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IRIBEMWANGI PI. "“Kikuyu Phonology and Orthography: Any hope for continuity of indigenous languages?”.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. New Delhi: Routledge; 2016. Abstractthe_language_loss_of_the_indigenous.jpg


MICHIRA DRJ, I.MWANGI. "“Kiswahili as an Official Language in Kenya: Its Past, Present and Future Roles and Challenges”." in Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies,. 2014;Vol. 3 :42-52.
SWALEH AMIRI. "“Kosa la Nani?”.". In: “Kosa la Nani?” Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
and Naomi A. “Kuwa Smart” .; 2020.
T O, L M. "“Language Learning Catastrophe? Crisis and Impediments in the Free Primary Education (FPE) in Kenya” ." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce.. 2017;2(10):38-48.
Ngugi M. "“Lessons from Journalism Training in the US”." Expression Today (1998).
Kabira WM. "“Letter to Mariama Ba,” by W.M. Kabira, ." University of Nairobi Press (2005).
Atieno R. "“Linkages and Business Competition in Kenya’s Metal Products Sub sector”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”." United Nations University (UNU)/WIDER Research Paper. 2009;No. 2009/06.
Atieno R. "“Linkages, Access to Finance and the Performance of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya”.". In: UNU-WIDER project workshop on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development: Concepts, Measurements and Impacts. Helsinki, Finland; 2008.
Dequan S. “Listening Courses of English Broadcasts”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press; 1997.
Karimurio J. "The “lost Vision” of EAJO.". In: JOECSA Editors workshop. Livingstone, Zambia; 2014.2014_joecsa_board_meeting_zambia_jk_presentation.pdf
Wanjala A. "“L’oeuvre ‘Kouroumanesque’- comment l’enseigner dans une Université Kenyane?” .". In: Research and Teaching in East Africa, Opportunities and Challenges. Nairobi: United States International University -Africa Press; 2006.
Ng'ang'a] JM. “Market Segmentation by Medium and Large Scale Manufacturing Firms in Kenya”. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

The study contained in this report investigated the use of market segmentation by the medium and large scale manufacturing firms in Nairobi with the aim of generalizing the findings to similar firms’ throughput Kenya. It had a further aim of identifying the specific segmentation variables which influence the production and marketing of the firm’s product and also isolating the problem encountered in the practice of market segmentation.
To achieve these objectives a questionnaire was constructed and administered. The respondents were marketing managers, product managers or any other person conversant with the product and marketing strategies in the particular firm. The respondents had to rate the various segmentation variables indicating the extent to which such variables influence the product and marketing strategy in their firm.
The data so collected was analyzed by use of tables, percentages and proportions. A further statistical test was carried out using the t - test to find out whether the scores for the various variables were statistically different among the different industries.

Nyabuga, Kiai W. "“Media Veterans in Kenya." Media Veterans in Kenya,School of Journalism and Mass Communication Press, University of Nairobi. 2012.
Onjala J, Dorothy MC. “Methodology for Value Chain Analysis in ICT Industry: Frameworks for the Study of Africa”. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium; 2008.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "“Micro - Finance and Poverty Allevia tion – How effective is it in Alleviating Gender Based Poverty.". In: Poverty, Poverty Alleviation and Social Disadvantage: Analysis, Case Studies and Policies , Edited by Clem Tisdell Ph.D. Vol. II. VII, . Serials Publications, New Delhi: India.; 2006.
Atieno R, Mitullah WV. "“Migration Labour Markets and Development: Inward Migration to North and West Africa”." Working Paper, International Labour Organisation, . 2010;Geneva, 2010.
"“Missionary Presence in Inter-religious Encounters and Relationships” ." Studies in World Christianity, August. 2013;Vol. 19(No. 2):162-86 .
Dequan S. “Modern Chinese Dictionary of International Trade”. Tianjin: China Railway Press ; 1995.
Ongarora SO. “Mtindo katika Arusi ya Buldoza na Hadithi Nyingine''. E.M. DM,.M PM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
“Kibui ER”, “Manga E”, “Michuki G”. "“New Wine in an Old Wineskin? Socio-Political Context and Participatory Budgeting in Kenya” ." Journal of East African Studies. 2020.
Muchiri J. "“Ng’ang’a Mbugua’s Different Colours as an Allegory of the Kenyan Nation.”." Chemchemi – International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;10(1):83-95.
Odipo G. "“Nomadism: A Migration Mechanism for Environment and Economic Sustainability: The Pokot of Kenya.”.". In: Third African Population Conference of the Union for African Population Studies. International Convention Centre, Durban, South Africa; 2000.
joshua Kivuva. "“Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the East African Community (EAC) regional integration]1.". In: “Non-state actors (NSA) and awareness creation on the EasRole of NSA in the EAC, . The Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, ; 2011.
Atieno R. "“Occupational Distribution of Women in the Labour Market in Kenya”.". In: Annual IAFFE Conference. Barcelona, Spain; 2012.
Wasamba P. "“Oral Poetry in East Africa: Perspectives and Insights." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2004;(No. 2):1-9.abstract_2.pdf
Wanjala A. "“Orality in Rebeka Njau’s The Sacred Seed”." The Global South . 2012;5(2):93-106.
Muleka J. "“Our Physical and Oral Heritage: A Link.” In Our Landscapes, Our Narratives" .". In: - Proceedings of the Conference on East African Oral Literature. Kisumu; 2006.
R T. "“Paka Duzi” a story in Siri ya Bwenyenye na Hadithi Nyingine.". In: Siri ya Bwenyenye na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers East Africa Limited ; 2016:.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "“Patrice Lumumba: Voices of Liberation,”." The African Book Publishing Record . 2014;40(2):233-237.voices_of_liberation.pdf
Stigter CJ, den Van B, Daane JRV, Adam HS, Mohammed AE, Ng'ang'a JK, Mungai DN. "The “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison.". 1998. AbstractThe “picnic” model for research training at African Universities: evaluation and preliminary comparison

What distinguishes the “Picnic” model for research training at African universities from more classical models is reviewed and it is shown how the “Picnic” model deals with remaining drawbacks from the now popular “Sandwich” model. Starting with managerial experiences, criteria guiding this evaluation are used as sub-headings: realistic planning; adequate resource provision; partnership instead of aid; long term impact; high quality supervision; quality and quantity of student input; open and interactive communication; willingness to adapt to local circumstances; ongoing critical reflection; gradual expatriate withdrawal. The training output of the “Picnic” model tests in the four TTMI-countries is assessed after the actual and prospective jobs of its former students. The on-farm quantification of protecting systems/structures led in many TTMI PhD-research cases to improved design criteria for such systems/structures, with direct increases of yield or its preservation. In comparison with the “Sandwich” model, the “Picnic” model particularly incorporates institutional strengthening in the aim that the southern countries will become able to provide adequate education at the postgraduate level, teaching their students how to apply knowledge in their own environment. Degrees obtained at southern universities, therefore, have distinct advantages but joint responsibilities of universities for such degrees are difficult to organize, given the presently existing modes of output-related financing of Dutch universities. In a situation of institutional deterioration, such as Africa is experiencing, the best hope probably lies in strengthening networks of individuals and a collective sense of academic commitment, pending the revival of universities themselves. Emergency research related to the protection of the African agricultural environment by African universities, training NARS staff, must in the long run contribute to restoring an agricultural basis for part of the economies of the many poor African countries. Knowledge developed locally remains the most powerful vehicle for change from within.

Wasamba P. "“Politics, Ethnicity and Ethics: The Dilemmas of a Fieldworker.” ." International Journal of African Renaissance Studies.. 2009;Vol. 4(No. 2):193-204.
JANE KABUBO-MARIARA, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R, Mwabu G. "“Poverty-environmental Links: The Impact of Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security on Household Welfare in Kenya”." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2010;Vol. 2(1)(February, 2010):041-053.
WAFULA DRCHARLES. "“Practice and Experiences in Development of Distance Learning in Kenya: Case of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning- University of Nairobi, Kenya.”.". In: A paper to be presented to Distance Education and Teacher Education in Africa Conference, 2013 To be held at University of Nairobi, Kenya from 30th July to 1st August 2013 .; 2013. Abstract

This paper is a documentary presentation and discussion of the major Issues and Educational Challenges that face Kenya towards its Fulfillment of Vision 2030 which has been set as Economic development Landmark to turn around this country and how open and distance learning address those challenges.
The paper identifies the magnitude of required capacity to undertake the training and -in-servicing of the working Kenyans for the provision of new skills and change of mindset of the key managers on carrying out their business to be result and outcome oriented without removing them from their jobs or workplace.
It discusses the justification and relevance of the specific Flagship Projects offered by open and distance modes using e-learning and printed modules with online learner support and how they were identified to be part of the performance contract at the College of Education and External Studies.

Wasamba P. "“Preservation of Oral Literature through Research.”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature.. 2006;(No. 3):1-6.abstract.pdf
Wasamba P. "“Quest for Ethnic Tolerance in Kenya: The Role of Oral History”." Journal of Africa Affairs. 2013;33:247-272.abstract.pdf
and Njogu KWMW. "“Reclaiming my Dreams: Oral Narratives,” by W.M. Kabira and W. Njogu,." University of Nairobi Press (2010).
Anselm OJ. "“Reducing War and Terrorism by Mitigation through Knowledge”, .". In: at the Second Annual CUEA Philosophy Conference, Philosophy of War and Peace, 15-17 November 2007. CUEA Nairobi; 2007.
"“Reflections on the Detective Novel as an Allegory of Contemporary Kenya.”." Journal of Language, Technology& Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2021;12(1):17-35.
HN G. "“Relationship between Perception of Inter-parental Conflicts and Involvement in Delinquent Behaviours among Selected Kenyan Adolescent Students.”." Journal of Educational and Social Research. 2015;5((ISSN 2239-978X ISSN 2240-0524)):25-34.
(Eds.) TB/AA/TO. "“Remembering through (m)other tongues: A new approach to Pan-Africanism”.". In: Pan-Africanism and the Integration of Continental and Diaspora Africa. Lagos: CBAAC; 2012.
Anselm OJ. “Responsibility and Development”, . Catholic Univeersity of Eastern Africa Nairobi; 2006.
Nyikal RA, Olouch-Kosura W. "“Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang’a District, Kenya” ." Agricultural Economics . 2005;32(2):131-140 . AbstractWebsite

Financing smallholder farming has been one of the major concerns of Kenya's agricultural development efforts. Many credit programs have evolved over the years but with dismal performance. In a study that sought to find the best way to finance smallholder agriculture, it became necessary to analyze and document, in the first place, the farmers' preferred enterprise patterns. Any financial innovations would hence address the preferred patterns. Of particular interest was the effect of risk preference on such patterns, which had been ignored in many previous farm management studies. Murang'a district was chosen as a typical smallholder district. Sample farmers, obtained through cluster sampling, were visited and structured questionnaires administered to cover farm events and physical resources of short rains 1995 to long rains 1996. This formed a basis for formulating the farm patterns. A quadratic programming model was used to analyze observed farm plans. The model incorporates farmers' risk preferences, revenue fluctuations, and resource and subsistence restrictions. The results showed that: (1) changes in risk preference do affect the optimal crop combinations; (2) the typical cropping pattern is rational as the farmer meets both food and cash under modest variability of income; (3) insisting on producing most subsistence food requirements by the farmers reduces efficiency and limits the feasible plans.

Ndiritu A, J. M, C. N. "“Rowing The Boat in The Same Direction: A Must for Transformational Leaders.". IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME)e- ISSN: 2320–7388,p-ISSN: 2320–737X Volume 9, Issue 1Ser. II. (Jan. – Feb. 2019), PP". 2019. Abstract

Teamwork is the lubricant that makes the team to work efficiently. This only happens when the team members share and understand their common vision. This study sort to investigate the influence of Principals’ transformational leadership characteristic of “Inspiring a shared vision” and academic performance in secondary schools. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified random sampling was used in selection of respondents to ensure that principals from both public and private schools were included in the sample. Transformational leadership was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-self developed by Kouzes and Posner (1993). Principal’s responses were triangulated usingKouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices Inventory-others on teachers. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, t-test was used. Results indicated a modest correlation between leadership characteristic of “inspiring a Shared Vision” and students’ academic performance. This relationship was statistically significant (r=0.477 n=40 p=0.002). Based on the findings, it is recommended that principals should ensure that all the stakeholders are moving in the same direction by practicing transformational leadership characteristic of “inspiring others to act”.

Karimurio J. The “segment knockout” survey method for large trachoma-endemic districts. Melbourne: Melbourne; 2012. Abstract

Prevalence surveys are mandatory before new trachoma control projects are funded and existing ones continued. When a large administrative district with >200,000 people is surveyed as one trachoma intervention unit, the survey clusters are widely spaced and it is difficult to establish the distribution of the disease at the sub-district level with certainty. As a result, some trachoma-endemic areas in Kenya have been missed out and non-endemic areas included in mass antibiotic treatment. The other challenge is the large sample size required in standard trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surveys that include participants aged >15 years. The main objective of this study was to develop an effective and efficient survey method to justify administration of mass antibiotic treatment for active trachoma. The other objective was to establish the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants, to ensure that the time required to complete a TT survey was the same as the time required to complete a TF survey, while ensuring that the sample was adequately representative of the TT backlog. The costs of surveys and administration of mass antibiotic treatment were determined for comparison of the standard and new survey methods. Data sets for previous surveys were re-analysed to calculate the optimum lower age limit of TT survey participants and correction factors to extrapolate the total backlog of TT.

A “Trachoma Survey by Segment” (TSS) method was developed to justify and reduce the cost of mass antibiotic treatment. It was tested in Turkana, a large hyper-endemic district with 543,199 people and Narok, a meso-endemic district with 576,388 people. Each district was divided into five geographical areas (segments). A segment had a population of 100,000–200,000 people. Areas with similar risk of trachoma were aggregated in the same segment. The segments with <10% prevalence of TF in children 1-9 years were excluded (knocked-out) from mass treatment, 10%-30% treated for 3 years and >30% treated for 5 years.

An efficient TT40 survey method was also developed where the backlog of TT was estimated in people >40 years old and correction factors used to extrapolate the total backlog. A TT40 survey required a smaller survey sample than a standard TT survey. The backlog correction factor for the lower age limit of 40 years was 1.1.

In Turkana district 3,962 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF in the whole district was 38.0% (95%CI: 32.2%-43.9%). If the survey was conducted using the standard survey by administrative district method the whole population would have been treated for 5 years. However, the TSS method revealed that two segments needed treatment for 3 years and three segments for 5 years. After mass treatment the areas will be re-surveyed to justify further treatment.

In Narok district 3,998 children aged 1-9 years were examined and the prevalence of TF was 11.0% (95%CI: 8.0%-14.0%). The entire district had received three rounds of mass antibiotic treatment prior to this study. If this study was conducted by administrative district method, the whole population could have been treated for another three years. The TSS method identified three non-endemic segments which were excluded (knocked-out) from further treatment.

In Turkana district 2,962 people >40 years were examined and 7.8% (95%CI: 6.8%-8.8%) had TT while in Narok 2,996 people >40 years were examined and 2.9% (95%CI: 2.2%-3.6%) had TT. All the segments in both districts needed TT surgical services.

The cost of a survey by the administrative district method was $15,726 to $28,905, while by the TSS method it was $31,917 to $40,610 ($6,383 to $8,122 per segment). In 2009, the unit cost of administration of mass treatment was $0.20 to $0.42 per person treated. In Turkana district (hyper-endemic setting), the total cost of a survey and administration of mass treatment by the TSS method was $11,705 (1.7%) more expensive that by the administrative district method. In Narok district (meso-endemic setting with clustered trachoma) the survey by TSS method and administration of mass treatment was cheaper by $168,275 (53.2%).

It was concluded that the TSS is an effective trachoma survey method to identify the areas that need mass antibiotic treatment. For short term (<3 years) mass treatment in a hyper-endemic district like Turkana, the TSS method has no advantage over the administrative district method. For long term treatment, the TSS method is recommended because some segments may not require treatment for >3 years. The TT40 is an efficient trachoma survey method to determine the backlog of people with TT.

Mukhwana A. "“Sheng and Engsh: What They Are and What They Are Not”." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;2(1).
Njihia JM, Mbeche IM. "“Soft" Systems Analysis: Road Construction and Maintenance: A Soft Systems Approach.". In: All Africa Engineers Conference. Kenyatta Conference Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994. Abstract
Osaaji MG. "“Subverting the patriarchal ideology: A case study of a Samburu Woman oral narrative performer” ." Research in African Literatures. 2009;Volume 40 (Number 1):19-28.
Lydia W. Njenga, Lydia W. Njenga, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "“Synthesis and Characterization of Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl)-pyridine Complexes for Photoredox Catalysis.". In: 3rd Nordic Meeting on Organometallic Chemistry. Lund, Sweden; 2015.
Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Osaaji MG, Odari M, Muchiri J. "“The Agile Thinking and Subversion in Chinua Achebe’s The Education of a British-Protected Child”." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2020;9(Special Issue):124-143.
Dr. Oduor J. "“The Anticipated Benefits of Multilingualism in Education in Kenya” .". In: Africa: Challenges of Multilingualism. Africa: Peter Lang - International Academic Publishers; 2013.
(Eds) HI/MO. "“The Child Reader as Writer”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2006;4:30-41.
Wasamba P. "“The Concept of Heroism in Samburu Moran Ethos”." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2009;Vol. 21(No. 2):145-158.abstract.pdf
Ngugi M. "“The Dangers of Disciplinary Knowledge.”." Expression Today (1999).
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“The Environmental Crisis from an African Perspective,”.". In: Peace on Earth and Peace with the Earth. Geneva: World Council of Churches; 2008.
Onjala J. "“The Experience of Chinese Support for Infrastructure: How Relevant is it for Kenya?”.". In: Shikwati James (ed) China-Africa Partnership: The quest for a win-win relationship. Nairobi: Inter Region Economic Network (IREN Kenya); 2012.
Atieno R. "“The Financial System”.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press ; 2007.
"“The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Tiriki Circumcision Rites." in Mizizi, University of Nairobi Press. 2009.
Ngugi CM. "“The Kikuyu of Kenya” .". In: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora. Los Angeles: ABC-CLIO; 2008.
Muleka J. "“The Knell of Readership: A Case of Censorship in Children’s Literature.”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2007;1(5):55-65.
Ngugi CM. "“The Maasai of Kenya”.". In: “Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora. Los Angeles: ABC-CLIO; 2007.
Ngugi CM. "“The Mass Media and the Sustenance of Collective Identifications in Africa.”." Queen: Journal of Rhetoric and Power. 2005;5(Special Issue).
Wanjala G. "“The Meaning of Quality in Teacher Education : Some Policy Implications for Educational Planning .”." The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research . 2011;5 (1): 1-10 . Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges , the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies , objectives , strategies , programmes and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance , the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However , the quality of education cannot be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently , many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities.This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teachers who enrolled in the B.Ed.(Arts) programme of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased quality in education at the primary school level?

Wasamba P, Shenk E. "“The Need to Move On: Learning from Oral Narratives in Kenya.” ." Rapportage: Journal of Literary Essays, Interviews, and Profiles . 2008;Vol. xi:78-83.
Muleka J. "“The Paradoxes of Form and Style.” ." The Nairobi Journal of Literature, Kenya.. 2010;1(6):55-64.
Atieno R, Kanyinga K. "“The Revitalisation of Kenya Cooperative Creameries (KCC): The Politics of Policy Reforms in the Dairy Sector in Kenya”." Future Agricultures Working Paper. IDS, Sussex, Future Agricultures Consortium. 2007.
Atieno R, Shem AO. "“The Role of Social Policy in Development: Health, Water and Sanitation in East Africa”.". In: Social Policy in Sub-saharan African Context: In search of an Inclusive Development. UNRISD and Palgrave; 2007.
Kibera FN. "“The Role of the Cooperative Movement in Kenya’s Socioeconomic Development”, ." Journal of Business Administration, University of Dhaka,. 1995;21(1&2):101-114.
and Maweu HWJM. "“The tension between ethics and ethnicity: Examining journalists' ethical decision-making at the Nation Media Group in Kenya”." Journal of African Media Studies. 2014;Volume 6(Issue 2):165-181.
Kibera FN. "“The Transfer of Western Marketing Know-how to East Africa” ." Journal of Business Administration, Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka,. 1988;14:462-83.
T O, A K. "“The Triplex Mundus as a Global Trope in Euphrase Kezilahabi’s Rosa Mistika.” .". In: Contemporary African Societies and Cultures. Seoul: Dahae Publishing Co.Ltd; 2017.
Kunyanga C. "“This is how Agriculture can drive Vision 2030”." The Standard (2018).
Ngugi M. "“Towards Professionalization in Kenyan Journalism.”.". In: Presentation at the Media Forum of the Media Council of Kenya.; 2012.
K. AF, O. MW, F. OC. "“Transfusion haemosiderosis in spite of regular use of Desferrioxiamine-Case Report”." East. Afr. Med. J.. 2004;81:326-328.
.W.Okuku M. “Uchanganuzi wa Kiisimu wa baadhi ya matini za Kiswahili: mtazamo wa Pragmatiki Leksia’’ . E.M. DM, J PH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Atieno R, Benjamin Okech, Mitullah WV. "“Understanding the Business Systems in Kenya: Firm Response to Changing Market Environment in the Metal Products Sector”.". In: Regional workshop on Business Systems in Africa . Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
D K, W. O, P. M, N L, E A. "“Upper Echelons Theory and Research: A review of Theory and Empirical Literature 28 Years Later”." Business Administration Management. 2012;2(10):697-703.
Mungai AFG. “Urban Village” an urban design for Pasadena. Califonia: University of Califonia; 1988.
Mulama SJ. “Usimulizi katika Utenzi wa Siri Li Asirali’. E.M. DM, K.W. PW, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
WAFULA DRCHARLES. "“Utilization of Open and Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges: Case of the Flagship Projects Initiatives of the University of Nairobi”.". In: A Paper presented to the Academic conference for the School of Continuing and Distance Education on 18th April 2013.; 2013. Abstract

This paper is a discussion of the Practices and experiences of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning in developing distance education in the University of Nairobi. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning which is an independent unit of the University is mandated to collaborate with internal Schools, Faculties, Institutes and Centres to develop Distance education for diversification, access and enrichment of the learning/teaching system of the University of Nairobi.

Data for this paper was obtained through documentary analysis, observation, reports on the activities and interviews with stakeholders in distance education. Data obtained were analyzed and the findings reported in this paper.

This paper will discuss the structural setting put in place which enables the centre to undertake its tasks and mandate through collaboration with internal schools, faculties, centres and institutes. units in carrying out its mandate. In particular, the paper describes the specific units of the Centre which are key in implementing distance education. These are: print materials development unit; audio and visual material development unit; evaluation, research and quality control unit; e-learning unit and learner support and programmes coordination unit.

The paper further elaborates on the operations of the processes taken by the Centre namely the sensitization process, process of material development in print and electronic, quality assurance mechanisms in place, the coordination arrangements put in place and the learners support services available for the learners.

The paper stresses that although there are many ways of acquiring instructional materials namely through adoption, adaption or developing, the practice at the Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been largely to develop their own material but use other sources for support because of the uniqueness of the University of Nairobi programmes. The paper further elaborates on the practice of material development in which the centre plays the role of instructional designing while the collaborating departments provide the subject content.

This paper elucidates the role of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning in providing orientation to subject tutors for efficient and effective tutoring and to learners for copying with the requirements and expectations of open and distance education.

The paper also discusses the challenges that are faced by the Centre for Open and Distance Learning and the collaborating units in implementing distance education programs in the university. Key among them being policy issues, infrastructural and human resource capacity and technical capability of lecturers tutoring on-line.

Finally the paper discusses the outcomes which include: instructional materials developed; new open distance and e-learning programs developed and mounted; increased competency of faculty members and better Co-ordination open, distance and e-learning programs of the university.

In conclusion, the paper recommends that open, distance and e- learning should be embraced further by the university as it can provide solutions to the challenges facing the university and the entire education sector not only in Kenya but also to the rest of Africa.

(Eds) DGN/GD/KKC. "“Virtual Communities as spaces for safeguarding endangered cultures”.". In: Local Knowledge - Global Translations. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan; 2013.
“Visa Vya Watoto Watundu na Hadithi Nyingine”. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2013.
Wasamba P. "“Voicing Seoul Metropolis: The Other Side of Urbanization in Korea.”." HEKIMA: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;Vol. VI. (No. 1):119-134.abstract.pdf
Onjala J. "“Water and Electricity Services Provision in Kenya”.". In: in McCormick D, Mary Omosa and Alila (eds). Business Systems in Africa. Nairobi: of Nairobi Press. ; 2007.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text


The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.


Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.


Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.


The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.


Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Wasamba P, Sihanya B. "“What Do they get for their Sweat: Rethinking Compensation for Artists in Poor Cash-based Economies.”." Journal of African Cultural Studies. 2012;Vol. 24, (No. 2):171-183.
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