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Otieno DJ, Omiti J, Nyanamba T, McCullough E. "Market participation by vegetable farmers in Kenya: A comparison of rural and peri-urban areas.". 2009. Abstract

Transformations in agri-food systems provide prospects for improving livelihoods of many farmers through enhanced participation in commercial agriculture. Indeed, various studies have been undertaken to establish factors that influence the level of market orientation in different areas. However, those studies do not show appropriate objective criteria to support decisions for either separating or merging data and the subsequent analyses for different sites. Consequently, policy inferences made from such studies may be misleading due to failure to statistically account for site-specific variations in data. This study fills the analytical gap evident in literature by using the Chow test and descriptive measures of statistical difference to compare the intensity of market participation among rural and periurban vegetable farmers in Kenya. Results show that there are significant differences in the percentage of output sold, distance from farm to market, and the unit price of sale for output between the Rural and Peri-Urban areas. These findings demonstrate the urgent need for appropriate statistical evidence to improve disaggregated analyses of agricultural market participation in different systems and environments. This would enable targeting of development strategies to effectively address the changing agricultural landscape; particularly enhancing food supply and ensuring better farm incomes. There is need to improve market information provision, develop farmers’ business skills, improve roads and or support establishment of high value vegetable market outlets at different scales in Rural and Peri-Urban areas.

K'AKUMU OA, JONES B, BLYTH A. "The market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Habitat International, 34(1): 96-104. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

This paper reports on a study involving the market environment for artisanal dimension stone in Nairobi, Kenya. Taking the point of view of exchange relationships within a market systems framework it maps out economic interactions involving actors in this market such as suppliers of raw materials, producers, marketers and users of artisanal dimension stone. This strategy enabled the study to understand the enabling environment for the production and use of artisanal dimension stone that is characterized by the following factors: a rising population that sustains the demand for the built environment products, a vibrant construction market, building regulations that favour the use of stone, availability of cheap and abundant unskilled labour and low standards of stone finish involved, availability of natural rock, a regulatory system that can compromise, lack of support by government institutions and an informal system of transaction that is non-compliant with conventional requirements such as labour and environmental laws but ensures ease of entry into the market environment. Such understanding brings potential for rectifying the negative perceptions about this market environment through policy development and change. Keywords: Artisans; Dimension stone; Exchange relationships; Market environment; Micro-enterprise; Nairobi; Kenya; Artisanal and small scale mining

Thiong’o SM, Kinoti M, Kibera F. "Market Entry Strategies And Performance Of Multinational Corporations In Kenya." African Journal Of Business And Management. 2020;6(1):52-66. Abstractmarket_entry_strategies_and_performance_of_multinational_corporations_in_kenya.pdf

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational corporations in Kenya. The specific objective is to establish the relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance of multinational companies in Kenya. The study employed descriptive cross-sectional research design. The study established that market entry strategies explained 43.1% of the variance in organizational performance of multinational companies measured using financial performance parameters and 52.5% of the variance in organizational performance measured using nonfinancial parameters. The hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between market entry strategies and organisational performance was therefore supported. The study recommends that multinational corporations should carry out research on the market entry strategies before venturing into international market. This will ensure that they use the appropriate market entry strategy to enhance their performance. The study also recommended that the management evaluate the factors influencing the choice of market entry modes in order to choose the best alternative. The results makes a contribution to theory development, policy and marketing practice in relation to the effect of market entry strategy and organisation performance The limitation of the study is that it used top management as the respondents, may be if other cadre of employees were studied they could have contributed to more exhaustive results for generalization, this however did not compromise on study results. Therefore, the study suggests that there is room for further research incorporating a large population approach, using longitudinal designs and using group discussion to get more information from the respondents.

Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick. "Market Diversification Strategy and Success of Food Processing Firms in Kenya.". In: 3rd Joint Nordic Conference on Development Research at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 5 - 6 . Gothenburg, Sweden; 2015.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Market and the State in Economic Change: Some Kenyan Experiences.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Otieno DJ. "Market and Non-market Factors Influencing Farmers’ Adoption of Improved Beef Cattle in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

This study assessed various market and non-market factors that might have a considerable bearing on farmers’ adoption of improved beef cattle breeds in dry areas of Kenya. A binomial (binary) logit model was applied to analyse survey data from a multistage area sample of beef cattle farmers. Results showed that about 53% of farmers in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya have adopted improved beef cattle. The main factors that were found to have significant influence on farmers’ probability of adoption of improved beef cattle are peri-urban location, sale of cattle to abattoirs rather than in open air markets, and practise of agro-pastoral or ranch production systems. On the contrary, practice of nomadic production system, possession of experience in cattle production and larger farms did not have a favourable influence on adoption of improved cattle breeds. These findings offer important insights to development policy on provision of requisite services and institutional support in order to enhance the adoption of improved cattle breeds for better livelihoods in the typically resource-constrained arid and semi-arid areas.

"Markers and disease outcome in breast cancer." East Afr Med J. . 2006;83(8):409-10.
Silverstein E, Friedland J, Lyons HA, Gourin A. "Markedly elevated angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes containing non-necrotizing granulomas in sarcoidosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1976;73(6):2137-41. Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the generalized formation of granulomas and is accompanied by elevation in the serum in less than half the patients of angiotensin converting enzyme, a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of the decapeptide, angiotensin I, to the pressor octapeptide, angiotensin II, and L-histidyl-L-leucine. Mean activity of angiotensin converting enzyme was elevated generally more than 10-fold in granuloma-containing lymph nodes, but not in lung in which normally it is abundant, in 19 of 20 patients with sarcoidosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme in lymph nodes from subjects with sarcoidosis was similar to the enzyme from normal lung and lymph node with respect to activity as a function of pH, inhibition of activity by EDTA and o-phenanthroline, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and requirement for chloride for activity, but appeared to be more heat labile. The data suggest that the granulomas in sarcoidosis may be the source of the elevated serum enzyme and that cells of the granulomas, particularly the epitheloid cells which appear by electron microscopy to have active protein biosynthesis, may be actively synthesizing the enzyme.

MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Mark O. Nanyingia, Bernard K. Langat, Cyrus G. Wagate, Fred N Andayi, Kipsengeret B Koros, Benard C. Rono,Lucas L. Asaava, James M. Mbaria (2008). Antiplasmodial activity of some plants traditionally used in treatment of malaria in Samburu district of Ken.". In: 1st National conference and Exhibition for Dissemination of Research Results and Review of innovations. Held at Kenyatta International Conference Centre on 28th to 30th April, 2008. E; 2008.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Mark A Luscher, Greory Choy, Ephanta Njagi, Bwayo JJ, ANZALA AO, Ndinya-Achola J, Kelly MacDonald et al. Naturally Occuring IgG Anti-HLA Alloantibody Does not Correlate with HIV Type 1 Resistance in Nairobi Prostitutes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 20;14(2):109-15. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Maritime security.". In: issues in piracy and terrorism. Neptune Hotel, Mombasa; 2010.
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "The Maritime Infrastructure and Economic Development in Kenya, Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary of Engineer and Infrastructure, KICC, Nairobi,22-24th November.". In: in the JOURNAL OF AFRICAN AND ASIAN STUDIES, Vol.32, No.4: 409-410. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Maritim M. C., Joshi M. D., Kayima J. K., Amayo A. and Jowi J. O. Prevalence of Peripheral arterial disease among chronic kidney disease patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. (Abstract) Cardiovasc J. Afr (Abstract) 2007; 18 (2): 112.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of occupational lead exposure. Olkalou in Nyandarua District was the covariate study area. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and eight children and adults participated. RESULTS: Blood lead levels (BLLs) obtained for the entire sample (n = 308) ranged from 0.4 to 65 microg/dl of blood. One hundred and sixty nine (55%) of the total sample had levels equal to or below 4.9 microg/dl, while 62 (20%) of the sample had levels ranging from 5.0 to 9.9 microg/dl. Blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl were recorded in 77 (25%) of the total sample. Within Nairobi, 32 (15.3%) of the study subjects in areas meant for assessment of environmental lead exposure had levels above the WHO/CDC action levels of 10 microg/dl of blood. The mean BLL for the occupationally exposed (Ziwani Jua kali) was 22.6 +/- 13.4 microg/dl. Among the workers, 89% had BLLs above 10 microg/dl. In general, 15% of the entire sample (for both environmental and occupational groups) in Nairobi had BLLs above 15 microg/dl. The covariate group at Olkalou had a mean BLL of 1.3 +/- 0.9 microg/dl. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of environmental lead exposure to the general public is high in Nairobi compared to Olkalou where non exposure was reported. Occupational lead exposure has been identified to be at alarming levels and urgent intervention measures are recommended.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Marine and Coastal Resources.". 2013.
Wamitila KW. Marina's Voice. Nairobi: Vide~Muwa Publishers Ltd.; 2018.
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., Njoroge E.M. and Mbugua, P.N. (1998). Clinical manifestation of experimental water intoxication in calves Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68(6): 531 .". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 26th . au-ibar; 1998. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., J.K. Wabacha, and E.M. Njoroge, (1999). Streptococcal meningitis in a five-month old male lamb. Tydskr. S. Afr. Vet. Ver. 7(2): 2-4.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 26th . au-ibar; 1999. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., E.M. Njoroge, and S.M. Njiro (1998). A case of ovine lymphosarcoma in Kenya. A case report. J. of S. Africa Vet. Ass. 69(3): 105-107.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 26th . au-ibar; 1998. Abstract
Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., E.M. Njoroge, and P.N. Mbugua, (1996). Factors that contribute to occurrence of water intoxication in calves.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., B.C. Tennant and B. Baldwin (1979). Effects of intravenous administration of D-penicillamine on Liver Copper stores of housed sheep. The Kenya Veterinarian 3(1), 7-9.". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei, J.M., (1981). Histopathological changes of liver and kidney in sheep chronically poisoned with copper. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 5(2).". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Maribei, J. M., E. M Njoroge and P. N Mbugua (1998). Clinical Manifestation of experimental water intoxication in calves. Indian J. Anim sci. 68:531-532.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Maribei J.M., Njoroge E.M., and Njiro S. (1998) A Case of Ovine Lymphosarcoma in Kenya.". In: Journal of South African Veterinary Association 69(3): 105-107. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.

M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Maribei J.M., Njoroge E.M., and Mbugua P.N. (1998) Clinical Manifestation of Experimental Water Intoxication in Calves.". In: Indian Journal of Animal Science 68(6): 531 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.

MATHENGE PROFMARIBEIJAMES. "Maribei J.M., (1985). The efficacy of .". In: Presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 28-30 April, 1996. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Margrethe Serek, Kimani Waithaka, Rodney B. Jones and Michael S. Reid, 1994. Senescence of florets in the gladiolus inflorescence.". In: Paper presented at XVII Congress of the Scandinavian Society for PlantPhysiology. Physiology Plantarum, 91 (3) A-A22. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Margo CM, Crowson AN, Alfa M, Nath A, Ronald A, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nasio J A Morphological Study of Penile Chancroid Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV)- Positive and .". In: Human Pathl. 27: 1066-70, 1996. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Chancroid, the most common cause of genital ulceration in Africa, is known to be associated epidemiologically with heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The pathophysiological mechanisms by which chancroid might facilitate the spread of HIV are obscure. To investigate the role of chancroid in HIV transmission, the authors studied the histological features of biopsies from 11 men with penile chancroid lesions including five who were serologically positive for HIV. The histomorphologic and immunophenotypic nature of the inflammatory infiltrates suggests that there is a significant role for cell-mediated immunity in the host response to Hemophilus ducreyi infection. This response may be critical to the role of chancroid in HIV transmission.
co-authored with and(ed) AOWOAI. "Marginalization and the Rise of Militia Groups in Kenya; The Mungiki and the Sabaot Land Defence Force.". In: ) Militias, Rebels and Islamist Militants. Human Insecurity and State Crisis in Africa,. South Africa: Institute for Security Studies; 2010.
Kanyinga K. "Marginalisation’ no longer a presidential campaign issue." Sunday Nation, July 16, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Marginalisation in Kenya: Origins, trends, and policy solutions.". In: Commission on Allocation of Revenue (CRA), Kenya. Nairobi; 2017.
"Margaret Njeri Mbugua, MaryW.Kuria,andDavidM.Ndetei. The Prevalence of Depression among Family Caregivers of Children with Intellectual Disability in a Rural Settingin Kenya." International Journal of Family Medicine. 2011. Abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
AttributionLicense,whichpermitsunrestricteduse,distribution,andreproductioninanymedium,providedtheoriginalworkis
properlycited.
Caregivers of children with intellectual disability have a great responsibility that may be stressful. The psychological well-being of
the care giver may affect the quality of care given to children with intellectual disability. Objective. The objective of the study was
todeterminetheriskofdepressionincaregiversofchildrenwithintellectualdisability.Setting.ThestudywasconductedatGachie
Catholic Parish, Archdiocese of Nairobi (Kenya). Design. Cross sectional, descriptive study. Method. The study was conducted
among 114 caregivers registered at the Gachie Parish program (in Kenya) for the intellectual disabled children. A researcher-designed
social demographic questionnaire and the Beck depression inventory were administered to those that met the inclusion
criteria. Results. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the caregivers were at risk of clinical depression. Conclusion. Majority of the caregiversofchildrenwithintellectualdisabilitywereatriskofdevelopingclinicaldepression

GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Margaret Ngigi's Ph. D. Research and Thesis: Student graduated with a Ph.D. degree in 2002.". In: 25th International Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Durban, South Africa. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2002. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Margaret Muthwii, MONICA MWESELI, Juliana Nzomo, Agnes M.W. Gathumbi, Joshua Okumbe, Manuel J.K. Marangu_ Elizabeth Opit, William G. Wagamba, Okot Benge and Titus Ogavu, Research Case Studies on Language, Published as a Consolidated report entitled: LANGU.". In: A poem published in WAJIBU: A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS ISSUES Ed. By Dr. Wanjohi. REFEREED BY DR. WANJOHI AND DR.JUSTUS MBAE.; 2002. Abstract

Okot p'Bitek, a novelist, sociologist, philosopher, theologian, footballer, dancer, and above all human being, is internationally recognised as one of Africa's finest poets. He is the author of original poetry, translations of traditional literature, anthropological studies, and other essays. Edward Blishen writes: The biographical facts are themselves remarkable. He was born in 1931 at Gulu in Northern Uganda, and was educated first at Gulu High School and later at one of the most high-flying of Ugandan schools, King's College, Budo. He went on to read education at Bristol, law at Aberystwyth and social anthropology at Oxford: returning to Uganda, he lectured at the University College at Makerere. This academic versatility was matched by considerable athletic skill: among other achievements, he played football for Uganda. A drummer and a dancer, he founded an annual festival of African arts at Gulu. For a while he was Director of the National Cultural Centre in Kampala. From 1952 to 1954, Okot attended a teacher training course at the government training college, Mbarara. While at college, he wrote and produced a student opera. When he completed the training, he taught English and Religious Studies for three years at Sir Samuel Backer's School near Gulu. He liked singing, and was choirmaster at the school.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Marenya, M.O., Kaumbutho, P.G., Mutuli, D.A. and Kamau J.N. (1993) Simulation of the Materials Handling Systems in a Sugarcane Mill Yard - A case study . Paper accepted for publication in the AMA Journal.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

W DRKURIAMARY, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Mareko G M, Othieno C J, Kuria M W, Kiarie J N & Ndetei D M (2007). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a case report. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.". In: East African Medical Journal, Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452. Equinet; 2007. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
W DRKURIAMARY, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Mareko G M, Othieno C J, Kuria M W, Kiarie J N & Ndetei D M (2007). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a case report. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.". In: East African Medical Journal, Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
Wasamba P. "Marching Backwards into the Future: Oral Literature in the Cyberspace,." Chemchemi: The Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2007;Vol.4(No. 1):114-118.abstract.pdf
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Marchesini S., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Goi G.,Lombardo A. Plasma lysosomal hydrolase in normal malaria parasitized and sickle cell subjects. A study of a sample of Liberian population J. Res. Lab. Med x 5 493-497, 1983.". In: J. Res. Lab. Med x 5 493-497, 1983. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
O MROUKOKENNEDY. "March 2002: Healthy Futures: An Evaluation. A report on the "Healthy Futures" project. Published on behalf of "Maendeleo ya Wanawake" organization by Pritman, 2003.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 2003. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani, M., Tole, M. P., and Ogallo, L. J. (2000). Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulphide in the air around the Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya. Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress, Japan. CD ROM Proceedings.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin and Ouma Oscar Kambona (2008). The Role of Watershed Research in Policy Change for Increased Uptake of Millennium Development Goals in Developing Countries. A Paper presentec at the First National Conference on Environment, held in Nairobi, .". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2010). Pastoral Regimes for Scarce Water Management in Drylands - the Boran of Kenya. A paper presented at a Workshop on ``Land Grab." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2004). The Role of Participation in Planning Processes with an Emphasis on the Role of Geoinformation. A Paper presented at a PhD Conference on "Public Participation and Collaborative Decision Support Systems within a Geoinformation Framewo.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2002).Stimulating and Encouraging Clean Production in Africa. A Paper presented at Skillshare and Workshop on Ratifying the Stockholm Convention on the Eimination of Persistent Organic Pollutants, Arusha, Tanzania.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin (2002). Stimulating and Encouraging Clean Production in Africa. A Paper presented at a Skillshare and Workshop on "Ratifying and Implementing the Stockholm Convention" on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Arusha, Tanzania. UNIDO/IPEN.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani Martin & Gottsmann Frank (2006). Presenting Geography: from complexity to simplicity? A Paper presented at a PhD Conference on "From GIS to GIScience", University of Salzburg.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Marani M., Tole Mwakio P., Ogallo Laban J. 2000. Concentrations of Hydrogen in Air around the Olkaria Geothermal Power Plant, Kenya. Discovery and Innovation 12(3):169-178.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Maps in Environmental Monitoring.". 2013.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Mapping the Earth by Use of Artificial Satellites.". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1972.
K'AKUMU OA. "Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process." International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development . 2016;15(1):15-36.Mapping stakeholder positions in the Kenyan land reform process
o Malonza, J. RART. "Mapping Socio-Cultural Influences in Contemporary Urban Public Open Space. The Case of Biryogo, Kigali City. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies,. 2018;2(9-september 2018).
JA A, GO O'amo, DO O, SO O, IK N, BBA E. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2018;1(1):417-426. AbstractWebsite

Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa. This study investigated the relationship between climate and environmental conditions and An. gambiae s.l. larvae abundance and modelled the larval distribution of this species in Baringo County, Kenya. Mosquito larvae were collected using a 350-mL dipper and a pipette once per month from December 2015 to December 2016. A random forest algorithm was used to generate vegetation cover classes. A negative binomial regression was used to model the association between remotely sensed climate (rainfall and temperature) and environmental (vegetation cover, vegetation health, topographic wetness and slope) factors and An. gambiae s.l. for December 2015. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was significantly more frequent in the riverine zone (P < 0.05, r = 0.59) compared with the lowland zone. Rainfall (b = 6.22, P < 0.001), slope (b = - 4.81, P = 0.012) and vegetation health (b = - 5.60, P = 0.038) significantly influenced the distribution of An. gambiae s.l. larvae. High An. gambiae s.l. abundance was associated with cropland and wetland environments. Effective malaria control will require zone-specific interventions such as a focused dry season vector control strategy in the riverine zone.

Amadi JA, Ong'amo GO, Olago DO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2018.
Situma J, Attoh F, Ndohvu J. "Mapping Out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice. 2016;7(1):77-102.
J Situma, F Atoh NJ. "Mapping out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice, 2015. 2015;7(1):77-102.
J.SITUMA, F.ATOHO JNDOHVU. "Mapping out the identity of Africa." Thoughts and Practice. 2015;1:77-102.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Mapping out Directions in Formal Education for the Girl Child in Kenya".". In: Technical Workshop on Mapping out Direction for the Girl Child in Kenya. 13th to 15th October 1993 at the Mary Ward - Karen. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Mapping out Directions in Formal Education for the Girl Child in Kenya".". In: Technical Workshop on Mapping out Direction for the Girl Child in Kenya. 13th to 15th October 1993 at the Mary Ward - Karen. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993. Abstract

 

 

"Mapping of Hydrothermal Minerals Related to Geothermal Activities Using Remote Sensing and GIS: Case Study of Paka Volcano in Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 2017;8(5):711-725. AbstractFull Text

Remote sensing investigations combined with Geographical investigation systems (GIS) provide a rapid and cost-effective method for prospecting hydrothermal and geothermal systems. Most geothermal systems in Kenya are found in remote areas where accessibility is difficult. This study was carried out on Paka volcano which is located in the Kenyan rift valley. The aim of the study was to use remote sensing and GIS to investigate hydrothermal minerals and structures associated with geothermal activities. The study involves use of Landsat TM image classification using ENVI 5.1 and ArcGIS. Lineament extraction was done using PCI geomatics 2015 while Rose diagrams were generated using Rockworks 16. The research has shown that lithological, hydrothermal mineralization and structural maps can be generated form Landsat TM images using remote sensing and GIS. It has been shown that faults trend in the Northeast, North and Northwest direction. Hydrothermal minerals that are rich in iron and clays occur on Paka volcano mountain and its neighbouring areas.

Owen, Dulo, Thine. "Mapping of Feasible Artificial Groundwater Recharge Areas: Case of Nairobi City County,." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2)::9-16.
Leitich RK, Arinaitwe W, Mukoye B, Omayio DO, Osogo AK, Were HK, Muthomi JW, Otsyula RM, Abang MM. "Mapping of Angular Leaf Spot Disease Hotspot Areas in Western Kenya Towards Its Management." American Journal of Applied Scientific Research. 2016;2(6):75-81.
Baariu SN, Mulaku GC. "Mapping Khat (Miraa) by Remote Sensing in Meru County, Kenya." International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications (USA). 2015;Vol. 5(ISSN 2226-4353):54-61 .
Yarmoshuk AN, Guantai AN, Mwangu M, Cole DC, Zarowsky C. "Mapping International University Partnerships Identi fi ed by East African Universities as Strengthening Their Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health Programs." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(5):665-677. Abstract2016_-_mapping_international_university_partnerships.pdf

Background: International university partnerships are recommended for increasing the capacity of sub-Saharan African universities. Many publications describe individual partnerships and projects, and tools are available for guiding collaborations, but systematic mappings of the basic, common characteristics of partnerships are scarce.

Objective: To document and categorize the international interuniversity partnerships deemed significant to building the capacity of medicine, nursing, and public health programs of 4 East African universities.

Methods: Two universities in Kenya and 2 in Tanzania were purposefully selected. Key informant interviews, conducted with 42 senior representatives of the 4 universities, identified partnerships they considered significant for increasing the capacity of their institutions' medicine, nursing, and public health programs in education, research, or service. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Partners were classified by country of origin and corresponding international groupings, duration, programs, and academic health science components.

Findings: One hundred twenty-nine university-to-university partnerships from 23 countries were identified. Each university reported between 25 and 36 international university partners. Seventy-four percent of partnerships were with universities in high-income countries, 15% in low- and middle-income countries, and 11% with consortia. Seventy percent included medicine, 37% nursing, and 45% public health; 15% included all 3 programs. Ninety-two percent included an education component, 47% research, and 24% service; 12% included all 3 components.

Conclusions: This study confirms the rapid growth of inter-university cross-border health partnerships this century. It also finds, however, that there is a pool of established international partnerships from numerous countries at each university. Most partnerships that seek to strengthen universities in East Africa should likely ensure they have a significant education component. Universities should make more systematic information about past and existing partnerships available publicly.

MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "Mapping indicators within Kibera Informal Settlement, Nairobi. Paper presented during the World Urban Forum, Nairobi, May 2002.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Atonya SC. Mapping Geological Structures in Western Mutomo, Kitui County: A Remote Sensing approach. Karanja FN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Nyabuga G, Booker N. "Mapping Digital Media: Kenya." London: Open Society; 2013.
Ochungo P, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl J, Kiama TN, and Grace. D. "Mapping Aflatoxin Risk Using Biophysical and Socio-economic data: A case study of Kenya.". 2016.
Ochungo P, Lindahl JF, T K, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Kiama TN, Grace D. "Mapping aflatoxin risk from milk consumption using biophysical and socio-economic data:A case study in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:11066-11085(16):11066-11085.
Marre O, Amodei D, Deshmukh N, Sadeghi K, Soo F, Holy TE, Berry MJ. "Mapping a {Complete} {Neural} {Population} in the {Retina}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012;32:14859-14873. AbstractWebsite

Recording simultaneously from essentially all of the relevant neurons in a local circuit is crucial to understand how they collectively represent information. Here we show that the combination of a large, dense multielectrode array and a novel, mostly automated spike-sorting algorithm allowed us to record simultaneously from a highly overlapping population of {\textgreater}200 ganglion cells in the salamander retina. By combining these methods with labeling and imaging, we showed that up to 95% of the ganglion cells over the area of the array were recorded. By measuring the coverage of visual space by the receptive fields of the recorded cells, we concluded that our technique captured a neural population that forms an essentially complete representation of a region of visual space. This completeness allowed us to determine the spatial layout of different cell types as well as identify a novel group of ganglion cells that responded reliably to a set of naturalistic and artificial stimuli but had no measurable receptive field. Thus, our method allows unprecedented access to the complete neural representation of visual information, a crucial step for the understanding of population coding in sensory systems.

Marre O, Amodei D, Deshmukh N, Sadeghi K, Soo F, Holy TE, Berry MJ. "Mapping a {Complete} {Neural} {Population} in the {Retina}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 2012;32:14859-14873. AbstractWebsite

Recording simultaneously from essentially all of the relevant neurons in a local circuit is crucial to understand how they collectively represent information. Here we show that the combination of a large, dense multielectrode array and a novel, mostly automated spike-sorting algorithm allowed us to record simultaneously from a highly overlapping population of {\textgreater}200 ganglion cells in the salamander retina. By combining these methods with labeling and imaging, we showed that up to 95% of the ganglion cells over the area of the array were recorded. By measuring the coverage of visual space by the receptive fields of the recorded cells, we concluded that our technique captured a neural population that forms an essentially complete representation of a region of visual space. This completeness allowed us to determine the spatial layout of different cell types as well as identify a novel group of ganglion cells that responded reliably to a set of naturalistic and artificial stimuli but had no measurable receptive field. Thus, our method allows unprecedented access to the complete neural representation of visual information, a crucial step for the understanding of population coding in sensory systems.

MBATIAH PMWENDA. ""Mapito ya Riwaya ya Walenisi"- Published in KIOO CHA LUGHA, Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar-es-Salaam.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1995. Abstract
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MBATIAH PMWENDA. ""Mapitio ya Riwaya ya Walenisi" - published in KIOO CHA LUGHA, journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar-es-Salaam.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1995. Abstract
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KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Mapesa O J, S K Mbugua and S M Mahungu 2010; Sensory evaluation of dried beef strips treated with Acetic Acid, Brine and Monosodium Glutamate.Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 .". In: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2010. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Map Revision. Geography Techniques II.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe, S. N Mburu, M.W. K, Ndufa, J. K, Akundabweni, L. S, Mureithi, J. G, Gachene, C. K. K, Makini, F, Okello, J. J. 2010. Potential Effect of Mucuna Green Manure Application Rates on the Decomposition and Availability of Nitrogen in Varying Soil Moistur.". In: World Journal of Agric Scie 6 (5) 532-539. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe, S. N Mburu, M.W. K, Ndufa, J. K, Akundabweni, L. S, Mureithi, J. G, Gachene, C. K. K, Makini, F, Okello, J. J. 2010. Effect of Mucuna Green Manure Rate Applied on Maize Grain Yield During the Application Season. J. of Sustainable Development in Agr.". In: Vol. 5(1). 2010 ISSN 0794-8867. (. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S.N, Mburu M.W.K, Akundabweni L. S, Ndufa J. K, Mureithi J. G, Gachene C. K. K, Okello J. J, Makini F. Economic Analysis of Mucuna Green Manure Nitrogen Application in Maize Production: I. with Green Manure Incorporation Cost.". In: J. of Sustainable Development in Agriculture & Environment Vol. 6(1):xx-xx: June. 2011. Paraclete Publishers; 2011. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S. N, Mburu M.W. K, Ndufa J. K, Akundabweni L. S, Mureithi J. G, Gachene C. K. K, Makini F, Okello J. J. Influence of Seedling Age at Transplanting on Growth and Grain Yield of Medium Duration Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa l.) at Ibadan, Nigeria.". In: J. of Sustainable Development in Agriculture & Environment Vol. 5(1):x-xx Mach. 2010. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractField experiments were conducted at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria in the long and short rainy seasons of 1987 to study effect of seedling age (21, 31 and 41 days old seedlings) at transplanting on growth and grain yield of medium duration irrigated lowland rice. Randomized complete block design with four replications, and plot size of 3 m x 4 m, planted with an improved medium duration (128 days to maturity) rice variety, ITA 212 were used. Plant height, tiller production, and dry matter production were determined at 30 and 50 days after transplanting, at flowering and at harvest. Leaves of the eight rice plants sampled at flowering were used for leaf area index determination. Harvest index, panicle production, grain production, percentage of ripened grains and 1000-grain weight were recorded at harvest. Grain yield was determined from 5 m2 in the middle of each plot. Results obtained showed that 21 days old seedlings gave significantly taller rice plants, higher tiller and panicle number per m2 than the 31 and 41 days old ones. Seedling age had non-significant effect on leaf area index and 1000-grain weight. The 31 and 41 days old seedlings gave significantly higher harvest index and percentage of filled grains than the 21 days old ones. However, seedling age at transplanting had a non-significant effect on grain yield. It is suggested that a delay in transplanting of 21 days old seedlings for up to 20 days may not have pronounced effect on grain yield of medium duration lowland rice
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S. N, Mburu M.W. K, Akundabweni L. S, Ndufa J. K, Mureithi J. G, Gachene C. K. K, Okello J. J, Makini F. Effect of Mucuna Green Manure Rate Applied on Maize Grain Yield During the Application Season.". In: J. of Sustainable Development in Agriculture & Environment Vol. 5(1):54-64 Mach. 2010. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractMaize yield in Kenya is constrained by inadequate supply of nitrogen and there is need to search for locally available and potentially low-cost N sources. Consequently, on-farm research was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002-2005. The objective was to evaluate effect of Mucuna pruriens green manure biomass application rate on maize grain yield in sandy clay soil. Treatments evaluated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; and inorganic fertilizer-urea at 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replications. Results obtained showed that mucuna application rate of 30 kgN ha-1 did not significantly improve maize grain yield. Its application at 60 kg N ha-1 significantly increased maize grain yield only in seasons when rainfall was high notably in long rains. But, mucuna green manure applied at a rate of 120 kg N ha-1 significantly improved maize grain yield in both short and long rain seasons when rainfall amounts received were variable. Application of mucuna green manure at higher rates of 240 and 480 kg N ha-1 made no further significant increase in maize grain yield. Therefore, application rates lower than 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna green manure biomass may be inadequate and would require supplementation with inorganic fertilizer N if maize grain yield is to be increased.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Maobe S. N, L.S.M Akundabweni, M.W.K. Mburu, Ndufa J.K. J.G. Mureithi, C.C.K Gachene, F.W. Makini and J.J. Okello. 2010. Effect of Green manure and inorganic Fertilizer Urea Nitrogen Sources And Application Rates on Harvest of maize (Zea mays L.).". In: World Journal of Agric Scie 6 (5) 532-539. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Manyibe, T.N and Gathumbi, P.K Ngatia, T.A, Bebora, L., Muchemi, G. Historical perspectives of lesser flamingo mortalities in Kenya.". In: Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012.
Mukunzi. S, Wurapa. E, Achilla. R, Wadegu. M, Majanja. J, Wangui. J, Osuna. F, Njiri. J, Mwangi. J, Bulimo. W. "Many pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) viruses that circulated in Kenya during the 2009-2010 Influenza seasons belonged to clade 7.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi Kenya; 2011. Abstract
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N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Manuthu EM, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Karari E.Prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV infected patients. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):10-7.". In: test. test; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced AIDS morbidity and mortality, however long-term metabolic consequences including dysglycaemia and dyslipidemia have raised concern regarding accelerated cardiovascular disease risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine the period prevalence of dyslipidemia and dysglycaemia in HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparative group study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary HIV dedicated out-patient facility. SUBJECTS: Consecutive HIV- positive adult patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dyslipidemia: presence of raised total or LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol, or raised triglycerides. Dysglycaemia: presence of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus. Results: Between January and April 2006, out of 342 screened patients, 295 were recruited and 58% were females. One hundred and thirty four (45%) were on HAART, 82% of whom were on stavudine, lamivudine and either nevirapine or efavirenz. Overall prevalence of dyslipidemiawas 63.1% and dysglycaemia was 20.7%. High total cholesterol occurred in 39.2% of HAART and 10.0% HAART naive patients (p<0.0001, OR 5.18, CI 3.11-10.86), whereas high LDL cholesterol occurred in 40.8% and in 11.2% respectively (p<0.0001, OR 5.43, CI 2.973-9.917). HDL levels were low in 14.6% and 51.3% among HAART and HAART naive patients, respectively, (p<0.0001, OR 0.16, CI 0.091-0.29) while high triglycerides occurred in 25.6% and 22.5% respectively (p=0.541 OR 1.184 CI 0.688-2.037). Among patients on HAART compared to HAART naive patients, diabetes was found in 1.5% against 1.2% (p=0.85), impaired fasting in 2.2% against 0.6% (p=0.30) and impaired glucose tolerance in 16.4% against 21.1% (p=0.22), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HIV- infected patients demonstrated a high prevalence of dyslipidemia. HAART use was associated with high levels of total, and LDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, an established athrogenic lipid profile. However, HAART was not associated with low HDL cholesterol and had no significant effect on dysglycaemia.

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. ""Manufacturing strategy for enhanced competitiveness", a conference paper presented at the 8th Annual Management Conference (2001), organized by the Makerere University Business School.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Mwega F. "Manufacturing in Kenya: Africa Imperatives in the World Trade Order.". In: Case Studies on Manufacturing and Services. AERC; 2008.
Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT MBSMJ. "Manual on Technical aspects of Bovine in-vitro embryo production and embryo transfer." The Kenya Veterinarian Journal. 2015;39(1):1-16.
KONGERE TO. ""Manual on Operations Research", 2006, for Distance Learning.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

KONGERE TO. ""Manual on Operations Research".". In: Nairobi, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance and Planning. WFL Publisher; 2006. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

of Kenya NC. MANUAL OF CLINICAL PROCEDURES. Nairobi: Nursing Council of Kenya; 2009.manual_of_clinical_procedures.pdf
Dorothy McCormick, Schmitz H. "Manual for Value Chain Research on Homeworkers in the Garment Industry Institute of Development Studies.". In: Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility. Mzumbe University/Adger University College: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "A Manual For Organized Self-Help Densification Of Eastlands.". In: International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. Housing Development & Management, Lund University, Sweden.; 2005. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
WAMBUGU LYDIAH, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "Manpower Development in the 21st Century." DBA The Africa Management Review. 2014;4(1):47-61.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Manpower and Employment in Kenya An Overview. Paper written with F.M Muhindi for the Ministry of Higher Education's Pre-investment Study on Business Education.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1982. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Ong’ang’a MA, Indangasi H, Kitata M. "Manipulation of Narrative Paradigm in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wrestling with the Devil." Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies. . 2021;3(1).
Wan Y, Cheng X, Li Y, Wang Y, Du Y, Zhao Y, Peng B, Dai L, Kan E. "Manipulating the Raman scattering rotation via magnetic field in an MoS 2 monolayer." RSC Advances. 2021;11:4035-4041. Abstract
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Kanyinga K. "Manifestos rich on promises, vague on delivery strategies." Sunday Nation, July 1, 2017.
L. G, Vanreusel A, Koedam N, Reubens J, Muthumbi AW. "The mangrove forests as nursery habitats for the ichthyofauna of Mida Creek (Kenya, East Africa)." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2014;94(5):865-877.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Optimal Sources of Fncrgy in Kenya" in I. E. K National Engineering Seminar on Engineering for Self Reliance - March 23rd-25lh, 1994 at the KlCC, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. The Kenya Power System " in August 1996 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Serena Hotel. Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y.. and Park, Y.M. "Optimal Real and Reactive Power Control Using Linear Programming", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. Lee, K.Y., and Park. Y.M. "Optimal Power Flow Using Linear Programming", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. I.cc. K.Y,. and Park, Y.M. ""Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques."", Electric Energy Systems Research Journal 1992.". In: Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 26, pp. 1-10, 1993. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1992. Abstract
This paper develops an improved real and reactive power control technique using linear programming (LP) for an integrated power system. The problem is decomposed into two subproblems comprising real (P) and reactive power (Q) modules, and, using a unified approach, the real power generation, voltage magnitude, and transformer tap settings are optimized. The objective function is the fuel cost which is minimized in both the P and Q modules, subject to the operating constraints. The P-Q decomposition combined with the LP formulation improve the computation speed. The paper has another advantage of using the same cost objective function for both modules, unlike other conventional methods which use the power loss function for the Q module. The LP formulation is used for both the P and Q optimization modules, utilizing the revised simplex method which is normally available in a mainframe computer.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Optimal Power Flow in Kenya" on 4th August 1994 at the 4th JKUAT Annual Electrical and Electronic Engineering Seminar on Innovations in Electrical Engineering Technology.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K.. "Control System Analysis and Design " in August 1995 at the 2nd conference of the Kenya Society for the Electrical Engineers - Sereiw Hotel, Nairobi.". In: IEK International Conference. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1995. Abstract
The electricity industry has an important role in developing a sustainable energy system, both regarding the use of electricity to improve environmental performance in society thus contributing to a better livingstandard and social life and to reduce the environmental impacts from the electricity industry own activities.The industry contributes significantly to the worlds total green house gas emissions and has a significantimpact on other environmental aspects, such as exploitation of fuel resources, emissions to air, generationof waste and use of landscape. Approximately 80% of the Kenyan population lives in rural areas whereelectricity access rate is merely 4%, mainly due to the slow rate of installation caused by the high costs ofextending the existing grid to rural areas. It is therefore imperative that a comparative study be carried outto establish the optimum power system to supply the rural areas in Kenya given the financial constraintswithin many rural households while considering the environmental external costs due to each method. Thefollowing scenarios are considered for this study: (i) Mini grid powered by Green Distributed GenerationTechnologies, (ii) Mini grid powered by fossil fired plants, (iii) Extension of the existing grid.
K. DRMANGOLIMAURICE. "Mangoli. M.K. "Optimal Long-term Reactive Power Planning Using Decomposition Techniques", Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A., Dec. 1991.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Derese S, Guantai EM, Yaouba S, Kuete V. "Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae).". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa. London: Elsevier Academic Press; 2017.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Mange.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2002. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Twalib MH, Lukio O. "Maneuvering Through Antiplagiarism." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;10(2):595-597.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Mande,J.D.;Mbithi, P.M.F.; Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.; Mbiuki, S.M (1993): Cestrum poisoning in a young horse.A case report. Bull. Animl.Hlth.Prod.AFr. (1993) 41(2)139-141.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Mande, J.D.; P.M.F. Mbithi; S.W. Mbugua.; I.B.J. Buoro and P.K.Gathumbi (2005). The pathophysiology and clinical management of degenerative joint disease. The Kenya veterinarian 28: 33-36.". In: Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2005. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, J.D., I.B.J. Buoro, S.W. Mbugua and P.M.F. Mbithi (2002) Experimental Models of Osteoarthritis. A Review The Kenya Vet. (23) 67-69.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, J.D., , I.B.J. Buoro, P.M.F. Mbithi, and S.W. Mbugua (2002) Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycans in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: A Review. The Kenya Vet.(23) 70-71.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, D.J., P.M.F.Mbithi, S.W. Mbugua.I.B.J. Buoro and P. K. Gathumbi (2003) Volume of the Ligamentum Capitis Femoris in Osteoarthritic Hip Joints of Adult Dogs. J. S. Afr.Vet. Ass. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mande, D.J., P.M.F.Mbithi, S.W. Mbugua.I.B.J. Buoro and P. K. Gathumbi (2003) Volume of the Ligamentum Capitis Femoris in Osteoarthritic Hip Joints of Adult Dogs. J. S. Afr.Vet. Ass. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
A. DRKITAAJAFREDM. "Mande JD and Kitaa JMA. Microbial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from dogs with otitis externa in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract
   
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Mande and P.K.Gathumbi (2003). Correlation between radiographic and pathological features of osteoarthritis hip joints of adult dogs.". In: Proceedings of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association (IVRA) Congress 18th . Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2003. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
D.M L, Githigia S.M., P C, H.M. A, J.M K. "Manangement of bovine paillomatosis using an autogenous vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, western Kenya." Biennial Scientific Conference. 2012;8(12):39. Abstract

Bovine Papillomatosis is a papillomavirus infection in cattle characterized by presence of warts of various sizes on the body of the affected animals. The virus usually affects the epithelial cells of the skin causing hyperproliferative lesions. Six types of papillomavirus are involved where BVP-3, BVP-4 and BVP-6 types cause true pappilomas. Five cases of bovine papillomatosis were noted on Bukura Agricultural College farm where the diseases presented as dry cauliflower-like warts of varying sizes especially on the neck and shoulder regions. Some smaller warts were also found around the eyes. Diagnosis was based on the clinical signs. An autogenous bovine specific wart vaccine was prepared from the wart samples and administered subcutaneously three times at two weeks interval. T;he warts started regressing 28 days after the first vaccination (day0) and disappeared after 10 weeks. Based on the previous studies, this case study confirms that an autogenous bovine papillomavirus specific vaccine is a successful method of controlling bovine papillomatosis.

Kariuki N. "Managment of immune thrombocytopaenia in children: a review." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(12):84-88.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Managing watersheds in Kenya", in Kiriro A., and C. Juma (eds) Gaining Ground: Institutional Innovations in Land Use Management in kenya, ACTS nairobi.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1989. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Okumbe JA, MACHARIA D. "Managing the Learner Support System at the University of Nairobi." Managing the Learner Support System at the University of Nairobi. 2000;Vol. 5, No.1.
King'oriah G. "Managing The Land Use Changes Within And Around Nairobi, Kenya."; 1992. Abstract

This paper reviews the literature associated with urban growth development, and urban management, relating these to the growth of the metropolis of Nairobi. The paper reviews the land use changes that have taken place in the city and its surrounding in the recent past in the light of the reviewed theoretical background; and examines how the civic and central governmental authorities are dealing with these changes for the betterment of the human environment in and around the city. An attempt is made to suggest solutions to problems of land use management that are associated with such rapid urban growth as that of Nairobi.

MARTINON MUMMA-CA, Christian LM. "Managing the Impacts of Our Activities: Initiating Dialogue Early to Create Climate of Trust." Techno Hub: total's Exploration & Production Techniques Magazine : Strategy, Methodologies and Testimonials: Our societal Commitment 5 (2013):273.
A. MRJALEHAALEXC. "Managing Risk and Insurance for Small Business Entrepreneurs: (Published by Stellagraphics).". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 1986. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Bore M. "Managing ocular allergy in resource-poor settings." Community Eye Health. 2016;29(95):47-49.
"Kibet S, S C, Shackleton R, Schaffner U. "Managing native ‘bush encroachment’ in East African rangelands.". In: Restoring African Drylands. Wageningen: Tropenbos International, Wageningen, the Netherlands; 2020.
Ayonga NJ(2007). "Managing Land use Conflicts at the Rural Urban Interface; the case of Ethiopia and Kenya. .". In: International Conference on Managing Ethiopian Cities in the 21st Century. Ethiopian civil college, Addis Ababa; 2007.
Ayonga NJ(2008). "Managing Land use conflicts at the rural urban interface. Managing Ethiopian cities in an era of Rapid urbanization. pp 28-43. ISBN 978-90-5972-267-5. .". In: . In Van Dijk, M.P and J.Fransen (Eds). IHS, Netherlands.: Eburon academic publishers; 2008.
JAMES PROFODEK. "Managing In a Multilateral Trading System: Challenges and Opportunities, Paper presented at the Institute of Certified Public Secretaries of Kenya 4th Annual Seminar held at Mombasa Continental Resort, 17-18th August.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2000. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Shihembetsa DLU, Ketter GK. "MANAGING FLOODING IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF NAIROBI: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTH C." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge (IJIRK). . 2018;Vol-3, (Issue-9, September-2018 ):(27-43). ISSN-2213-1356.
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO, Lukio OA. "Managing Employee Transition From Active Sports Career to Mainstream Work." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2015;3(6):81-90. Abstracttransition_management_paper.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine how Kenya Commercial Bank manages employee transition from
active sports to mainstream work activities of the bank.The methodology used in the study is cross-sectional
descriptive survey and questionnaires were used to collect data. The study found out that at the time of
employment, sportspeople are taken specifically to do sports and do not have any specified qualifications for
them except sports. The salaries of the sportspeople are determined by their academic qualifications and on
transition to mainstream activities their placements are also determined by the same academic qualifications
and also on availability of opportunities. The employees are taken for full time training and on job training is
done under supervision. The sportspeople are able to perform at their peak at a period of eight months. Most
of the sportspeople are placed as subordinates and clerical staff mainly because they do not have the minimal
qualifications required by the bank though, the bank helps them financially to further their studies. The study
also concludes that though slow, some employees eventually catch up in the mainstream work of the bank.

NZUVE SNM. Managing Employee Resistance to Technology Change. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
Managing Education In the New Constitution for Vision 2030. University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus; 2011.
AM K. "Managing dental fluorosis: Traditional healer versus clinic approaches." JSM Dent. 2017;2017; 5(2): 1085(2017; 5(2): 1085):2017; 5(2): 1085.
JOHN DRYABS. "Managing Changes in Life. Autobiography.". In: An Article in the Underwriter Journal. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2008. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Managing Assets and Liabilities during Transition Period.". In: Induction Workshop for the Chairperson and Members of the Transition Authority. Mombasa; 2012.
G N, A N. "MANAGERS’ LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DE: A CRITICAL DETERMINANT OF TUTOR-LEARNER INTERACTION IN BLENDED LEARNING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
Nyandemo S, Singh. Managerial Economics, theory and Applications. Bishen Singh Publishers; 2003.
Bulinda DM. Management tit biyts in Lecture series. Nairobi: Riverbrooks Communications; 2011.
W K, L O. Management Structures and Processes of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) in Selected Districts. Nairobi: Collaborative Centre for Gender and Development ; 2007.
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen O. "Management Practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in Nyeri County, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International . 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 8896604(https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8896604).
Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø&. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya ." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8896604).
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah LW, Njagi HA, Ngowi J, Nzalawahe RH. "Management Practices and Constraints of Fish Farming in Kiambu and Counties, Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Njagi LW, Ngowi HA, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Management Practices and Constraints of Fish Farming in Kiambu and Counties, Kenya.". In: the 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) . African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya ; 2016.
B AZ, K S. "Management Perception on Performance Contracting Strategy at the City Council of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR). 2014;2(7):148-159.
M NJ, E A, B AZ, G W. "Management Participation and Firm Performance." American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) . 2014;4(1):113-122.
J.M N, Evans A, W G. "Management Participation and Firm Performance." American Journal of Industrial and Business Management. 2014;4:113-122.
Osawa F. Management outcome of adult urinary fistulae at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) (1994 -1998).; 2002. Abstract

The study was carried out between January 1994 and December 1998. This was a retrospective
study in which data was retrieved from the patient's files at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) medical records department. The results were analyzed and various indices established. Ninety
patients were considered. Females were more than males with a ratios M:F 1:2 Seventy
percent of the fistulae involved the bladder. Most of the patients (54.44%) were from a low
socioeconomic set up and were referrals from rural centres in Kenya.
The commonest mode of clinical presentation was leakage of urine in 80% of the patients and
diagnosis was mainly clinical (74.44%). Obstetric fistulae were 53.33% and therefore were the
majority. Surgery was the preferred option of treatment. Only 12.2% of the patients were
managed conservatively.
The outcome of treatment was found to be significantly influenced by urmary or faecal
diversion and the duration of urethral cartheterization. However the aetiology of the fistulae
and the interval between injury time and treatment did not influence the outcome.

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