
Transformational leadership characteristics are important in managing change that is required in learning
institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
Modelling the way is a necessity in university management of online teaching and learning through COVID-19 Season

Ireri C, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi MS. "2. Social-Economic Threshold Factors for Gully Erosion Stabilization in Semi-Arid Environment of Wanjoga River Catchment, Upper Tana Basin, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2021;6(5):172-187.
Musiny RI, Mbari JM, Ole-Mapenay IM. "Acute and Sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf extract of Lantana trifolia (Verbenaceae) in experimental rodents." The Journal of Phytopharmacolog. 2021;10(5):350-356.
Wangusi BMUYUKANI, Kanja LW, Ole-Mapenay IM, Onyancha JM. "Acute Toxicity, Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aqueous and Methanol Root Extracts of Maerua triphylla A. Rich. (Capparaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 3121785, :9 pages.
Wangusi BMUYUKANI, Kanja LW, Ole-Mapenay IM, Onyancha JM. "Acute Toxicity, Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Aqueous and Methanol Root Extracts of Maerua triphylla A. Rich. (Capparaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2021;2021:11.
Josephine Wangechi Kirui, Muthama NJ, Gachuiri CK, Ngaina JN. "Adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change by smallholder dairy farmers: A case of Nandi county in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2021;4(1):39-47.
Missiame A, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Appiah-Kubi GD. ""Adoption of rural bank credit programs among smallholder farmers in Ghana: an average treatment effect estimation of rates of exposure and adoption and their determinants"." gricultural Finance Review. 2021. AbstractWebsite

The study aims to estimate the rates of exposure to, and adoption of, rural bank credit programs by smallholder farmers in rural Ghana and the factors responsible for those rates.

The study used a random sample of 300 smallholder farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana, obtained through the multistage sampling technique. The study also employed the average treatment effects approach to estimate the average treatment effect of farmers’ exposure to rural bank credit programs, on their adoption of such programs.

The actual adoption rate is approximately 41%, and the potential, conditional on the whole population being aware of rural bank credit programs, is approximately 61%. Accordingly, there is a gap of about 20% in the adoption of rural bank credit programs, and is due to the incomplete exposure of smallholder farmers to the rural bank credit programs. Age of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer-based organizations and active savings accounts with a rural bank are the major contributors to smallholder farmer exposure to and the adoption of rural bank credit programs.

The current study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Ghana on rural bank credit programs. It takes into account the extent to which smallholder farmers are exposed to such credit programs and how it influences their decisions to access or adopt.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Advances in animal/plant–plastic composites: preparation, characterization and applications.". In: Plant and Animal Based Composites. Berlin: De Gruyter; 2021. Abstract

This book chapter aims at exploring the preparation, characterization and applications of plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The book addresses several key research work that have been happening as well as some of the drawbacks that affect the application of these composites in real-life applications. Each chapter begins with an overview of the various forms of plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymer composites, followed by examples of composites made up of plant/animal fibers and their promising future in terms of research and development and application in domestic and engineering products. Today, man has realized that if the environment is not preserved, the over-consumption of naturally existing resources and a drastic reduction in the amount of fresh air generated in the world would endanger him. Forest conservation and the efficient use of agricultural as well as other renewable resources such as solar, wind and tidal energy have already become critical issues globally.With this kind of concern, the utilization of renewable materials such as plant/animal fiber-reinforced polymeric composites is slowly becoming a key design requirement for the design and development of parts for a wide range of industrial products. An extensive research into such composites can, to an extent, lead to an even greener and healthier environment

Amecha SC, Njue PN. "Agile Risk Management as a Solution to the Failure of Kenyan Public Projects." American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 2021;6(3):35-40.
Muchiri J, Osaaji M, Odari M. "The Agile Thinking and Subversion in Chinua Achebe’s The Education of a British-Protected Child." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2021;9:124-143.
Abuga K, Nyamweya N. "Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in COVID-19 Prevention: A Multidimensional Perspective." Pharmacy. 2021;9(1):64. Abstract

The global use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) as an important means of controlling the transmission of infectious disease has increased significantly as governments and public health agencies across the world advocated hand hygiene as a preventative measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the performance of these products is most commonly defined as a function of their alcohol concentration, they are multifaceted products in which an interplay of several factors is important in determining efficacy. This paper discusses the interplay between ABHS input (formulation) factors and output (product performance) factors in the context of a multidimen-sional perspective using a novel representative paradigm. In the model, represented in the form of a three-dimensional tetrahedron, each of the faces represents inputs in the manufacturing of the ABHS product, which are the type and amount of alcohol, the inactive ingredients, the formulation and the manufacturing practices. The four corners of the tetrahedron represent the product per-formance factors which include product efficacy, sensory characteristics, usage and compliance and product safety. The multidimensional approach to the formulation and evaluation of ABHS shows that several factors contribute to the effectiveness and utility of these products. The paradigm provides a useful framework for manufacturers of ABHS and related healthcare products.

Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Okeyo MP, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanism and Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Construction Industry: the case of Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) . 2021;10(2):61-70 .
Gichure M, Onono J, Wahome R, Gathura P. "Analysis of the benefits and production challenges of working donkeys in smallholder farming systems in Kenya." Veterinary World. 2021;13(11):2346.
Onyambu CK, Angeline Anyona Aywak, Osiemo SK, Mutala TM. "Anaphylactic Reactions in Radiology Procedures.". In: Asthma. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
Onyambu CK, Tharamba NM. "Antenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Anomalies on Ultrasound Screening.". In: Midwifery. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
"Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts from Kenyan Macaranga Species Towards MDR Phenotypes Expressing Efflux Pumps." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2021;11(2). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Macaranga species are traditionally used for the treatment and management of coughing, fungal infection, and wounds. In this study, the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of nine crude extracts from Macaranga conglomerata, Macaranga kilimandscharica and Macaranga capensis were determined against 13 bacterial strains expressing multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotypes.
Phytochemical screening of the extracts were carried out according to the standard methods, while the iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT) colorimetric assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the plants extracts.
Flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and coumarins were the major secondary metabolites found in all the plant extracts. The results of antibacterial studies revealed that all the plant extracts displayed good activities with MIC values ranging from 4–128 µg/mL against the tested micro-organisms. Most of the extracts exhibited a bactericidal effect against E. coli, E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, P. aeruginosa, and

Hashim I, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Onyari JM, Maru SM, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts from Kenyan Macaranga Species Towards MDR Phenotypes Expressing Effux Pumps." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2021;11(2):119-126.hashim_et_al_2021_pharmacognosy_communications.pdf
Jepkoech C, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Kenanda EO, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M. "Antibacterial secondary metabolites from Vernonia auriculifera Hiern (Asteraceae) against MDR phenotypes." Natural Products Research. 2021:
Armah FA, Henneh IT, Amponsah IK, Biney RP, F M, J A, W A, Ahmed MA, Adokoh CK, Adukpo G, O AD, Gathumbi PK. "Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects and Subchronic Toxicity of the Aerial Parts of Psychotria ankasensis J.B.Hall (Rubiaceae) in Murine Models." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 5543320, 18 pages.armah_et_al_2021.pdf
Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
Mbindyo CM, Gitao CG, Plummer PJ, Kulohoma BW, Mulei CM, Bett R. "Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Genes of Staphylococci Isolated from Mastitic Cow’s Milk in Kenya." Antibiotics. 2021;10(772):
Juma M, Sankaradoss A, Ndomb R, Mwaura P, Damodar T, Nazir J, Pandit A, Khurana R, Masika M, Chirchir R, Gachie J, Krishna S, Sowdhamin R, Anzala O, Iyer MS. "Antimicrobial resistance profiling and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Kenya in resource limited setting." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background: Africa has one of the highest incidences of gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gaining resistance to most of the available antibiotics, compromising treatment across the world. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is an efficient way of predicting AMR determinants and their spread in the population. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies like Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) have helped in the generation of longer reads of DNA in a shorter duration with lower cost. Increasing accuracy of base-calling algorithms, high throughput, error-correction strategies, and ease of using the mobile sequencer MinION in remote areas lead to its adoption for routine microbial genome sequencing. To investigate whether MinION-only sequencing is sufficient for WGS and downstream analysis in resource-limited settings, we sequenced the genomes of 14 suspected N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Using WGS, the isolates were confirmed to be cases of N. gonorrhoeae (n = 9), and there were three co-occurrences of N. gonorrhoeae with Moraxella osloensis and N. meningitidis (n = 2). N. meningitidis has been implicated in sexually transmitted infections in recent years. The near-complete N. gonorrhoeae genomes (n = 10) were analyzed further for mutations/factors causing AMR using an in-house database of mutations curated from the literature.

Results: We observe that ciprofloxacin resistance is associated with multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. Mutations conferring tetracycline (rpsJ) and sulfonamide (folP) resistance and plasmids encoding beta-lactamase were seen in all the strains, and tet(M)-containing plasmids were identified in nine strains. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 10 isolates into clades containing previously sequenced genomes from Kenya and countries across the world. Based on homology modeling of AMR targets, we see that the mutations in GyrA and ParC disrupt the hydrogen bonding with quinolone drugs and mutations in FolP may affect interaction with the antibiotic.

Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate the utility of mobile DNA sequencing technology in producing a consensus genome for sequence typing and detection of genetic determinants of AMR. The workflow followed in the study, including AMR mutation dataset creation and the genome identification, assembly, and analysis, can be used for any clinical isolate. Further studies are required to determine the utility of real-time sequencing in outbreak investigations, diagnosis, and management of infections, especially in resource-limited settings.

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2021;149:104796. AbstractView Website

Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM …

Derese S. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia . 2021;149:104796.
Chikwana N, Maina EN, Gavamukulya Y, Bulimo W, Wamunyokoli F. "Antiproliferative Activity, c-Myc and FGFR1 Genes Expression Profiles and Safety of Annona muricata Fruit Extract on Rhabdomyosarcoma and BALB/c Mice." Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2021;14(4):30-46.
Mamadou Alieu Jallow, Weke Patrick, Lukman Abiodun Nafiu, Ogutu C. "Application of a Discrete time Semi–Markov Model to the Stochastic Forecasting of Capital Assets as Stock." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, . 2021;63(1):1-18.
kariuki J, DiasTibihika P, ManuelCurto, EsayasAlemayehu, GeroldWinkler, HaraldMeimberg. "Application of microsatellite genotyping by amplicon sequencing for delimitation of African tilapiine species relevant for aquaculture.". 2021.
V. O, U. Y. "Application of Polymer Based Nanocomposites for Water Shutoff-A Review." Fuels. 2021;2:304-322. AbstractWebsite

One highly undesirable characteristic of mature assets that inhibits oil recovery is high
water production. Polymer gel treatment is a popular conformance improvement technique applied
in this regard due to its cost effectiveness and proved efficiency. Despite this popularity, optimum
performance of polymer hydrogels in water shut off is inhibited by excessive aggregation, difficulty
in controlling gelation, and their instability at high temperature and high salinity reservoir conditions.
To address these shortcomings, research on the application of nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer
hydrogels to manage thermal stability and salinity sensitivity has significantly increased in the recent
past. By incorporating metal-based NPs, silica or graphene at nanoscale; the gel strength, storage
modulus, salinity tolerance and thermal stability of commonly used polymers have been greatly
enhanced. In this paper, the advances in experimental studies on polymer-based nanocomposites are
discussed and field experiences from adoption of polymer composites reviewed.

Okumu MO, Mbuthia… PG, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK. "Artemia salina as an animal model for the preliminary evaluation of snake venom-induced toxicity." Toxicon: X, 2021. 2021;X, 2021(X, 2021).
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO, Jepkorir MS. "Artemia salina as an animal model for the preliminary evaluation of snake venominduced toxicity." Toxicon. DOI: 2021.
Cherotich S, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "Assessing the Seasonal Changes on Physicochemical Parameters and Major Nutrient Levels in Water and Sediments from Sulal River, Bureti Sub County, Kericho County, Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal. 2021;30(1):46-58. AbstractChemical Science International Journal

Sulal River is a victim of nutrient pollution as it crosses different small-scale tea farms in Bureti Sub County, Kericho County. A study was conducted to evaluate different physicochemical parameters and major chemical fertilizer’s nutrients levels in water and sediments from Sulal River. In order to understand the degree of pollution in the river due to inflow of agricultural chemical fertilizer residue levels from its catchment, the samples were collected in the dry (February 2019) and wet seasons (November 2019). The ten chosen sampling sites stretched a length of 12 Km. Samples were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sediment and water content (WC), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphorous (PO3-P) and potassium (K) using standard methods. Results were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20. The average results during dry and wet seasons in water samples for pH were 6.72±0.05 and 6.38±0.21, DO 6.78±0.59 and 9.58±0.64 mg/L, EC 174±5.02 and 205±20.14 µS /cm, TDS 92±4.59 and 120.70±19.57 mg/L, NO3-N 0.58±0.21 and 1.19±0.22 mg/L, PO3-P 0.00±0.00 and 0.13±0.84 mg/L and K 0.26±0.08 and 0.84±0.19 mg/L respectively. The average results during dry and wet seasons in sediment samples for pH were 6.62±0.20 and 6.75±0.17, EC, 67±6.66 and 52±10.19 µS /cm, WC 16.96±3.95 and 129.84±5.00%, NO3-N 0.70±0.35 and 0.42±0.23 mg/kg, PO3-P 0.49±0.25 and 1.14±0.40 mg/kg and K 1.53±0.45 and 2.86±0.31 mg/kg respectively. The levels of P in water during wet season and in sediments samples in both seasons were however, above the WHO (0.025 mg/L) and KEBS (0.030 mg/L) recommended limit for drinking and domestic use and WASREB (0.005 mg/L) level for the likelihood of eutrophication. Availability of excess phosphorus can accelerate eutrophication. The diversity of cancers has also been associated with drinking water containing phosphorous levels. The water from Sulal River may be used for irrigation purposes but not for drinking and domestic purposes. Significant seasonal variations were observed in all parameters analyzed except NO3-N in sediments. This indicates that rainfall had a great effect on some soil physicochemical properties.

Mary Waceke Thongoh1*, Henry Mikiugu Mutembei2 JM3 BEK1. "An Assessment of Barriers to MSMEs’ Adoption of CSA in Livestock Red Meat Value Chain, Kajiado County, Kenya." American journal of Climate Change. 2021;(10):237-262.ajcc_2021073014503959.pdf
and Mary W. Thongoh1*, H. M. Mutembei2 M3 K1JBE. "An Assessment of Integration of MSMEs and CSA into Livestock Red Meat Value Chain: A Case Study of Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Climate Change. 2021;11(4):1-17.30387-article_text-56879-2-10-20210607.pdf
Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto CT. "Assessment of Soil Loss in a Typical Ungauged Dam Catchment using RUSLE Model (Maruba Dam, Kenya)." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2021;Vol 11(No. 16):56-68.
Williams F, Constantine KL, Ali AA, Karanja TW, Kibet S. "An assessment of the capacity and responsiveness of a national system to address the threat of invasive species: a systems approach." CABI Agriculture and Bioscience. 2021;2(42):1-17.
Ochiba, N. K, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76.
Ochiba NK, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76. AbstractInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

The study was carried out to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in groundwater samples from ten selected boreholes in Ongata Rongai town, Kajiado County. The selected heavy metals analyzed were: Zn, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cd and Cr in the dry and wet seasons. The effect of the proximity of septic tanks distance to borehole was also determined. The statistical analyses of the data using a 2-way ANOVA showed 95% confidence level (p< 0.05) interdependence of the distance from the boreholes and contaminant levels. The study showed that heavy metals were below the maximum recommended level and the guideline values of World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards. The analyses of the selected heavy metals, by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, revealed that the detected levels of Mn (0.03±0.01-0.26±0.01 mgl-1) were higher than those recommended by WHO and KEBS of 0.01 mgl-1, while Zn (0.11±0.02-0.73±0.01 mgl-1) are within acceptable levels of WHO (3.0 mgl-1) and KEBS (5.0 mgl-1). There was no strong correlation between the distance of borehole from septic tanks and heavy metal levels in water samples. The low detected values should not be overlooked as the heavy metals are capable of bio-accumulating in body tissues.

Gitau AK, Oyieke FA, W.R. Mukabana. "Assessment of the role played by domestic animals in jigger infection in Kandara sub-county, Kenya (case control study)." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2021;39:231.
Gitau AK2021, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Assessment of the role played by domestic animals in jigger infection in Kandara sub-county, Kenya (case control study)." Pan African Medical Journal. 2021;39:231.2021-1.pdf
Gitau 2. AK, Oyieke FA, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Assessment of tungiasis management knowledge in Kandara sub county Mukabana, ." Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies. 2021;9(4):127-136.2021-2.pdf
Gitau AK, Oyieke FO, Mukabana WR. "Assessment of tungiasis management knowledge in Kandara sub county, Kenya." Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2021;9(4):127-136.
Mwachaka P, Amayo A, Mwang’ombe N, Kitunguu P. "Association Between Serum Sodium Abnormalities and Clinicoradiologic Parameters in Se." Ann Afr Surg. 2021;18(3):155-162.
Thierno Souleymane Barry, Oscar Ngesa, Onyango NO, Mwambi H. "Bayesian Spatial Modeling of Anemia among children under 5 years in Guinea.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Bacground: Anemia is a major public health problem in Africa with an increasing number of children under 5
years getting infected. Guinea is one of the most affected countries. In 2018, the prevalence rate was 75% in
children under 5 years. This study sought to identify the factors associated with anemia and to map spatial
variation of anemia across the eight (8) regions in Guinea for children under 5 years, which can provide
guidance for control programs for the reduction of the disease.
Methods: Data from the Guinea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) 2016 was used for this study. A
total of 2609 children under 5 years who had full covariate information were used in the analysis. Spatial
binomial logistic regression methodology was undertaken via Bayesian estimation based on Markov chain
Monte Carlo (McMC) using WinBUGS software version 1.4.
Results: Our findings revealed that 77% of children under 5 years in Guinea had anemia and the prevalence in
the regions ranged from 70.32% (Conakry) to 83.60% (N’Zerekore) across the country. After adjusting for non
spatial and spatial random effects in the model, older children (48–59 months) (OR: 0.47, CI [0.29 0.70]) were
less likely to be anemic compared to those who are younger (0-11 months). Children whose mothers have
completed secondary education or more had a reduced chance of anemia infection by 33% (OR: 0.67, CI [0.49
0.90]) and Children from household heads from Kissi ethnic group are less likely to have anemia than their
counterparts whose leader is from Soussou (OR: 0.48, CI [0.22 0.91]).
Conclusion: The spatial analysis allowed the identification of high-risk areas as well as the identification of
socio-economic and demographic factors associated with anemia among children under 5 years. Such an
analysis is important in helping policy makers and health practitioners in developing programs geared towards
control and management of anemia among children under 5 years in the country.

A OA, N MJ, A B. "Behavior of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Exterior Beam-Column Joint Under Monotonic Loading." Asian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2021;Vol 22:627-636.
Miruka SA, G.O. A, Macharia RW, George O Obiero, Omwenga IM. "Beta hemolysin gene of Staphylococcus phage 3AJ_2017 genome is a suitable molecular marker for identification and characterization of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;8(2):845-851.
"Beyond DNA-targeting in Cancer Chemotherapy - Emerging Frontiers - A Review." Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2021;21:28-47.
AM J, CAZ J, AEB H, JA O’o. "Bilateral Ligation of the Anterior Branch of the Hypogastric Artery in Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage Secondary to Septic Abortion (Case Report)." J Gynecol Obstet. 2021;3(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Hemorrhage is the main cause of Maternal Mortality (MM) (27%) followed by hypertensive disorders and sepsis (12%). Septic abortion is considered an intermediate risk factor for the development of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH). The algorithm for the management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony that includes systematic pelvic devascularization has been described, but this management is really planned for resolution of the pregnancy after the 20th week of gestation, since an HMO due to abortion is un usual. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient who self-medicates a prostaglandin analog at 2 months of pregnancy, achieving only a threat of abortion, goes to the emergency room 3 months later with a diagnosis of septic shock, USG and MRI are performed with altered results, only of hepatomegaly, delayed abortion of 8 weeks of evolution and gestational trophoblastic disease. Emergency MVA was performed due to profuse bleeding, placement of a Bakri balloon and clamping of the uterine arteries without results, for which an emergency exploratory laparotomy (LAPE) was performed with ligation of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, being a successful procedure, without the need for Obstetric Hysterectomy (HO). The patient is managed in intensive care and in the end the diagnosis of TSG is ruled out. Bilateral Hypogastric Artery Ligation (BHAL) in the case of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH) secondary to delivery or cesarean section is commonly used, however it is not a technique to report when bleeding is secondary to abortion. In these cases, it is also a viable, successful, fertility-preserving surgical procedure, and an alternative to Obstetric Hysterectomy (OH) when other less invasive methods such as uterine artery clamping or Bakri balloon have failed.

Were SA, Narla R, Mutitu EW, Muthomi JW, Munyua LM, Roobroeck D, Vanlauwe B, E J. "Biochar and vermicompost soil amendments reduce root rot disease of common bean (Phaseolous Vulgaris L.)." African Journal of Biological sciences. 2021;3(1):176-196.
Wangila AJ, Gachuiri CK, Muthomi JW, Ojiem JO. "Biomass yield and quality of fodder from selected varieties of lablab (lablab purpureus l) in Nandi South sub-county of Kenya." Online journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2021;11(1):28-35.
Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., Kinyua, Gladys Wanjiru, J.K M, Ahenda S, Onyatta JO. "Biotransformation of Biodegraded Organic Waste from a Batch Mode Microbial Fuel Cell to Organic Fertilizer." J. Bioremediat Biodegrad. . 2021;12(8):1-5.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay IO, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):42-47.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1).
Damali N, Diane K, Razak MH, Odour B, Odero T, Faguar. PGC. "Building and sustaining effective partnership for Training and New Generation of Global Health Leaders.". 2021.
Grossheim L, Ruff P, Ngoma T, Vanderpuye V, Wango GM, Ochieng P, Palmer D, Kouya F, Lasebikan N, Ntekim A, Ngoma M, Bih N, Malloum A, Elzawawy A, Kerr D, Ngwa W. "Cancer and Covid-19 Experiences at African Cancer Centers: The Silver Lining." JCO Global Oncology. 2021;7:410-415.
G.N.Kithure J, M.W. K. "Canning Food Processes may be a source of threat to the Consumer. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT)." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT).. 2021;8(3).abstract_2.pdf
Mulinge, PM, DM O. "Challenges Facing Amisom in its Bid to Restore Peace in Somalia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR).". 2021;10(5). Abstract

Abstract: Civil conflict in Somalia is considered one of the major and worst crisis in Africa’s recent history. Due to this, Somalia had
operated with an unstable functioning government for now over twenty years. This state of affairs has led to majority of the civilian
population acquiring arms illegally for their protection. The study sought to explore the key challenges facing AMISOM in its bid to
restore peace in Somalia. The study was based on the theory of conflict transformation. The study utilized primary data, which was
collected using structured questionnaires and interview schedules. The unit of analysis constituted a sample size of 100 respondents
drawn from the military, police, and civilian components of AMISOM and Somali civilian population working within Halane Base
Camp, with a combined target population of 24,643. Quantitative data was descriptively analyzed using the percentages and qualitative
data was analyzed using themes emerging from the data. The study found out thatclan dynamics in the conflict torn Somalia remains
the biggest hindrance to the achievement of peace and stability. This is coupled by the weak government structures that underpin
inadequacy of support to AMISOM operations. The study recommends that there isneed for AMISOM to increase involvement with
civilians as they stand important in peace building initiatives, intelligence, mediation and prevention of conflict.

Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
Okoya, Mumenya, Abuodha, Dulo. "Characteristics of Kenyan Rice Husk Ash Produced Under Controlled Burning." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(11):549-554.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
Ngugi CN, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth S, Haukeland S, Thuranira EG. "Characterization and Pathogenicity Test of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema Species-Kalro ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2021;13(3):93-101.
Edith Wairimu, Mburu J, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Ndambi A. "Characterization of dairy innovations in selected milksheds in Kenya using a categorical principal component analysis." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(2):1-12.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW. "The chemosystematics of the genus Zanthoxylum L.(Rutaceae) in Kenya." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021; 98, :104319.
Otieno SP. Children of the Sky . Kabura J, ed. Talent Empire; 2021.
Osman MAA, Onono JO, Olaka LA, Elhag MM, Abdel-Rahman EM. "Climate Variability and Change Affect Crops Yield under Rainfed Conditions: A Case Study in Gedaref State, Sudan." Agronomy. 2021;11:1680.
Onyambu CK, MN Wajihi, Odhiambo AO. "Clinical Application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Diagnosis of Intracranial Mass Lesions." Hindawi Radiology Research and Practice . 2021;2021:1-10.
Maina, akach, osanjo. "CO-DESIGN: CATALYST FOR INCLUSION IN THE DESIGN PROCESS." Machakos University Press. 2021.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Maina S. "Co-Design: Tools, Methods and Techniques for Designing with Users." African Habitat Review. 2021;15(1):2145-2156.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Mwituria SM. "Co-Designing Eco-community Based Tourism." Design for All. 2021;16(3):3-33.
Ngwili N, Lian T, Githigia S, Muloi D, Marshal K, Wahome R, Roesel K. "co-infection of pigs with Taenia solium cysticercosis and gastrointestinal parasites in Eastern and Western Uganda." Parasitology Research. 2021;2021(
Heylen D, Day M, Schunack B, Fourie J, Labuschange M, Johnson S, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akande FA, Nzalawale JS. "A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(14:576):1-20.
Hassanali J, Pokhariyal G, Mwasina P. "Comparative analysis of selected linear measurements of human and baboon brains." European Journal of Anatomy. 2021;11(1):9-16. AbstractWebsite

The morphometric parameters of the brains of several mammals and primates show differences that are likely to be associated with cognitive and other functions necessary for survival as well as evolution. Seven human and eight baboon formalin-fixed brains were used to show comparative aspects. The whole brains were weighed, 3 from humans and 3 from baboons were separated into components -cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem- and their weights were recorded. The linear measurements of the cerebrum were occipito-frontal (O-F), fronto-temporal (F-T) temporo-occipital (T-O), height of temporal lobe (HTL), inter: frontal pole (F-F), occipital pole (O-O), parietal (P-P), temporal pole (T-T), and occipital lobe (OL-OL) from superior, lateral and inferior aspects. The proportions of brain weight relative to body weight and those of the brain components were mostly higher in the humans. The length, height and width of the human brains were higher than in the baboons. F-F was six times O-O in humans while other parameters were nearly double in humans as compared to baboons. The ratio of P-P to F-F was nearly 20 times in baboons as compared to 6 times in humans. The overall increase in human brain length, width and size of lobes could be related to increased body size, functional complexity, upright posture, and evolution. The lateral expansion in the size of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes may be due to the complex circuitry associated with cognitive functions and life style. Several approaches have been proposed to determine factors related to increases in brain size, function and intelligence. Morphometry could be one tool to "explain" specific increases in brain areas

Manoa, D.O MTMFTS. "Comparative analysis of time and monetary opportunity costs of human-wildlife conflict in Amboseli and Mt. Kenya Ecosystems, Kenya." Current Research in Environmental Sustainability. 2021;3(2021):100103.
Harmsen H, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ, Wang’ondu VW. "Comparing law enforcement monitoring data and research data suggests an underestimation of bushmeat poaching through snaring in a Kenyan World Heritage Site." African journal of ecology. 2021;(
O OGUMOE, N. KC, J. KIMENJU, MW O. "Comparison of the efficiency of solar-powered prototype vapour compression cooler with evaporative charcoal cooler in maintaining quality of French beans ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(Special issue).
Wamuyu H, Odote C, Anyango S. "Compensating Toxic Torts in Kenya: Overcoming the Causation Dilemma." The Journal of Sustainable Development, Law and Policy. 2021;12(2):258-281.
Kinoti MW, Meru AK. "Competencies for Green Marketing Success in Emerging Markets.". In: Green Marketing and Management in Emerging Markets. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham; 2021. Abstract

This chapter addresses the critical competencies that provide the requisite skills and knowledge for championing the development and growth of green marketing in emerging markets. The link between environmental responsibility, social change and sustainable business practices has been the concern for practitioners and environmentalist for the past couple of decades in developed countries, and multi-agency teams have been deployed to address emerging issues if any. Besides, deployment of highly focused and committed environmental conscious personnel, there has been a tremendous improvement of innovative manufacturing processes and efficient technologies, leading to successful green marketing systems and programmes. Though, efforts are bearing fruits in emerging markets, on account of countries affiliation to global agencies, such as United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and many others, more need to be done to isolate key soft and hard competencies required to cascade global green marketing solutions to local firms. The chapter illustrates that green competencies, green thinking and rightful employee engagement foster green marketing activities in emerging markets.

Mutende R;, Akala W;, Imonje RK. "Connecting Theory and Practice: Pre-service Science Teachers’ Adoption and Implementation of the Demonstration Method." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2021;20(5):189-210.
Ondicho TG. "Conservation, Power and Politics: Maasai Involvement in Community-Based Conservation in the Amboseli Region of Kenya.". In: African Potentials’ and Natural Resource Management: Against the Image of ‘Deficiency’ and Tyranny of ‘Fortes’. Bamenda: Langaa Research & Publishing Common Initiative Group; 2021.
Ikua MD, Wambua BN, Omoke KJ. "Constraints and Opportunities for Greenhouse Farming Technology as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Variability by Smallholder Farmers of Nyandarua County of Kenya." East Africa Journal of Science,Technology & Innovation. 2021;2(Special ). Abstract

Nyandarua County of Kenya has been for a long time, manifested itself as one of the major food baskets in the country. This is because of its high and sustainable output in crop farming i.e., maize, Irish potatoes, wheat, and other horticultural crops like vegetables and fruits. However, this scenario has recently changed because the usual high crop output has not been forthcoming due to recent changes in climatic patterns where rainfall has become very unreliable and temperatures very extreme. In an attempt to adapt to this climate variability and its associated negative impacts on crop farming, smallholder farmers have tried to apply the greenhouse farming technology for them to be able to maintain and or improve the various crop output amid the climatic changes. The study aims to examine and assess the socio-economic determinants and constraints associated with this attempt of adaptation strategy. Using the primary data of 300 respondents (Smallholder farmers) in the County, the study adopted a logistic regression analysis model to associate the demographic, socio-economic, and constraints encountered by the smallholder farmers with the adoption of the greenhouse farming technology. The study results indicate that this adaptation strategy was reported by 25 out the 300 smallholder farmers (5.83%). The study results further suggest that financial constraints (27%) and lack of information (22.3%) are the major constraints preventing smallholder farmers from effectively adopting this adaptation strategy. However, the probability results of logistic regression analysis (68%) indicate that if properly adopted, the method can provide a solution to the currently reduced food shortages and increase food security among the smallholder farmers of Nyandarua County of Kenya.

Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Makokha SN. "The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(164).
Ipara BO, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ, Makokha NS. "The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Newcastle disease (ND) poses a challenge especially for farmers rearing indigenous chicken under the extensive system. This is due to the lack of uniformity in practices, favoring the introduction and spread of the disease. This is worsened by the lack of information on how management practices contribute to the spread of ND. The current study assessed the role of extensive chicken production systems and management practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks in Kenya using a Poisson regression model (PRM) on primary survey data from 332 farmers in Kakamega and Machakos counties. Descriptive results showed a low access to institutional support services like extension, training, credit, and vaccination services for both male and female farmers. Results from the PRM analysis show that flock size, isolated and confined housing, multi-aged flock mixture, screening of birds, access to ND vaccination, ND awareness, distance to agro-veterinary service providers, and access to animal health training and extension services had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The findings underscore the need for innovative extension approaches that facilitate the use of information communication technologies to create more awareness on disease detection and mitigation measures. Use of farmer groups as innovation platforms for enhanced skill sharing and as key peer monitoring channels would also improve compliance with prescribed disease control methods. Further, there is a need for partnerships between local-level county governments, vaccine producers, and agro-veterinary service providers to ensure the development of low-cost vaccines and requisite storage facilities, and their timely delivery to the male and female resource-poor smallholder extensive chicken farmers.

Muhwezi MRL, Aseey A, Ondicho T, Otieno MAC. "The contribution of technical and vocational education and training to women’s economic empowerment in Kampala, Uganda." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;5(2):1-23.
Gateri AM, Ondicho TG, Karimi E. "Correlates of Domestic Violence against Men: Qualitative insights from Kenya." African Journal of Gender, Society, and Development. 2021;10(3):87-111.
P MO, N MJ, O AS, N MG. "Correlation of Tensile Strength and Corrosion Initiation Period of Reinforced Concrete." Cogent Engineering. 2021;Vol 8.
Makau MC, Powell J, Prendergast J, de Late PL, Morrison LJ, Gathura P, Fisch A. "Corrigendum to “Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle”[Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2021:235.
Buyinza D, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Koch A, Oriko R. "A coumestan and a coumaronochromone from Millettia lasiantha." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021;97:104277. AbstractView Website

The manuscript describes the phytochemical investigation of the roots, leaves and stem bark of Millettia lasiantha resulting in the isolation of twelve compounds including two new isomeric isoflavones lascoumestan and lascoumaronochromone. The structures of the new compounds were determined using different spectroscopic techniques.

FZB B, E.N K, FG M. "Coverage of Dental services by Health Insurance Companies based in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):939-945.
Simon N. Mbugua, Njenga LW, ROA, Wandiga SO, Onani MO. "COVID-19 and Cancer Therapy: Interrelationships and Management of Cancer Cases in the Era of COVID-19 “.A Review." . Journal of Chemistry. 2021;2021:1-10. Abstract

The COVID-19 global epidemic poses this generation’s biggest worldwide public health challenge probably since the 1918 influenza epidemic. Recent reports on two new variants have triggered a dramatic upsurge in research to understand the pandemic, primarily focussing on the virology, triggers, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic tests including the prevention and management of the novel coronavirus. Whilst such studies are important in managing the present medical emergency, there is a need for further work to include interdependencies between the epidemic and other illnesses. 'is will help in developing effective approaches to treat and manage associated diseases in both the short and the long term. In this regard, people living with cancer are a subgroup that is highly vulnerable to respiratory infections and acute pneumonitis similar to the one caused by the COVID19 virus. 'is is because the state of their immunity is compromised due to malignancy and the adverse effects of anticancer treatments. With annual cancer projections rising globally and an estimated 70 percent of all cancer-related deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries, the patient population with impaired immune systems that could be adversely impacted by COVID-19 is only anticipated to rise. In this review, we delve into the challenges and health risks facing cancer patients and cancer treatment in the COVID-19 context, with suggestions into viable measures which can be taken to minimize exposure to the risk of contracting COVID-19 for this vulnerable subgroup. New mutations and the prospects offered by vaccines development and how they relate to this class of patients are also discussed

Ondicho TG, Mwanyuli MM. "COVID-19 and Domestic Violence Against Men in Kenya: Issues and Policy Directions." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(2):81-83.
Ong’ech D, Olago D, Simeon D, Opondo M, Ouma G. "COVID-19 Impacts on Water Burden among Households in Turkana." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(1):57-58.
(eds) Harle J, Lamptey RB, Mwangi A, Nzegwu F, Okere O. "Creating digital content and delivering digital learning in African universities."; 2021. Abstract


Kithiia SM. "A Critical Analysis of the Water Quality Impacts on Water Resources in the Athi River Drainage Basin, Kenya.". In: Water Quaity-Factors and Impacts. Rijeka, Croatia: Intech Publishers; 2021.
Kinyua A. P., Mbugua J. K., Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., J.G.N. K, S.O. W, I. M. "Current and voltage data logging from microbial fuel cells using Arduino based sensors." International Robotics & Automation Journal. 2021;7(3):90-93.abstract.pdf
Kiio, L., Mbui, Onyatta J, Dangili P, Oloo F. "Current Biosensors used for Early Detection of Lung Cancer Biomarkers." Journal of Cancer Research Reviews and Reports. 2021;3(3):1-8.
Obiero LM, Abong' GO, W OM, OMAYIO DUKEG, G OE, Villacampa M. "Current practices concerning the environmental management systems among horticultural processing MSMES in Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(special Issue):1-16.current_practices_of_msmes.pdf
R I, Mugambi M. The Curriculum in Perspective. Chisinau: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2021.
Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Mukavi J, Okoko BA, Nyaboke HO, Hashim I, Efferth T, Spiteller M. "Cytotoxic Alkaloids from the Root of Zanthoxylum paracanthum (Mildbr) Kokwaro." Natural Products Research. 2021:
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractView Website

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractNatural product research

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Derese S. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747.
Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747. AbstractNatural Product Research

The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Mutunga PK, Gichuhi W. "Decision-Making Power and Contraceptive Use among Couples of Child-Bearing Age in Kenya.". In: Gender Statistics for Evidence-Based Policies: Women’s Economic Empowerment, Health and Gender Based Violence. Nairobi: UN Women; 2021.
Muasya, Juliet N. "Decolonizing Religious Education to Enhance Sustainable Development in Africa: Evidence from Literature." East African Journal of Educational Studies. 2021;3(1):77-86.
Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module V): Advanced Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module V): Advanced Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2021.
Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Raspador for Simultaneous Extraction and Brushing of Sisal Fibers by Small-scale Sisal Farmers." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstract

Demand for natural fibers is on the rise as awareness of environmental protection keeps abreast. Sisal fibers, for instance, are largely utilized not only in the manufacture of mats, ropes, carpets, and sacks but also in the reinforcement of polymer composites. With the increased demand for sisal fibers, there is a need to equally increase the exploitation of sisal by small-scale farmers. UNIDO, for instance, recommended that appropriate small-scale machines that are accessible to small-scale holders should be developed. This research examines the progress in the development of small-scale machines and designs a raspador for simultaneous extraction and brushing of sisal fibers. This is to ensure that there is value and income addition for the small-scale farmers in East Africa and perhaps the rest of the world.

Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Determinants of distress sales of farmland in rural Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2021;8(1):317-345.
Lutta, A. I., Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Sircely J. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability, . 2021;23(5):7393-7411.
Ballesteros C, Mwasi A, Mungai E, Ibarahim A, Thuranina-McKeever C, Aboge GO, Onono JO, Alarcon P. "Developing and validating a rapid assessment tool for small ruminant reproduction and production in pastoralist flocks in Kajiado, Kenya." Veterinary and Animal Science. 2021;13.
Mwondu JM, Ombui JN, Kironchi G, Onyuka A. "Development of an Eco-friendly and Sustainable Method of Dechroming Leather Wastes." Textile and Leather Review. 2021;4:364-391.
Onyango G, Ondiek JO. "Digitalization and Integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) in Public Organizations in Kenya.". 2021. Abstract

This study mapped the role of ICT, digital platforms, the internet connectivity and skills of the personnel vis-à-vis implementation processes of SDGs in public organizations in Kenya. Findings show cross-cutting institutionalization and internalization deficits as a result of limited mastery of ICT skills and training of the personnel, insufficient ICT platforms, mainly, computers, poor internet connectivity and poor investment in digital platforms by the government institutions. An organizational culture that predisposes institutions to change resistance also constrained integration of SDG goals in public organizations. The article concludes by providing critical policy recommendations for addressing these problems.

Malembaka REB, Onwonga R, Jefwa J, Ayuke F, Nabahungu L. "Diversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in maize (Zea mays) cropping fields in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(4):604-617.
Muriungi MA, Kinoti M, Okiro K. "Dividend Signaling and Shareholder Monitoring Hypothesis: Empirical evidence from Nairobi Securities Exchange." African Development Finance Journal. 2021;5(1):145-159. Abstractdividend_signaling_and_shareholder_monitoring_hypothesis_empirical_evidence_from_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Most corporate governance studies have focused on the composition and effectiveness of board members, little attention has barely focused on the interaction between the identity of significant shareholders and the decisions they influence in the firm. Corporate governance literature is currently based on empirical studies in developed countries, but the efficiency of developed and developing markets corporate governance mechanisms is disparagingly different. This paper presents an ideal moment for examining the complementary effect of dividend policy and ownership concentration by shareholders at Nairobi Securities Exchange in a developing securities exchange. Previous studies examining the interaction between corporate governance and firm value have emphasized the significance of institutional shareholder concentration and dividend policy decisions as corporate control mechanisms that influence value creation in a firm. This study is supported by dividend signaling and institutional shareholder monitoring hypothesis. The study used longitudinal data for the period (2008-2017) and the target population is sixty-six companies trading securities at NSE 2008-2017. Empirical results reveal, firms listed at Nairobi Securities Exchange have a high level of ownership concentration and dividend payment has a significant positive effect on the firm value which is in line with the signaling hypothesis, the mediating effect of ownership concentration was negated therefore did not support shareholder monitoring hypothesis. The findings of this study have significant policy implication to policymakers, regulators should not rely on market mechanism as protection to minority owners. Firms should be encouraged to regularly pay dividends if profitable and investors should understand the ownership structure of listed firms they invest in.

FW N, Ouyang K AA, J O'o, GW A, D Z. "Does Keloid Histology Influence Recurrence?" Am J Dermatol. doi. 2021;10(PMID: 33464754.). AbstractWebsite

Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by high recurrence rates, with few factors known to influence the same. We conducted a study to determine whether keloid histology influences recurrence. This was a prospective longitudinal study to determine whether histopathological parameters of keloid influence recurrence. Patients with keloids managed by surgical excision were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital between August 2018 and July 2020. The excised keloids were processed for histology using hematoxylin,/eosin, Masson, and trichrome stains. The slides were analyzed for inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and capillary density using the hot spot technique and correlated to keloid recurrence. Postoperative follow-up was for a minimum of 1 year. A total of 90 patients with 104 keloids were recruited in the study. Overall keloid recurrence rate was 28.6%. There was a correlation between the absolute count of more than 50 per High power field of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages with recurrence of the disease. The sensitivity and specificity for the above parameters were lymphocytes 48% and 81%, macrophages 57% and 83%, mast cells 32% and 33%, and fibroblasts 41% and 91%, respectively. There was no correlation between mast cells and vascularity status with recurrence. Routine histology should, therefore, be performed to determine these parameters. Close monitoring and second-line therapy should be considered for patients with elevated macrophages and/or lymphocytes so as to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Ayonga, N J. R.W. R&(2021). "Dual Spatial Patterns, In-optimal Legal Framework and how they affect Land Use Planning in Kenya: Evidence from the Planning statutes. ." Journal of African Habitat Review. 2021; (15(4). (Forthcoming.).
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and Ndeke AN1, 3 MHM1 KCK2 MJK1. "Effect of Acetamınophen on Ovulation and Implantation in Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):141-143.141-143.pdf
Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM, Kaingu CK, Muthee JK. "Effect of Acetamınophen on Ovulation and Implantation in Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):141-143.
F M, F. M, J. N. "Effect of Employee reward, on employee performance at the Kenya Police service." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
Kimeli P, Vanleeuwen J, Gitau G, Heider L, McKenna S, Greenwood S. "Effect of housing improvement and other factors on the growth of heifer calves on Kenyan smallholder dairy farms." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(1):1-15.
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