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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O. and EDHOLM. O.G.(1975) Thermoregulation, water and electrolyte metabolism of man in the desert. East African Medical Journal 52, 97-112.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O. and CLEMENS, E.T.(1999) Digestive efficiency in two small wild ruminants: the suni and the dik-dik antelopes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 124A, 149-153.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1999. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O. and CLEMENS, E.T.(1991) Aspects of digestion and in vitro fermentation in the caecum of some East African herbivores. Journal of Zoology London 224, 293-300.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract

Caecal digestive functions were compared in 22 species of East African herbivores. Comparisons were made between ruminant pseudo-ruminant, and non-ruminant herbivores to assess the relative in vitro fermentation rate and composition of caecal contents from these species observed in their natural habitat. Measurements were made of caecal fermentation rate, organic acid composition, osmolality, pH and dry matter content. The data were compared by foregut structure, feed preference and body weight of the herbivores

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O. and CLEMENS, E.T.(1980) Gastrointestinal osmolarity, electrolyte and organic acid composition in five species of East African herbivorous mammals. Journal of Animal Science 51, 917-924.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O. and CLEMENS, E.T.(1980) Apparent colonic absorption and secretion of electrolytes in five species of East African herbivorous mammals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 67A, 21-25.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY, G.M.O. and ALLIANGANA, D.M.I.(1988) Thermal and metabolic adaptation to heat in the ground hornbill(Bucorvus cafer).". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O., KAY, R.N.B., GOODALL, E.D. and TOPPS, J.H.(1968) Some effects of nitrogen and water intake in sheep and red deer. Proceedings of Nutrition Society 27, 52A.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1968. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O., KAY, R.N.B. and GOODALL, E.D. (1968) Studies on the physiology of digestion and metabolism of the red(Cervus elaphus). Symposium London Zoological Society 21, 101-108.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1968. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O.(1976) Water and salt metabolism in the camel. In: Progress in Animal Biometeorology, Volume 1, Part 1. (Edit. H.D. Johnson), pp. 58-66. Swets and Zietlinger, Amsterdam.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O.(1968) The physiology of Digestion and Metabolism in the Red deer. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Aberdeen, Scotland.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1968. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O.(1965) International Symposium on Comparative Biology of Reproduction in Mammals. East African Wildlife Journal 3, 134.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1965. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O.(1965) African game animals as a source of protein. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 35, 903-908.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1965. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O.(1963) Observations on free ranging of Thomson's and Grant's gazelles. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 28, 151-160.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1963. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O. and SALE, J.B. (1976) Renal function and electrolyte balance during dehydration in the hyrax. Israeli Journal of Medical Sciences 12, 852-853.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O. and HEADY, H.F.(1965) Grazing conditions in Kenya Masailand. Journal of Range Management 18, 269-272.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1965. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O. and ELEY, R.M.(1992) The Hyrax. Regal Press, Nairobi, XI + 122 pp.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O. (ed.)(1979) Comparative Physiology of Osmoregulation in Animals vol. 2.Academic Press, London vii + 246 pp.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O. (ed.)(1979) Comparative Physiology of Osmoregulation in Animals vol. 1.Academic Press, London, xii + 678 pp.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "MALOIY G.M.O. (ed.)(1972) Comparative Physiology of Desert Animals. Academic Press, London, xxvi + 413 pp.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1972. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Malocclusion in children aged 3-6 years in Nairobi, Kenya.Kabue MM, Moracha JK, Ng'ang'a PM. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):210-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):210-2. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Dental Surgeon, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence of malocclusion in the deciduous dentition of 221 children aged 3-6 years in Nairobi, Kenya is reported. The children were drawn from six randomly selected preprimary schools (kindergarten, nurseries, and pre-units) from different areas of the city. Overall, 51% of the children were found to have some form of malocclusion. Maxillary overjet accounted for 13%, deep bite 13%, dental midline displacement 6%, frontal openbite 12% and anterior crossbite 5%. Anthropoid spaces were observed in 85% of the children, while over 60% had spacing in the incisor region. Straight terminal plane of the deciduous second molars was diagnosed in 53% of the children, mesial step in 43% and distal step occlusion in one percent of the children. The results suggest a need for interceptive orthodontic treatment in some of the children.
Muasya MK. Malocclusion and traumatic dental injuries in relation to over-jet and lip posture in 12-15 year old in Nairobi.; 2009. Abstract

Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of malocclusion and
traumatic injuries to permanent anterior teeth and establish any association
between traumatic injuries, over-jet and lip posture.
Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey.
Setting: The study was carried out in public primary schools in the City of
Nairobi, Kenya over a period of three months.
Subjects and methods: A sample of 1382 boys and girls aged 12-15 years was
obtained by multi-stage random sampling of children in 8 divisions, then 16
zones, then schools were interviewed. Registration for malocclusion was done
using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and tae variables sought included missing
teeth, crowding, over-jet and antero-posterior molar relations. Two hundred and
twenty two children with history of traumatic dental injuries were identified. A
structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the trauma,
symptoms associated, cause, site of trauma and if any treatment was sought.
The data was collected by clinical examination of permanent anterior teeth of the
children based on a modification of the WHO criteria with some variables sought
including: number of teeth injured, type of teeth injured, classification of the
trauma and type of treatment if any. Data was analysed aided by computer using
the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme. Chi-square and
odds ratios statistical tests were done to determine the differences in
malocclusion and trauma experience between males and females and the
difference in trauma experience by different overjet groupings and lip posture.
Student's t-test was used to determine difference in mean overjet between
Xll
children who had sustained traumatic dental injuries and those who had not. A p
value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Seven hundred and thirty two (53.0%) of the children examined had
either no abnormality or only minor malocclusion, 318(23%) had definite
malocclusion, 176(12.7%) and 156(11.3%) had severe malocclusion and very
severe or handicapping malocclusion respectively. The mean OAI was 26.6.
Prevalence and severity of malocclusion for male and female children did not
differ significantly (p=0.139). The prevalence of TOls was 16.1%. Males had
experienced a significantly higher prevalence of trauma (18.8%) than females
(13.5%) p=0.008. Amongst the male children, falls were the leading cause of
TOls (37.3%). Approximately half (44.8%) of the females did not remember the

cause of injury while 31(36.5%) had sustained TOls due to falls. One hundred
and seventy two (77.5%) children who had experienced TOls had no symptoms
associated with the traumatized teeth. Ninety six (43.2%) of the children were
injured while in the home environment. The maxillary central incisors were the
most commonly traumatized teeth accounting for 220(73.5%) out of 299 injured
teeth. The most frequently observed type of dental trauma was enamel fracture
206(68.9%) followed by enamel-dentin fracture 71(23.8%). Two hundred (90%)
children had not sought treatment for TOls. When frequency of TOls in the
children was related to overjet, it was found that out of the 886 children with
overjet of 0-3 mm 104(11.8%) had experienced TOls. Out of the 502 children with
overjet greater than 3 mm, 118 (23.5%) were found to have TOI. The prevalence
of TOls in children with overjet greater than 3 mm was significantly higher than
that in children with overjet of 3 mm and less (p=O.OOO).A significantly higher
prevalence of TOls was found when children with incompetent lips 124(55.9%)
were compared to those with competent lips 98(44.1%), (p=O.OOO).
Conclusion: There was an overall high prevalence of malocclusion among the
children with no significant gender difference for most of the traits. The OAI
criteria produced a mean OAI score of 26.6, with 11.3% of subjects exhibiting
handicapping malocclusion. Overall traumatized permanent incisors were found
to occur fairly frequently with 68.9% of the injured teeth having sustained enamel
injuries. A very high proportion of traumatized teeth were untreated. Male
gender, overjet greater than 3 mm and incompetent lips were found to be
statistically significant risk factors for traumatic dental injuries.
Recommendation: Facilities and personnel should be put in place so that
children with very severe or handicapping malocclusion can benefit from
subsidized orthodontic therapy by specialists. There is need to improve oral
health policies in Kenya so as to incorporate periodic checks ups in order to
promptly diagnose and give advice on treatment of TOIs. The high proportion of
untreated dental trauma among the children calls for improvement in children,
parents and teacher education.

Muasya MK, Ng'ang'a PM, Opinya GN, Macigo FG. "Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 12-15-year-old children in nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2012;89(2):39-44.
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Malnutrition and Iron Deficiency Anaemia in urban slum communities: the case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, 80: 191-194.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2003. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Malmfors, B., M. Smalley, J. Philipsson, H. Ibrahim, Anderson-Eklund, O. Mwai, N. Mpofu and J.EO. Rege. 2002. Capacity building for Sustainabble Use of Animal Gnetic Resources in Developing Countries- Anew Approach.". In: World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, France, August 2002. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
MALECHE MRZACHARIAH. ""Malindi LADP 1995 - 1998: A preliminary Report," In collaboration with the Green Towns project on Environment and Urban Development, Ministry of Local Government, 1996.". In: KISE Bulletin, July 1987. Vol. 1 No. 2. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1996.
Tipton SG, Smyrk TC, Sarr MG, Thompson GB. "Malignant potential of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas." British Journal of Surgery. 2006;93:733-737. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Dr. Wairimu Waweru DWP. "Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the scalp. .". In: Aga Khan hospital . Aga Khan hospital ; 2005.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Malek A.K.A, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Marson KG, Tapia K, Kohler P, McGrath CJ, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, Njoroge JW, Kiarie JN, Sakr SR, Chung MH. "Male, mobile, and moneyed: loss to follow-up vs. transfer of care in an urban African antiretroviral treatment clinic." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e78900. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics, reasons for transferring, and reasons for discontinuing care among patients defined as lost to follow-up (LTFU) from an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.

"Male Spouse Perpetrated Psychological and Sexual Abuse among Pregnant Women in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences (ISSN: 2315-9844). 2014;Vol. 1(11)((ISSN: 2315-9844)):pp. 178-184.publication.pdf
Katz DA, Kiarie JN, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, John FN, Farquhar C. "Male perspectives on incorporating men into antenatal HIV counseling and testing." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(11):e7602. Abstract

Male partner involvement in antenatal voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) has been shown to increase uptake of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify methods for increasing male involvement in antenatal VCT and determine male correlates of accepting couple counseling in these settings.

"Male Perspectives on Incorporating Men into Antenatal HIV Counseling and Testing."; 2009. Abstract

ackground: Male partner involvement in antenatal voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) has been shown to increase
uptake of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify methods for
increasing male involvement in antenatal VCT and determine male correlates of accepting couple counseling in these
settings.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We invited women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic to return with their male
partners for individual or couples VCT. Male attitudes towards VCT and correlates of accompanying female partners to
antenatal clinic and receiving couple counseling were determined. Of 1,993 women who invited their partner, 313 (16%)
returned with their partners to ANC. Men attending antenatal clinic were married (.99%), employed (98%), and unlikely to
report prior HIV testing (14%). Wanting an HIV test (87%) or health information (11%) were the most commonly cited
reasons for attending. Most (95%) men who came to antenatal clinic accepted HIV testing and 39% elected to receive
counseling as a couple. Men who received counseling with partners were younger, had fewer children, and were less
knowledgeable about prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) than those who received counseling
individually (p,0.05). Only 27% of men stated they would prefer HIV testing at a site other than the ANC. There was
agreement between male and female reports for sociodemographic characteristics; however, men were more likely to
report HIV preventive behaviors and health communication within the partnership than their partners (p,0.05).
Conclusions/Significance: Offering VCT services to men at antenatal clinic with options for couple and individual
counseling is an important opportunity and acceptable strategy for increasing male involvement in PMTCT and promoting
male HIV testing.

Aluisio AR, Bosire R, Betz B, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Male Partner Participation in Antenatal Clinic Services is Associated with Improved HIV-free survival Among Infants in Nairobi, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

This prospective study investigated the relationship between male antenatal clinics (ANC) involvement and infant HIV-free survival.

S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Male infertility at KNH. Medicom Vol. 2:95, 1980.". In: Medicom Vol. 2:95, 1980. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1980. Abstract

No a ABSTRACT.
Ten males,6 of whom were azoospermic and 4 oligospermic were studied for their subfertilityor infertility after the gynaecologist had proven wives normal and referred them to urology clinic for further tests .Study showed that the causes of subfertility or infertility are uncorrectable and in the few that can be corrected, the results of the improved fertility in so far as getting child is concerned has no workable formula.
bstract yet

Backes DM, Bleeker MC MCJHMGABRCN-AJOHHCJMSKJS, J SJS. "Male circumcision is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions among Kenyan men." Int J Cancer.:. 2012;130(8):1888-97.abstaerctachola.pdf
Agot KE, Kiarie JN, Nguyen HQ, Odhiambo JO, Onyango TM, Weiss NS. "Male circumcision in Siaya and Bondo Districts, Kenya: prospective cohort study to assess behavioral disinhibition following circumcision." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;44(1):66-70. Abstract

Evidence for efficacy of male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is increasing, but there is serious concern that men who are circumcised may subsequently adopt more risky sexual behaviors.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Kapiga SH, Ronald A, John-Stewart G, Inambao M, Manongi R, Vwalika B, Celum C. "Male circumcision and risk of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission: a multinational prospective study in African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." AIDS. 2010;24(5):737-44. Abstract

Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk by approximately 60%. Data assessing the effect of circumcision on male-to-female HIV-1 transmission are conflicting, with one observational study among HIV-1-serodiscordant couples showing reduced transmission but a randomized trial suggesting no short-term benefit of circumcision.

Ndlela S, Mohamed S, Ndegwa PN, Ong’amo GO, Ekesi S. "Male annihilation technique using methyl eugenol for field suppression of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango in Kenya." African Entomology . 2016;24(2):437-447 .
WANJIRU DRGICHUHIAGNES. "Malawi National Strategic Framework HIV/AIDS Programme: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan,National Aids Commission.". In: Measure Macro International, Maryland. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Knols, B.G.J., Njiru, B.N., Mathenge, E.M., Mukabana, W.R., Beier JC, Killeen, G.F. "Malariasphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2002;1:19.
IK N. "MALARIA: Poverty, Race, and Public Health in the United States, by Margaret Humphreys.". In: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 196 pp., 2001, $41.50 (Hardcover) Social Science and Medicine Vol. 57(12): 2476-2476. Wiley Interscience; 2003. Abstract

Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. This article assesses knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer among rural women of Kenya. One hundred and sixty women (mean age 37.9 years) who sought various health care services at Tigoni subdistrict hospital, Limuru, Kenya, were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. In addition, three focus group discussions (25 participants) were held, five case narratives recorded, and a free list of cervical cancer risk factors obtained from a group of 41 women respondents. All women were aged between 20 and 50 years. About 40% knew cervical cancer, although many still lack factual information. A history of sexually transmitted diseases (61.5%), multiple sexual partners (51.2%), and contraceptive use (33%) were identified as risk factors. Other factors mentioned include smoking, abortion, and poor hygiene standards. High parity, early sexual debut, and pregnancy were not readily mentioned as risk factors. We propose a folk causal model to explain the link between these factors and cervical cancer. Lack of knowledge constrains utilization of screening services offered at the clinics. Consequently, respondents support educating women as a way to tackling issues on cervical cancer. It is recommended that an integrated reproductive health program that addresses comprehensively women's health concerns be put in place.

Mangeni JN, Ongore D, Mwangi A, Vulule J, O’Meara WP. "Malaria ‘hotspots’ within a larger hotspot; what’s the role of behavioural factors in fine scale heterogeneity in western Kenya? ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;94 (12 ):1067-1079 .
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ochieng AO, Anyona DN, Nyamongo IK, Estambale B. "Malaria vector species distribution and seasonal population dynamics across varied ecological zones in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;7(21):174-183.ondiba_et_al_2017.pdf
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
Nyamongo IK. "Malaria Risk and Ecological Change in Gusii: What Can We Learn from Hospital Data and Community Narratives?" International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2011;1(6):34-42. AbstractNyamongo_malaria_and_ecological_change_in_gusii.pdf

Ecological factors have contributed to increased malaria transmission in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was designed to document perceived and actual ecological changes in Gusii over the last three decades; to document changes in the malaria burden and to collect ethnographic data to understand folk causal linkages between environmental change and disease patterns. Over a 12-month period data was collection using malaria focused-ethnographic interviews, historical narratives and a review of statistical health records. A total of 103 people were interviewed. Historical narratives reveal a decline in landholdings over three decades. Hospital health records show that over this period, the burden of malaria has increased. Ethnographic interviews and hospital records show that the period during which malaria is most intense is between May and August, with July as the peak period. Ethnographic data point to weather changes, changes in landholdings and land use as the primary factors in the observed changes in the malaria patterns in Gusii. In conclusion, in the absence of documented data folk knowledge is a useful substitute for constructing trends.

Lacroix R, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Gouagna LC, Koella JC. "Malaria Infection Increases Attractiveness of Humans to Mosquitoes." PlosBiology, 3 (9), (e298).. 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

Lacroix, R., Mukabana, W.R., Gouagna LC, Koella JC. "Malaria Infection Increases Attractiveness of Humans to Mosquitoes." PlosBiology, . 2005;3(9):1590-1593 (e298).
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Malaria in Pregnancy: Changing service providers practices for better outcomes(Submitted to the American journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene).". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2004. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
Nyamongo IK. "The Malaria Cognate: Folk Classification of Illness Among the Abagusii of Kenya.". In: African Anthropology, 1997, Vol. 4(2): 27-36. Wiley Interscience; 1997. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Mwabu G, Fosu A. Malaria and Poverty in Africa.; 2007.Website
Lule, G.N; Shah GWMV; EM;. "Malabsorption Syndromes in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1984.
Gichuki FN. "Makueni district profile: soil management and conservation, 1989-1998.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

The investments in soil conservation made by farmers in Makueni District, Kenya over the period 1950-1998, and the policy and institutional framework under which the investments were made are explored. An assessment of the scale and impact of these measures is presented. In general, very few signs of erosion were observed, so the area is considered to have low erosion status. Soil and water conservation measures include the use of crop residues in trash lines, contour ridging, grass strips, fanya juu terraces and cut-off drains. Crop residue management and tillage are the main practices used to facilitate in situ moisture conservation. Most farmers practise contour ridging. Physical soil conservation measures are used to complement cultural practices that conserve rainwater in situ by trapping and preventing further runoff. A key constraint to the expansion of soil and water conservation measures by households is the shortage of hired and family labour. Grazing land has received very little investment because there farmers perceive a low return. In Makueni District farmers have been able to make long-term investments in soil conservation partly because their land tenure was secure. Training and extension in soil and water conservation has been a major external input.

Mbuvi JP. "Makueni District profile: soil fertility management."; 2000. Abstract

Drylands Research Working Papers present, in preliminary form, research results of studies carried out in association with collaborating researchers and institutions. This working paper is part of a study which aims to relate long-term environmental change, population growth and technological change, and to identify the policies and institutions which are conducive to sustainable development. The study builds upon an earlier project carried out by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) in Machakos District, Kenya, whose preliminary results were published in a series of ODI Working Papers in 1990-91. This led to a book (Mary Tiffen, Michael Mortimore and Francis Gichuki, More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Kenya, John Wiley, 1994), which was a synthesis and interpretation of the physical and social development path in Machakos. The book generated a set of hypotheses and policy recommendations which required testing in other African dryland environments. Using compatible methodologies, four linked studies are now being carried out in: Kenya Makueni District Senegal Diourbel Region Niger Maradi Department (in association with ODI) Nigeria Kano Region (in association with ODI) For each of these study areas, there will be a series of working papers and a synthesis, which will be reviewed at country workshops. An overall synthesis will be discussed at an international workshop in London in 2000.

Judy, Onyancha. "Makosa katika Vyombo Vya Habari’; Kiswahili na Utandawazi.". In: CHAKAMA. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD), Nairobi; 2014.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "MAKORI,N. ODUOR- OKELO,D. WARUI C. N. & OWITI, G.E.O. (1994), , An ultrastructural and morphometric study of the late-term placenta of the root rats(Tachyoryctes splendors). In advanced in Reproductive Research in man and animals.Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. In R.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "MAKORI, N., ODUOR-OKELO, D. & OWITI, G. E. O., (1991). Morphogenesis of the foetal membranes and placenta of the root rat (Tachyorocytes spendens). Afric. J.Ecol. 29: 248-260.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Makori, N., Oduor-Okello, D., Warui, C.N., and Otiang.". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on advances in Reproductive Research in Man and Animals, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1992.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Makoni, L.T., Ogaa, J.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1994). The efficiency of an Oestrone sulphate ELISA kit to detect pregnancy in sow in zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 25 92) 64 -69.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1994. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Makoma, L. Wanza; the demand for municipal solid waste disposal services; An econometric analysis of willingness to pay; 1998, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
J Coetzer, L Grobbelaar MEM. Making software humane: the effects of affective and anthropomorphism on the adoption of an m-health application. Association for Computing Machinery; 2017. Abstract

With the proliferation of mobile devices, provision of M-health care services has become feasible even in the remotest villages of Africa. Research however shows that many M-health initiatives have not been adopted and used effectively especially in rural communities. Some of the factors contributing to this range from a lack of knowledge with regard the use of technology, literacy challenges, possible fear of technology, to a lack of information regarding these interventions.
In this paper, we demonstrate that an initiative designed to recognize usability as its core function plays a critical role in the use and adoption of M-health interventions in rural communities. Two versions of an M-health intervention were developed and two interface design principles that may have an impact on users' emotions applied, namely affective design and anthropomorphism.
Using the Sethakeng rural community in the Northern Cape (South Africa) as the case study, we were able to determine the extent to which both anthropomorphism and affective design influence the adoption of an M-Health application. Further, the research revealed that because of its ability to include human-like qualities to non-living objects, anthropomorphism is a more effective method for designing M-Health applications targeting rural communities.

Mogambi H. "Making Science and Technology Information more accessible for Africa’s Development.". In: UNESCO Conference on Science Writing.; 2012.
Otieno-Omutoko L. "Making Right Decisions: Ethical Issues for Social Science Researchers. Environment, Power and Development in Africa.". In: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi. Nairobi: CUEA; 2013.
"Making Right Decisions: Ethical Issues for Social Science Researchers.". 2012. Abstract

Ethics exist within a social context, which makes ethical decision making a complex process. Including an ethical perspective as a foundation of all kinds of research is vital. Researchers need to follow standards of professional conduct to ensure the welfare of participants and uphold the integrity of social science research. Social science scholars encounter ethical challenges when studying and dealing with human behaviour. The genesis of research ethics was the atrocities experienced in clinical trials such as medical experimentation carried out by Nazi physicians in the Second World War and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (Samantaray and Sahu, 2008: Babbie,2007:Robson,2002). Samantary et al (2008) posits that a reading of social science research journals provide little guidance on ethical responsibilities toward research participants, which should be considered when undertaking research. They argue that there are seldom detailed discussions of ethical principles that guide interaction with participants. However, there are general principles that most researchers would agree on. Unlike scientists who conduct their work under controlled conditions, social science researchers conduct their studies in the field. To study the society, an array of research methods is employed and for collected data to be useful it has to be honestly collected, it should be reliable and collected with informed consent. Research participants should be respected while the principles of beneficence and justice should be upheld. Some of the ethical issues in social science research include deception, confidentiality, preconceived notions, and recruitment methods, security of data, falsification of data, acceptable standards, conflict of interest, plagiarism, rationale and presentation of results (Robson, 2002). This paper intends to examine the genesis of research ethics, examine ethical issues in social science research and to provide suggestions for maintaining integrity in social science research. The purpose of this paper is to perpetuate dialogue with scholars and practitioners concerning the place of ethics in research so that it can be applied in social science research for the benefit of participants. The significance of this study is to enhance understanding and consideration of ethical issues in social science research. Data will be collected through document desk review. Findings from the desk review will inform social science researchers and equip them with knowledge to attend to risk of potential harm and consider the potential benefit of research to individuals and society and minimize risks which could be psychological, sociological, emotional, and financial and legal.

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Making Planning Education Relevant: Case study from Kenya. (1995) In A Reappraisal of the Urban Planning Process. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (IIABII AT) Nairobi.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "The making of the Kenya sexual offenses act, 2006: Behind the scenes. Nairobi: Kwani Trust.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Kwani Trust; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "The Making of Professional Accountants." Part 1, By J.D. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the legal framework under which the Kenyan accounting profession is orgnaized. It presents data on the current status of the profession and discusses ed.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, July 1980. (pages 37-39). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1980. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "The Making of Professional Accountants." Part 1, By J.D. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the legal framework under which the Kenyan accounting profession is orgnaized. It presents data on the current status of the profession and discusses ed.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, July 1980. (pages 37-39).; 1980. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Katz, Sydney S.; Katz SKVH; N. "The Making of an Urban Mganga:.". 1982.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Making Informed Choices: A Trainer's Manual for Civic Education (Nairobi, Civic Education for Marginalised Communities (CEDMAC), Constitution and Reform Consortium (CRECO), Ecumenical Civil Education Programme (ECEP) and gender Consortium (GC)).". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "Making Informed Choices: A Handbook for Civic Education.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Makori EO. "Making Information Centers Visible Through Evolving Technologies in Kenya." MAKTABA: Journal of the Kenya Library Association. 2012;2:126-127.
Wasamba P, Kanyi W. Making Gender Count in Policy Development. . Nairobi: CCGD; 2001.
MWANGI IK. "Making Devolution and Decentralization Work n Kiambu through Institutional Framework of Boards of Municipalities.". In: Training Workshop for Capacity Building for Boards of Municipalities. Organized by Kiambu County Government and Kenya Urban Support Programme (KUSP). Lake Naivasha Resort, Naivasha; 2019.
OTIENO MROWINONICHOLAS. Making Africa’s Power Sector Sustainable. United Nation Economic Commision for Africa (UNECA); 2005. AbstractWebsite

A paper prepared for the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA),

Muthami J. "Making a Diagnosis: This is a Counseling Skills Program." 3. Making a Diagnosis: This is a Counseling Skills Program. . 2013;1(1).Making a Diagnosis: This is a Counseling Skills Program.
Oredo J. "Make Value from Big Data." MANAGEMENT March (2017).
Njeri KM. "Make Nairobi a Hybrid City." The Standard Newspaper (2010).
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Osaso J, Gombe S.In vitro metabolism of progesterone by peripheral blood of rock hyrax (Procavia capensis).". In: Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1991 Jul;83(1):159-63. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1991. Abstract
In vitro metabolism of progesterone by hyrax whole blood, erythrocytes, or plasma in the presence or absence of NADPH was investigated. In the presence of NADPH, whole blood metabolized progesterone to 5 alpha-pregnanedione and 5 beta-pregnanedione, but in the absence of NADPH, only 5 beta-pregnanedione was produced. Erythrocytes in the presence and the absence of NADPH produced only 5 beta-pregnanedione. The plasma component of blood metabolized progesterone to give 5 alpha-pregnanedione, but only in the presence of NADPH. These results suggest the presence of two types of steroid reductases found in plasma and erythrocytes. The extent of progesterone metabolism by the blood of animals in different reproductive states is in the order of pregnant females greater than nonpregnant females greater than male.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Lomo PO, Konji VN, Oloowokere JO.Altered 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine thyroxine ratio in experimentally induced kwashiorkor and obesity in rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1995;65(2):132-6.". In: Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1995;65(2):132-6. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract
The plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) ratios have been evaluated in kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. The concentrations of T3 and T4 were determined in plasma by radio-immunoassay. A significant decrease in T3 level in the order kwashiorkor < obese < control was observed. However T4 concentration was more elevated (P < 0.01) in the obese than the normal controls, while more significantly depressed (P < 0.001) in the kwashiorkor than in control animals. The T3/T4 ratio decreased in the order obese < kwashiorkor < control. It was concluded from these studies that kwashiorkor and diet-induced obesity not only interfere with the absolute concentration of the thyroid hormones but also alter the T3/T4 ratio. The altered T3 and T4 ratio perhaps contributes to the maintenance of the isoenergetic state rather than to the promotion of negative or positive energy balance in kwashiorkor and obese subjects respectively.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Makawiti DW, Konji VN, Omwandho CA and Olowookere JO. Altered 3,5,3.". In: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 65, 132-136.; 1995. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Konji VN, Olowookere JO.Interaction of benzoquinones with mitochondria interferes with oxidative phosphorylation characteristics.". In: FEBS Lett. 1990 Jun 18;266(1-2):26-8. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1990. Abstract
Studies with four benzoquinones, viz. juglone, embelin, maesaquinone and maesanin, on rat liver mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation have been carried out. Three of the benzoquinones are uncouplers in the order juglone greater than maesoquinone greater than embelin, while maesanin is an inhibitor of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Barnard GJ, Matson CM, Collins WP.A novel pseudohomogeneous radioimmunoassay for the measurement of plasma testosterone. J Steroid Biochem. 1983 May;18(5):619-23.". In: J Steroid Biochem. 1983 May;18(5):619-23. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1983. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Makawiti DW, Allen WE, Kilpatrick MJ.Changes in oestrone sulphate concentrations in peripheral plasma of Pony mares associated with follicular growth, ovulation and early pregnancy.". In: J Reprod Fertil. 1983 Jul;68(2):481-7. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1983. Abstract
A simple and rapid (less than 2 h) immunoassay method has been developed based upon a novel separation technique called LIDIA (Ligand Differentiation Immunoassay), enabling direct estimation of the concentration of oestrone sulphate in ethanolic extracts of blood plasma. An antiserum raised against oestrone-3-glucuronyl-BSA was used which showed a higher cross-reaction with the sulphate than the glucuronide metabolite. The assay had a sensitivity of 5.2 pg/tube and acceptable inter-(less than 18%) and intra-(less than 8.5%) assay precision. Analysis of samples of peripheral venous plasma obtained daily from Pony mares showed that the mean concentration of oestrone sulphate started to rise from a baseline value (less than 300 pg/ml) at 6 days and reached a peak (greater than 850 pg/ml) at 2 days before follicular rupture as determined by rectal palpation. Progesterone concentrations only started to rise above baseline (less than 0.5 ng/ml) on the day of ovulation and reached a peak 8 days later. Analysis of samples obtained during the first 30 days of pregnancy showed that there was no increase in oestrone sulphate at the time oestrus would have been expected had the mares not conceived.
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Makanyengo MA, Othieno CJ, Okech VC. Consultation liaison psychiatry at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Feb;82(2):79-84.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Feb;82(2):79-84. Equinet; 2005. Abstract

Objectives: To describe the psychiatric services offered at Kenyatta National Hospital and the types
of patients and cases seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A retrospective study based on case notes and other hospital records.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects : All patients seen in the various psychiatric clinics and those who attended the Patient
Support Centre Unit in the hospital in the year 2002.
Results : In the year 2002, 598,119 patients were treated at KNH out of which 6,878 (1.15%) were
seen in the psychiatric clinics: 1,709 adults and 1,412 children were referred to the various psychiatric
clinics. At the hospital's Patient Support Centre (PSC) 3,454 patients were seen, mostly for pre and
post-HIV test counselling. Consultations from the wards accounted for 332 (9.6%) of the cases referred
to PSC. The main diagnoses among the latter in order of frequency were alcohol related psychiatric
disorders, acute and transient psychoses, depressive disorders, dissociative and conversion disorders
and dementia.
Conclusion : In view of the high load of acute and transient psychotic states, as well as substance
related disorders, it is recommended that the hospital should establish acute wards for the
comprehensive management of such patients. An alcohol and drug detoxification and rehabilitation
centre should also be developed at the hospital. Services to those with HIV related disorders should also
be improved.

Mogambi H. Makali’s Turn. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2013.
Mutua, G. MMKO-MRKP-SLJWG, and G. Gray, L. G. Bekker BLSPBDCF. "Major Negative Social Impacts Are Rare in Phase 1 Hiv Vaccine Trials in Africa." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A190-1.
Konyimbih TM. "Major issues of smallholder land policy: past trends and current practices in Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The official government strategy on land policy in Kenya aims to achieve optimum utilization and equitable distribution of land for the country's rapidly increasing population. This strategy has been pursued with programmes to transform customary tenure structures to statutory freehold through land adjudication and registration for the issuance of individual titles. This article examines the landholding structure in the smallholder sector in Kenya. It analyses how interests in land in those areas are acquired, held and transferred. Among the smallholders in Kenya, the landholding system is still largely custom driven. Statutory stipulations are largely ignored as being irrelevant and bureaucratic. For the proper implementation of any land policy based on statutes, the socio-economic circumstances of smallholders must first be analysed and understood in order to make the law responsive to their aspirations.

Nderitu JH;, Kasina J. "Major Insects Of Crops In Kenya."; 2004.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The major environmental factors that influence rapid disappearance of pesticides from tropical soils in Kenya.". In: Toxic and Environ. Chem. 00, 1-37. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Muchungu E, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullahi Z, Matama KT, Lada VY, Pallangyo B, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Major ecological characteristics of East African noctuid stem borers." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):353-361.
Kariuki CN. "Major component of organizations environment and extent to which the components are present in the Kenya situation.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Shepelo GP, Maingi N. "Major causes of poultry mortality in Nairobi and its environs established from autopsie." A Journal of The Kenya Veterinary Association. 2014;38(1):32-42.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Major Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Nyumba TO. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11(5):e12564. Abstractconl.12564.pdfconbio.onlinelibrary.wiley

Conservation policy decisions can suffer from a lack of evidence, hindering effective decision‐making. In nature conservation, studies investigating why policy is often not evidence‐informed have tended to focus on Western democracies, with relatively small samples. To understand global variation and challenges better, we established a global survey aimed at identifying top barriers and solutions to the use of conservation science in policy. This obtained the views of 758 people in policy, practice, and research positions from 68 countries across six languages. Here we show that, contrary to popular belief, there is agreement between groups about how to incorporate conservation science into policy, and there is thus room for optimism. Barriers related to the low priority of conservation were considered to be important, while mainstreaming conservation was proposed as a key solution. Therefore, priorities should focus on convincing the public of the importance of conservation as an issue, which will then influence policy‐makers to adopt pro‐environmental long‐term policies.

Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Simmons BI, Wauchope HS, Kovacs E, Durán AP, Vadrot ABM, others. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11:e12564. Abstract
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Wamwangi DM, Rathore IVS, Katia SK, MANGALA MJ. Major and trace bioelements-trace element analyses of pollen, bee tissue, and honey by total reflection and radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence …. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Elemental analyses of pollen, bee tissue and honey samples collected from selected areas of Kenya have been carried out using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques. The objective was to find out …

Nordberg E, Mwobobia I, Muniu E. "Major and minor surgery output at district level in {Kenya}: review and issues in need of further research." African journal of health sciences. 2004;9:17-25. AbstractWebsite
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MBATIAH PMWENDA. Majira ya Tufani. NAIROBI: Longman Kenya Ltd; 2012.
Mbatiah, Mwenda. Majilio ya Mkombozi. Nairobi: Moran; 2016.
Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Ngosia DS, Omondi E, Norton J. "Maize-bean farming and seasonal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2013.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Maize yield reduction due to erosion in a high potential area of Central Kenya highlands. African Crop Sc. Journal, Vol. 6. No. 1, pp 29-37.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Hassan R, Corbett J, Njoroge K. "Maize Technology Development and Transfer: A GIS application for research planning in Kenya (Chapter 4) (Chapter 4). .". In: ). Combining geo-referenced survey data with agro-climate attributes to characterize maize production systems in Kenya. In: R.M. Hassan (Ed). CAB International, Oxford and New York:; 1998.
Gichuru L, Ininda J, Njoroge K. "Maize streak virus (MSV) disease expression in F1 hybrids of diverse genotypes.". In: 10th KARI biennial conference. Nairobi, Kenya ; 2007.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "Maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller 1901).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and Regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru): International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Macharia-Mutie CW, Moretti D, den Briel VN, Omusundi AM, Mwangi AM, Kok FJ, Zimmerman MB, Brouwer ID. "Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan pre-school children." Journal of Nutrition . 2012;142:1756-1763.
Njoroge, K; Mwendwa EW. Maize in Kenya: development and production.; 1982.
Chumo JJ, Ochieng JAW, Njoroge K, Compton WA. "Maize improvement, production and protection in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd E & S Africa Regional Maize Conference. Nairobi & Kitale; 1989.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Maize flour contaminated with toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol. 2(1): 236-241. Taylor & Francis; 1995. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Maitho, T.E., Mbithi, P.M.F., and Mavuti, K.M. 2005. The Research Degree and Role of Supervisor: University of Nairobi examples of best practice and critical problem areas.". In: Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . de Gruyter; 2005.
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Maitho, T., Lees, P. and Taylor, J.B. 1986. Absorption and Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in welsh mountain ponies. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 9, 26-39.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1986. Abstract

The disposition of phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg), administered intravenously to six Welsh Mountain ponies, was described by a two-compartment open model. Pharmacokinetic parameters were not significantly different after morning dosing in comparison with afternoon dosing. When phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg) was administered orally to the same ponies, marked variations in time to peak concentrations were produced with different feeding schedules. When access to hay was permitted before and after dosing, the mean time to peak concentration was 13.2 ± 1.2 h and double peaks in the plasma concentration–time curve were common. Double peaks were also encountered when phenylbutazone was given to ponies deprived of food prior to, and allowed access to hay after, dosing. In this circumstance, mean times to peak concentration were much shorter (3.8 ± 1.3 h after morning dosing and 5.3 ± 1.5 h followed afternoon dosing). Absorption was more regular and double peaks were less apparent when food was withheld both before and after dosing. In order to explain these findings, it is tentatively postulated that, whereas some of the administered dose of phenylbutazone may be absorbed quickly, some may become adsorbed on to the feed and subsequently released by fermentative digestion in the large intestine and/or caecum. The consequences of delayed absorption in fed animals for toxicity and clinical efficacy, and for the use of phenylbutazone in equestrian sports, are considered. Delayed absorption in ponies given access to hay was not accompanied by a significant reduction in total absorption. Bioavailability was estimated to be approximately 69% in fed and 78%, in unfed ponies. Estimates of bioavailability gave similar values for morning (72%) and afternoon (71%) dosing.

ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Maitho, T. 2005. Guidelines on Regulations and Syllabus for Postgraduate Programmes. University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases Curriculum Development Workshop, Lake Bogoria Hotel, 10th .". In: Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . de Gruyter; 2005. Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai, C.K. The dynamic interplay between Man, Health and Medicine .". In: Inaugural lecture July 18, 1996, University of Nairobi, Kenya. African Crop Science Society; 1996. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK.Bioavailability of drugs. East Afr Med J. 1982 Aug;59(8):503-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Aug;59(8):503-4. African Crop Science Society; 1982. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. The need for a poison information centre in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):597-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):597-8. African Crop Science Society; 1983. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. The craze for additional vitamin intake. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):661-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):661-2. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. Effect of cathinone on chick embryo heart. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1981 Mar;33(3):195.". In: J Pharm Pharmacol. 1981 Mar;33(3):195. African Crop Science Society; 1981. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK. A review of dietary supplementation with trace minerals. East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Jan;65(1):48-50. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Maitai CK, Ogeto JO, Munenge RW, Ochieng S, Juma FD.A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets.East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Ogeto JO, Munenge RW, Ochieng S, Juma FD. A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):6-10. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW.Interaction between nifedipine and digoxin in rats. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Jan;72(1):75-6. African Crop Science Society; 1995. Abstract
Possible nifedipine-digoxin interaction was investigated in rats by comparing lethal doses of intravenously infused digoxin in control and experimental rats. In the experimental rats, nifedipine was administered intraperitoneally, 30 minutes prior to infusing digoxin at a constant rate of 40mcg per minute. Results indicate that nifedipine administered within the dosage range 0.5-2.0mg per kg rat body weight, lowered the lethal dose of intravenously infused digoxin by 26-38% compared with control rats, thus indicating a synergistic effect between the two drugs. There was very little dose dependence of this effect. It is concluded that concomitant administration of nifedipine and digoxin in humans may lead to drug interactions.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Njoroge DK, Munenge RW. A comparative study of two antispasmodic products: Buscopan and NO-Spa. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):480-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):480-5. African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai CK, Dhadphale M. Khat-induced paranoid psychosis. Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294.". In: Br J Psychiatry. 1988 Feb;152:294. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract
During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K., Nyangeri J.B. Catha edulis - A detailed Review Focusing on Chemistry, Health Implications, Economic, Legal, Social, Cultural, Religions and Moral aspects (58 pages). National Council for Science and Technology DOC. NCST. No 40. June 1996.". In: National Council for Science and Technology DOC. NCST. No 40. June 1996. African Crop Science Society; 1996. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

"Maitai C.K., Njoroge D.K., Abuga K.O. , Mwaura A.M., Munenge R.W. Investigation of possible antidotal effects of activated charcoal, sodium bicarbonate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate in zinc phosphide poisoning." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2002;5(2):38-41. AbstractWebsite

Zinc phosphide, a commonly used rat poison in Kenya was mixed with maize flour in a concentration of 0.15% w/w and fed to a group of 60 experimental mice for 3 hours. The mice were then randomly divided into 5 equal groups A, B, C, D and E. To groups A, B, C and D was administered activated charcoal (3% w/v), sodium bicarbonate (10% w/v), hydrogen peroxide(0.5% v/v) and potassium permanganate (1:5000) respectively. Group E was given 1 ml distilled water and used as control. All five groups were observed for symptoms of toxicity, often culminating in death. The observations were continued over a period of 36 hours. Results of the experiment showed that all for test substances minimized the lethal effect of zinc phosphide. Although no attempt was made to quantify the antidotal effect of the 4 substances, activated charcoal appeared to have a higher effect than the others, while potassium permanganate had a low rating.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Maitai C.K., Kibwage I.O., Guantai A.N., Ombega J.O and Ndemo F.A. A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya 1991-93 E.C.A.J. PSc. 1.7-10. 1998.". In: E.C.A.J. PSc. 1.7-10. 1998. F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 1998. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Tropical Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Kenya P. 63 .". In: Proc. symposium commonwealth science council, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 3 . African Crop Science Society; 1985. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Maitai C.K. Ogeto J and Juma F. A compasative study of 7 brands of Frusemide Product E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol 61, 1984. African Crop Science Society; 1984. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Maitai C.K Guantai A.N, and Mwangi J.W, Self Medication in management of Minor Health Problems in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981.". In: East African Medical Journal 58 (8) 593 1981. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract

he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.

Prof. Wamutiso K. "Maisha ya majagina wa kifasihi, kidini na kimapisi.". Forthcoming.
Secretary - Kachero F. Maintenance Policy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.maintenance_policy.pdf
Gichaga FJ. "Maintenance of Roads in Kenya.". In: TRRL/MOTC/UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Kokwaro JO. "Maintaining the balance between Agriculture and the environment.". In: Fifth International Farm Management Congress. Nairobi; 1983.
Ogeng’o J, ONGETI K, Misiani M, Olabu B. "Maintaining excellence in the teaching of {Human} {Anatomy}: {University} of {Nairobi} {Experience}." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2:117-129. Abstract
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Ogeng ’o JA, ONGETI K, Misiani M, Olabu B. "Maintaining excellence in Teaching of Human Anatomy: University of Nairobi Experience." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):117-129. Abstract

Experience in maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy is important in informing strategies to mitigate worldwide decline in the level of knowledge of human anatomy among medical students and qualifying doctors. Factors responsible for the decline include reduction in teaching time, inadequate teachers and undermining of cadaver dissection. Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design, teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Despite the challenges of rising student numbers and staff shortages, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi has maintained excellence in teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the teaching of anatomy at the University with a view of elucidating the practices from which other departments can learn. Analysis reveals that human anatomy is allocated 630hrs per year of which 350hrs are assigned to gross anatomy with 270hrs devoted to dissection. Although dissection has remained the cornerstone of instruction, it is combined with problem based learning, use of prosections, diagnostic imaging, computer aided and small group teaching. Teaching of gross anatomy is integrated with microscopic, developmental and neuroanatomy. The department runs an intercalated Bachelor of Science degree program, which is a reliable source of members of staff. Over 70% of the staff are surgeons. They are assisted by demonstrators drawn from trainee surgeons and B.Sc. Anatomy graduates. Excellence in teaching anatomy can be maintained by reclaiming sufficient teaching time, combining dissection with other contemporary methods of instruction, integrating gross, microscopic, developmental anatomy, neuroanatomy, involvement of clinicians in teaching, commencing training anatomy early and engagement of demonstrators.

Ogeng’o J, Ongeti K, Misiani M, Olabu B. "Maintaining Excellence in Teaching of Human Anatomy: University of Nairobi Experience." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2013;2(1):117-129.
Ogeng'o J, Ongeti K. "Maintaining excellence in departments of Human Anatomy: University of Nairobi experience." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):117-129. Abstract

Experience in maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy is important in informing strategies to mitigate worldwide decline in the level of knowledge of human anatomy among medical students and qualifying doctors. Factors responsible for the decline include reduction in teaching time, inadequate teachers and undermining of cadaver dissection. Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design, teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Despite the challenges of rising student numbers and staff shortages, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi has maintained excellence in teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the teaching of anatomy at the University with a view of elucidating the practices from which other departments can learn. Analysis reveals that human anatomy is allocated 630hrs per year of which 350hrs are assigned to gross anatomy with 270hrs devoted to dissection. Although dissection has remained the cornerstone of instruction, it is combined with problem based learning, use of prosections, diagnostic imaging, computer aided and small group teaching. Teaching of gross anatomy is integrated with microscopic, developmental and neuroanatomy. The department runs an intercalated Bachelor of Science degree program, which is a reliable source of members of staff. Over 70% of the staff are surgeons. They are assisted by demonstrators drawn from trainee surgeons and B.Sc. Anatomy graduates. Excellence in teaching anatomy can be maintained by reclaiming sufficient teaching time, combining dissection with other contemporary methods of instruction, integrating gross, microscopic, developmental anatomy, neuroanatomy, involvement of clinicians in teaching, commencing training anatomy early and engagement of demonstrators.

Njeru GW, Maina SM, Munene M. "Mainstreaming “Adaptive Standards for Multi-Purpose Interior Design In Low-Cost Housing Projects: A Case Study of the Kibera Soweto East Housing Project in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development . 2019;8(DOI No.: 10.24940/ijird/2019/v8/i10/OCT19076).
W KM. "Mainstreaming Women in Rural Travel and Transport in Kenya: A case of Kandara, Magadi and Limuru Divisions:.". In: Gender and Rural Transport Initiative End of Phase III Workshop. Harare, Zimbabwe; 2002.
W KM. "Mainstreaming Women in Rural Travel and Transport in Kenya: A case of Kandara, Magadi and Limuru Divisions:.". In: Gender and Rural Transport Initiative End of Phase III Workshop. Harare, Zimbabwe; 2002.
Gichuki N. "Mainstreaming the Youth in Local Governance.". In: Consultative Workshop organized by Africa Youth Trust. Nairobi; 2008.
Ngware M, Muthaka D, Ouma S, Njeru J, Manda DK. "Mainstreaming social budgeting into the budgetary process in Kenya." KIPPRA Discussion Paper No. 57. 2006.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Mainstreaming Labour and Employment Concerns Within the Framework of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): Issues, Initiatives and Actions." Keynote Address to a Forum of Permanent/Principal Secretaries, Directors-General and Commissioner.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Maina SM, Gachigi WM. "Mainstreaming Indigeneous natural Fibres foe Eco-Friendly African Product Design in Kenya: A case study of (mugio) triumphetta macrophylla fibre." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2014;vol.8(No. 8):683-693.

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