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1982
A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1982) The general position paper for the coffee factories section of the Ministry of Agriculture. Government Working Paper (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1982. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mwalali P.N., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Africa,1:64, 1982 The Effects of GnRH and TRH on pituitary secretion of FSH, LH and PRL in Normal Kenyan Males.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Africa,1:64, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1982). Locust antifeedant activity from Melia volkensii. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 32, 277-280.". In: Proc. 3 int. Conf. trop. climates. 235-237 (1985). The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Nana O.F., Mati J.K.G., Lequin R.M., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B.,J. Obster. Gynaecol. E. and Central Africa, 1:1, 42, 1982:Pituitary-Ovarian Function during and afterpelvic Irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix.". In: Obster. Gynaecol. E. and Central Africa, 1:1, 42, 1982:. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndeto G.W., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:58, 1982 Prolactin release in subjects with uterine fibroid.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:58, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ndeto G.W.T., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M. Prolactin response in patients with hypertensive disease in pregnancy J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:166, 1982.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 1:166, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Nitrates/nitrites and Nitrosamines in foodstuff, and their public health implications. KIFST bulletin No. May 1982.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Notes on Grace Ogot's Land Without Thunder for O-levels, Authored, Nairobi.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1982). Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, in vitro bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermented milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1) 19 .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1982). Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, in vitro bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermented milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1) 19 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Goitre and fluorosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Goitre and fluorosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Management of chronic pain: practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jul;59(7):429-34. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jul;59(7):429-34. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Management of chronic pain: practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jul;59(7):429-34. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jul;59(7):429-34. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacokinetics in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacokinetics in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: advances in antibiotic therapy. East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Sep;59(9):573-8. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):366-73. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics: the use of insulin. East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics: the use of insulin. East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics–use of oral anti-diabetic agents. East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics–use of oral anti-diabetic agents. East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Obwaka J.M., Mati J.K.G., Lequin R.M.,Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol E and Central Africa Afr. 1:96, 1982. Baseline studies in semen and hormonal parameters in normal Kenyan males.". In: et al J. Obstet. Gynaecol E and Central Africa Afr. 1:96, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Obwaka JM, Mati JK, Lequin RM, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Muitta MN, Nthale JM, Njoroge JK. Baseline studies on semen and hormonal parameters in fertile Black males in Kenya. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1982 Jun;1(2):96-9.". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). uon press; 1982. Abstract

PIP: Masturbatory semen specimen from 49 fertile Black African males in Kenya whose wives were pregnant was obtained after at least 3 days of abstinence for the analysis of parameters which included volume motility, vitality, sperm concentration, pH, fructose and acid phosphatase levels. About 1/2 the spermatozoa was actively progressive in motility, while 40% was nonmotile. Vitality in the 1st hour revealed that 81.4% of the sperm was alive. About 90% of the semen specimens had more than 40% idea forms of spermatozoa. Spermatozoal abnormalities were a frequent feature. There was no correlation between age and the testicular volume, but seminal fluid volume and sperm density tended to decrease with age. Serum levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone were determined in the subjects' sera, enabling the establishment of reference values for these parameters in African Kenyan males.

ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. & NEAVES, W.B. (1982). The choriallantoic placenta of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben): An electron microscopic study. Anat. Rec.204: 215-222.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1982. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D., & GOMBE, S. (1982). Placentation in the African cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus) Afric. J. Ecol. 20: 249-266.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1982. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "OKOMBO (1982) Dholuo Morphophomemic in (a) Generative Framework. Dietrich Reimer Verlag.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1982. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1982. The Major Syntactic Structures of Dholuo. Supplement 1. Language and Dialect Atlas of Kenya. Diatrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1982.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Oniang'o, C.M.P. "A Theory of Religion, Ideology and Utopia in Marx".". In: A Journal of Philosophy and Social Action, vol. VIII, No.4 1982 (pp 7-14).; 1982. Abstract
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MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Onyango, D. and D.M. Mukunya. 1982. Bacterial blight of cassava, Xanthomonas manihotis in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Workshop on root and Tuber crops held in Burundi. IITA. Ibadan, Nigeria. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1982. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Onyango, J.F.: Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate and Oral Facial Defect Management: The need for Oro-facial cleft center in Kenya. Medicom. 1982; 4:.". In: Medicom. 1982; 4:. University of Nairobi Press; 1982. Abstract
This communication presents the first case report of ossifying fibroma of the jaw from Kenya and reviews the literature including the available published case reports from Africa. The relationship between ossifying fibroma and other related benign fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws is briefly discussed. Intensified research work on this condition in Africans is called for so that more cases should be published since it is reportedly more common in black race. The majority of the African cases are generally reported in advanced stages indicating neglect or delay in seeking for medical help. Since ossifying fibroma is a well encapsulated and expansile benign bone neoplasm, surgical enucleation appears to be the treatment of choice; recurrence is rare.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1982). " Goat Trypanosomiasis: Effect of chemotherapy using isometamedium chloride on production in three goat breeds". Kenya Veterinarian 6 (2): 9.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, A. J. WILSON, E. W. ALLONBY (1982) "Trypanotolerance and economics among East African goats compared to their crosses with two exotic Breeds". In Karbe, E. and Freitas, E. K. (Eds); pp. 93 - 99.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, M.M. Kagiko, and J.M. Gathuma. Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermenting milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 30(1), 1982: 19.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Strongly Coupling Effect on Plasma Dispersion in a Magnetic Field; Ph.D. Thesis 1982, Boston College, U.S.A. (Unpublished).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1982.
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Rees PH, Gatei DG, de Cock KM, Tosswill J. Some preliminary observations on the investigation of splenomegaly in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Oct;59(10):658-64. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Oct;59(10):658-64. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1982. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Relative distribution of cathinone and D-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edulis (Miraa) growing in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Relative distribution of cathinone and D-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edulis (Miraa) growing in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):394-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Relativistic Significance of Curvature Tensors.". In: Internet. Jour. of Math and Mathematical Sci. (USA), Vol.5, No.1, pp. 133-139. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1982. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Religious Situation in Africa, A paper presented at International Missions Conference, Limuru, Kenya.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Activities of the Education and Publications Committee for Geodesy in Africa: 1977 - 1981". A report presented to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November, 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Education in Geodesy at the University of Nairobi. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Electronics cut errors and legworks. Kenya Engineers, January/February, 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: State of Geodetic education in African countries. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Rutaceae (Orange family) of East African flora, London,.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1982. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Sampling techniques for Populations of Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (Gmelin) (Homoptera).". In: Kenya Sci. & Tech., 3:9-18. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
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KAUR DRSEHMIJASWANT, KAUR DRSEHMIJASWANT. "Sehmi J.K. et. Al.; Self Sufficiency. M.oH., NPHLS, Nutrition / Food Contaminant Laboratory, Nairobi International Show.". In: M.Sc. thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1982. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Serological determination of prevalence of congenital syphilis in two hospitals in Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . No abstract available. PMID: 6764198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1982 Nov; 59 ( 11 ): 750-3 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

No abstract available.

RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Shocking National Tragedy" a review of Bhabani Bhattacharva's So Many Hungers! In Daily Nation Jan.1982.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1982. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Spatial Framework for Regional and National Development. A discussion paper prepared in conjunction with Mr. /. Maleche. Department ol Urban and Regional Planning. 1982.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1982. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ssali, H. and Mureria, N.K. 1982. Interaction between soil pH, Rhizobium phaseoli strains and bean variety. E. Afric. Agric. and For. J, 45 (1).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
n/a
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Stevenson, P., Muchemi G. and Karstad, L. 1982 Taenia saginata infection in East African antelopes. Veterinary Record 111:322.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Study of a new Curvature Tensor in Sasakian Manifold.". In: Tensor (N.S.) Vol.36 ,No.2, pp. 222-26. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1982. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Study of a Tensor in Sasakian Manifold.". In: Prog. of Math,Vol.15, pp. 23-27. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1982. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Taylor L.G., Okelo G.B.A.and Pamba H.O.:Comparison of Mebendazole (Vermox). Combatrin and Alcopar iln the Treatment of Intestinal Nematodes. Afr. Med. J. 59: 1982.". In: Afr. Med. J. 59: 1982. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "TAYLOR, C.R., HEGLUND, N.C. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1982) Energetics and mechanisms of terrestrial locomotion I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. Journal of Experimental Biology 97, 1-21.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'The Theme of Regeneration in Robert Serumaga's Return to the Shadows' in Africa Thought and Practice Vol. 4 No. 1.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1982. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "The theory of Achivement Motivation and its Applicability to sport and Physical Education University of Manchester, 1982.". In: University of Manchester, 1989. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "A Theory of Religion, Ideology and Utopia in Marx.". In: A Journal of Philosophy and Social Action, Vol.VIII, No.1982, pp.7-14.; 1982. Abstract
n/a
NGUGI MRTHIMBADAVID. "Thimba D.N and F.M. Itulya, 1982 Rooting of purple passion fruit(Passiflora Edulis Forma edulis Sims)stem cuttings. 11-Influence of Indolebutyric acid (IBA) E.Afr.Agri.For.J.48(1) 5-9.". In: Proceedings of workshop on . RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1982. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Twilight Years are the Years of Counsel and Wisdom", History and Culture in Western Kenya: The People of Bungoma District through Time, Edited by Simiyu Wandibba [Nairobi G.S. Were Press, 1982] 78 -90.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Ushewokunze-Obatolu, U.H.F., Froslie, A., Gathuma, J.M. and Nafsad, I. (1982). Residues of Quintiofos in cattle milk after dermal application of Bacdip. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 287 .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Ushewokunze-Obatolu, U.H.F., Froslie, A., Gathuma, J.M. and Nafsad, I. (1982). Residues of Quintiofos in cattle milk after dermal application of Bacdip. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 287 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani and Wanjao, L.W. 1982. The effect of duration of cold treatment on growth and flowering of Liatris. Scientia Horticulturae, 18:153-158.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani and Wanjao, L.W. 1982. The influence of corm source, age and size on growth and flowering of Liatris spicata L. Acta Horticulturae, 134:95-100.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Waiyaki P.G., Kiptoon J.C. and Mugera G.M. (1982): Gnidia latifolia (Meisn) toxicity in Rats. The Kenya veterinarian Vol.6 p.10-14.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1982.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Wanjao, L.W. and Waithaka, Kimani. 1982. The effect of GA3 application on growth and flowering of Liatris. Scientia Horticulturae, 19: 343-348.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Why patients go to the traditional healers. Katz SH, Kimani VN.East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1982. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

"Wildlife conservation and decline of pastoralism in Kenya." African Journal of Sociology, vol. II, No. 2, pp. 74 ; 1982. Abstract
n/a
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Writings on the Economy of Kenya in Ole Norgaard Kenya in the Social Sciences An Annoteted Bibliography Nairobi Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1982. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
1981
E.N. PN. "Opening speech to Coast Branch N.N.A.K. AGM on team work and nurses welfare.". In: Opening speech to Coast Branch N.N.A.K. AGM on team work and nurses welfare.; 1981. Abstract

Kenya Nurs J. 1981 Jun;10(1):21-2.
Opening speech to Coast Branch N.N.A.K. AGM on team work and nurses welfare.
Ngugi EN.

PMID:
6913629
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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E.N. PN. "Setting the pace: new approaches in nursing practice: paper presented to the International Council of Nurses Congress at the 17th ICN Quadrennial Congress held in Los Angeles in June, 1981.". In: International Council of Nurses Congress at the 17th ICN Quadrennial Congress held in Los Angeles in June, 1981. Los Angeles; 1981. Abstract

Kenya Nurs J. 1981 Dec;10(2):13-5.
Setting the pace: new approaches in nursing practice: paper presented to the International Council of Nurses Congress at the 17th ICN Quadrennial Congress held in Los Angeles in June, 1981.
Ngugi EN.
PMID:
6921385
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Lexicalist Approach to Bantu Morphology.". In: Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society. Australian National University, Canberra; 1981.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Language Planning with special reference to East African Countries." University of Washington, Seattle; 1981.
Gichaga FJ. "Industrial Training for Engineering Undergraduates.". In: Engineers Seminar. Nairobi; 1981.
Maitai CK, Talalaj S, Talalaj D, Njoroge D. "Smooth muscle stimulating substances in the stinging nettle tree Obetia pinnatifida." Toxicon. 1981;19(1):186-8.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "1981." The Object Prefix in Bantu. 1981.
"AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND MINORITY AND WOMEN FACULTY.". In: NAWDAC Annual Convention. San Francisco, California; 1981.
Mutinga MJ, Kaddu, J.B., Irungu LW. "Animal model for feeding Kenyan wild-caught phebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotomidae)." Insect Sc. Appl. . 1981;2:149-152.
Obel AO, J N, W G. "Antipyrine half - life in hyperthyroidism." East African Medical Journa l . 1981;(58):258-62.
Kokwaro JO. Aquatic resources of Kenya. Mombasa, Kenya; 1981.
Mukunya DM;, Muthangya PM;, Esele JPE. "Bacterial Blights Of Beans (phaseolus Vulgaris) In Kenya.".; 1981.
"CAREER DEVELOPMENT FOR MINORITY AND WOMEN FACULTY.". In: AERA Annual Meeting.; 1981.
"CAREER DEVELOPMENT FOR MINORITY AND WOMEN FACULTY.". In: AERA Annual Meeting. Los Angeles, California; 1981.
Dechant W, Pamba HO, Awan AM. "A case of internal ophthalmomyiasis in Kenya (author's transl).". 1981. AbstractWebsite

An unusual case of ophthalmomyiasis is reported, in which two living fly larvae were observed inside the patient's eye. One larva was removed from the anterior chamber by paracentesis; the other was destroyed on the retina by photocoagulation. The mode of infestation, clinical picture and treatment are discussed in brief.

KAAYA, G.P., MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. "Cryopreservation of bovine hemopoietic progenitor cells in liquid nitrogen." Cryobiology. 1981;18:119-124.
ODINDO, M., TURNER, D.A., OTIENO WA, KAAYA GP. "Cuticular lesions: Non-infectious integumental disease of Glossina spp." Insect Science and Its Application . 1981;2:213-217.
Obel AO, EG M. "Double - blind placebo controlled trial of glafeinine in acute pain." East African Medical Journal. 1981;(58):226-30.
J.O K. Economic importance and local use of the Kenyan Mangroves. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF; 1981.
Wanyoike M, Holmes W. "The effects of winter nutrition on the subsequent Jive-we ght performance and intake of herbage by beef cattle.". 1981. Abstract

Thirty-six Friesian and Friesian cross-bred cattle about 11 months old were fed to grow at the rates of 0·50 (low) and 1·08 (high) kg/day in a 12-week winter feeding period and then turned out on high quality pasture. For 12 weeks after turning out the ‘low’ and ‘high’ animals gained weight at 1·17 and 0·90 kg/day respectively. There was a negative correlation (– 0·57, P < 0·01) between winter and grazing live-weight gain. On two occasions herbage intake was estimated. Average intake of ‘low’ animals was 12% higher than of ‘high’ animals although herbage digestibility, estimated from faecal N, was similar for the two treatments. Differences in live-weight gain on pasture between treatments were largely accounted for by differences in intake. The low rate of winter growth did not have any significant effects on age at slaughter, carcass weights or grades attained by the restricted animals.

Oburra HO. Empyema Thoracis In Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1981. Abstract

This is a combined prospective and retrospective
review 'study of empyema thoracis. Twenty patients admitted
to Kenyatta National Hospital wards between November, 1980
and April 1981 were studied prospectively. Seventy nine patients admitted between January 1975 and October 1980 were
studied retrospectively. Both groups have been reviewed
to highlight various aspects of this disease, particularly
its potentially crippling effect on the respiratory system
and the fact that this is a preventable situation which is
not yet fully appreciated in our country.
Pulmonary disease was the most prevalent underlying
aetiology in this series. Mycobacteria and Staph. Aureus
were the most frequent causative organism followed by
various gram negative bacteria. Culture was negative in 21%
of all cases reviewed. The tendency of children under
10 years of age to have staphylococcal and multibacterial
infection was noted.
The ever increasing pneumonectomy rate on the background
of inadequate initial. treatment coupled with
scarcity of surgical beds and theatre time is highlighted.
Finally paediatric age and presence of underlying disea were shown to have positive relationship with increased
mortality, while traumatic and tuberculous aetiologies
were found to have a higher risk of eventual pneumonectomy.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "ESTABLISHMENT OF A BIOBANK AND PHARMACOGENETICS DATABASE OF AFRICAN POPULATIONS.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1981.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Evaluation of the potential of the marine sponges of the Zanzibar Island to yield antimalarial and antimicrobial active compounds.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. S.A.SAID, M.J.MOSHF, R.S.O. NOND(Y, 1; 1981.
R D, and Epp ONH>. "Forest Cover mapping in Kenya using remote sensing techniques." Forest Cover mapping in Kenya using remote sensing techniques. 1981;Report No. 30 .
Kokwaro GO. The Formulation Of Stable Adrenaline Eye Drops For Use In The Management Of Glaucoma.; 1981. Abstract

The different factors affecting the stability of adrenaline
in solution have been examined with a view to producing a
pharmaceutically active eye drop prep~ration of adrenaline. It
was important that such a formulation should be simple enough to

enable preperation using the available facilities in this country_
A preformu1ation screening of antioxidants in the
pH
absence of adrenaline showed that at low/values (around pH 3.0)
sodium sulphite was superior to either sodium metabisu1phite or
ascorbic acid. Accelerated stability studies showed that the
pH of maximum stability for aqueous solutions of adrenaline was
approximately pH 3.7. Accelerated stability tests at this pH

confirmed the superiority of sodium sulphite over a combination
of sodium metabisu1phite and ascorbic acid as antioxidants.
Accelerated stability studies also confirmed the
important role of boric acid in enhancing the stability of adrenaline
in aqueous solutions.
An investigation of four sterilization procedures
showed that the immediate loss of adrenaline was negligible
after either sterilization by filtration or by heating at 980c
for 30 minutes. Higher sterilization temperatures caused
substantial loss of adrenaline and discolouration of the solut
ions ,
For reasons of comfort to the patient on instillation
- 131 -
into the eye and for clarity of the solution in presence of the
preservative used (Benzalkonium Chloride), a final formulation of
adrenaline eye drops was prepared in borate buffer at pH 5.8,
with sodium sulphite as the antioxidant. Accelerated stability
studies and long term storage studies at ambient temperatures
showed that the final preparation was reasonably stable. Clinical
testing of the preparation on hospitalized glaucoma patients
showed that the preparation compared favourably with commercial
and other preparations used in the management of raised intraocular
pressures.

Varma S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL. "Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:571-574.
KAAYA, G.P., OTIENO LH. "Haemocytes of Glossina: I. Morphological classification and the pattern of change with age of the flies." Insect Science and Its Application. 1981;2:175-180.
Kitonyi, G.W; Kasili EG. "Hereditary bleeding disorders in Kenya.". 1981. Abstract

This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with herediatry haemorrhagic disorders seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), between March 1975 and July 1980. Haemophilia forms 63% of the cases, Christmas disease 22% and von Willebrarid's disease (VWD) 9.5%. Rarer disorders encountered are factors X and VIII deficiency and one case of Glauzmann's disease. The study includes 3 subjects of Asian descent. Haernophilia co-existed witlt B-thalassaemia trait in 2 of the Asian subjects. Co-existing Christmas disease' and sickle cell anaemia was seen in one case. The clinical picture and course ' of the disorders are very similar to what is described elsewhere in the literature. It is. noted that although complications of replacement therapy in bleeding disorders are well documented elsewhere, only one of these patients' showed clinical evidence of such complications. There is now ample evidence that haemophilia is quite common in Africans, contrary to some reports in the past. This report serves as further evidence that haemophilia is not uncommon in Kenya and adds on to the already documented cases of hereditary haemorrhagic diseases in Kenya (1). With improving diagnostic and therapeutic facilities and increased use of hospital services more of these cases will be diagnosed

E.G KKGW. "Hereditary bleeding disorders in Kenya." EAMJ. 1981;(58):738-747 . Abstract

This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with herediatry haemorrhagic disorders seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), between March 1975 and July 1980. Haemophilia forms 63% of the cases, Christmas disease 22% and von Willebrarid's disease (VWD) 9.5%. Rarer disorders encountered are factors X and VIII deficiency and one case of Glauzmann's disease. The study includes 3 subjects of Asian descent. Haernophilia co-existed witlt B-thalassaemia trait in 2 of the Asian subjects. Co-existing Christmas disease' and sickle cell anaemia was seen in one case. The clinical picture and course ' of the disorders are very similar to what is described elsewhere in the literature. It is. noted that although complications of replacement therapy in bleeding disorders are well documented elsewhere, only one of these patients' showed clinical evidence of such complications. There is now ample evidence that haemophilia is quite common in Africans, contrary to some reports in the past. This report serves as further evidence that haemophilia is not uncommon in Kenya and adds on to the already documented cases of hereditary haemorrhagic diseases in Kenya (1). With improving diagnostic and therapeutic facilities and increased use of hospital services more of these cases will be diagnosed

Huang, TT; Lewis SR, Amayo E;, Lewis SR. "A histological study of the lower tarsus and the significance in the surgical management of a involutional (senile) entropion.". 1981. Abstract

The dimension of the lower tarsus diminishes with aging. Changes in the number and size of the meibomian glands and in the character of intermingling fibroconnective tissues are thought to be responsible. Furthermore, such alterations of the structural integrity play an important role in the pathogenesis of entropion encountered commonly in the elderly. We have advocated the use of an autogenous cartilage graft harvested from the ear to correct the deformity, especially in instances where the conventional methods of correction have failed.

Dossaji SF, Becker H. "HPLC-quantitative determination of valepopriates in Valeriana kilimandascharica,." Planta Medica . 1981;43(10):179-182. AbstractWebsite

Valepotriates, mainly isovaltrate and valtrate, have been separated and quantitatively estimated by reversed-phase HPLC in the leaves, flowers, stems and rhizomes of Valeriana kilimandascharica. The isovaltrate/valtrate concentration reaches a maximum of 5.89% in the leaves, 3.84% in the flowers, 3.17% in the stems and 5.15% in the rhizomes.

Onyango OW. "Lake Basin Shallow Wells.". 1981.Website
Vadher A, Ndetei DM. "Life events and depression in a Kenyan setting.". 1981.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Maitai C.K Guantai A.N, and Mwangi J.W, Self Medication in management of Minor Health Problems in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981.". In: East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract

he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.

Mbatia OLE. "The marketing system for horticultural crops in Kenya."; 1981. Abstract

The basic problem of farming in developing countries is the lack of proper incentives for farmers. Prices paid for farmers' produce are too low, even to cover operational costs. The horticultural crops are much affected due to an unstructured market, and the Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA) has not effectively assisted small-scale farmers. This paper evaluates the marketing systems for horticultural crops in relation to major ingredients affecting marketing. These variables are: the products to be marketed such as french beans, avocados, pineapples, mangoes; the place of the market and the prices to be paid. Some policies which could be adopted to improve the marketing of horticultural crops are considered.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Mwangi J.W., Guantai A.N. and Muriuki G. Eucalyptus Citriodora - Essential oil contents and chemical varieties in Kenya. E.Afric. Agr. For J. 46, 89 1981.". In: E.Afric. Agr. For J. 46, 89 1981. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract

he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.

S. T, C.K. M. "Ocimum kilimandscharicum - A potential source of camphor in Kenya. ." Kenya Sci. and Tech. 1981;2(a):137-138.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "PHARMACOGENETICS OF DRUG METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN THE LUO, KIKUYU AND MAASAI ETHINIC POPULATIONS OF KENYA.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. MN Oluka, A Matimba,AN Guantai, C Masirembwa, BH Estambale; 1981. Abstract

ere is great heterogeneity in the way individuals and populations respond to medications in terms of both host toxicity and efficacy. It is now well recognized that genetic differences in drug metabolism and disposition as well in drug target receptors could have an even greater influence on the efficacy and toxicity of medications. A Wide range of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are subject to genetic polymorphism. The genotype-phenotype relationship is particularly important for drugs with narrow therapeutic index where slight changes in plasma levels can result in serious toxicity or lack of efficacy. While Caucasian and oriental populations have benefited from the intense interest in the field of pharmacogenomics, there still exists a wide gap in this knowledge on African populations. Hence, the main objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and frequency of allelic variants of polymorphic DME in three major ethnic populations in Kenya.

Dr Kayima JK. Platelet functions, plasma fibrinolytic activity And coagulation screen findings in africans with nephrotic syndrome without uraemia, as seen at the kenyatta national hospital (kne.; 1981. Abstract

In a nine months period,from March 1987 to November

1987, inc1usiv€, studies on p1ac21et functions, pla$ma fibrinolytic activity and coagulation screen were carried out in 40 patients (30 males and 10 females) with the nephrotic syndrome and 40 matches controls at the Kenyatta
National Hospital. The age range was S-Sl years, mean + SD

20.5+11.6.

patients had unchanged platelet counts and clot retraction compared to controls (p>O.OS), whereas platelet adhesiveness and platelet agg~egation to adenosine diphosphate U",DP) were significantly reduced among patients (P0.05) as well as between plasma fibrinogen concentration and total cholesterol (r=0.25, P>0.05).
It is concluded that our patients have a degree of hype-rcoagulability. Whether the factors for and against hypercoagulabiJ .ity compensate f cr each other in the causation of complications need to be verified. A larger populatibn and more detailed haemostatic study will in future be needed to cover more nephrotic patients in different areas of the country. It is also necessary to folIo w up ou r pat ient s f or complicat ions resul ting from
this hypercoagulable state, like thromboembolic events and

is.c!haemic heart diseas.e to find ou.t.. their pre...lence .

and

contr.ibutionto morbidity and mortality among Africans with

nephrotic syndrome.

N.M.Monyonko, J.H.REID. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM A CALICULATION OF THE NEUTRINO CHARGE RADIUS. DUDUVILLE,NAIROBI; 1981.
Njogu RM, Nyindo M. "Presence of a peculiar pathway of glucose metabolism in infective forms of Trypanosoma brucei cultured from salivary glands of tsetse flies.". 1981. Abstract

We have studied metabolism of glucose by infective forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei isolated from tsetse fly salivary glands and grown in continuous culture for more than 700 days. The end products of glucose metabolism under aerobic conditions were found to be pyruvate and glycerol in the ratio 3:1. this changed to equimolar formation of pyruvate and glycerol when glucose was metabolized under aerobic conditions in the presence of 1.5 mM salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a situation analogous to anaerobiosis. The respiration of the parasites was insensitive to cyanide inhibition but SHAM inhibited it completely. In the presence of SHAM, formation of pyruvate and glycerol from glucose metabolism was inhibited by 60% and 45% respectively. These findings indicate that the infective trypanosomes grown in vitro for about 2 yr have a peculiar glycolytic pathway which can be exploited to elucidate the mechanism of energy production of bloodstream form trypanosomes during anaerobic glycolysis

Gachene CKK, Gicheru PT. "Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Bondo Area.". 1981.
J.O K. The role of medicinal plants in primary health care in East Africa. London: African Natural Products Programme; 1981.
Welch 1 RW, Njoroge K, Habgood RM. "Selection for increased grain protein production in Barley.". In: Barley Genetics IV (Chapter 5), Pp 271-278. Edinburgh University Press; 1981.
Maitai CK, Guantai A, Mwangi JM. "Self medication in management of minor health problems in Kenya.". 1981. Abstract

A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used in self-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self•medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.

Shartry AM, Wilson AJ, Varma S. "Sequential Study of Lymph Node and Splenic Aspirates during Theileria Parva Infection in calves." Research in Veterinary Science. 1981;30:1980-1984.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Some Aromatic plants of Kenya of proven medicinal value." Proc. 2nd Ann. Conf. KEMRI. 1981. AbstractWebsite

Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.

Kitonyi G.W., Onyango F.E KEG. "Spontaneous occurrence of leptomonads in a human bone marrow aspirate." EAMJ. 1981;(60):266.
Gichaga FJ. "Study of Structural Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements with Thin Bituminous Surfacing in Kenya." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1981;Series A(No. 2):105-115.
C.K. M, S. T. "Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Kenya." Kenya J. Sci and Tech . 1981;2(1):35-37.
Varma S, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL, Lumb WV. "Tissue Reaction to Suture Materials in Infected Surgical Wounds – A Histopathologic Evaluation." American Journal of Veterinary Research . 1981;42:563-570.
Ogallo L. "Trend of rainfall in East Africa." Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. 1981;(A)(1981-2):83-90.
Ast, G; Channa TPSTS;. "Urban housing & community development Course.". 1981.
Kokwaro JO. "Vegetation analysis of the upper Teleki Valley of Mt. Kenya and adjacent areas." Journal of East African Natural History Society. 1981;171:1-8.
Kyambi J.M., Kasili E.G. OKJNGW. "Wilm's tumor in Kenya." EAMJ. 1981;(58):424.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""A Literary Supplement", Joliso 1, 2:1-10.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1981. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "A. M. ADAM, J Nganga and C Muthaura: The profile of N-acetylator status in healthy African volunteers. E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981.". In: E.A.M. J. 58: 401-404, 1981. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1981. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.

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