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Ndiiritu JM. Mathematical and Statistical Population Models: Elephants population modeling. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Wairimu J, Sallet G, Ogana W. "Mathematical analysis of a large scale vector SIS malaria model in a patchy environment." Scientific Research Publishing. 2014;5(13):1913-1926. AbstractWebsite

We answer the stability question of the large scale SIS model describing transmission of highland malaria in Western Kenya in a patchy environment, formulated in [1]. There are two equilibrium states and their stability depends on the basic reproduction number, 0  [2]. If 0 1  ≤ , the dis-ease-free steady solution is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out. If 0 1  > , there exists a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally stable and the disease persists. Application is done on data from Western Kenya. The age structure reduces the level of infection and the populations settle to the equilibrium faster than in the model without age structure.

Wairimu J. Mathematical analysis and dynamical systems : modeling Highland malaria in western Kenya.; 2012. Abstract

The objective of this thesis is to model highland malaria in western Kenya using dynamical systems. Two mathematical models are formulated ; one, on differentiated susceptibility and differentiated infectivity in a metapopulation setting with age structure, the other, a saturated vector feeding rate model with disease induced deaths and varying host and vector populations. In the first model, we consider the different ecosystems identified as malaria hotspots in the western Kenya highlands and consider the ecosystems as different patches. The population in each patch is classified as, either child or, adult. The model will aid in examining the role of ecosystem heterogeneity and age structure to the persistent malaria epidemics in the highlands. We formulate the differentiated susceptibility and infectivity model that extend to multiple patches the well known epidemiological models in one patch. Classifying the hot spots as n patches, we give its mathematical analysis using the theory of triangular system, monotone non-linear dynamical systems, and Lyapunov-Lasalle invariance principle techniques. Key to our analysis is the definition of a reproductive number, Ro, the number of new infections caused by one individual in an otherwise fully susceptible population throughout the duration of the infectious period. The existence and stability of disease-free and endemic equilibrium is established. We prove that the disease free state of the systems is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number Ro<1, and when Ro>1 an endemic equilibrium is established which is locally and globally asymptotically stable. The model shows that the age structuring reduces the magnitude of infection. Using relevant data we did some simulation, to demonstrate the role played by metapopulation and age structuring on the incidence and Ro. In the second part we formulate a model for malaria with saturation on the vector feeding rates that lead to a nonlinear function in the infection term. The vector feeding rate is assumed, as in the predator prey models, to rise linearly as a function of the host-vector ratio until it reaches a threshold Qv, after which the vector feeds freely at its desired rate. The two populations are variable and drive malaria transmission, such that when the vectors are fewer than hosts, the rate of feeding is determined by the vectors feeding desire, whereas, when the hosts are more than the vectors, the feeding rate is limited by host availability and other feeding sources may have to be sought by the vector. Malaria induced deaths are introduced in the host population, while the vector is assumed to survive with the parasite till its death. We prove that the Disease Free Equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if Ro<1 and when Ro>1, an endemic equilibrium emerges, which is unique, locally and globally asymptotically stable. The role of the saturated mosquito feeding rate is explored with simulation showing the crucial role it plays especially on the basic reproduction number

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Mathara J.M., U. Schillinger, P.M. Kutima, S.K. Mbugua and W.H. Holzapfel 2008 Functional Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Maasai Traditional Fermented Milk Products in Kenya. Current Microbiology vol 56: (4), 315 .". In: Current Microbiology vol 56: (4), 315 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mathangya, P.M., D.M. Mukunya and E.M. Gathuru, 1986. Aetiology and sources of resistance to common blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Phaseolus (Smith, 1987). Dye,1978, of beans (phaseolus vulgaris L. ) in Kenya. Kenya Jour. Of Science Series B. 7 (2): 2.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Mathane Emissions by Tropical Termites Feeding on Soil, Wood, Grass and Fungus Combs.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series A 8(1-2):19-25. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1987. Abstract
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Roxby AC, Atkinson C, Asbjörnsdóttir K, Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Drake AL, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Emery V, John-Stewart G, Slyker JA. "Maternal valacyclovir and infant cytomegalovirus acquisition: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-infected women." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87855. Abstract

Studies in HIV-1-infected infants and HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants link early cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition with growth delay and cognitive impairment. We investigated maternal valacyclovir to delay infant acquisition of CMV.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Maternal SDF1 3'A polymorphism is associated with increased perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. John GC, Rousseau C, Dong T, Rowland-Jones S, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Rostron T, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J.". In: J Virol. 2000 Jun;74(12):5736-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2000. Abstract

Genetic polymorphisms in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes influence susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disease progression, but little is known regarding the association between these allelic variations and the ability of the host to transmit virus. In this study, we show that the maternal heterozygous SDF1 genotype (SDF1 3'A/wt) is associated with perinatal transmission of HIV-1 (risk ratio [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 3.3) and particularly postnatal breastmilk transmission (RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 8.6). In contrast, the infant SDF1 genotype had no effect on mother-to-infant transmission. These data suggest that SDF1, which is a ligand for the T-tropic HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4, may affect the ability of a mother to transmit the virus to her infant. This suggests that a genetic polymorphism in a gene encoding a chemokine receptor ligand may be associated with increased infectivity of the index case and highlights the importance of considering transmission as well as clinical outcome in designing chemokine-based therapies for HIV-1.

Milligan C, Omenda MM, Chohan V, Odem-Davis K, Richardson BA, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "Maternal Neutralization-Resistant Virus Variants Do Not Predict Infant HIV Infection Risk." MBio. 2016;7(1):e02221-15. Abstract

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV provides a setting for studying immune correlates of protection. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are suggested to contribute to a viral bottleneck during MTCT, but their role in blocking transmission is unclear, as studies comparing the NAb sensitivities of maternal viruses have yielded disparate results. We sought to determine whether transmitting mothers differ from nontransmitting mothers in the ability to neutralize individual autologous virus variants present at transmission. Ten transmitting and 10 nontransmitting HIV-infected mothers at high risk of MTCT were included in this study. Full-length HIV envelope genes (n = 100) were cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained near transmission from transmitting mothers and at similar time points from nontransmitting mothers. Envelope clones were tested as pseudoviruses against contemporaneous, autologous maternal plasma in neutralization assays. The association between transmission and the log2 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for multiple virus variants per mother was estimated by using logistic regression with clustered standard errors. t tests were used to compare proportions of neutralization-resistant viruses. Overall, transmitting mothers had a median IC50 of 317 (interquartile range [IQR], 202 to 521), and nontransmitting mothers had a median IC50 of 243 (IQR, 95 to 594). Transmission risk was not significantly associated with autologous NAb activity (odds ratio, 1.25; P = 0.3). Compared to nontransmitting mothers, transmitting mothers had similar numbers of or fewer neutralization-resistant virus variants, depending on the IC50 neutralization resistance cutoff. In conclusion, HIV-infected mothers harbor mostly neutralization-sensitive viruses, although resistant variants were detected in both transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. These results suggest that MTCT during the breastfeeding period is not driven solely by the presence of maternal neutralization escape variants.

Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, IKAMARI L, Nyamongo I, Otieno AAT. Maternal mortality situation in Kenya, Population, Health and Development.; 2000.Website
IKAMARI L, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Nyamongo I, Otieno AAT. Maternal mortality situation in Kenya, Population, Health and Development.; 2000.Website
Nyamongo I, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, IKAMARI L, Otieno AAT. Maternal mortality situation in Kenya, Population, Health and Development.; 2000.Website
Otieno ATA, Muganzi Z. "Maternal Mortality Situation in Kenya.". In: Population, Health and Development in Africa: Anthropological Perspectives. Nairobi, Kenya. PP 83-88: Population Studies and Research Institute; 2000.
and Rogo, K.O. OMJOP. "Maternal Mortality.". In: Disease and Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: The World Bank; 2006.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Maternal micronutrient status and decreased growth of Zambian infants born during and after the maize price increases resulting from the southern African drought of 2001-2002. Gitau R, Makasa M, Kasonka L, Sinkala M, Chintu C, Tomkins A, Filteau S.Public .". In: Public Health Nutr. 2005 Oct;8(7):837-43. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects on maternal micronutrient status and infant growth of the increased maize prices that resulted from the southern African drought of 2001-2002. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: A maternal and child health clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. SUBJECTS: Maternal and infant health and nutrition data and maternal plasma were being collected for a study of breast-feeding and postpartum health. Samples and data were analysed according to whether they were collected before (June to December 2001), during (January 2002 to April 2003) or after (May 2003 to January 2004) the period of increased maize price. Season and maternal HIV status were controlled for in analyses. RESULTS: Maize price increases were associated with decreased maternal plasma vitamin A during pregnancy (P = 0.028) and vitamin E postpartum (P = 0.042), with the lowest values among samples collected after May 2003 (vitamin A: 0.96 micromol l(-1), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.09
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Maternal knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and breastmilk alternatives for HIV positive mothers in South-Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 83 (11):363 -371.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2006. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Mackelprang RD, Carrington M, G J-S, Lohman-Payne B, Richardson BA, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Gao X, Majiwa M, Mbori-Ngacha D, C. F. "Maternal human leukocyte antigen A*2301 is associated with increased mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. ." J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1273-7. doi: 10.1086/656318. 10. . 2010. Abstract

Abstract
We examined associations between maternal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission in a perinatal cohort of 277 HIV-infected women in Nairobi. HLA class I genes were amplified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes, and analyses were performed using logistic regression. Maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with increased transmission risk before and after adjusting for maternal viral load (unadjusted: odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-7.27; P = .005; Pcorr = 0.04; adjusted: OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.26-7.51; P =.01; Pcorr is not significant). That maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with transmission independent of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels suggests that HLA may alter infectivity through mechanisms other than influencing HIV-1 load.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Maternal HLA homozygosity and mother-child HLA concordance increase the risk of vertical transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis . 2008 Apr 15; 197 ( 8 ): 1156-61 . PMID: 18462163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Mackelprang RD, John-Stewart G, Carrington M, Ri.". In: J Infect Dis . 2008 Apr 15; 197 ( 8 ): 1156-61 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2008. Abstract
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98104, USA. BACKGROUND: Mother-child human leukocyte antigen (HLA) concordance and maternal HLA homozygosity may increase the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) risk by reducing infant immune responses. METHODS: We analyzed mother-child HLA concordance and maternal HLA homozygosity in a Kenyan perinatal cohort receiving antenatal zidovudine. HLA concordance was scored as the number of shared class I alleles, and relative risk estimates were adjusted for maternal HIV-1 load. RESULTS: Among 277 mother-infant pairs, HIV-1 transmission occurred in 58 infants (21%), with in utero transmission in 21 (36%), peripartum transmission in 26 (45%), and transmission via breast-feeding in 11 (19%). With increased concordance, we observed a significant increase in the risk of transmission overall (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.0-1.7]; [Formula: see text]), in utero (adjusted odds ratio, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.0-1.7]; [Formula: see text]), and via breast-feeding (aHR, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.0-2.5]; [Formula: see text]). Women with homozygosity had higher plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at 32 weeks of gestation (5.1 vs. 4.8 log(10) copies/mL; [Formula: see text]) and an increased risk of transmission overall (aHR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.7]; [Formula: see text]) and via breast-feeding (aHR, 5.8 [95% CI, 1.9-17.7]; [Formula: see text]). CONCLUSION: The risks of overall, in utero, and breast milk HIV-1 transmission increased with HLA concordance and homozygosity. The increased risk may be due to reduced alloimmunity or less diverse protective immune responses. PMID: 18462163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Maternal HIV?1 infection and pregnancy outcome.Termmerman M. Chomba E.N, Plummer FA, Bwayo JJ, Nyongo AA, Coppens M,Nagelkerke N, Piot P.Obstet Gynecol, 1993.( Am-J-Obstet-Gynecol. 1995 Feb; 172(2 Pt 1): 700-5).". In: Am-J-Obstet-Gynecol. 1995 Feb; 172(2 Pt 1): 700-5. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
"Maternal HIV-1 disease progression 18-24 months postdelivery according to antiretroviral prophylaxis regimen (triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis during pregnancy and breastfeeding." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2012;55(3):449-60. Abstractcis461.pdf

Antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis effectively reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). However, it is unclear whether stopping ARVs after breastfeeding cessation affects maternal HIV disease progression. We assessed 18-24-month postpartum disease progression risk among women in a randomized trial assessing efficacy and safety of prophylactic maternal ARVs.

"Maternal HIV-1 disease progression 18-24 months postdelivery according to antiretroviral prophylaxis regimen ." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2012;55(3):449-60. Abstract

Antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis effectively reduces mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). However, it is unclear whether stopping ARVs after breastfeeding cessation affects maternal HIV disease progression. We assessed 18-24-month postpartum disease progression risk among women in a randomized trial assessing efficacy and safety of prophylactic maternal ARVs.

B. O, A. M, A. W. "Maternal Health; Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and ICF Macro.". In: Maternal Health. Calverton, Maryland: KNBS and ICF Macro.; 2010.
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Maternal Health Care Utilization in Teso.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Journal of African Health Sciences (11) 1&2: 21-32
Agwanda A. Maternal health and well being in Kenya. 8-10th December 2004: Society for International Development (SID). Round table meeting on Maternal Health and Well being in Eastern Africa. Strategies for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals; 2005.
JM, Kivai &, JK K, AO W, Q Z. "Maternal characteristics of women with pregnancy related acute kidney injury at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2019;18(9):69-75. Abstract

Background: Pregnancy is a physiologic state that can becomplicated by pregnancy related acute
kidney injury (PRAKI)which may occur at any stage of pregnancy and in postpartum,in previously healthy
women.It is associated with variable obstetric outcomesoften with significant butpreventable foeto-maternal
morbidity and mortality.
Objective:To determine maternal characteristics of in-patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH), Nairobi, Kenya
Methods:We carried out a descriptive study on in-patient pregnant women with gestation age of 28 completed
weeks or more and postpartum women within six weeks after deliveryadmitted inlabour ward or the post-natal
wards at KNH. Study started after approval by the KNH- University of Nairobi Ethics and Research Committee.
Data was obtained from the patientthrough verbal interviews andfrom the medical records using a pretested
data capture form.The participants were followed up for a maximum of two weeks or until discharge. The
patient management wasleft at the discretion of attending clinician.
Results: We enrolled 66 (3.2%) participants out of 2068 admissions.The mean agewas 28(SD5.9)years with
peak age between 26-30 years.Forty-two were referred from other health facilities. Nineteen (27.8%) had prepregnancy medical conditions mainly cardiovascular and all participants developed obstetric complication(s).
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the main associated factors. Sixty (91%) participants were delivered
within two weeks after enrollment. The average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks.Twenty-one (35%) were
delivered through caesarian section.Live infants were 43(71.7%) and fresh still births were 17(28.3%). The
ratio of fresh still births among participantswas 1:4 while the ratio of fresh still births among women without
PRAKI was 1:23deliveries.
Conclusion and recommendations:This study demonstrated prevalence of pregnancy related acute kidney injury
was 3.2% at K.N.H. The main associated factors were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Participants with
PRAKI were characterized with increased premature deliveries and a six (6) fold increase in fresh still births.
There is need for screening, monitoring and close follow-up of women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy
and related kidney complications.
Key Words: PRAKI, KNH,hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, still births,Kenya

M W, G P, GJ H, G C, A C, I G, S G, AM G, S LL, P L, K M. "Maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data." BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology.. 2019;127(5):628-634. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH).

Design: Secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data.

Setting: Twenty-three hospitals in ten countries.

Population: Women from the CHAMPION trial who received uterotonics as first-line treatment of PPH.

Methods: We assessed the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy and childbirth factors and refractory PPH, and compared the causes of PPH between women with refractory PPH and women responsive to first-line PPH treatment.

Main outcome measures: Maternal characteristics; causes of PPH.

Results: Women with labour induced or augmented with uterotonics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.72), with episiotomy or tears requiring suturing (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.34-2.48) and who had babies with birthweights ≥3500 g (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69) showed significantly higher odds of refractory PPH compared with the reference categories in the multivariate analysis adjusted by centre and trial arm. While atony was the sole PPH cause in 53.2% (116/218) of the women in the responsive PPH group, it accounted for only 31.5% (45/143) of the causes in the refractory PPH group. Conversely, tears were the sole cause in 12.8% (28/218) and 28% (40/143) of the responsive PPH and refractory PPH groups, respectively. Placental problems were the sole cause in 11 and 5.6% in the responsive and refractory PPH groups, respectively.

Conclusion: Women with refractory PPH showed a different pattern of maternal characteristics and PPH causes compared with those with first-line treatment responsive PPH.

D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Maternal Care Utilisation in Teso District African Journal of Health Sciences, 11(1&2):21-32.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences: 11(1&2): 9-20. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
This paper sets to establish the level of awareness of antenatal care, the timing of antenatal clinic visits, the level of utilisation of maternal health care, to identify the main service providers, and to identify some of the barriers to the utilisation of maternal health care in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and the year 2001. Descriptive statistics are the main tools of data analysis. The results obtained indicate that most respondents in the study area are aware of the importance of antenatal care, the majority seek antenatal care but late in their pregnancy, and that most of the childbirths take place at home mainly because of lack of access to institutionalised care, lack of quick means of transport, inability to meet user charges and associated costs, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs), and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives are the main providers of maternal health care. The barriers to utilisation of maternal health care are manifold. The major constraints are unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these barriers would result in increased utilisation of maternal health care in the study area.
Souza JP, Widmer M, Gülmezoglu AM, Lawrie TA, Adejuyigbe EA, Carroli G, Crowther C, Currie SM, Dowswell T, Hofmeyr J, Lavender T, Lawn J, Mader S, Martinez FE, Mugerwa K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Silvestre MA, Soltani H, Torloni MR, Tsigas EZ, Vowles Z, Ouedraogo L, Serruya S, Al-Raiby J, Awin N, Obara H, Mathai M, Bahl R, Martines J, Ganatra B, Phillips SJ, Johnson BR, Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Temmerman M. "Maternal and perinatal health research priorities beyond 2015: an international survey and prioritization exercise." Reprod Health. 2014;11:61. Abstract

Maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990, but over a quarter million women still die every year of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-health related targets are falling short of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals and a post-2015 Development Agenda is emerging. In connection with this, setting global research priorities for the next decade is now required.

Achola MA. "Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960.". In: Maternal and Child Welfare in Nairobi to 1960. Ruaraka,Nairobi; 2006.
Sartorius BKD, Chersich MF, Mwaura M, Meda N, Temmerman M, Newell ML, Farley TMM, Luchters S. "Maternal anaemia and duration of zidovudine in antiretroviral regimens for preventing mother-to-child transmission: a randomized trial in three African countries." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2013;13:522. Abstract

Although substantiated by little evidence, concerns about zidovudine-related anaemia in pregnancy have influenced antiretroviral (ARV) regimen choice for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, especially in settings where anaemia is common.

ODUORI MF, Musyoka EK, MBUYA TO. "Material Selection for a Manual Winch Rope Drum." International Journal of Chemical, Molecular, Nuclear, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering. 2016;10(1):129-135.
ODUORI MF, Musyoka EK, MBUYA TO. "Material Selection for a Manual Winch Rope Drum." WASET International Journal of Chemical, Molecular, Nuclear, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering. 2016;10(1):129-141. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124199

The selection of materials is an essential task in mechanical design processes. This paper sets out to demonstrate the application of analytical decision making during mechanical design and, particularly, in selecting a suitable material for a given application. Equations for the mechanical design of a manual winch rope drum are used to derive quantitative material performance indicators, which are then used in a multiple attribute decision making (MADM) model to rank the candidate materials. Thus, the processing of mechanical design considerations and material properties data into information that is suitable for use in a quantitative materials selection process is demonstrated for the case of a rope drum design. Moreover, Microsoft Excel®, a commonly available computer package, is used in the selection process. The results of the materials selection process are in agreement with current industry practice in rope drum design. The procedure that is demonstrated here should be adaptable to other design situations in which a need arises for the selection of engineering materials, and other engineering entities.

Aduda BO. "Material Science." Promotion of Science and Technology . 2006;XII(1):19-22. Abstract

In this short article we discuss what Material Science is, its scope, relevance to technological development, its present status in Kenya, and finally propose a way forward. Materials science has been defined as that study that focuses on the material property-structure relationship. It is concerned with how the nano- or micro- or macrostructure determines the various functional properties of the materials desired or of interest. Materials science thus deals with, in an interactive manner, processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials, a relationship which has been summarized as the Materials Science Tetrahedron. It is a multi-and transdisciplinary subject as it is intimately related to basic science subjects like applied physics, chemistry, biology and to various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, or civil, engineering.

Rambo CM, Atisa E. "Material Production and Control Strategies.". In: Material Production and Control Strategies. Nairobi: UoN; 2010.
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "Material culture.". In: Micro- and Macro-level interactions Among Babukusu in Bungoma District. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Material Characterisation and Prediction Equations for Loads in Silos Containing Granular Materials En-masse. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A: 8(1): 1-5.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Matee MI, Manyando C, Ndumbe PM, Corrah T, Jaoko WG, Kitua AY, Ambene HPA, Ndounga M, Zijenah L, Ofori-Adjei D, Agwale S, Shongwe S, Nyirenda T & Makanga M (2009) European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a tr.". In: UoN research meeting. Biomedical Central Public Health 9(1):249; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Matee MI, Manyando C, Ndumbe PM, Corrah T, Jaoko WG, Kitua AY, Ambene HPA, Ndounga M, Zijenah L, Ofori-Adjei D, Agwale S, Shongwe S, Nyirenda T & Makanga M (2009) European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a tr.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Biomedical Central Public Health 9(1):249; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
"Matatu Paratransit Transport Industry In Kenya: A Study of its Associations and Companies and their Potential Contribution to Road Safety." Journal of Intra-African Studies. 2009;(2). Abstract

Kenya’s Matatu paratransit transport industry is the dominant mode of transport of both passengers and goods in the country. Being informal businesses, matatu are characterized by lack of observation of traffic regulations and this has led to a large number of road crashes and associated fatalities and injuries. Whereas many factors account for the chaotic state of road transport in Kenya, this study focused on one of the factors namely, the associations and companies that are emerging in the industry. The study examined their characteristics and performance with a view to understanding their potential for transforming the industry from its informal to formal status and associated improvements in road safety. The associations including saccos and companies were studied in the cities of Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa and a few other towns that neighbor the three cities. It was found that the associations, saccos and companies that operate their PSVs as apool had developed terms of service and codes of conduct for their owners and workers and had potential for transforming the industry and reducing carnage on the country’s roads.

AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Matatu industry in Kenya: A study of the performance of its owners, workers and their associations and potential for improvement, IPAR DP No.55.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
Maina. "Matatu Design Culture: An Iconographic Analysis." Africa Habitat Review. 2019;1(1):74-86.
Wamitila KW. Matatu.; 2005.Website
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Kilonzo P. Matata (Play). Nairobi: E.A. E. P; Submitted.
PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Matasyoh, Lexa G. 1*, Josphat C. Matasyoh2, Francis N. Wachira3, Miriam G. Kinyua4, Anne W. Thairu Muigai1 and Titus K. Mukiama 5(2007) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya.". In: African Journal of Biotechnology 6:760-765. WFL Publisher; 2007. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
8. KYALO DN, OBANDO A(. Maswali na Majibu (sample papers) for form four KCSE revision. Nairobi,: Jomo Kenyatta Publishers; 2006.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Masunda, B., C. C. Mutisi, H. Hamudikuwanda and J.G.O. Agumbah (2002). The use of faecal Progestia measurements to monitor reproductive activity in Mashona cows in a small holder farminf area in Zimbabwe. Tropical Animal Health and Production 34 (4) 309 .". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2002. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Masunda, B, C, Mutisi, C., Hamudikuwanda, H. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1999). The concentration of Faecal Progestin during the Oestrus cycle in Nkohe cows and the effect of duration of storage of faecal samples at room temperature on faecal progestin levels. T.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1999. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Obuchi SM. "Masuala Ibuka katika Nadharia ya Sintaksia na Pendekezo la Mwelekeo Mpya.". In: Isimu na Fasihi ya Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2018.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "Masu, L.M. and Musuva, J.K. ""The Effect of Thickness and Configurational Geometry on Fatigue Crack Growth in a Structural Steel"" Presented at 3rd Disciplinary Area Seminar, Mechanical/Production Engineering Sub-Network for ANSTI, Lusaka Zambia (January,.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Nickson. Mastitogenic bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Kabete Sub County. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2016.
M. B, Wamukowa N, Odegi-Awuondo C. Masters of Survival. Nairobi: Basic Books (K) LTD; 1994.
Casper, O. NHW, Mutsotso BM. "Masters of Survival." Nairobi, Basic Books Kenya Limited; 1994. Abstract
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Mutsotso BM, Namai HW, Awuondo OC. "Masters of survival.". 1994.Website
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Master of Science Thesis Title .". In: Paper presented for APSK symposium 7th-8th March, 2001 Egerton University Njoro, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Master of Medicine (in Pathology) dissertation entitled "Chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute leukaemia at K.N.H., Nairobi, Kenya.".". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "Master of Distance Education, ICT for Distance Education Module, University of Nairobi.". In: A paper presented at The Kim School of Management,3rd Annual International Conference on Industry and Higher Education, September, 28th -30th , 2011. Univeristy of Nairobi Press; 2011. Abstract
800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} This course explores the role of technology in the design, development and delivery of distance education. Students critically examine the relationship between technology and the goals of the educational/training organization. Various uses of technology are explored in the areas of course development, asynchronous and synchronous distance course delivery, and management/administration.     Computer is an important tool in data processing. Computers can process large volumes of data within a short time therefore making work easier. This book is organized as follows:   Lecture 1 discusses basic elements and use of computers. Learners are introduced to computing concepts mainly hardware, software, data and information. The lecture begins by defining technical terms, information system activities then discusses main computer components mainly hardware and software.   Lecture 2 introduces the basics concepts of internet applications. It is intended to give learners an opportunity to understand internet and web basics. Learners will interact with a variety of web technical terms used in internet applications.    Lecture 3 identifies various categories of computer application in distance education. It identifies advantages and limitations of computers in distance education, discusses capabilities of Internet and WWW in distance education and recommends factors to consider when using computers in distance education   Lecture 4 introduces the concept of e-Learning. The lecture aims at equipping learners with skills enable them understand e-Learning approaches and tools. The lecture discusses e-Learning concepts, approaches, communication technologies, learning management systems and electronic assessments   Lecture 5 discusses techniques used in delivering electronic learning materials. The main techniques are electronic mail, electronic learning platforms, Compact Discs (CDs) and Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs), and Video Technologies have been discussed. Technical, pedagogical and cost implication as well as advantages and disadvantages of each technique has been discussed in details Lecture 6 discusses measurement and evaluation Lecture 7 discusses legal and ethical issues in ICT Intergration          
KIVUTI MRKARINGILINCOLN. "Master of Arts Thesis - "Low-income Housing Finance Programs in Kenya".". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989.
"Master of Arts research thesis on agronomic and socio-economic factors affecting spatial variation of horticultural crop yields in Machakos District, Eastern Kenya." Master of Arts research thesis on agronomic and socio-economic factors affecting spatial variation of horticultural crop yields in Machakos District, Eastern Kenya. 1992.
WA O, A K, L K, E D. "Massive Cervico-Lingual Cystic Hygroma." The annals of African Surgery. 2015.
Odhiambo WA, Karega A, Kalisa L, Dimba E. "Massive Cervico-Lingual Cystic Hygroma." Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12. Abstract
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Hyunwoo, L., James, D. M., Tobias, P. F., Cynthia, J.E., A.K S, Zachary, D.S., Kianji, G. "Massive and prolonged deep carbon emissions associated with continental rifting." Natural Geosciece. 2016.lee2016_ng_co2degassingear-_recent_publication-january_2016.pdf
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "A massive abdominal wall desmoid tumor occurring in a laparotomy scar: A case report Joseph K Wanjeri* and Collins JO Opeya.". In: World Journal of Surgical Oncology. BioMed Central; 2011. Abstract
  Abstract Introduction Desmoid tumors are benign but locally aggressive tumors of mesenchymal origin which are poorly circumscribed, infiltrate the surrounding tissue, lack a true capsule and are composed of abundant collagen. History of trauma to the site of tumor origin is elicited in up to 1 in 4 cases and they most commonly develop in the anterior abdominal wall and shoulder girdle but they can arise in any skeletal muscle. The clinical behavior and natural history of desmoid tumors are unpredictable and management is difficult with many issues remaining controversial, mainly regarding early detection, the role, type and timing of surgery and the value of non-operative therapies. Case presentation We report a case of a 23 year old male referred from a district hospital to a national referral hospital in Kenya, after developing a huge abdominal wall desmoid tumor following laparotomy for a blunt abdominal injury fourteen months earlier. The tumor was successfully excised and the abdominal wall defect reconstructed using a vicryl/prolene mesh and a unilateral groin flap. The patient had a non-eventful recovery and was discharged through radiotherapy clinic. Conclusion Wide margin tumor excision alone is a reasonable option in the management of desmoid tumors.  
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "A massive abdominal wall desmoid tumor occurring in a laparotomy scar: A case report.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference of UoN CHS. UoN College of Health Sciences; 2011.
M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Massaquoi, J.G.M and Luti, F.M. ed (1997). Quality Assurance and Relevance of Engineering Education in Africa. A Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Engineering Education in Africa, Gigiri, Nairobi, Kenya, November 20-21, 1997 62pp.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1997. Abstract
This report covers the deliberations of the Expert Group Meeting on Engineering Education in Africa, which was held at the UNESCO Nairobi Office, Kenya from 1-2 November 1995. It discusses the major problems facing engineering education and highlights some of constraints and presents recommendations for overcoming them. In particular the report makes recommendations on important factors such as finance, university-industry collaboration, student creativity, innovation in the delivery and administration of engineering education, training for self-employment, staff development and the amelioration of the brain-drain.
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Collins K Mweresa, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Masiga D, Oria PA, Jane Alaii. "Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya: study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial." Trials. 2016;17(1):356.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "Mass Media in Kenya: Systems and Practice.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):459-66. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2010. Abstract
The book provides a candid and detailed analysis of hte history, development and status of the media sector in Kenya. Using a systems approach, the author focuses on critical and current debates on the status of working conditions of journalists and media training institutions, the state of investigative journalism, media institutional frameworks and media civil society in Kenya. Additionally, it discusses the role of media owners within the larger debate on the contribution of media to good governance and social transformation in the country. It proposes models for supporting media in Kenya.
Ngugi CM. "The mass media and democratisation in Africa." Media Development. 1995;4:49-52.
Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
Otieno SP, S. W. Masks. (Mrs) ANM, ed. Talent Empire; 2020.
Masjid Organization in the 21st Century. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni. 2006. Using JAD to Bridge the Design-Reality Gaps; a Major Cause of IS Projects.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 6 - 9 August 2006. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni, 2007. Ensuring Quality in eLearning Programmes for Transnational Education in Africa - a Systems Approach, in the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training - An Annual Event for Buildi.". In: The Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, May 28 . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2007. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni and Antoine Bagula (2010); A Framework for Predicting Droughts in Developing Countries using Mobile Phones and Wireless Sensor Networks, in the proceedings of the Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologist; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni and Antoine Bagula (2010); A Framework for Predicting Droughts in Developing Countries using Mobile Phones and Wireless Sensor Networks, in the proceedings of the 1st Networking Networking Women Workshop; Chicago, USA, September 20, 2010.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. in the proceedings of the 1st Networking Networking Women Workshop; Chicago, USA, September 20, 2010; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni (2008) Using an Adaptive E-Learning Environment For OOP - University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia, 7-9 May.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Othero, F. A Comparison of drop of intraocular pressure between pilocarpine 2% and levobunolol 0.5%. E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 13 .". In: E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 13 .; 1992. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Karimurio, J. Epidemiology of concomitant esotropia at Kenyatta National Hospital. E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 42 .". In: Community Eye Health. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Kenya is one of the East African countries with a coastline bordering the Indian Ocean and astride the equator. The country has an area of 225,000 square miles and a population of about 30 million people. The prevalence of blindness is estimated as 0.7%, with cataract contributing 43%, trachoma 19% and glaucoma 9%. The Kenya Ophthalmic Programme (KOP) is a Ministry of Health (MOH) programme receiving administrative support from the Kenya Society for the Blind (KSB). It started as a small project in 1956 but has grown into a major National Programme rendering comprehensive eye care (CEC) through a network of about 70 Government and NGO static and outreach service delivery points scattered all over the country. About half a million patients are treated annually.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Karimurio, J. Epidemiology of concomitant esotropia at Kenyatta National Hospital. E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 42 .". In: E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 13 .; 1992. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Duku, A. W. Appraisal of Xerophthalmia in selected centres in Kenya E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 7 .". In: E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 7 .; 1992. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S., Adala, H. S., Kabuleeta, H. Corneal Ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital. E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 65.". In: E. African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 65.; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S. Hyphema study at Kenyatta National Hospital East. African Journal of Ophthalmology 6: 32 .". In: African Journal of Ophthalmology 6: 32 .; 1982. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S. et al. Observer variation in estimation of Cup Disc Ratio as a screening test for chronic simple glaucoma. East African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 1 .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 1 .; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Masinde, M. S. Epidemiology of ocular injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 19 .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology 8: 19 .; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde Muthoni, Antoine Bagula and Victor Murage (2010); MobiGrid: A Middleware for Integrating Mobile Phone and Grid Computing; in the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2010), Niagra Falls Canada, Oc.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. in the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2010; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Masinde Muliro: A biography. Nairobi:.". In: East African Educational Publishers. Taylor & Francis; 1996. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A., Holt, R. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. of Paed. Dent. 1993; 3: 135 .". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Sociodemographic characteristic and clinic features among patients attending a private paediatric clinic in Nairobi, Kenya E.A Med. J. 2004: 8 ; 577 .". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry/Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, PO Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Presenting chief complaints and clinical characteristics among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. (accepted December 2005, EAMJ).". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):652-5. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the chief complaints and clinical presentation among patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UONDH). DESIGN: A retrospective survey of hospital records. SETTING: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients who attended the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic during a three year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Chief complaint, dental caries, gingivitis, traumatic injuries, treatment at first visit. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, including 391 male and 400 female. The average age of the patients was 9.0 years. The presenting complaint for most patients was dental pain (31.5%), orthodontic related complaints (25.4%) and dental decay (19.7%). Very few children attended for dental check-up (3.9%). Five hundred ninety (73.8%) children suffered from dental caries, while 275 (34.4%) children manifested gingivitis. The average number of teeth decay was 3.71 (SD+/-3.76). Only 51 (6.4%) children attended with traumatic injuries to the dentition. Treatment performed at the first visit mainly consisted of dental extractions (21.8%), oral prophylaxis and dental health education (20.5%) and restorative treatment (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The presenting complaint for most patients was pain. However, there was an almost equal demand for orthodontic treatment. Dental caries was the most prevalent dental disease. Oral prophylaxis and dental health education (DHE) constituted a significant component of treatment offered at first visit.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Iatrogenic hypodontia following traditional excision of decidous canine tooth buds: case reports. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174.". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (1): 173-174. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga, M.A. Demographic characteristics of patients attending for surgical treatment of unerrupted canines. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 .". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2002; 3 (2): 129 . University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Masiga, D.K., Okech, G., Irungu, P., Ouma, J.O., Wekesa, S., Ouma, B., Guya, S.O. and Ndung.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Trypanosomosis is a major impediment to livestock production and economic development in those areas of Africa where it is endemic. Although small ruminants appear to perform better than cattle in various agroecological zones, the importance of trypanosomosis has not been extensively investigated in these livestock. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomosis in sheep and goats in an endemic area and to evaluate the performance of different breeds under high tsetse challenge and the potential role of chemoprophylaxis in the control of the disease. The results showed that tsetse flies feed readily on small ruminants, and that these animals are susceptible to trypanosomosis. The Small East African goats acquired fewer infections than the Black Head Persian and Dorper sheep used in the study. In both sheep and goats, chemoprophylaxis with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, Rhone Merieux, Annecy, France) was protective, resulting in fewer infections and higher body weight gain. Trypanosomosis caused anaemia in both sheep and goats, and animals whose PCV fell below 15% rarely recovered, even with trypanocidal drug treatment. The peak transmission period was between 1 and 3 months after the peak tsetse fly density, which raises the possibility of effective strategic prophylaxis
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical features among patients attending a private paediatric dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Nov;81(11):577-82. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A DRMASIGAMARY. "Masiga MA, Holt RD. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis and their relationship to social class amongst nursery-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40.". In: Int J Paediatr Dent. 1993 Sep;3(3):135-40. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract

Four hundred and forty-six children attending nursery schools in Nairobi were examined for caries and gingivitis. Assessment of social class was based on the occupation of the head of the child's household. Amongst 3-year-old children, 62% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.35. Amongst 5-year-olds 50% were caries-free and the mean dmft was 1.88. Thirty-seven per cent of the children had evidence of gingivitis, with the proportion changing little with age. There was no evidence of either caries or gingivitis being significantly related to social class, although children in the higher classes had more filled teeth.

Mashtaka ya Baba. . Focus publishers; Forthcoming.
Mashtaka ya Baba . Focus publishers; Forthcoming.
Olali T. Mashetani wa Alepo. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2015.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Maseta, E.,Kogi-Makau, W. and Omwega, A.M. Childcare Practices and Nutritional Status of Children Aged 6-36 Months Among Short and Long Term Beneficiaries of the Child Survival Protection and Development Programmes (The Case of Morogoro, Tanzania).". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Otieno-Omutoko L. Masculinity as a Gender Dimension in the Education of Boys, Discourse of Masculinities in Schools. Germany. : VDM Verlag Dr. Müller GmbH & Co. KGDudweiler Landstr; 2011.
"Masculine and Feminine Constructions of Migration in Swahili Literature: Mbali na Nyumbani and Mhanga Nafsi Yangu." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2019;Juzuu 4, (Na.1, September 2019, ):Pages 235-258, .
Masinde M. "MAS-DEWS: A multi-agent system for predicting Africa's drought ." IEEE . 2015:1-7. AbstractFull text link

Droughts continue to be the number one hydro- and meteorological natural disaster inflicting Africa. In the last decade alone, the Continent contributed 55% of the world's droughts and 64% of deaths emanating from these disasters. With over 24% of her population affected, Africa accounted for 47% of people affected by droughts in the same period. Given that rain-fed agriculture is a major source of food in most African countries, the droughts have contributed to the acute food-insecurity; this may explain why 35 of the 45 poorest countries are in the Continent. There is consensus that drought early warning systems that contextualize culture and risk, have higher chance of succeeding in reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience. A homegrown drought early warning system designed around cheaper wireless sensor weatherboards, mobile phones and weather lore has the ability to address Africa's unique challenges and opportunities. However, integrating these diverse components requires some level of intelligence that only found in multi-agent systems. We present the design, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive system made up of seven sub-systems that are linked up together by intelligent agents that were implemented using the Java Agent Development. The system's evaluation, carried out in three locations in Africa, revealed the potential of the system.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Mary-jo Delvecchio Good, Esther Mwaikambo, M.". In: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.; 1999. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good, Amayo E O, Machoki J. M, Mwaikambo E. Clinical realities and moral dilemmas. Contrasting perspectives from Academic medicine in Kenya, Tanzania and America Journal Of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2000: Vol 128,6,167-1.". In: Journal Of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2000: Vol 128,6,167-196. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
A case of primary intracerebral haemorrhage complicated by cerebral abscess is presented with a review of the literature.
N PROFNYAGAP. "Mary, G. Binta, P.N. Nyaga, M. Valland and J.G. Tjaberg. Observations on some characteristics and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from shell fish in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 29 (2), 1981:187-192.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

"Mary Wangari Kuria. Factors associated with relapse and remission of alcohol dependent persons after community based treatment.". 2013. Abstract

Knowledge of factors associated with relapse and remission after treatment for alcohol dependence en-
ables the clinician to offer better individualized treatment. It also enables the clinician to predict which
patients are likely to relapse and therefore offer appropriate and effective treatment to prevent relapse.
Objective: This study sought to determine the factors associated with remission and relapse in a group of
alcohol dependent persons undergoing Community Based Detoxification and Rehabilitation of alcohol
dependent persons. Method: One hundred and eighty eight (188) persons with Alcohol Use Disorder Identi-
fication Test (AUDIT) positive were subjected to outpatient detoxification for 10 days using a pair of
ampoules of high potency Vitamin B and C intravenously daily for 3 consecutive days, diazepam 5 mg
and carbamazepine 200 mg for 5 and 10 consecutive nights respectively on an outpatient basis. The par-
ticipants were visited twice a week (at home) by the community based health workers and reviewed once
a week by the principal investigator and attended a bimonthly group therapy session conducted in groups
of 20 s as part of the rehabilitation process. The groups were converted to self-help groups after 4
months to generate income for the participants. Results: Factors significantly associated with relapse to
alcohol use included severity of alcohol use and craving for alcohol at intake and the age of onset of alco-
hol drinking. Further there was a statistically significant predictive value in the mean score of alcohol re-
lated problems in the community based group (health,social, financial and legal). Conclusion: Identifying
factors that are associated with relapse after alcoholdependence treatment is likely to improve the effec-
tiveness of treatment and prevent relapse in persons at risk.

"Mary W.Kuria,David M.Ndete,Isodore S.Obot,Lincoln I.Khasakhala,Betty M.Bagaka,Margaret N.Mbugua,Judy Kama. The Association between Alcohol Dependence and Depression before and after Treatment for Alcohol Dependence.". 2012. Abstract

The presence of depression in alcohol-dependent persons is likely to influence treatment process and outcomes. Identification of depression is important though not every depressed alcohol-dependent person requires treatment with antidepressants. Understanding the association between depression and alcohol dependence is essential for proper management of alcohol dependence. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression among alcohol-dependent persons before and after alcohol detoxification and rehabilitation. Design. Clinical trial with pre-/postmeasurements. Method. The CIDI and WHO-ASSIST were administered to 188 alcohol-dependent persons at intake and after six months. A researcher-designed sociodemographic questionnaire was also administered at intake. Results. The prevalence of depression among alcohol-dependent persons is high (63.8%) with a significant association between depression and the mean AUDIT score. At posttest, depressed participants had a statistically significant craving for alcohol. Conclusion. Alcohol dependence is associated with major depression.

"Mary W. Kuria, Yvonne Olando. Alcohol dependence: Does the composition of the available beverages promote it." Open Journal of Psychiatry. 2012; 2: 301-304. Abstract

Affordability and availability of alcohol are factors that have been associated with alcohol dependence.
Ethanol content in the alcoholic beverages is an important determinant in alcohol dependence. Quality
control of alcoholic beverages available in the market is important in safeguarding the health of alcohol
consumers. Few studies in Kenya have determined the chemical composition of alcohol used by the study
participants. Objective: To determine the chemicalcomposition of alcoholic beverages used by a group of
alcohol dependent study participants. Design: The study was a clinical trial with pre and post measure-
ments. Method: The CIDI and WHO-ASSIST were administered to 188 alcohol-dependent persons at
intake and after six months. A researcher-designed socio demographic questionnaire was also adminis-
tered at intake. Alcohol beverages were randomly collected from the location of the study area and their
chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography. Results: The mean AUDIT score of the par-
ticipant was 28.6 for male and 26.6 for females. Three of the alcohol samples collected was illicit brews col-
lected while 11 were licit. Four out of the eleven licit brews had ethanol levels that did not complied with
the set government standards. Conclusion: Illicit brews with high ethanol content are available in the
Kenyan market, while some of the manufacturers of the licit brew do not comply with government set
content recommendations.

N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, with Dorothy McCormick, 2003, 'Value Chains in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi: Challenges in Shifting from the Old Global Regime of Import Substitution to a More Liberalized Global Regime.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, Dorothy McCormick, and Mitullah, Winnie. How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, and Dorothy, McCormick, 'Industrializing Kenya: Building the Productive Capacity of Micro and Small Enterprise Clusters.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2001, and Dorothy McCormick and Kimuyu, P., 'Kenya.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2000, Tapping Opportunities in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini, IDS Working Paper No 525, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with Mitullah, Winnie V., 'Inter-Firm Dynamics in the Construction Sector.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., Institutions and Industrialisation Process: A Proposal for a Study of the Textile and Textile Products Industry in Kenya, IDS Working Paper No 527, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Munguti, Kaendi, 2002 'Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Ligulu, Peter and McCormick, D., 2004 "Policy and Footwear in Kenya.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2004.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Munguti, Kaendi, 'Unlocking Women.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and McCormick, Dorothy. and Kimuyu, Peter , 'Textiles and Clothing: Global Players and Local Struggles.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck 2005 Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprise and Poverty Alleviation. Addis Ababa: OSSREA.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2005.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Kamau, Paul Kuria (forthcoming), 'Production and Trade Systems.". In: Hemisphere. University of Nairobi.; Forthcoming.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2003, "A Gender Analysis of Small Scale Garment Producers.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2002, "Peasant Organisations in the Development Process: Opportunities and Constraints", in Romdhame, Mahmoud Ben and Moyo, Sam.(editors) Peasant Organisations and the Democratisation Process in Africa, Dakar: CODESRIA. Pp 293-313.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2000 and Munguti, Kaendi, "Gender Equity in Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya" in Mullei, A. and Bokea, C (editors). Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre f.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1999, 'The Search for a Gender Sensitive Development Policy.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1998, "Ziwani and Kigandaini Jua Kali Enterprises Cluster: Do Small Business Gain by Being in Close Proximity to Each Other", in Journal of African Research and Development, vol. 27&28, 1997/98 pp 270-298.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1997, with McCormick, Dorothy and Ongile, Grace, "Growth and Barriers to Growth Between Nairobi's Small and Medium Sized Garment Producers" in World Development, Vol.25 No.7 pp 1095-1111.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1997.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1996, "Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises Formation and Development in Central Kenya: Entrepreneurship or Plodding Along?" in McCormick, D. and Pedersen, P.O. (editors.), Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in Africa.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1992, "Finance And Availability of Capital for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Central Kenya", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 23. Pp. 63-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1988 "'The Intra-Urban Location Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 18 pp. 67-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1987, "The Spatial Linkages Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika." in Journal of East Africa Development and Research, Vol. 17 pp. 147-167.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 'Knowledge, Technology and Growth: The case study of Kamukunji Jua Kali Enterprise Cluster, World bank Institute, Washington.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui "Governance and its Implications for Gender Inequalities in the Jua Kali economy" IDS working Paper No. 543, Nairobi IDS university of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui " From Home to Micro and Small Enterprises: Entrepreneurship and Female Gender Identities".". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Kinyanjui and Felix Kiruthu " Globalization Experience in East Africa Region: A Search for theory in Cornelissen,s (eds) What is globalization critical regional perspectives.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Marufu, L., Karanja, N.K. and Ryder, M. 1995. Legume inoculant Production and Use in Eastern and Southern Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27 (4/5), 735-738.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1995. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Marufu, L., Karanja, N.K. and Ryder, M. 1995. Legume inoculant Production and Use in Eastern and Southern Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27 (4/5), 735-738.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1995. Abstract
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GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Martin Upton, S. G. Mbogoh and J Rushton, .". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2004. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
MARANI DRMARTIN. "Martin Marani and Oscar Kambona Ouma (2008). The Role of Watershed Research in Policy Change for Increased Uptake of Millennium Development Goals in Developing Countries.". In: Respir Physiol Neurobiol. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.
Mitei HK. "Martin Luther’s theology of ‘Freedom of a Christian’ and its implications for 21st Century African Church." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2015;2(2):86-90.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin Jr. HL, Nyange PM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Mandalya K, Kackson DJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK Hormonal Contraception, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk of Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency virus Type-1 J. Inf. Dis. 178: 10.". In: Inf. Dis. 178: 1053-9, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
To examine associations between method of contraception, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and incident human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a prospective observational cohort study was done among female sex workers attending a municipal STD clinic in Mombasa, Kenya. Demographic and behavioral factors significantly associated with HIV-1 infection included type of workplace, condom use, and parity. In multivariate models, vulvitis, genital ulcer disease, vaginal discharge, and Candida vaginitis were significantly associated with HIV-1 seroconversion. Women who used depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) had an increased incidence of HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4). In a multivariate model controlling for demographic and exposure variables and biologic covariates, the adjusted HR for HIV-1 infection among DMPA users was 2.0 (CI, 1.3-3.1). There was a trend for an association between use of high-dose oral contraceptive pills and HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 2.6; CI, 0.8-8.5).
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin Jr. HL, Jackson DJ, Mandalya K, Bwayo J, Rakwar JP, Nyange P, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Holmes K, Plummer F, Ngugi E, Kreiss JPreparation for AIDS Vaccine Evaluation in Mombasa, Kenya: Establishment of Seronegative Cohorts of Commercial Sex Worker.". In: AIDS Resesearch and Human Retroviruses Vol. 10 S235-S237 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin HL, Richardson BA, Nyange PM, Lavreys L, Hillier SL, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Vaginal lactobacilli, microbial flora, and risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexually transmitted disease acquisition.J In.". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;180(6):1863-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract

A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between vaginal colonization with lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sexually transmitted diseases in a population of sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. In total, 657 HIV-1-seronegative women were enrolled and followed at monthly intervals. At baseline, only 26% of women were colonized with Lactobacillus species. During follow-up, absence of vaginal lactobacilli on culture was associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.5) and gonorrhea (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), after controlling for other identified risk factors in separate multivariate models. Presence of abnormal vaginal flora on Gram's stain was associated with increased risk of both HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1) and Trichomonas infection (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4). Treatment of BV and promotion of vaginal colonization with lactobacilli should be evaluated as potential interventions to reduce a woman's risk of acquiring HIV-1, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Richardson BA, Rugamba D, Nyange PM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Safety of a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel in Kenyan prostitutes. A randomized clinical trial.Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):279-83.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):279-83. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and toxicity of once-daily administration of Advantage-24 (Columbia Research Laboratories, Inc., Rockville Centre, NY), a vaginal gel containing 52.5 mg of nonoxynol-9 (N-9), including the effects of this gel on the vaginal and cervical epithelium. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial, with a 2-week product application period and a 2-week washout period. METHODS: Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya were randomized to one of two sequences, N-9 followed by placebo, or vice versa. Women were instructed to apply one applicator of N-9 or placebo gel vaginally once each day. During each of the two product periods, subjects were evaluated by questionnaire and physical examination, including colposcopy, after 7 and 14 days of product use. The primary outcome was genital epithelial disruption. RESULTS: Sixty subjects were randomized, of whom 52 (87%) had complete follow-up. There were four episodes of epithelial disruption, three of which occurred during the placebo period and one during the N-9 period. The estimated risk of epithelial disruption associated with N-9 use was 0.33 (95% confidence interval, 0.03-3.26). There was no increased frequency of other, nondisruptive epithelial lesions during N-9 use. CONCLUSIONS: No genital epithelial toxicity of N-9 vaginal gel was observed. This safety profile suggests that this N-9 product is appropriate for evaluation for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 prevention in a phase III efficacy trial.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Marsh S, Ameyaw MM, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, McLeod HL.Novel thymidylate synthase enhancer region alleles in African populations. Hum Mutat. 2000 Dec;16(6):528.". In: Hum Mutat. 2000 Dec;16(6):528. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2000. Abstract
Thymidylate synthase (TS) regulates the production of DNA synthesis precursors and is an important target of cancer chemotherapy. A polymorphic tandem repeat sequence in the enhancer region of the TS promoter was previously described, where the triple repeat gives higher in vitro gene expression than a double repeat. We recently identified ethnic differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations. We now describe assessment of genotype and allele frequencies of the TS polymorphism in 640 African (African American, Ghanaian and Kenyan) and Caucasian (UK, USA) subjects. The double and triple repeat were the predominant alleles in all populations studied. The frequency of the triple repeat allele was similar between Kenyan (49%), Ghanaian (56%), African American (52%), American Caucasian (54%) and British Caucasian (54%) subjects. However, two novel alleles contained 4 and 9 copies of the tandem repeat. These novel alleles were found at a higher allele frequency in African populations (Kenyan 7%, Ghanaian 3%, African American 2%) than Caucasians (UK 1%, USA 0%). The novel alleles identified in this study decrease in frequency with Western migration, while the common alleles are relatively stable. This is a unique example suggesting the influence of multiple selection pressures within individual populations. Hum Mutat 16:528, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and the Changing Values in the African Family.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Ayiemba EHO. "Marriage and Family Patterns.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis, Nairobi. Nairobi: UNFPA; Forthcoming.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa, in D. W. Waruta and H.W. Kinoti, Eds., Pastoral Care in African Christianity: Challenging Essays in Pastoral Theology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Marriage and Family in Africa.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Sharma TC, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK. "A Markov model for critical dry and wet days in Kibwezi, Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

The role of probability theory in providing information on the critical dry and wet periods using daily rainfall data was studied. The methodology was illustrated using the daily rainfall data from Kibwezi rainfall station, Kenya, with 55 years of records. The theory of runs, conditional probability, Poisson probability density and Chi-square statistics were used in the analysis. The model performed well and simulated the critical dry and wet periods (days) adequately. Results showed that one may expect the critical dry period to be about 24 and 12 days during the long and short rainy seasons, resp. Similarly, the critical wet spell is expected to last for 5 and 6 days, resp. It is suggested that drought analysis in the Kibwezi region should be based on the dry periods of the long rainy season, and runoff, soil erosion and rain harvesting analysis on the wet periods of the short rainy season.

Mbatia OLE. "The marketing system for horticultural crops in Kenya."; 1981. Abstract

The basic problem of farming in developing countries is the lack of proper incentives for farmers. Prices paid for farmers' produce are too low, even to cover operational costs. The horticultural crops are much affected due to an unstructured market, and the Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA) has not effectively assisted small-scale farmers. This paper evaluates the marketing systems for horticultural crops in relation to major ingredients affecting marketing. These variables are: the products to be marketed such as french beans, avocados, pineapples, mangoes; the place of the market and the prices to be paid. Some policies which could be adopted to improve the marketing of horticultural crops are considered.

Munyoki JM. "Marketing Research; A Theoretical approach. A manual awaiting publication." University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Marketing Research Teaching Manual and Audio Cassettes.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
Karuri EE, Mbugua SK, Karugia J, Wanda K, Jagwe J. "Marketing Opportunities for cassava based products: An Assessment of the Industrial Potential in Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

Since the era of development aid in Africa, research efforts have been focused on increasing agricultural productivity mainly through improved technology at the farm level. In spite of such programs, rural household incomes have largely remained low thereby perpetuating the relatively higher poverty level with all its negative consequences notably, low savings, low investment, low productivity and low incomes. It has now been increasingly realized that real benefits to rural communities are going to come from forward linkages of rural producers to more stable and higher value industrial markets. In turn industry too stands to benefit from increased rural household incomes in terms of higher effective demand for industrial products. Therefore, this report presents findings on the current state of the Kenyan market for starch, starch-based adhesives and high quality cassava flour for industrial purposes. An assessment of the potential for locally made cassava-based products to substitute for existing raw materials has also been attempted. KEY FINDINGS The total market for starch-based products in Kenya is estimated to be over 12,000 MT per annum. A bigger portion, about 60%, goes into the brewery industry. Other major consumers include paperboard, paper and the food sector. Native maize starch dominates the market for starch. This is mainly produced locally. Modified starches are not significant. Cassava starch has the potential to substitute maize starch in the paperboard industry. Some of the industry in this sector had used cassava starch before which they found preferable. However, use was discontinued due to inconsistency in quality and erratic supply. The manufacturing costs are high in the local scene because of inefficiencies in the production chain. At the moment production and supply of cassava starch is low and not timely. This was attributed to higher costs of local production, poor infrastructure and low raw material production The potential use of cassava in animal feeds has not been exploited in Kenya. This is mainly due to lack of information especially in terms of the processing steps and the rate of substitution of cassava for maize in the commercial animal feeds.

VERONICA MISSMWENDE. "Marketing of Information in Information Centres:A case study of School of Journalism/African Council for Communication Education (ACCE/SOJ DOC Centre).". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2002. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Munyoki JM. Marketing Management: Theory and Practice. . Nairobi: Downtown Publishers and printers, Nairobi; 2011.
Munyoki, J.M., Owino, J., Ndambuki VM. Marketing in Developing Economies: Theory, Practice, and Cases with Special Focus on Africa.. Exceller Books Press, India; 2021.
AOSA E. "'Marketing and Strategy'.". In: Marketing Review. Nairobi: Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Market Study Report on Bamba - Ganze -Vitengeni water Supply Project: Kilifi District Kenya Ministry of Water Development with S.M Ngola.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1982. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
K'Obonyo PP, M'Nchebere DGK. "Market Strategy and Corporate Performance: The Contextual Application of PIMS Principles in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2011;Vol.1(Issue 1):Pp 1-24. Abstract

The influence of market strategy on corporate performance has been and still is a central issue in Strategic Management Discipline. In spite of immense academic curiosity in this area, exemplified by extensive empirical research, results still remain inconclusive. Some argue that performance differences across firms is as a result of strategic choice the firm makes regarding the market and its subsequent positioning while others argue that firm performance is influenced by the context within which it operates. Besides, empirical studies that forge these propositions in an African setting and specifically in Kenya using empirically grounded PIMS(Profit Impact of Market Strategy) principles, are scanty. This study examined the influence of PIMS principles on corporate performance in Kenya. Primary data were collected vide a structured close ended Likert type questionnaire administerd to all 56 CEOs of quoted companies in a census survey. Secondary data were collected on financial performance of the same companies for a period of five years between 2002 and 2006. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate techniques. Theory testing show that Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Score Card(BSC) conforms to Kenyan context and remains a viable measure of Corporate performance. Further, the study provides additional support for the linkages between PIMS principles and corporate performance, suggetsitn that PIMS principles are generalizable across a broad spectrum of contexts though the veracity of prediction varies across the principles and the model is also context specific. In Kenyan context, the PIMS model explains up to 53.9% of variation in corporate performance. These findings hold implications for corporate managers. They should pay special attention to market positioning strategies especially product quality and market share. These strategies should be specifically targeted to cash generating portfolios calibrated in such a manner as to avoid investment intensity that acts as a drag to profitability. Future studies should seek to replicate the findings of this study to Small and Micro Enterprises. Also open to further study is extension of this study results by employing optimization methodology procedures to address the limitation of spuriousness.

Kinoti MW. Market segmentation, profiling and targeting customers. University of Nairobi; 2015.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Market Segmentation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of the Soft Drink Industry in Kenya.". In: Journal of Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 632-642. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2007. Abstract
The analytical and visualization capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) greatly enhance the communication, understanding and utility of data and information as opposed to when the data is simply presented in form of texts and tables. Combining geospatial methods with conventional marketing techniques enables users to visualize the spatial distribution of data on maps and visualize spatial data in various statistical graphs and diagrams. This may yield more insights into the nature of distributions leading to better understanding of diverse markets. In this study a digital map of the study area is created from which the various market zones are delineated. A multiple regression model for predicting sale of soft drink products is then developed. This takes into account sales figures from specific distribution outlets and demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population served by the distribution outlets for the identified market zones. The study demonstrates the important role that GIS can play in supporting market segmentation.
Musyoka SM, Mutyauvyu SM, Kiema JB, Karanja FN, Siriba DN. "Market segmentation using geographic information systems (GIS): a case study of a soft drink industry in Kenya." Marketing Intelligence & Planning. 2007;25(6 and 7):632-642.
Musyoka SM, Mutyauvyu SM, Kiema JBK, Karanja FN, Siriba DN. "Market Segmentation using Geographic Information System (GIS): A Case Study of the Soft Drink Industry in the Eastern Part of Nairobi, Kenya." Market Intelligence. 2007;25(6):632-642.
Maalu J, Mshenga P, Owuor G. "Market segmentation and Micro and small Business Growth. The Case of Furniture Manufacturers in Mombasa." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2004;2(july): Egerton University Press. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Despite the significant role played by micro- and small –scale enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya’s economic development, the furniture sub-sector has over the years experienced constraints that have limited it from realizing its full potential. This paper uses data from a clustered random sample of 60 furniture manufacturers from Mombasa District to identify market segmentation strategies used by these MSEs, and to establish the effects of these strategies on business growth. A chi-square statistical method is used to analyse the data. Results reveal that a 62% of the respondents employed market segmentation in their businesses, and that the business owners’ education level and the age of the business significantly influenced the market segmentation strategy employed. Further, the segmentation marketing strategy leads to growth in a firm’s market share. The results also indicate that the most commonly used segmentation variables include: income, benefit sought, and social classification. The implication of this result is the critical importance of empowering the MSE owners with knowledge of market segmentation that would facilitate the production of furniture items that are determined by consumer demand.

Key words: segmentation, micro and small business, growth

Okoth SA, Kola MA. "Market samples as a source of chronic aflatoxin exposure in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2012;(20):56-61. Abstract

Surveillance of food and feed quality in Kenya has not reached effective level due to the expensive procedures of mycotoxin analysis and poor structures in quality control. Most foodstuffs and feeds sold in local markets do not go through any quality control measures. The outbreaks of aflatoxicoses every year since the major outbreak that occurred in 2004 (CDC, 2004; Muture and Ogana, 2005, Azziz-Baumgartner et al., 2005) suggests that the population is exposed to aflatoxins in their diet. Chronic exposure could be a more serious problem than the outbreaks of aflatoxicosis that attract attention at the time they occur. This paper analyses the extent to which market food and feed samples expose the residents of urban Nairobi Province to aflatoxins. Using TLC method of aflatoxins analysis, maize for food and feed samples collected randomly as part of routine surveillance between the years 2006-2009 were tested. Only 17% of the total maize sampled and 5% of feed were fit for human and animal consumption respectively. Maize Grain Grade 11 and maize milled products were significantly highly contaminated compared with Maize Grain Grade 1 throughout the period of sampling. There was no significant difference in level of contamination among the feeds tested

Okoth S. "Market samples as a source of chronic aflatoxin exposure in Kenya." Afr. J. Health Sci. 2012;20(1-2):56-61. Abstractf3wl6opuldm.pdfWebsite

Surveillance of food and feed quality in Kenya has not reached effective level due to the expensive procedures of
mycotoxin analysis and poor structures in quality control. Most foodstuffs and feeds sold in local markets do not
go through any quality control measures. The outbreaks of aflatoxicoses every year since the major outbreak
that occurred in 2004 (CDC, 2004; Muture and Ogana, 2005, Azziz-Baumgartner et al., 2005) suggests that the
population is exposed to aflatoxins in their diet. Chronic exposure could be a more serious problem than the
outbreaks of aflatoxicosis that attract attention at the time they occur. This paper analyses the extent to which
market food and feed samples expose the residents of urban Nairobi Province to aflatoxins. Using TLC method
of aflatoxins analysis, maize for food and feed samples collected randomly as part of routine surveillance
between the years 2006-2009 were tested. Only 17% of the total maize sampled and 5% of feed were fit for
human and animal consumption respectively. Maize Grain Grade 11 and maize milled products were
significantly highly contaminated compared with Maize Grain Grade 1 throughout the period of sampling.
There was no significant difference in level of contamination among the feeds tested.

ADUDA JO. "MARKET REACTION TO STOCK SPLITS Empirical Evidence from the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010.market_reaction_to_stock_split.pdf

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