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MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Murals and the Development Artists.". In: Family Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Muraguri P., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Proteinuria, other selected urinary abnormalities and Hypertension among teenage secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Muraguri P., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Proteinuria, other selected urinary abnormalities and Hypertension among teenage secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 74(8): 467 - 473; 1997. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Muraguri P, Mcligeyo S.O., Kayima J.K.: The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension in secondary school students in Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 1997;74(8):556-568.". In: East African Medical Journal. 1997;74(8):556-568. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Murage, E.N., Chweya, J.A. and Imungi, J.K. 1996. Changes in leafy yield and nutritive quality of the Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) as influenced by nitrogen application. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 35: 149.". In: Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997.Mysore,India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1996. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua.W.K., Waruiru, R.M. and Ngotho, J.W. (2004). Comparative efficacy of albendazole, levamisole rafoxanide and ivermectin against naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. Kenya. Vet. 27: 5-9.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Munyua, W.K., Waruiru, R.M. & Ngotho, J.W., 2001. Effect of dietary protein supplementation on responses of young grazing sheep to infection with gatrointestinal nematodes.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th International Conference on the WAAVP, Stresa, Italy, August 26-30, Abstract L43p. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Munyua, W.K., Waruiru, R.M. & Ngotho, J.W., 2000. Comparative efficacy of ivermectin albendazole, levamisole rafoxanide against gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.". In: In: Proc. of the 9th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Lusaka, Zambia, June 6-9. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K., Nganga C.J. and Ngotho, J.W. (1998). Efficacy of ivermectin delivered from a sustained-release bolus against gastrointestinal nematodes in field grazing calves in Nyandarua district of Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 76: 105-119.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K., Githigia, S.M., Mwangi, D.M., Kimoro, C.O.and Ayuya, J.M. (1994). The effect of a slow release device of albendazole ("Proftril') in controlling ovine parasitic gastroenteritis.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K., Githigia, S.M., Mwangi, D.M., Kimoro, C.O. and Ayuya, J.M. (1997). The effects of a controlled-release albendazole capsule (Proftril-captec) on parasitism in grazing Corriedale ewes in Nyandarua district of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 21(2): 85.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K.(1981): Morphology and biology of Theileria parva.in:FAO/SIDA Postgraduate follow-up seminar on Veterinary Pathology held at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete, Kenya 7th-27th September, 1981.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1981. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. and Wamakima, D.N. (1979): Serum Transaminase activities in the bovine experimentally infected with East Coast Fever (Theileria parva infection). Bull. Anim. Hlth.Prod. Afr. Vol. 27: 253-256.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1979. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. and Ngotho, J.W. (1990): Prevalence of Eimeria Species in cattle in Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 35: 163-168.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. and Ngotho, J.W. (1990): Prevalence of Eimeria Species in cattle in Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 35: 163-168.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1990. Abstract
n/a
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1993). Effects of morantel sustained release bolus against gastrointestinal in field grazing calves in Kiambu District, Kenya. Proc. of the 14th Inter. Conf. of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1992): Serum immunoglobulin response in intact and splenectomised cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense (Broden, 1904). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Annual Scientific conference.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1986): Studies on the effect of splenectomy on anaemia in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Plimmer and Bradford, 1899). Kenya J. Sci. Tech. Ser B 7(1): 51-59.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1985): Serum aminotransferase activities in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Primmer and Bradford, 1899). Kenya Veterinarian 9(1): 14- 17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1985): Serum aminotransferase activities in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Primmer and Bradford, 1899). Kenya Veterinarian 9(1): 14- 17.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1985. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1981): Clinical and pathological manifestations of Theileria parva infection in the bovine. in: FAO/SIDA postgraduate follow-up seminar on Veterinary Medicine, Kabete, Kenya. 7th-27th September, 1981.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1981. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1981): African Trypanosomiasis: Taxonomy and biology. In: FAO/SIDA postgraduate follow-up seminar on Veterinary pathology held at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete, Kenya 7th-27th September, 1981.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1981. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1979): Ultra structural changes in the lung of bovine experimentally infected with East Coast Fever (Theileria parva infection) Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 3(2); 31-33.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1979. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1979): Ultra structural changes in the lung of bovine experimentally infected with East Coast Fever (Theileria parva infection) Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 3(2); 31-33.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1979. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W.K. (1978): Physicochemical Heterogeneity of Gamma Globulins in cattle Experimentally infected with East Coast Fever (Theileria parva infection) Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1978. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Munyua, W.K. & Waruiru, R.M., 2001. Effect of strategic gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) control on productivity of naturally infected goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. In: N.C. Kysgaard and J. Monrad (Eds).". In: Proc. of the 10th International Conference of the AITVM, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 20-23, Abstract L-12, p. 415. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. Bitakaramire, P.K. and Nderito, P.C. (1973): Pathology of East Coast Fever in Experimental bovine. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr. Vol. 21. No. 1; 39-49.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1973. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. Bitakaramire, P.K. and Nderito, P.C. (1973): Pathology of East Coast Fever in Experimental bovine. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr. Vol. 21. No. 1; 39-49.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1973. Abstract

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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. and Bitakaramire, P.K. (1973): Pathogenesis and Pathology of East Coast Fever induced by irradiated ticks. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr Vol. 21 No. 1; 75-85.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1973. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K; Mugera, G.M. and Bitakaramire, P.K. (1973): Pathogenesis and Pathology of East Coast Fever induced by irradiated ticks. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr Vol. 21 No. 1; 75-85.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1973. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K. and Mugera, G. M. (1970): Actinomycosis involving soft and bony tissue in swine. Bull. Epiz Dis. Afr. Vol. 18 No.; 247-251.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1970. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K. and Mugera, G. M. (1970): Actinomycosis involving soft and bony tissue in swine. Bull. Epiz Dis. Afr. Vol. 18 No.; 247-251.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1970. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K. (1971): Pathogenesis and pathology of East Coast Fever in cattle.. MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1971. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Munyua, W. K. (1971): Pathogenesis and pathology of East Coast Fever in cattle.. MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1971. Abstract
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NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Munyua, S.J.M.; Nguhiu- Mwangi,J.A.; Njenga, J.; Karioki, D.I.(1991):An outbreak of foot and mouth disease and its socio-economic effects in a herd of pigs in Nairobi, Kenya. Bull.Anim. Hlth.Prod. Afr.(1991) 39(1)51-55).". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Munyua, S.J.M., Wahome, R.G., Mitaru, B.M., Agumbah, G.J.O., and Kiptoon, J.C. 1992. Reproductive performance and wastage in small scale piggeries in Kenya. J. Zimb. Soc. Anim. Sci 4:93-96.5.". In: Paper presented at the first Kenya Feed Manufacturers association meeting at Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, in June 1993. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Wahome, R.G. Mitaru, B.M., Agumbah G.J.O. and Kiptoon, J.C. (1992). Reproductive performance and wastage in small scale piggeries in Kenya. Ken. Vet. 93 - 95.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1992. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S., Gitao, C.G., Njenga, M.J., Mbogo, D. Muhuni, L.M., Nguyo, C.N., and Okila, E. (1987). The veterinary profession versus inadequate subsidies that are a constraint to the improvement of the food sit.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S. And Mwangi, W. M. (1997). Does the improved Bull have a place? Proc. Symp. Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya, ILRAD, Nairobi (17th - 18th July).". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1997. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mbai, K., Kariuki, D.I., Chibeu, D.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Mitaru, B.M. (1996). Reproductive efficiency of indigenous goats in Kenya: Slaughterhouse and field surveys .". In: Proc. All Africa conference on animal agriculture, Pretoria, South Africa, February2nd to 8th 1996. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1996. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mbai, K., Kariuki, D.I., and Chibeu, D.M. (1995). Indigenous knowledge and the use of medicinal plants (Ethnoveterinary practices) in small ruminant Theriogenology (Reproduction and Obstetrics) in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya.". In: Proc of the regional workshop on Pastoral Indigenous systems and Substainable development in Nairobi, 16th to 18th January, 1995. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1995. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mbai, K., Kariuki, D.I. and Chibeu, D.M. (1996). Ethnoveterinary practices in livestock reproduction, obstetrics and adrology in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya: A fast disappearing tradition.". In: Proc. of the 5th international ethnobiology conference,KICC, Nairobi, Kenya, 2nd to 6th September, 1996. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1996. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mbai, K., Kariuki, D.I. and Chibeu, D.M. (1995). Reproductive perfomance and wastage in goats in Kenya.". In: Sessional Paper presented to the Kenya Veterinary Association seminar on the 19th to 24th April, 1995. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1995. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Munyua, S.J.M., Karioki, D.I., Chibeu, D.M., Wabacha, J.K., Thaiya, A.G. Njenga, M.J., Gathuma J.M., and Mitaru, B.M. (2000) Prognostic indicator of postpartum viability of kids born of Escherichia coli vaccinated or unvaccinated does.J. S. Afr Vet Ass.71.". In: Journal of South Africa Veterinary Association. 71(2): 122-124. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farm study, 97 were crosses of Galla x Small East African (SEA) and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA x Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 +/- 0.22 kg, 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 +/- 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 +/- 0.19 kg and 2.05 +/- 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively). The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 +/- 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female) (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 +/- 0.04 kg ). Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8) and unvaccinated does (n = 7) had a total protein content of <40.0 g/l and no detectable levels of IgG and A or E. coli antibodies. Sera obtained 12 hours post partum) from kids that survived in both groups contained about 19-22 g of Ig g/l, 50-80 g total protein/l, blood glucose of >5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths) and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low (<40 g/l) total protein, low white blood cell count (4,000/ml) and low blood glucose concentration (<4.9 mmol/l). It is concluded that kids with delayed righting reaction (>45 minutes), low rectal temperature (<36 degrees C), low birth weights (<1.5 kg for singles and <1.0 kg for twins), low white blood cells (<4,000/ml), low (<2 mmol/l) blood glucose levels, low total protein (<40.0 g/l), low (<1:160) E. coli antibody titre and IgG (< or =3,350 mg/l) in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Farrah, K.O. and Nyariki, D.M. (2000) The noveterinary practitioner .". In: Presented at the PINEP conference held in Mbagathi, 2000. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Munyua, S.J.M. and Mbai, K.(1993). Efficacy of Baytril(R) 10% injectable in the treatment of piglet scouring and pneumonia.". In: Paper presented at the 1993 Kenya Veterinary Association seminar on 21st to 24th April, 1993. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1993. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Munyua, S.J.M. and Mbai, K. (1993). Treatment of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia with Baytril(R) 10% injectable.". In: Paper presented at the 1993 KVA seminar on 21st to 24th April, 1993. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1993. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M. Agumbah, G.J.O., Njenga, M.J., Kuria, K.J.N. and Kamau, J.A. (1991). Preweaning mortality in small scale and medium scale) intensive piggeries in central Kenya (including Nairobi).Ind. J. Agric. Sciences. 61, (2) 126 - 126.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1991. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua, S.J.M, Hogland, D. and Stem C.E.(2000) Restructuring the community animal health worker (CAHW) based veterinary service delivery system in west Kodorfan, Southern Sudan: The need and roles of community animal health assistans (CAHA)and pastoral un.". In: Presented at the 2nd Biennual Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, scientific conference 30th-08-2000. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua, S. J. M., Mbai K., Karioki D.I. and Chibeu D. M. 1995). Indigenous knowledge and the use of medicinal plants ethnoveterinary practices) in small ruminant theriogenology reproduction/obstetrics) in arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. Presented at th.". In: Presented at the regional orkshop on "Pastoral Indigenous Production Systems and Sustainable Development" held in Nairobi 16-18th January. 1995. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1995. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Munyua, P., Mbaria, J. M., Gathuma, J. M., Saini, R.K and Njeru, F. M. (2005). Acute Toxicity of a Recently Identified Phenol-based Synthetic Tsetse Fly Repellent. The Kenya Veterinarian 29: 91-93.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. E; 2005. Abstract
ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the acute toxicity of a new phenol based synthetic tsetse fly repellent recently identified at the International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (patent No. Ke 00185, 2004). The repellent has been developed for controlling tsetse flies in livestock. The repellent diffuses from specially made dispensers, which hang around the neck of the animal with the aid of a belt. The aim of the study was to generate toxicity data to support safe use of the product. Mice and rabbits were used to determine acute toxicity and the irritant effects of the repellent, respectively. The 24 hours median lethal dose (LD50) of the repellent was determined in mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection as 40.3mg/kg body weight. The signs of acute toxicity were: decreased locomotor activity, an initial increase followed by a decrease in respiratory rate and an increased depth in respiration, terminal convulsions, coma and death. Death was probably due to respiratory depression. The repellent caused mild dermal irritation characterized by edema and erythema. There was moderate eye irritation affecting the cornea, iris and conjunctiva. The repellent can be classified as being highly toxic with central nervous system (CNS) involvement and a mild skin and eye irritant.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Munyua, M., Mbai, K., Thaiya, A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma, V.T. (1999). Reproductive health care in dairy animals. CAIS Magazine, Oct. 1999. PP 25-26,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Williamson P., Penhale J and Murray (1984). Acute cellular and humoral responses to equine streptococcal endometritis. Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1984. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
J PROFBUOROIB, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Njenga, M.J., Karitu T.P., Kimoro, C. Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1990). A note on clinical-pathological findigs and serum enzyme activity in sheep, goats and Friesian calves with acute Lantana camara poisoning. Bulletin Animal Health a.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Njenga, M.J., Karitu T.P., Kimoro, C. Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1990). A note on clinical-pathological findigs and serum enzyme activity in sheep, goats and Friesian calves with acute Lantana camara poisoning. Bulletin Animal Health a.". In: Proc. 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Mutiga E.R., Agumbah G.J.O., Ogaa J.S. et al. (1987). The Veterinary Profession Versus inadequate subsides that are a constraint to the improvement of food situation in Africa. 5th Tanzania Vet. Ass. Scie. Conf. 1st 3rd Dec. (1987) Arusha.". In: 5th Tanzania Vet. Ass. Scie. Conf. 1st 3rd Dec. (1987) Arusha. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1987. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M., Farrah K.O. and Wabacha, J.K. (1999). The establishment of alternative veterinary service delivery system in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya: Suggested structural, policy and legal amendments. Proceedings of Tanzania Veterinary Associ.". In: Proceedings of Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, December 1999 pg 1-24. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. Njenga M.J., Nguhiu., and Karioki D.I. (1989). Foot and Mouth Disease in pigs and its social economic effects. Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific conference, KETRI, Muguga 19th 22/4/89. The Kenya Veterinarian 16, 37-41 (1992).". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific conference, KETRI, Muguga 19th 22/4/89. The Kenya Veterinarian 16, 37-41 (1992). Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. Munene J.N. Karitu P.T., Kimoro C., Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro I.B.J. 1990) .". In: Proc. 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. Munene J.N. Karitu P.T., Kimoro C., Kiptoon J.C. and Buoro I.B.J. 1990) .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1990.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. and Karioki D.I. (1986). Poorly constructed zero grazing units a possible constraint to optimal production in dairy cattle. 4th Tanzania Vet. Ass. Scie. Conf. Arusha 2 5 Dec. 1986. Vol. 4, 130 135.". In: 4th Tanzania Vet. Ass. Scie. Conf. Arusha 2 5 Dec. 1986. Vol. 4, 130 135. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1986. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. Agumbah G.J.O., Njenga M.N. Kuria K.J. and Kamau J.A. (1987). Causes of pre weaning mortality in small and medium scale intensive piggeries in Central Kenya. Regional conference Achievements and prospects for Animal Production in sub-saharan.". In: Regional conference Achievements and prospects for Animal Production in sub-saharan Africa (APSK). Proc. Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya XVII 103 108. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1987. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M. (1986). Urea Poisoning in a herd of Pedigree Jerseys the cost of carelessness. KVA. Kericho Scie. Conf. 4 5 September 1986.". In: KVA. Kericho Scie. Conf. 4 5 September 1986. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1986. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M, Okeyo, M and Mbai, K. (2001) Livestock marketing in pastoral areas in the face of broad government policy of liberalization and privatization and prevailing production constraints: The need to re-orient the prevailing livestock marketing pra.". In: Presented at the annual scientific conference of the Animal Production Society of Kenya, 8th March 2001. Materials Research Society; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M (1998) role of breed societies and associations in dairy goat development and improvement: A case study of the Diary Goat Association of Kenya (DGAK)In Gat Development in East Africa: Practical Experiences and Way Ahead edt C.O. Ahuya and H, .". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference held at Kabete in August 1998. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J.M (1994). Economics of process optimization and processing of waste from Dagoretti slaughterhouse complex -factors to consider. Presented at the African Biodiversity Institute-UNEP conference held in June 1994. An African Biodiversity Publicati.". In: Presented at the African Biodiversity Institute-UNEP conference held in June 1994. An African Biodiversity Publication - 1994. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1994. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J. M., R.G. Wahome, B.M. Mitaru, G.J.O. Agumbah and Kiptoon J.C. (1993). .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd Biannual SRNET conference 5-9th December 1994 - Kampala, Uganda. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1993. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S.J. M., R.G. Wahome, B.M. Mitaru, G.J.O. Agumbah and Kiptoon J.C. (1993). .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Cellular network coverage planning efficiency is traditionally evaluated through various network metrics assessing the Quality of Service (QoS). When it comes to coverage service, however, user satisfaction can be considered the logical metric of performance. This study presents a hybrid Quality of Experience (QoE) index that can be used as a basis of network coverage planning efficiency assessment. A spatial analysis framework is employed to evaluate the user perceived QoS offered by one of the leading cellular service providers in Kenya as perceived by consumers under everyday conditions of use. Regions where subscribers may be experiencing low service quality service were identified. The study shows that urban based consumers tend to have higher quality expectations than the rural users.
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S. J. M., Mbai K., Karioki D. I., Chibeu D. M., Gathuma J. M., Mitaru B. N. and Nduhiu J. (1996) Reproductive efficiency of indigenous goats in Kenya. 1: Slaughterhouse and field surveys. All Africa conference on Animal Agriculture, Pretoria, South.". In: All Africa conference on Animal Agriculture, Pretoria, South Africa 1996. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S. J. M., Karioki D. I., and Chibeu D. M.,(1997) Reproductive efficiency of indigenous goats in Kenya. 1: Slaughterhouse and results of a five districts field survey: Workshop on funding of agricultural research: Experiences and future perspectives.". In: Workshop on funding of agricultural research: Experiences and future perspectives. KARI/USAID/IDA/ODA Conference 11-12/03/1997 - KARI HQ Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1997. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S. J. M., Gathuma J. M., Mitaru B. N., Karioki D. I.,Chibeu D. M., (1996) Economics of veterinary intervention in pastoral and semi-sedentary goat production systems in arid and semi-arid areas in Kenya. Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientif.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference, held at Whitesands Hotel,Mombasa, 24-26/04/96. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Munyua S. J. M. Wabacha, J. and Thaiya, A. G (1996). Infertility in dairy cattle with special emphasis to those kept under zero grazing units. Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96.". In: Proc. S. & E. Afr. Rabies group. ILRI, 4-6TH March. Nbi, Kenya. KVA central branch annual Sc. Conference; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S. J. M. Wabacha, J. and Thaiya, A. G (1996). Infertility in dairy cattle with special emphasis to those kept under zero grazing units. Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96.". In: Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S. J. M. Ndegwa, E. and Mulei, C.M. (1996). Mastitis in dairy goats. Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96.". In: Annual scientific conference of the central KVA branch held at Greenhills Hotel, Nyeri, 16-17/9/96. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua S. J. M. (1996). The role of breed associations and/or societies in dairy goat development. Mastitis in dairy goats. Regional ISLP/FARM AFRCA conference on dairy goat development held at Isaac Walton Hotel, Embu, 8-11/12/96.". In: Regional ISLP/FARM AFRCA conference on dairy goat development held at Isaac Walton Hotel, Embu, 8-11/12/96. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua .S.J.M, Mbai ,K, Thaiya , A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma V.T.(1999). Reproductive health care in Dairy animals. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26.". In: Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farm study, 97 were crosses of Galla x Small East African (SEA) and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA x Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 +/- 0.22 kg, 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 +/- 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 +/- 0.19 kg and 2.05 +/- 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively). The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 +/- 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female) (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 +/- 0.04 kg ). Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8) and unvaccinated does (n = 7) had a total protein content of <40.0 g/l and no detectable levels of IgG and A or E. coli antibodies. Sera obtained 12 hours post partum) from kids that survived in both groups contained about 19-22 g of Ig g/l, 50-80 g total protein/l, blood glucose of >5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths) and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low (<40 g/l) total protein, low white blood cell count (4,000/ml) and low blood glucose concentration (<4.9 mmol/l). It is concluded that kids with delayed righting reaction (>45 minutes), low rectal temperature (<36 degrees C), low birth weights (<1.5 kg for singles and <1.0 kg for twins), low white blood cells (<4,000/ml), low (<2 mmol/l) blood glucose levels, low total protein (<40.0 g/l), low (<1:160) E. coli antibody titre and IgG (< or =3,350 mg/l) in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW, M DRMUNYUASJ. "Munyua .S.J.M, Mbai ,K, Thaiya , A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma V.T.(1999). Reproductive health care in Dairy animals. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26.". In: Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine, October 1999, pp 25-26. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Munyi, S.T., Macharia, W.M., and Njeru, E.K. Screening for urinary tract infections for children with cancers. East Afr. Med. J. 1998, 75:264-267.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 May;75(5):264-7. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Neutropaenia and immunosuppression place children on treatment for malignancies at a high risk for infections. We undertook to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children on treatment for cancer at the Kenyatta National Teaching and Referral hospital. With the understanding that many laboratories in the rural areas of the country lack appropriate facilities for confirmation of UTI, it was also important to evaluate simple and inexpensive screening methods against a "gold standard" in this cross sectional study. One hundred and eighty six children between the ages of five and 14 years admitted in Kenyatta hospital with leukaemia or lymphoma were enrolled. Besides clinical evaluation, urinalysis and culture and sensitivity were performed on all the subjects. Urine culture was considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis for UTI. The prevalence of UTI was 8.1% (CI = 6.1, 10.1). Only five out of 15 patients were symptomatic. E. coli and klebsiella spp. were responsible for 93.4% of the infections. Presence of pyuria, defined as five or more pus cells per high power field, had a sensitivity of 80.0%, specificity of 97.1% and a positive predictive value of 70.6% while comparative values associated with a positive nitrite test were 60%, 97.7% and 96%. Other clinical and laboratory tests had low sensitivity. UTI is a relatively frequent infection in children on cancer treatment. Screening for pyuria is simple, inexpensive and an accurate method of diagnosing UTI in children on treatment for lymphohaematopoietic malignancies in situations where facilities for urine culture are unavailable.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Munyao TM, Bwayo JJ, Owili DM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kwasa TO, Kreiss JK. Human immunodeficiency virus- 1 in leprosy patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):490-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):490-2. uon; 1994. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine if Mycobacterium leprae is an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed subjects with HIV infection. Ninety six leprosy patients at Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH), Nairobi were screened for, HIV-1 antibody between January 1991 and June 1992. The patients included 15 who were diagnosed during the study period and 81 who were previously diagnosed and were on anti-leprosy treatment. Blood was screened for HIV antibody by first ELISA and double positive samples were confirmed by a second ELISA. The HIV seronegative patients were re-tested serologically every 3 months. Smears from skin slits were used to determine bacterial index and the patients were classified according to criteria described by Ridley and Jopling. The patients were re-assessed clinically monthly. The mean age of the patients was 40 years and ranged from 13 to 78 years. Forty seven percent had paucibacillary and 53% had multibacillary leprosy. The HIV seroprevalence was 8% in previously diagnosed patients and zero in the newly diagnosed patients. There were no changes in clinical spectrum in HIV seropositive patients during follow up period; neither reversal reactions nor erythema nodosum leprosum were observed. The study suggests that M. leprae may not be an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed subjects with HIV infection.
K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "Munyao TM, Abinya NA, Ndele JK, Kitili PN, Maimba JM, Kamuri EN, Wanyika HW.Exfoliative erythroderma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Dec;84(12):566-70.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Exfoliative erythroderma (EE), (Synonyms: Exfoliative dermatitis, Red man syndrome) is a clinical syndrome characterised by generalised erythema and scale. It is an important cause of functional skin failure and associated high morbidity and variable mortality rates. OBJECTIVES: To study demographics, aetiology, complications and clinical outcomes of exfoliative erythroderma (EE) on patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Cross- sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Dermatology Unit. SUBJECTS: All available medical records on inpatients seen by qualified dermatologists at KNH with generalised erythema and scale from 1996 to 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Discharge or death. RESULTS: Incidence exfoliative erythroderma was documented in 146 out of all 123 admissions (13%) into the dermatology unit from 1996-2006. Demographic mean age was 47 years, M: F ratio was 3:2, 67% had no income and 53% and 30% were residents of Nairobi and adjacent districts respectively. Sixty three percent were due to skin diseases, 23% due to systemic diseases of which 20% were due to HIV/AIDS and 14% due to adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Ninety percent of patients were treated and discharged and 10% died; 50% of whom had dermatoses and 29% due to HIV associated antituberculous drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Exfoliative erythroderma is an important cause of morbidity, admission and mortality in patients attending KNH. Dermatoses and HIV / AIDS were the most frequent causes. The mortality rate was relatively low and attributable to controllable diseases.
Khroda PO; MGRACG;. "Municipality of Mombasa and It's Environs: A Study in Urban and Regional Planning." Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research and IFRA; 2012.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Munguti, K. Environmental Degradation and Disease in Kenya: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya, Wandiga, S.O and Abuodha N.L (ed), Kenya National Academy of Sciences.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., Stigter, C.J., Coulson, C.L., Ng.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No.3, pp. 291-298. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., Kiteme, B. and Ong, C.K., 1999. Reflections on the Upper Ewaso Ng.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., Coulson, C.L., Stigter, C.J., Ng.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., Coulson, C.L. and Stigter, C.J., 1990. Economic considerations of alley cropping for food production in semi-arid areas. In: R.T. Princely, (Ed.), Agroforestry for sustainable development - Economic Implications. Commonwealth Science Council.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., B. Swallow, J. Mburu, L. Onyango and A. N. Njui (Eds.), 2004. Reversing Environmental and Agricultural Decline in the Nyando River Basin. Proceedings of a Workshop, Kisumu, Kenya, December.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N. and Nyakang.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N. and Muturi, H.R., 1988. The effects on agroclimatic zones and agricultural production. Part II (pp. 175-190), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2: Assessments in.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D. N., C.K. Ong, B. Kiteme, W. Elkaduwa, R. Sakthivadivel, 2004. Lessons from two long-term hydrological studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104 (2004) 135.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Mungai, B.N., Njagi, E.M.N., Muli, F.W., Agola, E.L., Morgan, J.A.T, DeJong, R.J., Karanja, D.M.S, Muchemi, G.M., Loker, E.S. and Mkoji, G.M. 2003. The presence of Schistosoma rodhaini in Western Kenya, and its implication on the epidemiology of Schistoso.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract

Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 USA. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread of the human-infecting schistosomes, present in 54 countries, predominantly in Africa, but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Neotropics. Adult-stage parasites that infect humans are also occasionally recovered from baboons, rodents, and other mammals. Larval stages of the parasite are dependent upon certain species of freshwater snails in the genus Biomphalaria, which largely determine the parasite's geographical range. How S. mansoni genetic diversity is distributed geographically and among isolates using different hosts has never been examined with DNA sequence data. Here we describe the global phylogeography of S. mansoni using more than 2500 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 143 parasites collected in 53 geographically widespread localities. Considerable within-species mtDNA diversity was found, with 85 unique haplotypes grouping into five distinct lineages. Geographical separation, and not host use, appears to be the most important factor in the diversification of the parasite. East African specimens showed a remarkable amount of variation, comprising three clades and basal members of a fourth, strongly suggesting an East African origin for the parasite 0.30-0.43 million years ago, a time frame that follows the arrival of its snail host. Less but still substantial variation was found in the rest of Africa. A recent colonization of the New World is supported by finding only seven closely related New World haplotypes which have West African affinities. All Brazilian isolates have nearly identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting a founder effect from the establishment and spread of the parasite in this large country. PMID: 16202103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Mungai, B.N., Agola, E.L., Morgan, J.A.T, DeJong, R.J., Karanja, D.M.S., Muchemi, G.M., Loker, E.S. and Mkoji, G.M. 2003. Schistosoma rodhaini in Kenya revisited. Abstract presented at the Biodiversity of African Freshwater Snails .". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract

Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 USA. Schistosoma mansoni is the most widespread of the human-infecting schistosomes, present in 54 countries, predominantly in Africa, but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Neotropics. Adult-stage parasites that infect humans are also occasionally recovered from baboons, rodents, and other mammals. Larval stages of the parasite are dependent upon certain species of freshwater snails in the genus Biomphalaria, which largely determine the parasite's geographical range. How S. mansoni genetic diversity is distributed geographically and among isolates using different hosts has never been examined with DNA sequence data. Here we describe the global phylogeography of S. mansoni using more than 2500 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 143 parasites collected in 53 geographically widespread localities. Considerable within-species mtDNA diversity was found, with 85 unique haplotypes grouping into five distinct lineages. Geographical separation, and not host use, appears to be the most important factor in the diversification of the parasite. East African specimens showed a remarkable amount of variation, comprising three clades and basal members of a fourth, strongly suggesting an East African origin for the parasite 0.30-0.43 million years ago, a time frame that follows the arrival of its snail host. Less but still substantial variation was found in the rest of Africa. A recent colonization of the New World is supported by finding only seven closely related New World haplotypes which have West African affinities. All Brazilian isolates have nearly identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting a founder effect from the establishment and spread of the parasite in this large country. PMID: 16202103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Mungai T.C. Kisumbi B.K Wakiaga J.M and Ireri S.K : Patients.". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Mungai T.C. Kisumbi B.K Wakiaga J.M and Ireri S.K : Patients.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Mungai JM, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2001. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Mungai DN, Thuita T, Muthee A, Muchemi G, Mworia JK, Oduori G and J. Kimani. 2011. Environmental,social and economic assessment of the fencing of the Aberdare Conservation Area.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2011. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Munga, D., Mwangi, S., Ong.". In: Editors, pp. 213-228, published by Taylor & Francis/Balkema, The Netherlands. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2006. Abstract
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S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Munene, R. M., Adala, H. S., Masinde, M. S., Rana, F. S. Vitamin A deficiency among Kenya children as detected by conjunctival impression cytology. E. African Medical Journal. 80: 476, 2003.". In: E. African Medical Journal. 80: 476, 2003.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Munene, J.N., Kariuki, D.I., Munyua, S.J.M., Gachuiri C.K. and Wahome, R.G. 1987. Incidence and cost of mastitis in Kenya : Projections from Kabete area.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL, M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Munavu, R.M. and D. Odhiambo, "Physicochemical characterization of Nonconventional vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya".". In: J. Sci. Technol. (Kenya), 5, 45- 52 (1984). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1984. Abstract
   
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The Mumias Sugar Scheme in Kenya: A study of farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mumia JA, Kamau RK. Intra-uterine contraceptive devices. Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 10, pp 113-122. Kenya Medical Association, 1988.". In: Practice, Ch. 10, pp 113-122. Kenya Medical Association, 1988. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mumia JA, Kamau RK. Intra-uterine contraceptive devices. Manual of Clinical Family Planning Practice, Ch. 10, pp 113-122. Kenya Medical Association, 1988.". In: Practice, Ch. 10, pp 113-122. Kenya Medical Association, 1988. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Textile concrete: Preliminary mechanical characterization of a new ductile material.". In: Proceedings of Materials Research Society Conference, Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 12th December 2003. Materials Research Society; 2003. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Mechanical behavior of textile concrete under accelerated ageing conditions.". In: Research paper submitted to Cement and Concrete Composites journal. Materials Research Society; 2003. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Evaluation of toughness of textile concrete:.". In: Conference Paper to be presented to: Advanced Concrete Materials Conference at Stellenbosch, November 2009. Materials Research Society; 2009. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Evaluation of pseudo-ductile behavior of textile concrete.". In: Research Paper aimed at Materials and Structures Journal. Materials Research Society; 2003. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: Effect of environmental exposure on the microstructure of textile concrete.". In: Presented to the Seventh International RILEM Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete: Design and applications (BEFIB 2008), Chennai, India, 17th -19th September 2008, pp. 293 -302. Materials Research Society; 2008. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "Mumenya S.W., Tait R.B. and Alexander M.G.: An appropriate specimen geometry for direct tensile testing of textile concrete.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Young Concrete Engineers, Practitioners and Technologists, pp. 1-10, Cape Town and Mindrand, 2006. Materials Research Society; 2006. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu,K.Y.,Ochanda,J.O.,Ben-Yakir,D.,Klaus,S.,Okuro,J.K., Oduol,V.O. and Galun, R. Characterization and properties of body louse midgut antigenic proteins recognised by resistant host.". In: Eighth International congress of parasitology. 10th-14th October, IZRMIR- TURKEY. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu,K.Y., BenYakir, D., Ochanda,J.O. and Galun, R. Immunogenic proteins in the body and feacal material of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus and their homology to antigens of other lice species: Medical and Veterinary Entomology.10, 10.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu,K.Y., BenYakir, D., Ochanda,J.O. and Galun, R. Development of a vaccine against human lice . Ann. Meeting Israel Soc.". In: Skin Research, January 19, Bellinson Hospital, Petach Tikva. Israel J. of Med. Science Vol 31,pp 66. East African Medical Journal; 1995. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu,K.Y., Ben-Yakir, D.,Ochanda,J.O., Miller,J. and Galun, R. Immunization of rabbits with a feacal extract of the human body louse,Pediculus humanus humanus :.". In: the effect of induced resistance on the louse population: Med. Vet. Entomol. 11, 315-318. East African Medical Journal; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu KY, Rahamim E, Ben-Yakir D, Ochanda JO, Galun R.Localization of immunogenic antigens on midgut of the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):74-7.". In: J Med Entomol. 1996 Jan;33(1):74-7. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
Immunogenic midgut antigens of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were localized using rabbit antisera against a louse-midgut extract followed by a 2nd antibody conjugated to either fluorescein or colloidal gold. Strong fluorescence was observed on the outer membrane of the epithelial cell of the midgut. The immunogold technique revealed that most of the antigens were localized on the microvilli of the midgut cells. Small numbers of gold particles were also seen in the gut lumen and within the cell cytoplasm. Only a few gold particles were seen in the lumen of the gut sections incubated with control sera.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu KY, Ben-Yakir D, Ochanda JO, Miller J, Galun R.Immunization of rabbits with faecal extract of Pediculus humanus, the human body louse: effects on louse development and reproduction.Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8. East African Medical Journal; 1997. Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mulwa, J. K., Gaciri, S. J., Opiyo-Akech, N and Kianji, G. K., 2005. Geological and structural influence on groundwater distribution and flow in Ngong area,.". In: Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 105-115. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2005. Abstract
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O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mulwa, J. K., Gaciri, S. J., Opiyo-Akech, N and Kianji, G. K., 2005. Geological and structural influence on groundwater distribution and flow in Ngong area,.". In: Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 105-115. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2005. Abstract
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Peng B, Chen Z, Li Y, Liu Z, Liang D, Deng L. "Multiwavelength magnetic coding of helical luminescence in ferromagnetic 2D layered CrI3." Iscience. 2022;25:103623. Abstract
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Ama, N.O. and Oucho JO. "A Multivariate Approach to Determinants of Contraceptive Use among Migrants and Refugees in Botswana." The Journal of Family Welfare . 2007;53(2):26-42.
Kevin John Oratungye, Oludhe C, Moses Mwangi Manene, Komutunga E. "A multivariate analysis approach in determining potential hotspots of seasonal rainfall change over Uganda." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2017;2(1):31-41. AbstractWebsite

Evidence of climate change continues to emerge in Uganda as indicated by recent floods in Teso subregion and Kasese district, landslides in Bududa and long droughts experienced in Karamoja. The major objective of the study was to identify potential hotspots of rainfall change in Uganda during March-May and October-December seasons. Monthly rainfall data for the period extending from 1951 to 2010 were used in the study. ArcGIS, a geographic information system tool was used to determine geographical areas that have experienced changes in seasonal rainfall over the decades 1981-2010 relative to the longterm mean (1951-2010). Mbale, Mbarara and Moroto were identified as areas of potential rainfall change. The historical rainfall series for the identified areas were tested for inhomogeneities using Standard Normal Homogeneity and Pettitt tests and found to be homogenous. Multivariate two-sample Hotelling T2-test was used to generate evidence of rainfall change in the identified areas by comparing mean seasonal rainfall vectors between the sub-periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. Results indicated a significant simultaneous decrease in mean rainfall over Moroto and Mbarara areas across the March-May season with April having the highest decrease (11 mm and 18 mm respectively). Mean rainfall in Mbale was found to have increased simultaneously across both wet seasons with April and October experiencing the greatest increase (10 mm apiece). These changes have detrimental effects on crop and livestock farming as well as human lives. There is need for increased climate change adaptation and resilience action in the …

Orowe I, Weke P. "Multistate Modelling Vertical Transmission and Determination of R0 Using Transition Intensities." HIKARI Applied Mathematical Sciences. 2015;9(79):3941-3956.
Orowe I, Ottieno J, Onyango N. "Multistate Modelling Vertical Transmission and Determination of R0 Using Transition Intensities." Applied Mathematical Sciences. 2015;9(79):3941-3956. Abstract

In this paper multi-state modelling is used to determine the proba- bility distribution of the different states of vertical transmission of HIV. We start with a healthy-infected-dead three state model which we then modify and extend to a four state healthy-infected-treated-Aids four state model. Using the matrix approach we calculate their respection transition probabilities and compare the two models using the basic re- production number. In both models R0 < 1 suggesting that this mode of transmission will eventually be contained.

Rinsland CP, Devi MV, Benner DC, Blake TA, Brown RL, Kleiner I, Dehayem A. "Multispectrum analysis of the ϑ4 band of CH3CN: Positions, intensities, self and N2 broadening and pressure-induced shifts." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer . 2008;109:974-994.
Omucheni DL. Multispectral Imaging of Human Blood Media Applied to Malaria Diagnostics. Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Lewis T, Daphne M. "Multiple {Sensitive} {Periods} in {Human} {Visual} {Development}: {Evidence} from {Visually} {Deprived} {Children}." Dev Psychobiol. 2005;46:163-183. Abstract

Psychophysical studies of children deprived of early visual experience by dense cataracts indicate that there are multiple sensitive periods during which experience can influence visual development. We note three sensitive periods within acuity, each with different developmental time courses: the period of visually-driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage, and the sensitive period for recovery. Moreover, there are different sensitive periods for different aspects of vision. Relative to the period of visually driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage is surprisingly long for acuity, peripheral vision, and asymmetry of optokinetic nystagmus, but surprisingly short for global motion. A comparison of results from unilaterally versus bilaterally deprived children provides insights into the complex nature of interactions between the eyes during normal visual development.

Furukawa T, Kiboi SK, Mutiso PCB, Fujiwara K. "Multiple use patterns of medicinal trees in an urban forest in Nairobi, Kenya." Urban forestry & urban greening. 2016;18:34-40.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Multiple sexually acquired diseases occurring concurrently in an HIV positive man: case report, diagnosis and management. Oduor DO; Bwayo JJ; Bhatt SM; Kwasa TO; Maitha GM; Ombette JO. East African Medical Journal. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6.". In: East African Medical Journal. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Multiple sexually acquired diseases occurring concurrently in an HIV positive man: case report, diagnosis and management. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract

A case of an HIV positive man with multiple sexually acquired disease occurring concurrently is described. Risk behaviours that could have predisposed him to HIV infection are discussed. The factors which might have interacted to make the sexually acquired infections severe and difficult to treat are postulated. PIP: The case of an HIV-seropositive man with gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, and chancroid is described. Multiple sexual partners, genital ulcer diseases, and lack of circumcision may have predisposed him to HIV infection. As indicated by his CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, his immunological status was not very compromised. Other factors were therefore probably behind these multiple sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This 30-year old man was inadequately treated for a long time for urethral discharge and genital ulcer disease, and ultimately collapsed on the job with a comprised central nervous system. Bacterial infection related to the multiple STDs could certainly have caused this collapse. The time demands of this man's work, the lack of medical facilities to diagnose and treat such conditions, his unprotected sexual behavior with multiple partners, and broader socioeconomic conditions which separate wage- earning males from their families in Africa conspire to produce multiply-afflicted cases such as these.

Lewis TL, Maurer D. "Multiple sensitive periods in human visual development: {Evidence} from visually deprived children." Developmental Psychobiology. 2005;46:163-183. AbstractWebsite

Psychophysical studies of children deprived of early visual experience by dense cataracts indicate that there are multiple sensitive periods during which experience can influence visual development. We note three sensitive periods within acuity, each with different developmental time courses: the period of visually-driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage, and the sensitive period for recovery. Moreover, there are different sensitive periods for different aspects of vision. Relative to the period of visually driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage is surprisingly long for acuity, peripheral vision, and asymmetry of optokinetic nystagmus, but surprisingly short for global motion. A comparison of results from unilaterally versus bilaterally deprived children provides insights into the complex nature of interactions between the eyes during normal visual development. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 46: 163–183, 2005.

Claudia Bobach, Jana Schurwanz, Katrin Franke ADTVSRKPCMBSLWA. "Multiple readout assay for hormonal (androgenic and antiandrogenic) and cytotoxic activity of plant and fungal extracts based on differential prostate cancer cell line behavior." Journal of Ethnopharmacology . 2014;155(1):721-730.
T. Aghová, K. Palupčíková, R. Šumbera, D. Frynta, L. A. Lavrenchenko, Y. Meheretu, Sádlová, J. VMMJJS, J. Sádlová, J. Votýpka, J. S. Mbau MD, Modrý D, Bryja J. "Multiple radiations of spiny mice (Rodentia: Acomys) in dry open habitats of Afro-Arabia: evidence from a multi-locus phylogeny." BMC evolutionary biology. 2019;19(1):61.
Tagawa Y, Kanold PO, Majdan M, Shatz CJ. "Multiple periods of functional ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex." Nature neuroscience. 2005;8:380-388. Abstract

The precise period when experience shapes neural circuits in the mouse visual system is unknown. We used Arc induction to monitor the functional pattern of ipsilateral eye representation in cortex during normal development and after visual deprivation. After monocular deprivation during the critical period, Arc induction reflects ocular dominance (OD) shifts within the binocular zone. Arc induction also reports faithfully expected OD shifts in cat. Shifts towards the open eye and weakening of the deprived eye were seen in layer 4 after the critical period ends and also before it begins. These shifts include an unexpected spatial expansion of Arc induction into the monocular zone. However, this plasticity is not present in adult layer 6. Thus, functionally assessed OD can be altered in cortex by ocular imbalances substantially earlier and far later than expected.

Tagawa Y, Kanold PO, Majdan M, Shatz CJ. "Multiple periods of functional ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex." Nature Neuroscience. 2005;8:380-388. AbstractWebsite

The precise period when experience shapes neural circuits in the mouse visual system is unknown. We used Arc induction to monitor the functional pattern of ipsilateral eye representation in cortex during normal development and after visual deprivation. After monocular deprivation during the critical period, Arc induction reflects ocular dominance (OD) shifts within the binocular zone. Arc induction also reports faithfully expected OD shifts in cat. Shifts towards the open eye and weakening of the deprived eye were seen in layer 4 after the critical period ends and also before it begins. These shifts include an unexpected spatial expansion of Arc induction into the monocular zone. However, this plasticity is not present in adult layer 6. Thus, functionally assessed OD can be altered in cortex by ocular imbalances substantially earlier and far later than expected.

Kumar R, Tao M. "Multiple forms of casein kinase from rabbit erythrocytes." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):87-98. Abstract

Two rabbit erythrocyte casein kinases, GTP:casein kinase I and GTP:casein kinase II, have been purified 29 000- and 47 000-fold, respectively. Studies employing sucrose density gradient centrifugation indicate that kinase I has a molecular weight of about 9.5 - 10(5) (25 S) and kinase II about 1.4 - 10(6) (32 S). These enzymes can utilize either ATP or GTP as the phosphoryl donor. Among various protein substrates examined, these kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of casein greater than 50% dephosphorylated phosvitin congruent to 50% dephosphorylated casein greater than phosvitin. Histones, protamine and bovine serum albumin are poor phosphoryl acceptors. Kinetic data indicate that both enzymes are inhibited by high casein substrate concentrations which may be partially relieved by NaCl. Both phosphotransferases require Mg(2+) for activity and are optimally active at pH 9.0. The enzymes have apparent Km values of 2.5 - 10(-5) M for GTP, 2 - 10(-5) M for ATP, and 0.4--0.6 mg/ml for casein. The incorporation of the terminal phosphate of GTP into casein as catalyzed by these enzymes is inhibited to varying degrees by ATP, ITP, ADP, and GDP but not by UTP, CTP, GMP, adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. In addition, NaF and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid are also found to inhibit the activity of both kinases. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is interesting and suggests that this metabolite may regulate the activity of the casein kinases in the red blood cells.

Kumar R, Tao M. "Multiple forms of casein kinase from rabbit erythrocytes." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):87-98. Abstract

Two rabbit erythrocyte casein kinases, GTP:casein kinase I and GTP:casein kinase II, have been purified 29 000- and 47 000-fold, respectively. Studies employing sucrose density gradient centrifugation indicate that kinase I has a molecular weight of about 9.5 - 10(5) (25 S) and kinase II about 1.4 - 10(6) (32 S). These enzymes can utilize either ATP or GTP as the phosphoryl donor. Among various protein substrates examined, these kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of casein greater than 50% dephosphorylated phosvitin congruent to 50% dephosphorylated casein greater than phosvitin. Histones, protamine and bovine serum albumin are poor phosphoryl acceptors. Kinetic data indicate that both enzymes are inhibited by high casein substrate concentrations which may be partially relieved by NaCl. Both phosphotransferases require Mg(2+) for activity and are optimally active at pH 9.0. The enzymes have apparent Km values of 2.5 - 10(-5) M for GTP, 2 - 10(-5) M for ATP, and 0.4--0.6 mg/ml for casein. The incorporation of the terminal phosphate of GTP into casein as catalyzed by these enzymes is inhibited to varying degrees by ATP, ITP, ADP, and GDP but not by UTP, CTP, GMP, adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. In addition, NaF and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid are also found to inhibit the activity of both kinases. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is interesting and suggests that this metabolite may regulate the activity of the casein kinases in the red blood cells.

MARY MWIANDI. ""Multiple Faces of Educational Institution; the Case of JEANES School, Kabete, Kenya 1925-1961.". In: Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Mid-West Graduate Students Conference in African Studies. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2002. Abstract

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WAHOME SW, Kimani PM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, BURUCHARA1 R. "MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE IN SNAP BEAN GENOTYPES IN KENYA." African Crop Science Journal. 2011; 19( 4):289-302.multiple_resistance_in_snap_bean_genotypes_in_kenya.
Wahome SW;, Kimani PM;, Muthomi JW;, Narla RD;, Buruchara R. "Multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in Kenya.". 2011.
FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP. "Multiple cranial nerve palsies complicating tympanomastoiditis: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):665-6.PMID: 12678451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):665-6. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2002. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Otitis media either acute or chronic, is not uncommon in childhood. Multiple cranial nerve palsies occuring as a complication of either form of otitis media is unusual. A case of a nine year old boy with chronic suppurative otitis media with associated mastoiditis complicated with ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve palsies is presented. A skull X-ray and MRI scan showed sclerotic mastoids. The outcome on antibiotic treatment was good.
Grace D;, Gilbert J;, Randolph T;, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012.
Grace D, Gilbert J, Randolph T, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012. Abstract

Zoonoses occur at the interface of human and animal disease and partly because their impact and management fall across two sectors they are often neglected. The Global Burden of Disease captures the impact of zoonoses on human health in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on this, we estimate that in low income countries, zoonoses and diseases which recently emerged from animals make up 26 % of the DALYs lost to infectious disease and 10 % of the total DALYs lost. In contrast, in high income countries, zoonoses and diseases recently which emerged from animals represent less than 1 % of DALYs lost to infectious disease and only 0.02 % of the total disease burden. We present a framework that captures the costs of zoonoses and emerging disease to human, animal and ecosystem health in terms of cost of treatment, cost of prevention, health burden and intangible and opportunity costs. We also discuss how ecohealth concepts of transdisciplinarity, participation and equity can help in assessing the importance of zoonoses in developing countries and illustrate these with an example of assessing milk-borne disease.

Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Otieno RO, Ngotho JW. "Multiple anthelmintic resistances on a goat farm in Kenya." Veterinary Parasitology. 1998;75:191-197.
Gakuya DW;, Ng'ang'a CJ;, Karanja DN;, Wabacha JK;, Mutune MN. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya and its implication for helminth control.". 2007.
D.W. Gakuya, C.J. Ng'ang'a, Karanja DN, J.K.Wabacha, Mutune. MN. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya and its implication for helminth control." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2007;55:226-230.13_gakuya_et_al_2007.pdf
Nganga CJ. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya and its implication for helminth control.". In: 5th Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Nairobi, Kenya; 2006.
Waruiru RM, Kogi JK, Weda EH, Ngotho JW. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Kenya.". 1988. Abstract

The anthelmintic efficacy of benzimidazoles, levamisole, rafoxanide and ivermectin was evaluated on an institutional farm in Kenya using faecal egg count reduction test, larval cultures and a controlled slaughter trial. The results of this study indicated simultaneous resistance of Haemonchus contortus against benzimidazoles, levamisole and rafoxanide and Trichostrongylus columbriformis and Oesophagostomum sp. against levamisole on the same farm. Injectable and orally administered ivermectin was effective against the benzimidazole and levamisole resistant H. contortus

Ngugi M. "Multipartyism as a Foreign Concept." The Option. Vol. 6. (1995).
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Multiparty Democratization process in Africa: The Kenyan Experience,.". In: paper presented at a Regional Workshop on the Functional Dimension of Democratization process in Africa, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 28-30 March.; 1994. Abstract
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Ocharo RM, Ngware SSA, Dzimbiri LB. "Multipartism and people's participation.". 2000.Website
Mbogoh S;, Staal S;, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Mulinge WM. "Multiobjective optimization of the trade-offs in smallholder dairy farming intensification.". 2004.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Multinational Corporations and Biotechnology in Developing Countries in Biotechnology for Food Production and Process in Developing countries.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Irandu EM. "Multimodal Freight Transport Security in Kenya .". In: Multimodal transport Security: Frameworks and Policy Applications in Freight and Passenger Transport. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers; 2016.
Wasamba P. "Multimedia Research and Documentation of Oral Genres in Africa: Managing the Challenges of Digitalization.". In: Multimedia Research and Documentation of African Oral Genres: Connecting Diasporas and Local Audiences . Rabat, Morocco; 2013.managing_challenges_of_digitization_of_oral_genres_in_africa-1.pdf
Aghov T, Sumbera R, Pialek Lır, Mikula Orej, McDonough MM, Lavrenchenko LA, Meheretu Y, Mbau JS, Bryja J. "Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna." Journal of Biogeography. 2017:1-13.aghov-_et_al-2017-journal_of_biogeography.pdf
Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Spooner PR, Morzaria SP, Oura CAL, Skilton RA. "Multilocus genotyping of Theileria parva isolates associated with a live vaccination trial in Kenya provides evidence for transmission of immunizing parasites into local tick and cattle populations." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:88-98. Abstract

The live infection and treatment (ITM) vaccination procedure using the trivalent Muguga cocktail is increasingly being used to control East Coast fever, with potential implications for Theileria parva population genetic structure in the field. Transmission of the Kiambu V T. parva component to unvaccinated cattle has previously been described in Uganda. We monitored the T. parva carrier state in vaccinated and control animals on a farm in West Kenya where an ITM stabilate derived from the Kenyan T. parva Marikebuni stock was evaluated for field efficacy. A nested PCR-based Marikebuni-specific marker identified a carrier state in nine of ten vaccinated animals, detectable for a period of two years. We used 22 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers to determine multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of 19 T. parva schizont-infected lymphocyte isolates derived from cattle and field ticks. Two isolates from unimmunized cattle were identical to the Marikebuni vaccination stock. Two cattle isolates were identical to a Muguga cocktail component Kiambu V. Seven isolates from ticks exhibited MLGs that were identical to the Serengeti/Muguga vaccine stocks. Six cattle and two tick-derived stocks exhibited unique MLGs. The data strongly suggest transmission of immunizing genotypes, from Marikebuni vaccine-induced carrier cattle to unimmunized cattle. It is possible that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are present in the field in Western Kenya. An alternative hypothesis is that these parasites may have originated from vaccine trial sites in Eastern Uganda. If correct, this suggests that T. parva stocks used for immunization can potentially be disseminated 125 km beyond the immediate vaccination site. Regardless of their origin, the data provide evidence that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are circulating in the field in East Africa, alleviating concerns about dissemination of 'alien' T. parva germplasm through live vaccination.

Keya SO;, Balasundaram VR;, Ssali H;, Mugane C. "Multilocational field responses of Phaseolus vulgaris to inoculation in eastern Africa."; 1982.
Jayne M. "Multilinguality and Bilingualism in Education: The Kenyan Experience .". In: Kiswahili and Globalisation. University of Dar es Salaam; Forthcoming.
Caprotti, O. N'ang'a SW & M. Multilingual technology for teaching mathematics.; 2005. Abstract
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Olga Caprotti, Mika Seppala WN. "Multilingual Technology for teaching Mathematics." In: E, et al, eds. Advances in Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering. Springer; 2006:. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences acquired and the goals of the European project Web Advanced Learning Technology, WebALT, in developing a multilingual showcase of exercise problems in mathematics to be used by university students.

Wanjiku Ng’ang’a AL, Carlson L. "Multilingual Generation of Live Math Problems in WebALT." In: Mika Seppälä, Sebastian Xambo OC, ed. Proceedings of the First WebALT Conference and Exhibition.; 2006:. Abstract
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Nganga W. "Multilingual Content Development for e-Learning in Africa.". In: Proceedings of eLearning Africa: 1st Pan-African Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training.; 2006. Abstract
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Strotmann, A. N'ang'a CW & O. "Multilingual Access to Mathematical Exercise Problems.". In: Proceedings of the Internet-accessible Mathematical Computation Workshop (ISSAC 05).; 2005. Abstract

TheWeb Advanced Learning Technologies (WebALT) project, financed through the European Union’s eContent programme, is working to provide pan-European (and eventually world-wide) multilingual and multicultural internet access to a repository of algorithmically generated exercises for students and teachers of mathematics at the secondary and tertiary education levels, building as much as possible on existing frameworks, standards, and software. The two-year WebALT project has reached its quarter mark now, and we can now report early results. We are working on a framework in which a large percentage of undergraduate and highschool mathematics exercises can be created in the language independent form of content markup in a way that captures both the meaning of the simple sentences and the formulas embedded in them that together make up a math problem. Such content, expressed in OpenMath because it is more easily extended with the extra concepts required here, is then localized using language-specific content-topresentation markup stylesheets for the embedded formulae, and natural language generation techniques for rendering the embedding sentences that tell the students what to do with those formulae in the language of their choice.

Feng H, O. OL. "Multilevel Analysis of the Interconnection between Divorce and Labour Force Participation in Canada, 1931-1991." International Journal of Marriage and Family 1, 2: 12-23; 1996. Abstract
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