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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Wang CC, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Corey L, Ashley RL, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Association between cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus and HIV-1.AIDS. 2002 Dec 6;16(18):2425-30.". In: AIDS. 2002 Dec 6;16(18):2425-30. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and HIV-1. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study on 200 women seropositive for both HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted in a family planning clinic at the Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantities of HSV DNA (types 1 and 2) and HIV-1 RNA as well as the presence or absence of HIV-1 proviral DNA in cervical secretions were determined and compared. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the quantities of HSV DNA and HIV-1 RNA in the cervical secretions of HSV-shedding women (Pearson's r = 0.24

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mcclelland RS, Wang CC, Mandaliya K, Overbaugh J, Reiner MT, Panteleeff DD, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Treatment of cervicitis is associated with decreased cervical shedding of HIV-1.AIDS. 2001 Jan 5;15(1):105-10.". In: AIDS. 2001 Jan 5;15(1):105-10. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cervical mucosal shedding of HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 infected cells decreases following successful treatment of cervicitis. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic, Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six HIV-1 seropositive women with cervicitis: 16 with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, seven with Chlamydia trachomatis, and 13 with non-specific cervicitis. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment of cervicitis. Main outcome measures: Levels of total (cell-free and cell-associated) HIV-1 RNA and presence of HIV-1 DNA (a marker for infected cells) in cervical secretions before and after resolution of cervicitis. RESULTS: After treatment of cervicitis, the median HIV-1 RNA concentration in cervical secretions was reduced from 4.05 to 3.24 log10 copies/swab (P = 0.001). Significant decreases in cervical HIV-1 RNA occurred in the subgroups with N. gonorrhoeae (3.94 to 3.28 log10 copies/swab; P = 0.02) and C. trachomatis (4.21 to 3.19 log10 copies/swab; P = 0.02). Overall, the prevalence of HIV-1 infected cells in cervical secretions also decreased after treatment, from 67% to 42% (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.0; P = 0.009). Detection of infected cells was associated with higher mean HIV-1 RNA levels (4.04 versus 2.99 log10 copies/swab; P< 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Effective treatment of cervicitis resulted in significant decreases in shedding of HIV-1 virus and infected cells in cervical secretions. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases may be an important means of decreasing the infectivity of HIV-1 seropositive women by reducing exposure to HIV-1 in genital secretions.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Sangar.". In: J Infect Dis 2007;195:698-702. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Graham SM, Kiarie J, Baeten JM, Mandaliya K, Jaoko WG, Ndinya-Achola JO & Holmes KK (2009) Prospective study of vaginal bacterial flora and other risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Journal of Infectious Dis.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Infectious Diseases 199(12):1883-1890; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Graham SM, Kiarie J, Baeten JM, Mandaliya K, Jaoko WG, Ndinya-Achola JO & Holmes KK (2009) Prospective study of vaginal bacterial flora and other risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Journal of Infectious Dis.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Journal of Infectious Diseases 199(12):1883-1890; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurthe AE, Holmes KK. Improving vaginal health in women at risk for HIV-1. Results of a randomized trial.". In: J Infect Dis. In press. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractimproving_vaginal_health_in_women_at_risk_for_hiv-1.pdfimproving_vaginal_health_in_women_at_risk_for_hiv-1.doc

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurth AE, Holmes KK.Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: r.". In: J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197(10):1361-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of directly observed oral treatment administered monthly to reduce vaginal infections among Kenyan women at risk for HIV-1 acquisition. A trial intervention of 2 g of metronidazole plus 150 mg of fluconazole was compared with metronidazole placebo plus fluconazole placebo. The primary end points were bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis vaginalis (hereafter, "trichomoniasis"), and colonization with Lactobacillus organisms. RESULTS: Of 310 HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers enrolled (155 per arm), 303 were included in the primary end points analysis. A median of 12 follow-up visits per subject were recorded in both study arms ([Formula: see text]). Compared with control subjects, women receiving the intervention had fewer episodes of BV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.63) and more frequent vaginal colonization with any Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80) and H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16-2.27). The incidences of vaginal candidiasis (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04) and trichomoniasis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.27-1.12) among treated women were less than those among control subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic presumptive treatment reduced the incidence of BV and promoted colonization with normal vaginal flora. Vaginal health interventions have the potential to provide simple, female-controlled approaches for reducing the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurth AE, Holmes KK.Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: r.". In: J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197(10):1361-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstractimprovement_of_vaginal_health_for_kenyan_women_at_risk_for_acquisition_of_human_immunodeficiency_virus_type_1_r.pdf

BACKGROUND: Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of directly observed oral treatment administered monthly to reduce vaginal infections among Kenyan women at risk for HIV-1 acquisition. A trial intervention of 2 g of metronidazole plus 150 mg of fluconazole was compared with metronidazole placebo plus fluconazole placebo. The primary end points were bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis vaginalis (hereafter, "trichomoniasis"), and colonization with Lactobacillus organisms. RESULTS: Of 310 HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers enrolled (155 per arm), 303 were included in the primary end points analysis. A median of 12 follow-up visits per subject were recorded in both study arms (P = .8). Compared with control subjects, women receiving the intervention had fewer episodes of BV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.63) and more frequent vaginal colonization with any Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80) and H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16-2.27). The incidences of vaginal candidiasis (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04) and trichomoniasis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.27-1.12) among treated women were less than those among control subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic presumptive treatment reduced the incidence of BV and promoted colonization with normal vaginal flora. Vaginal health interventions have the potential to provide simple, female-controlled approaches for reducing the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurth AE, Holmes KK. Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: .". In: J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197(10):1361-8. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of directly observed oral treatment administered monthly to reduce vaginal infections among Kenyan women at risk for HIV-1 acquisition. A trial intervention of 2 g of metronidazole plus 150 mg of fluconazole was compared with metronidazole placebo plus fluconazole placebo. The primary end points were bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis vaginalis (hereafter, "trichomoniasis"), and colonization with Lactobacillus organisms. RESULTS: Of 310 HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers enrolled (155 per arm), 303 were included in the primary end points analysis. A median of 12 follow-up visits per subject were recorded in both study arms (P = .8). Compared with control subjects, women receiving the intervention had fewer episodes of BV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.63) and more frequent vaginal colonization with any Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80) and H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16-2.27). The incidences of vaginal candidiasis (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04) and trichomoniasis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.27-1.12) among treated women were less than those among control subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic presumptive treatment reduced the incidence of BV and promoted colonization with normal vaginal flora. Vaginal health interventions have the potential to provide simple, female-controlled approaches for reducing the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Graham SM, Masese LN, Gitau R, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Baeten JM, Ndinya-Achola JO.A prospective study of risk factors for bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-seronegative African women.Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):617-23. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common and has been associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for BV in African women at high risk for acquiring HIV-1. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 151 HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers. Nonpregnant women were eligible if they did not have symptoms of abnormal vaginal itching or discharge at the time of enrollment. At monthly follow-up, a vaginal examination and laboratory testing for genital tract infections were performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards analysis was used to identify correlates of BV. RESULTS: Participants completed a median of 378 (interquartile range 350-412) days of follow-up. Compared with women reporting no vaginal washing, those who reported vaginal washing 1 to 14 [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.89], 15 to 28 (aHR 1.60, 95% CI 0.98-2.61), and >28 times/wk (aHR 2.39, 95% CI 1.35-4.23) were at increased risk of BV. Higher BV incidence was also associated with the use of cloth for intravaginal cleansing (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.08) and with recent unprotected intercourse (aHR 1.75, 95% CI 1.47-2.08). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception were at lower risk for BV (aHR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal washing and unprotected intercourse were associated with increased risk of BV. These findings could help to inform the development of novel vaginal health approaches for HIV-1 risk reduction in women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM. Reply to: Is vaginal washing associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition? AIDS 2006; 20:1348-1349.". In: AIDS 2006; 20:1348-1349. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstractis_vaginal_washing_associated_with_increased_risk_of_hiv-1.docis_vaginal_washing_associated_with_increased_risk_of_hiv-1.pdf

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Africa, especially from individuals with well-defined dates of infection. We used data from a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, who were followed up monthly from before the date of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive women who had a well-defined date of HIV-1 infection were included in this analysis. The effects of set point plasma viral load (measured 4-24 months after infection), early CD4+ cell count, and symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection on mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: Among 218 women, the median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 infection was 4.6 years. Forty women died, and at 8.7 years (the time of the last death), the cumulative survival rate was 51% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Higher set point viral load, lower early CD4+ cell count, and more-symptomatic acute HIV-1 illness each predicted death. In multivariate analysis, set point viral load (hazard ratio [HR], 2.28 per 1 log10 copies/mL increase; P=.001) and acute HIV-1 illness (HR, 1.14 per each additional symptom; P=.05) were independently associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Among this group of African women, the survival rate was similar to that for HIV-1-infected individuals in industrialized nations before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy. Higher set point viral load and more-severe acute HIV-1 illness predicted faster progression to death. Early identification of individuals at risk for rapid disease progression may allow closer clinical monitoring, including timely initiation of antiretroviral treatment.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM. Re: .". In: Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165; 474-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Lavreys L, Katingima C, Overbaugh J, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Baeten JM.Contribution of HIV-1 infection to acquisition of sexually transmitted disease: a 10-year prospective study.J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 1;191(3):333-8. Epub 2.". In: J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 1;191(3):333-8. Epub 2004 Dec 22. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 susceptibility, but few studies have examined the reciprocal effect of HIV-1 on STD acquisition. METHODS: Data from a prospective cohort study conducted among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya between 1993 and 2003 were used to determine the effect of HIV-1 infection on STD susceptibility. The cohort included 1215 HIV-1-seronegative women who underwent monthly HIV-1 and STD screening, of whom 238 experienced seroconversion to HIV-1 during follow-up. Andersen-Gill proportional-hazards models were used to compare the incidence rates for genital-tract infections (syphilis, genital ulcer disease [GUD], Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis) in HIV-1-seropositive versus HIV-1-seronegative women, after controlling for sexual behavior and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: HIV-1 infection was associated with a significantly higher incidence of GUD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.9), gonorrhea (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2), and vulvovaginal candidiasis (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). The risks of GUD and vulvovaginal candidiasis increased with progressive levels of immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: The increased incidence of genital-tract infections among HIV-1-seropositive women could promote the spread of both HIV-1 and other STDs, particularly in areas where these conditions are highly prevalent.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Jaoko W, Kurth AE, Baeten JM.Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 1;195(5):698-702. Epub 2007 Jan 22.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 1;195(5):698-702. Epub 2007 Jan 22. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractinfection_with_trichomonas_vaginalis.docinfection_with_trichomonas_vaginalis.pdf

We conducted a prospective study among women in Mombasa, Kenya, to determine whether Trichomonas vaginalis infection was associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. At monthly follow-up visits, laboratory screening for HIV-1 and genital tract infections was conducted. Among 1335 HIV-1-seronegative women monitored for a median of 566 days, there were 806 incident T. vaginalis infections (23.6/100 person-years), and 265 women seroconverted to HIV-1 (7.7/100 person-years). Trichomoniasis was associated with a 1.52-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.24-fold) increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Treatment and prevention of T. vaginalis infection could reduce HIV-1 risk in women.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RS, Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Jaoko W, Kurth AE, Baeten JM.HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression are associated with decreased high-risk sexual behaviour among Kenyan female sex workers.AIDS. 2006 Oc.". In: AIDS. 2006 Oct 3;20(15):1969-73. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Changes in sexual risk behaviour may occur following HIV-1 infection. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression are associated with changes in risk behaviours, using data from a cohort of Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). METHODS: HIV-1-seronegative FSWs were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition. At monthly visits, standardized interviews were conducted to assess sexual risk behaviour and HIV-1 serologic testing was performed. Seroconverters were invited to continue with follow-up. Between 1993 and 2004 (when antiretroviral therapy was introduced in the cohort), 265 women seroconverted for HIV-1 (incidence 7.7/100 person-years) and were included in this analysis. RESULTS: Unprotected intercourse was reported at 546/2037 (27%) pre-seroconversion visits versus 557/3732 (15%) post-seroconversion visits (P < 0.001). These findings remained significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.86]. Compared with HIV-1-seronegative women, there was a progressive stepwise decrease in unprotected intercourse among HIV-1-seropositive women with CD4 cell counts > or = 500 (AOR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.62-1.39), 200-499 (AOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.41-0.82) and < 200 cells/microl (AOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.82). Decreases in unprotected intercourse reflected increases in both abstinence and 100% condom use. Women also reported fewer partners and fewer episodes of intercourse after HIV-1 seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression were associated with decreases in sexual risk behaviour among Kenyan FSWs.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Jaoko W, Kurth AE, Baeten JM. HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression are associated with decreased high-risk sexual behaviour among Kenyan female sex workers.". In: AIDS 2006; 20:1969-73. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthiv-1_acquisition_and_disease_progression.dochiv-1_acquisition_and_disease_progression.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 microg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 microg/l

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Emery S, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. A comparison of genital HIV-1 shedding and sexual risk behaviour among Kenyan women based on eligibility for initiation of HAART according to WHO guide.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006;41:611-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracta_comparison_of_genital_hiv-1_shedding_and_sexual_risk_behaviour_among_kenyan_women_based_on_eligibility_for_initiation_of_haart_according_to_who_guide.pdf

BACKGROUND:
Guidelines for initiating antiretrovirals are based on markers of advanced disease and are not directly linked to markers of HIV-1 transmission such as viral shedding.
METHODS:
We evaluated genital HIV-1 shedding and risk behavior among 650 antiretroviral-naïve women stratified by WHO criteria for initiating antiretrovirals based on CD4 count and symptoms.
RESULTS:
Genital HIV-1 concentrations increased in stepwise fashion with declining CD4 counts and the presence of symptoms. Compared with the reference group (asymptomatic with CD4 >350 cells/microL), those with advanced immunosuppression (CD4 <200 cells/microL) had significantly higher cervical HIV-1 RNA concentrations (2.4 log10 copies/swab vs. 3.8 log10 copies/swab, P < 0.001). However, women with CD4 counts <200 cells/microL were also less likely than the reference group to report intercourse during the past week (58% vs. 26%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
Antiretroviral guidelines focusing on individuals with the most advanced immunosuppression will target those with the highest genital HIV-1 concentrations. However, individuals with less advanced immunosuppression also have high levels of genital HIV-1 and may be more sexually active. The effect of increased antiretroviral availability on the spread of HIV-1 might be enhanced by extending treatment, in addition to other risk reduction services, to those with less advanced disease

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Emery S, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bankson DD, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Micronutrient supplementation increases genital tract shedding of HIV-1 in women: results of a randomized trial.J Acqu.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15;37(5):1657-63. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
{ To test the hypothesis that micronutrient supplementation decreases genital HIV-1 shedding, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of multivitamin plus selenium supplementation vs. placebo was conducted among 400 HIV-1-seropositive, nonpregnant, antiretroviral-naive women in Mombasa, Kenya. Primary outcome measures included cervical and vaginal shedding of HIV-1-infected cells and RNA. Secondary outcomes included plasma viral load and CD4 count. Surprisingly, the odds of detection of vaginal HIV-1-infected cells were 2.5-fold higher (P = 0.001) and the quantity of HIV-1 RNA in vaginal secretions was 0.37 log10 copies/swab higher (P = 0.004) among women who received micronutrients in comparison to placebo, even after adjustment for potential confounders including baseline HIV-1 shedding and CD4 count. The increase in vaginal HIV-1 shedding was greatest among women who had normal baseline selenium levels. Micronutrient supplementation resulted in higher CD4 (+23 cells/microL
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RM, Graham SM, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Masese LN, Wanje GH, Mandaliya KN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W & Ndinya-Achola JO (2009) Treatment with antiretroviral therapy is not associated with increased sexual risk behaviour in Kenyan female sex workers. AID.". In: UoN research meeting. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "McClelland RM, Graham SM, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Masese LN, Wanje GH, Mandaliya KN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W & Ndinya-Achola JO (2009) Treatment with antiretroviral therapy is not associated with increased sexual risk behaviour in Kenyan female sex workers. AID.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
KANINI DRMBWESAJOYCE. "Mbwesa J, K(2005)The Role Of Open And Distance Learning In Expanding The Provision And Access Of Higher Education In Kenya : Strategies And Constraints.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2005. Abstract

A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Mbwesa J, K(2005)Library support services for distance learners : a case study of the university of Nairobi, Kenya The Kenya Adult Educator ' A journal of Kenya adult Education Association(KAEA).". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Mbwesa J, K(2005)A Survey Of Students.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Mbwesa J, K(2002)Adult literacy as a determinant factor of farmer participation in agricultural extension: a case study of kibwezi Division Kenya ; The Kenya Adult Educator ' A journal of Kenya adult Education Association(KAEA).". In: Workshop Of E- Content Development For University Staff, Merica Hotel Nakuru. au-ibar; 2002. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Mbwesa J, K(2001)Adult learners in Higher education : The role of distance education in Kenya with special reference to the role of the faculty of External studies, University of Nairobi; The Kenya Adult Educator'A journal of Kenya Adult education Associa.". In: Center for agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim , Stuttgart, Germany. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Mbuya SO, Kwasa TO, Amayo EO, Kioy PG, Bhatt SM.Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.". In: East African Medical Journal 1996: Vol 73;594-597. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Mbuya SO, Kwasa TO, Amayo EO, Kioy PG, Bhatt SM. Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. uon; 1996. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Mbuya SO, Kwasa TO, Amayo EO, Kioy PG, Bhatt SM. Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. Taylor & Francis; 1996. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P., S.N. Wanjogu and G. Kironchi, 1995. Characteristics of soil crusts and their influence on some soil properties in Mukogodo catchment, Kenya. Afr. Crop Sc. J. Vol. 3 No. 4 pp. 487-493.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
The influence of soil type, vegetation and landuse on infiltration rate into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Likipia District, Kenya was investigated during the dry and the wet seasons by double cylinder infiltrometer. Infiltration rates significantly differed between soils and sites in both areas, and were highest under tree/bush, intermediate on open grass and lowest on bare ground. Cultivation temporarily increased infiltration above that of tree/bush sites. Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic carbon significantly influenced infiltration in both areas, but soil cracking and swelling in Sirima during the dry and the wet season respectively, partially obscured the influence of the physical parameters on infiltration rate
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P., P.M. Mainga and W.O. Omoto, 2000. Soil variability within Ruma National Park Lambwe Valley. Soil Science Society of East Africa. pp 336-344. ISBN 9966-879-27-7.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P., G. Kironchi and P.M. Mainga. 1997. Effect of topography and climate on soils of the northwestern slopes of Mount Kenya. ITC Journal, 1997 (2): 154-159.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P., G. Kironchi and P.M. Mainga, 1997. Effect of topography and climate on soils of the north western slopes of Mt. Kenya. ITC Journal Vol. 2 pp 154-159.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
A semi-detailed soil survey at 1:20,000 scale was carried out in an area of approximately 8000 ha on the northwestern slopes of Mt. Kenya. The soils have developed mainly from intermediate igneous rocks (trachytes) and occur in four main physiographic units: mountains, footslopes, footridges and valleys. The soils of the mountains and valleys are mainly cambisols and leptosols; those of the footslopes are shallow andosols and cambisols; and those of the footridges are andosols; alisols and luvisols. The soils show diverse physical and chemical characteristics. They range from well to poorly drained, shallow to deep, dark reddish brown (10YR 4/6) to brownish black (10YR 3/2), silty loam to clay. Topsoil organic carbon lies between 1.6 and 12.5 percent, base saturation is between 57 and 93 percent, and the cation exchange capacity (CEC) is between 15.5 and 23.5 cmol kg-1. Soil pH in both topsoils and subsoils varies from slightly acid to neutral (5.3 to 7.2). The moisture regime is udic in the upper part of the mountain and ustic in the lower part (i.e. mean annual rainfall of 700 to 900mm), while the temperature regime is isomeric on the upper slopes and isothermic on the lower slopes (i.e. mean annual temperature of 8 to 150C and 15 to 220C, respectively). The soils are moderately fertile, with a reasonable moisture storage capacity
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P., 2000. Makueni District Profile: Soil Fertility Management. Drylands Research Working Paper 6: 11p ISBN 1470-9384.***.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P. and S.N. Wanjogu, 1998. Land degradation in Laikipia District. Appl. Plant Sc. Vol. 12 (3) pp 88-92.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P. and S.N. Wanjogu, 1998. Crusts and their influence on soil properties in two semi arid areas of Kenya. Appl. Plant Sc. Vol. 12 (3) pp 83-87.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P. 1994. Soil Fertility. In: John English, M. Tiffen and M. Mortimore. "Land Resource Management in Machakos District, Kenya 1930-1990. (World Bank Environment Paper No. 5). pp 28-31. ISBN 0-8213-2734-8***.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
Influence of soil type and landuse on soil water retention and availability in the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District were investigated. Representative soils, six in Sirima and four in Mukogodo, surveyed at a detailed level, were assessed using samples taken from 0-10, 20-30 and 40-5 cm depths of bush, grass, bare ground and cultivated sites. Sirima soils retained more water than Mukogodo soils due to differences in clay type and textural composition. All Sirima soil layers were clay while Mukogodo topsoils were sandy loam and subsurface layers sandy clay loam. Mukogodo soils were more compact and had significantly lower carbon content than Sirima soils at all depths. For each area, only the surface layer had significant difference (p<0.05) in water retention among landuses, with bare ground retaining the most especially at higher pressures. However, no distinction in water availability could be made among soil types in each area. Unlike the increase in clay content with depth, bulk density and carbon content were not significant in influencing plant water availability
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P. 1993. Soil Fertility in Longitudinal Perspective. In: Mary Tiffen, M. Mortimore and F. Gichuki. "More People Less Erosion : Environmental Recovery in Kenya". Wiley Publishers pp 114-118.***.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
Influence of soil type and landuse on soil water retention and availability in the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District were investigated. Representative soils, six in Sirima and four in Mukogodo, surveyed at a detailed level, were assessed using samples taken from 0-10, 20-30 and 40-5 cm depths of bush, grass, bare ground and cultivated sites. Sirima soils retained more water than Mukogodo soils due to differences in clay type and textural composition. All Sirima soil layers were clay while Mukogodo topsoils were sandy loam and subsurface layers sandy clay loam. Mukogodo soils were more compact and had significantly lower carbon content than Sirima soils at all depths. For each area, only the surface layer had significant difference (p<0.05) in water retention among landuses, with bare ground retaining the most especially at higher pressures. However, no distinction in water availability could be made among soil types in each area. Unlike the increase in clay content with depth, bulk density and carbon content were not significant in influencing plant water availability
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P. 1991. Soil fertility management in parts of Machakos. In: Mortimore, M., (ed), "Environmental Change and Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Environmental Profile". London, ODI Working Paper No 53 pp 44-50. ISBN 0 85003 .". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
The influence of soil type, vegetation and landuse on infiltration rate into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Likipia District, Kenya was investigated during the dry and the wet seasons by double cylinder infiltrometer. Infiltration rates significantly differed between soils and sites in both areas, and were highest under tree/bush, intermediate on open grass and lowest on bare ground. Cultivation temporarily increased infiltration above that of tree/bush sites. Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic carbon significantly influenced infiltration in both areas, but soil cracking and swelling in Sirima during the dry and the wet season respectively, partially obscured the influence of the physical parameters on infiltration rate
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Mbuvi, J.P. 1989. Soil types of the Arid and Semi-Arid lands in Relation to Tree Establishment, Nairobi-Kenya.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
The influence of soil type, vegetation and landuse on infiltration rate into soils of the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Likipia District, Kenya was investigated during the dry and the wet seasons by double cylinder infiltrometer. Infiltration rates significantly differed between soils and sites in both areas, and were highest under tree/bush, intermediate on open grass and lowest on bare ground. Cultivation temporarily increased infiltration above that of tree/bush sites. Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and organic carbon significantly influenced infiltration in both areas, but soil cracking and swelling in Sirima during the dry and the wet season respectively, partially obscured the influence of the physical parameters on infiltration rate
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P, S.N. Wanjogu and G. Kironchi. 1995. Characteristics of soil crusts and their influence on some soil properties in Mukogodo catchment, Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 3 (4): 425-431.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Mbuvi, J.P and G. Kironchi. 1994. Reconnaissance soil survey of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin. Laikipia-Mt. Kenya Papers, Baseline Data Series, B-8.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
Physical and chemical properties of soil surface crusts formed on overgrazed bare ground, in Mukogodo catchment in Kenya were investigated. These were compared with those of underlying soils and of adjacent grass and bush covered topsoils. Crusting effects on infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and water content were also investigated. The crusts were moderately strong to strong with a thickness of 1-5 mm. Crusts had higher amounts of sand, silt and clay than the underlying layer, while their total N was lower and organic C content higher than the underlying layer. On average, the contents of Ca, Mg and Na were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layers. Similarly, soil pH, EC and ESP were higher in the crusts than in the underlying layer. Cation exchange capacity and K were slightly higher in the underlying layer than in the crusts. Infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and soil water content in both the rainy and dry seasons in bare ground were significantly lower than those of the bush and grass covered topsoils. Bare ground surface soil bulk density was higher compared to vegetated topsoils and subsurface layers
M MRMBUVIDAVID. "Mbuvi, D.M. and Croze, H. 1984: .". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Rangeland Congress, Adelaide, Australia. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1984. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M MRMBUVIDAVID. "Mbuvi, D.M. and Croze, H. 1981: Wildlife in the development of the dry lands, in .". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Rangeland Congress, Adelaide, Australia. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1981. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M MRMBUVIDAVID. "Mbuvi, D.M. 1990: The role of National Parks/Reserves in Conserving Genetic Resources: Proceedings of 1st National Workshop on plant Genetic Resources-National Museums of Kenya.". In: Proceedings of 1st National Workshop on plant Genetic Resources-National Museums of Kenya. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1990. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M MRMBUVIDAVID. "Mbuvi, D.M. 1978: Wildlife Conservation Education/Extension in Kenya. Proceedings of the 5th Regional Conference for East and Central Africa-Gaborone, Botwana, (pp 397-409) pp 431.". In: Proceedings of the 5th Regional Conference for East and Central Africa-Gaborone, Botwana, (pp 397-409) pp 431. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M MRMBUVIDAVID. "Mbuvi, D.M. 1977: Training for Scientific Research work in Wildlife Management. Proceedings of workshop on .". In: Proceedings of workshop on . RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Mbuthia, P.G; Gathumbi, P.K; Bwangamwoi, O. and Wasike, P. N. (1993). Natural besnoitiosis in a rabbit. Vet. Parasitol. 45: 191-198.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Embu April 22-24, 1998. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1993. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G1*., L.C. Bebora1, G. Mwaniki2, Sourou, S.Y., L.W. Njagi1, P.N. Nyaga, and M. Mutune1. 2008. Myopathy and Parasitism in a guinea fowl: a case report. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of .". In: 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at PHPT auditorium, Kabete Campus on September 17th to 19th 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G.1996. Contributed Articles (papers) in the ITDG and IIRR Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Kenya. A field manual of traditional animal health care practices. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR),.". In: Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1996.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Ngatia, T.A., Njiro, S.M., Weda, E.H., Ngotho, J.W 11 Kanyari, P.W.N. & Munyua, W.K., Mwaniki, A.W., 1994. Preliminary results of tissue parasites and gross lesions observed in wild animals at the game ranching farm, Athi Riv.". In: In: Proc. of the 3rd Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Lusaka, Zambia, January 24-27. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., W.O. Ogara, C. M. Ndarathi, H.F.A. Kaburia, M. Kayihura, and D.K. Kagunya, 1993. Liver pathology due to tapeworms in tilapia fish in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at IFS/SIPATH seminar on . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., W. Karaba, J.N. Kuria, and D.K. Kagunya, 2000. Sarcosporidiosis in domestic chicken in Kenya. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 19: 25 .". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2000.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mbuthia, P.G., Runyenje, P.E.N., Ngatia, T.A. and Mulei, C.M. (1992). Occurrence of poultry chemical poisoning in Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41: 45-50.; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., R.M. Waruiru, T.A.Ngatia, S.M. Njiro, J.M. Gathuma, D.Sembe, J.W.Ngotho, P.N.Kanyari, W.K. Munyua, and Agatha W. Mwaniki, 1994. Preliminary results of tissue parasites and lesions grossly observed in wildlife animals at the game ranching fa.". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., R.E.N. Runyenje, T.A. Ngatia, and C. M. Mulei, 1992. Poultry chemical poisoning in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (1): 45 .". In: Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., P.K. Gathumbi, O.Bwangamoi, and P.N. Wasike, 1993. Natural besnoitiosis is a rabbit. Veterinary Parasitology, 45: 191 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., P. N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, L.W. Njagi, U. Minga, J.E.Olsen, 2003. Ducks in rural and semi-urban poultry production.". In: A paper presented at a national workshop on the . University of Nairobi; 2003.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M.,Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2007. Preliminary Findings on carrier status of Pasteurella multocida in farmed and traded healthy .". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Indigenous ducks are better reservoirs of Pasteurella multocida than indigenous chickens. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 29: 104-106.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2007. Hatchability and fertility of indigenous chickens and duck eggs, and some causes of chick and duckling mortality in Kenya. The Kenyan Veter.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Comparison of the carrier status of Pasteurella multocida between farm and live market indigenous birds. The Kenya Veterinarian, 29: 45-47.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Comparison between fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and culture method in the detection of Pasteurella multocida in organs of indig.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Minga, U.M., Kamundia,J., and Olsen, J.E. 2008. Pasteurella multocida in scavenging family chickens and ducks: Carrier status, susceptibility and transmission between species. Avian Pathology, 37 (1):.". In: Avian Pathology. Avian Pathology; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., L.W. Njagi, P.N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, U.Minga, J. P. Christensen and J.E.Olsen. 2011. Time course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12 week-old free range chickens. Av.". In: Avian pathology. Avian pathology; 2011. Abstract
Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immunesuppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322, and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of the same types, but significantly milder in the IS birds, indicating that immune suppression does not change the course of infection but rather the severity of signs in fowl cholera. P. multocida signals by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were observed between 1 h and 14 days in the lungs, trachea, air sacs, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH signals in NIS birds than in IS birds and at higher frequency per organ. Many organs were positive by FISH even 14 days post infection, and it is suggested that these organs may be likely places for long-term carriage of P. multocida following infection. The present study has demonstrated the spread of P. multocida in different tissues in chickens and distribution of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera, and pointed to a decrease of pathology in IS birds. Since dexamethasone mostly affects heterophils, the study suggests that these cells play a role in the development of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera in chickens.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., L.W. Njagi, P. N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, G.M. Mugera, U. Minga, and J.E.Olsen, 2002. Comparison between clinical signs of fowl cholera in experimentally immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed Kenyan indigenous chickens and Ducks.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association annual general meeting and scientific meeting held in Nomad Palace, Garissa, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2002.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., L.C. Bebora, G. Mwaniki, L.W. Njagi, P.N. Nyaga, and M. Mutune 2008. Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Scie.". In: 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Mbuthia, P.G., Karioki, D.I. and Mulei, C.M. (1994). Generalized Demodicosis in a zero-grazed Friesian heifer.". In: Vet. Parasit. 51: 337-343.; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., H.J. Hansen, S.O. Ljungberg, and Christian Nilsson, 1996. Teleost fish granulomas: Some epithelial cell characteristics in their epitheliod cells. Discovery and Innovation, 8: 219 .". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1996.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., H.F.A. Kaburia, T.A. Ngatia, and M. Kayihura, 1993. Tuna fish infection with protozoa, subphylum Myxosporean: An aesthetic case. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (2): 117 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., H. Christensen, M. Boye, K. M. D. Petersen, M. Bisgaard, P. N. Nyaga, and J. E. Olsen, 2001. Specific detection of Pasteurella multocida in chickens with fowl cholera and in pig lung tissues using fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization. Jou.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association annual general meeting and scientific meeting held in Nomad Palace, Garissa, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2001.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., D.I. Kariuki, and C.M. Mulei, 1994. A generalized demodicosis in a friesian heifer from a zero-grazing unit. Veterinary Parasitology, 51 (3-4): 337 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., C.M. Gichohi and P.W. Kamundia. 2010.Fish Diseases in Kenya: Current Status and Future Trends in Changing Environment. In the proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conferenc of University of Nairobi, CAVS, faculty of Veterinary Medicin.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 7th Biennial Scientific Conference. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and W. Karaba, 2000. Infectious bursal disease around Kabete, Kenya. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 19: 21 .". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2000.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and T. A. Ngatia, 1993. Causes of mortalities in rainbow trouts (Salmo giardneri) farmed on earth ponds in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts of Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (2): 155 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and H. Mbugua, 1989. Gout in Domestic birds. The Kenya Veterinarian, 13: 47 .". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1989.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and D.K. Kagunya, 1993. Fish disease investigation and control in aquaculture ponds in Kenya.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, Annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1993. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 2001. Pathological conditions observed on fresh .". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2001.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 2000. Some zoonotic diseases of fish. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 20: 51-52.". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2000.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1999. Management of fish diseases.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1999.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1996. The role of a veterinarian in aquaculture.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on 2nd February 1996. University of Nairobi; 1996.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1995. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD.". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1995.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1994. Scoliosis in farmed rainbow trouts (Salmo giardneri, Richardson) in Kiambu district, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41: 111 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1993. Some diseases of farmed tilapia in Kabete. The Kenya Veterinarian, 17: 13 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1993. Poultry bacterial diseases.". In: A paper presented to poultry farmers at Pfizer. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1993. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD).". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch / Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 19th June 1993. Sponsored by Pfizer (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1992. Marine mammals and resources: A possible role of the Kenyan veterinarian.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1992. Common fish diseases and their occurrence in Kenya. A review.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G. 1993. Fish diseases in Central Kenya region as diagnosed at Kabete in the period 1989 to 1992.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary 12 Association, Central branch, annual scientific conference, held at Pig and Whistle hotel, Meru on 25th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P. G., T.A. Ngatia, and J.P.O. Wamukoya, 1993. Occurrence of bovine skin diseases in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa, 41: 311 .". In: Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1993.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia, E.M., C.K. Gachuiri, A.A. Abate, J.W. Kiragu and D.I. Kariuki. 1996. Sahiwal calf performance on colostrum preserved by different methods. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 46:63-64.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbuthia, E.M., C.K. Gachuiri and A.A. Abate 2002. Chemical evaluation of bovine colostrum preserved by different methods in a hot climate. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72:341-345.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia, E.M., C.K. Gachuiri and A.A. Abate 2002. Chemical evaluation of bovine colostrum preserved by different methods in a hot climate. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 72:341-345.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbuthia, E.M. and C.K. Gachuiri. 2003. Effect of inclusion of Mucuna pruriens and Dolicchos lablab forage in napier grass silage on silage quality and on voluntary intake and digestibility in sheep. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 1: 123-128.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia, E.M. and C.K. Gachuiri. 2003. Effect of inclusion of Mucuna pruriens and Dolicchos lablab forage in napier grass silage on silage quality and on voluntary intake and digestibility in sheep. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 1: 123-128.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
N PROFNYAGAP. "Mbuthia PG, Christensen H, Boye M, Petersen KM, Bisgaard M, Nyaga, PN, Olsen JE. Specific Detection of Pasteurella multocida in Chickens with Fowl Cholera and in pig lung tissues using Fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2001; 39(7.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G.; Karaba W.; Kuria J.K.N.; and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993).Sarcosporidia in domestic chicken in Kenya.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G.; Karaba W.; Kuria J.K.N.; and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993). Sarcosporidia in domestic chicken in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at KVA Annual Scientific conference at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete on 22nd-23rd April 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Mbuthia P.G., Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C., Njagi L.W., Minga U.M. and Olsen J.E. (2003): Ducks in rural and semi-urban poultry production.". In: Paper presented at a National Poultry Workshop on . Taylor & Francis; 2003.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Mbuthia P.G., Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C., Minga U.M. and Olsen J.E. (2003): Clinical signs of fowl cholera in experimental immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed Kenyan indigenous chickens and ducks.". In: Paper presented presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting held in December 2003, and at Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific meeting in April 2003. Taylor & Francis; 2003.
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Mbuthia P.G. and Kagunya D.K.J. (1993). Fish diseases investigation and control in aquaculture ponds in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at KVA Annual Scientific conference at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kabete on 22nd-23rd April 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Mbuthia P G, W O Ogara, C M Ndarathi, M Kaburi, 1993. Liver pathology due to tapeworms in Tilapia fish in Kenya. Proceedings of the IFS/SIPATH Seminar on Animal Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver. Addis Ababa Ethiopia, September 20-25. Page .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1993. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbuthia E.M., C.K. Gachuiri, F. Klobasa and A.A. Abate. 1997. Effect of treatment with formaldehyde and formic acid on immunoglobulin content of stored bovine colostrum. Anim. Feed Sci Tech. 67:4 291-298.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mburu, J. N., J.M.Z. Kamau, M.S. Badamana and P. N. Mbugua (1994). Use of serum vitamin B12 in diagnosis of cobalt deficiency in small East African goats. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 42: 141-146.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Mburu, J. N., J. M. Kamau, M.S. Badamana and P. N. Mburu (1994). Use of serum vitamin B12 in Diagnosis of Cobalt Deficiency in small East African Goats. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (1994), 42, 141, 146.". In: A paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Scientific conference at Kabete , Kenya, 3-5th Nov 2004. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Mburu, J. N. M. S. Badamana and J. M. Z. Kamau (1994) Faecal and Urinal losses of nitrogen in cobalt deficient small East African goat. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 64(11): 1264-1267.". In: A paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Scientific conference at Kabete , Kenya, 3-5th Nov 2004. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Mburu, J. N. J. M. Kamau and M.S. Badamana (1993). Changes in serum levels in vitamins B12, feed intake, live weight and Hematological parameters in Deficient Small East African Goats. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr. Res 63 (1993) : 135 .". In: A paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Scientific conference at Kabete , Kenya, 3-5th Nov 2004. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mburu, D.N., Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A and lokken, P. (1988): Effects of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid on the post-operative course after experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs. J.Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 11, 163-171.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mburu, D.N., Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A and lokken, P. (1988): Effects of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid on the post-operative course after experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs. J.Vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 11, 163-171.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Mburu, D.N., Maitho,. T. and Lokken, P. 1990. Acetylsalicylic acid or Paracetamol. E. Afr. Medical. J. 67, 302-300.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1990. Abstract

Paracetamol, a widely used non-narcotic analgesic, has the same analgesic, and antipyretic efficacy as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). In contrast to ASA, paracetamol has traditionally been claimed to have little or no anti-inflammatory effect. There is, however, increasing support for the view that paracetamol has anti-inflammatory activity and reduces pain and swelling in inflammatory conditions other than rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, paracetamol seems to be equally effective as ASA. Since ASA has a greater potential for adverse effects, paracetamol is increasingly preferred to ASA, particularly in children.

MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Mburu J., R. Birner and M. Zeller (2003) .". In: Ecological Economics, 45: 59-73. Ogutu J.O; 2003. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Mburu J., J. Boerner, B. Hedden-Dunkhorst, A. Mendoza-Escalante and K. Frohberg (2007). Feasibility of the mulching technology as an alternative to slash-and-burn farming in eastern Amazon: A cost-benefit analysis. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, .". In: Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 22, No. 2: 125-133. Ogutu J.O; 2007. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Mburu J., (2002). Collaborative Management of Wildlife in Kenya: An Empirical Analysis of Stakeholders.". In: Socio-economic Studies on Rural Development Vol. 130. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany (ISSN 0175-2464; ISBN 3-8175- 0371-5). Ogutu J.O; 2002. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Mburu J. N., J. M. Z. Kamau and M. S. Badamana (1994). Thyroid hormones and metabolic rate during induction of vitamin B12 deficiency in goats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, (1994), 42, 187 .". In: A paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Scientific conference at Kabete , Kenya, 3-5th Nov 2004. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Mburu J. and R. Birner, (2002) .". In: International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 5: 259-297. Ogutu J.O; 2002. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Mburu J. and R. Birner (2007). Emergence, Adoption and Implementation of Collaborative Wildlife Management or Wildlife partnerships in Kenya: A look at Conditions for Success. Society and Natural Resources 20, No.5: 379-395.". In: Society and Natural Resources 20, No.5: 379-395. Ogutu J.O; 2007. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Mburu J. and E. Wale (2006) .". In: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53: 613-629. Ogutu J.O; 2006. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Mbunge.". In: Mizungu Ya Manabiina Hadithi Nyingine. Phoenix; 2010.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A., Skjelbred, P. and Lokken, P. (1988): Effects of a glucocorticoid in the post-operative course following experimented orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand. 29, 415-419.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A., Djoseland, O. and Lokken, P. (1988): Adrenocortical suppression by a glucocorticoid: Effect of a single i.m. injection of betamethasone depot versus placeto given prior to orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand., 29, 4.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., Skoglund, L.A. and Lokken, P. (1989): Effects of phenylbutazone and indomethacin on the post-operative course following experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand., 30, 27-35.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., A. Bencivenga,S. Varma, J. Wambua, E. Wambua, T. Manyibe and G. Muchemi (1998) Repair of Posterior Cruciate and Collateral Ligaments Rupture in a Male Cheetah.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., (1994). Establishing a breeding kennel; Care of the bitch and neonates. Kenya Veterinary Association - Central Branch scientific meeting.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W., (1987). Steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in surgery. Paper presented during Kenya Veterinary Association - Coast Branch scientific meeting in Mombasa.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W.(1995) The role of the Kenya Veterinary Board in the veterinary profession. Paper presented in the Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference..". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W. (1996) contribution on rabies and worms in .". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W. (1994) Rabies: A practical approach. Presented in 3 workshops ( Ngecha, Gatundu and Kathiani in Kenya) for the Kenya Veterinary Association.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbugua, S.W. (1993). A Perspective of the Kenya Veterinary Board on curriculum development and veterinary needs into the 21st century. Kenya Veterinary Association annual scientific meeting in Nairobi.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1993. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Mbugua, S.M. and Gathumbi J.K. (2004). The contamination of Kenyan lager beers Fusarium mycotoxins. Journal of The Institute of Brewing 110: 227-229.". In: Proceedings of a WHO Experts group meeting on aflatoxins and health held on 24 . University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "MBUGUA, S.K. & OKOTH, M.W. (Compilers and Editors). Food Science Subject Meeting Report, 105 pp., Inter-University Council of East Africa, August 27 .". In: Inter-University Council of East Africa, August 27 . University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N., R. E. Austic and D. Cunningham (1985): Effect of feed restriction on growth and metabolism of replacement pullets: Poultry science 69: 1950-?". In: In proceedings: Animal production society of Kenya conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua, P.N., Gachuiri, C.K., Wahome R.G., Abate, A.A., Wanyoike, M.M.,3Munyua, S.J.M. and Kamau, J.M.Z. 1995. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N., D. Cunningham and R. E. Austic (1983): Effect of feed restriction on production performance of replacement pullets: Poultry Science 62: 1169- 1176.". In: In proceedings: FAO experts consultative meeting on animal feeds in the tropics, Bangkok, Thailand. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1983.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N. Poultry production in Kenya (1990).". In: In proceedings: CTA International seminar on small- holder rural poultry production in Africa. Thessaloniki, Greece. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1990.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua, P.N. and Wahome R.G., 1994. Formulae for Poultry, pigs and dairy cattle feeds. Technical report. Kenya Breweries, Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the IAEA meeting, Rabat, Morocco. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994.
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Mbugua, P.N. and Kabuage, L.W. (1998). Sustainable use of grasslands, forests, grains and crop residues. Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Seoul, Korea; June 28 - July 4, 1998.". In: Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Seoul, Korea; June 28 - July 4, 1998. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P.N. and J. Kiragu (1989): A case study of the importance of mineral supplementation in a dairy cattle herd: In Proceedings: 1st annual conference of faculty of veterinary medicine, University of Nairobi. Bull. Anim. Hlth Pro. Afr. special issue p.". In: In proceedings: CTA International seminar on small- holder rural poultry production in Africa. Thessaloniki, Greece. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Mbugua, P.N. and C.K. Gachuiri. 1998. Livestock production in Nyanza Province: Dairy Production.". In: Paper presented to Nyanza Provincial Agricultural Board, Migori. June 1997. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P. N. S.N. Muturi, L.N. Kimenye and C. Gor (2001). Role of partnerships in agricultural technology transfer and adoption in eastern Africa.". In: In proceedings 4th biennial Faculty of veterinary Medicine, university of Nairobi, conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P. N. and L.W. Kabuage (1998): Sustainable use of grasslands, forests, grains and crop residues.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua, P. N. (1989): Progress made in identifying alternative ingredients for use in poultry feeds in Kenya.". In: In proceedings: DLG conference on poultry production in hot climates. Hameln, W. Germany. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Mbugua PK, Otieno CF, Kayima JK, Amayo AA, McLigeyo SO.Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S191-6.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Mbugua P.N. and Wahome R.G., 1992. Nuclear technique in animal nutrition.". In: Paper presented at the NCST meeting, 1992. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M Welder A. A and Acosta D (1987): The toxic effects of mamba snake venoms in primary endothelial cell cultures. The Toxicologist 7 : 92.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712. The cardiotoxic actions of Kenyan green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom have been investigated using primary myocardial cell cultures isolated from neonatal rat hearts. The cardiotoxic actions of the whole venom and its fractionated components were evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, decreases in viability and inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused time- and concentration-dependent arrest of myocardial contraction, leakage of LDH, extensive disruption of cell monolayer, and decreases in viability. The venom was separated into 6 (DaI to DaVI) fractions by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Spontaneous beating activity was abolished by DaI to DaVI at high concentrations, while at lower doses they induced progressive depression of beating frequency after a 3-h treatment period. DaI to DaIV caused significant leakage of LDH, morphological damage, and decreases in viability after a 6-h incubation period. The most cardiotoxic fraction (DaIV), which also contains about 54% of the total protein of the whole venom, was fractionated into 18 polypeptides (Da1 to Da18) by ion exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. On the basis of their ability to abolish myocardial contractility, release LDH, alter cellular structure, lyse cell membranes and reduce viability, the 18 fractions have been divided into 4 arbitrary subgroups of cytotoxins: cardiotoxins, Da1 to Da3; cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da4 to Da12, Da14; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Da13, Da15 to Da17; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Da18. Marked synergistic cell membrane lysis occurred in myocardial cell cultures treated simultaneously with 2 cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da7 and Da11. It is suggested that the additive and synergistic cardiotoxic effects of high molecular weight cytotoxic proteins (DaI to DaIII), very low molecular weight cholinomimetic substances (DaV to DaVI) and the 4 subgroups of cardiotoxins may directly contribute to the pronounced cardiovascular problems observed in victims of green mamba bites. PMID: 3188032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M Welder A A and Acosta D (1988): Isolation and characterization of four subgroups of mamba ( Dendroaspis ) cardiotoxins using primary cultures of rat myocardial cells. The Toxicologist 8: 159.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1988. Abstract
n/a
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M Welder A A and Acosta D (1988): Cardiotoxicity of Kenyan green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom and its fractionated components in primary cultures of rat myocardial cells. Toxicology 52 : 187.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1988. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712. The cardiotoxic actions of Kenyan green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom have been investigated using primary myocardial cell cultures isolated from neonatal rat hearts. The cardiotoxic actions of the whole venom and its fractionated components were evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, decreases in viability and inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused time- and concentration-dependent arrest of myocardial contraction, leakage of LDH, extensive disruption of cell monolayer, and decreases in viability. The venom was separated into 6 (DaI to DaVI) fractions by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Spontaneous beating activity was abolished by DaI to DaVI at high concentrations, while at lower doses they induced progressive depression of beating frequency after a 3-h treatment period. DaI to DaIV caused significant leakage of LDH, morphological damage, and decreases in viability after a 6-h incubation period. The most cardiotoxic fraction (DaIV), which also contains about 54% of the total protein of the whole venom, was fractionated into 18 polypeptides (Da1 to Da18) by ion exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. On the basis of their ability to abolish myocardial contractility, release LDH, alter cellular structure, lyse cell membranes and reduce viability, the 18 fractions have been divided into 4 arbitrary subgroups of cytotoxins: cardiotoxins, Da1 to Da3; cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da4 to Da12, Da14; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Da13, Da15 to Da17; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Da18. Marked synergistic cell membrane lysis occurred in myocardial cell cultures treated simultaneously with 2 cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da7 and Da11. It is suggested that the additive and synergistic cardiotoxic effects of high molecular weight cytotoxic proteins (DaI to DaIII), very low molecular weight cholinomimetic substances (DaV to DaVI) and the 4 subgroups of cardiotoxins may directly contribute to the pronounced cardiovascular problems observed in victims of green mamba bites. PMID: 3188032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M Welder A A and Acosta D (1988): Cardiotoxicity of Jamesoni's mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni) venom and its fractionated components in primary cultures of rat myocardial cells. In vitro cell & Dev. Biol. 24 (8): 743.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1988. Abstract

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712.

Primary cultures of spontaneously beating myocardial cells isolated from neonatal rat hearts were used to screen the cardiotoxic effects of Jamesoni's mamba (Dendroaspis jamesoni) venom and components isolated from the venom by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, cellular viability, and alterations in spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused dose- and time-dependent leakage of LDH, disruption of the cell monolayer, decreases in viability, and inhibition of beating activity. Gel filtration of the venom yielded eight fractions (DjI to DjVIII). DjI (30 micrograms/ml), DjII (20 micrograms/ml), and DjV (20 micrograms/ml) caused significant (P less than 0.001) leakage of LDH, extensive morphologic damage, and decreases in viability. At lower concentrations DjI to DjVIII caused progressive inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The main fraction (DjV), which was the most toxic, was further separated into 14 polypeptides (Dj1 to Dj14) by ion-exchange chromatography using Bio-Rex 70. Based on the ability to induce LDH leakage, produce morphologic damage, lyse cell membranes, and arrest beating activity, four categories of polypeptides were identified: cardiotoxins, Dj1 and Dj2; cardiotoxinlike polypeptides, Dj3 to Dj8; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Dj9 to Dj13; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Dj14.

PMID: 3410805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M Welder A A and Acosta D (1987): The toxic effects of mamba snake venoms in primary myocardial cell cultures. The Toxicologist 7: 92.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712. The cardiotoxic actions of Kenyan green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom have been investigated using primary myocardial cell cultures isolated from neonatal rat hearts. The cardiotoxic actions of the whole venom and its fractionated components were evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, decreases in viability and inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused time- and concentration-dependent arrest of myocardial contraction, leakage of LDH, extensive disruption of cell monolayer, and decreases in viability. The venom was separated into 6 (DaI to DaVI) fractions by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Spontaneous beating activity was abolished by DaI to DaVI at high concentrations, while at lower doses they induced progressive depression of beating frequency after a 3-h treatment period. DaI to DaIV caused significant leakage of LDH, morphological damage, and decreases in viability after a 6-h incubation period. The most cardiotoxic fraction (DaIV), which also contains about 54% of the total protein of the whole venom, was fractionated into 18 polypeptides (Da1 to Da18) by ion exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. On the basis of their ability to abolish myocardial contractility, release LDH, alter cellular structure, lyse cell membranes and reduce viability, the 18 fractions have been divided into 4 arbitrary subgroups of cytotoxins: cardiotoxins, Da1 to Da3; cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da4 to Da12, Da14; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Da13, Da15 to Da17; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Da18. Marked synergistic cell membrane lysis occurred in myocardial cell cultures treated simultaneously with 2 cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da7 and Da11. It is suggested that the additive and synergistic cardiotoxic effects of high molecular weight cytotoxic proteins (DaI to DaIII), very low molecular weight cholinomimetic substances (DaV to DaVI) and the 4 subgroups of cardiotoxins may directly contribute to the pronounced cardiovascular problems observed in victims of green mamba bites. PMID: 3188032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M Thairu K and Telang B V (1982): Neuropharmacological studies of certain snake venoms Indian J Pharmacol 14: 115-.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1982. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M Thairu K and Telang B V (1982): Identification and estimation of a cholinomimetic substance in the venom of Dendroaspis polylepis Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 36: 187-.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1982. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M and Karlsson (1985): Fasciculins from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom and their effects on cholinesterases. Toxicon 23 : 595.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Mbugua P M (1985): Anticholinesterase toxins in mamba venoms. PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mbugua PN. "Mbugua."; 2011.
Mbugua SK. "Mbugua."; 1985.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Mbori-Ngacha, D.A., Otieno, J.A., Njeru, E.K., Onyango, F.E. Prevalence of Persistent diarrhoea in children aged 3-36 months at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72:711-4.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1995; 72:711-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
{ Three hundred and eighty four children aged 3-36 months admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH) with diarrhoea were studied for persistent diarrhoea (PD), defined as diarrhoea lasting more than 14 days. To establish the duration of diarrhoea, the children were evaluated daily while in hospital and on days seven, fourteen, twenty one and twenty eight of the diarrhoea episode, if discharged. Of these children, 268 (69.8%) were less than 12 months. There was a slight male preponderance with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Twenty (5.4%) children presented with diarrhoea of more than 14 days at admission while of the 364 who presented with diarrhoea of less than 14 days at admission, 40 (11%) developed persistent diarrhoea, giving a total PD rate of 16.5%. The peak age for PD was nine months with no sex difference. Some possible risk factors for PD were identified as blood in stools, pneumonia, malnutrition, not breastfeeding, severe dehydration and antibiotic treatment. The total number of deaths in the study cases was 50, giving a case fatality rate of 13.6%. Of the children with PD, 19(31.7%) died. The children with PD were at a four times greater risk of dying (P<0.001
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mbori-Ngacha D, Nduati R, John G, Reilly M, Richardson B, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Morbidity and mortality in breastfed and formula-fed infants of HIV-1-infected women: A randomized clinical trial.JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2413-20.". In: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2413-20. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
CONTEXT: Breastfeeding among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is associated with substantial risk of HIV-1 transmission, but little is known about the morbidity risks associated with formula feeding in infants of HIV-1-infected women in resource-poor settings. OBJECTIVE: To compare morbidity, nutritional status, mortality adjusted for HIV-1 status, and cause of death among formula-fed and breastfed infants of HIV-1-infected women. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial conducted between 1992 and 1998. SETTING: Four antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Of 401 live-born, singleton, or first-born twin infants of randomized HIV-1-seropositive mothers, 371 were included in the analysis of morbidity and mortality. INTERVENTIONS: Mothers were randomly assigned either to use formula (n = 186) or to breastfeed (n = 185) their infants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality rates, adjusted for HIV-1 infection status; morbidity; and nutritional status during the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: Two-year estimated mortality rates among infants were similar in the formula-feeding and breastfeeding arms (20.0% vs 24.4%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-1.3), even after adjusting for HIV-1 infection status (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.7). Infection with HIV-1 was associated with a 9.0-fold increased mortality risk (95% CI, 5.3-15.3). The incidence of diarrhea during the 2 years of follow-up was similar in formula and breastfeeding arms (155 vs 149 per 100 person-years, respectively). The incidence of pneumonia was identical in the 2 groups (62 per 100 person-years), and there were no significant differences in incidence of other recorded illnesses. Infants in the breastfeeding arm tended to have better nutritional status, significantly so during the first 6 months of life. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized clinical trial, infants assigned to be formula fed or breastfed had similar mortality rates and incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia during the first 2 years of life. However, HIV-1-free survival at 2 years was significantly higher in the formula arm. With appropriate education and access to clean water, formula feeding can be a safe alternative to breastfeeding for infants of HIV-1-infected mothers in a resource-poor setting.
Otieno SP. Mbona. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2010.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbogwa S.W., W.V Lumb, K.W. Smith: . (1978) Plating of Canine Scapular Fractures: Am. J. Vet. ResVol. 39 No. 8: 1327-1330.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbogwa S.W., J.G Wandera: ( 1977). Lymphosarcoma in Dog: A case report. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 1. No. 2 pg 15-16.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "MBOGOH, S.G. & OKOTH, M.W. Technical and economic models of milk collection and cooling centres handling 1,,000, 5,000 and 10,000 litres of milk per day (55 pp.). A study report prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation.". In: A study report prepared for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, December, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "MBOGOH, S.G. & OKOTH, M.W. Technical and economic considerations in the establishment of a milk collection and cooling Centre. FAO sponsored Workshop on Regional Exchange Network for Market-Oriented Dairy Development, December 4-8, 1995, Harare, Zimbabwe.". In: FAO sponsored Workshop on Regional Exchange Network for Market-Oriented Dairy Development, December 4-8, 1995, Harare, Zimbabwe. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Mbogoh, S., M. O. Odhiambo, and J. Karugia (1993). .". In: Proceedings of 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Sacramento, California in August 10-16, 1997. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Mbogoh, S. G., J. M. Gathuma and B. F. Makau (2005). Livestock Marketing and Support to the establishment of Livestock Disease Free Zones/Livestock Disease Free Export Zones in Kenya. Arid Lands Resource Management Project (ALRMP), Office of the President.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2005. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Mbogoh, S. G. et. al (2001). The Effects of the Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia (CBPP) Quarantine Line on Livestock Marketing in the Arid Districts of Kenya. African Technology Link (Techlink) Consultancy Report to the Arid Lands Resource Management Pr.". In: 25th International Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Durban, South Africa. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2001. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Mbogoh, S. G. (2004). Socio-economic Aspects of Tissue-Culture (Tc) Banana Production in Kenya. A Contributed Paper presented at the Rockefeller Foundation Regional Marketing Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, April 2004. University of Nairobi and Africa Harvest (.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2004. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mbiuki S.M. and Kiptoon J.C. (1982): Fibrosarcoma in an Avrshire Heifer .". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1982.
O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Mbiti MJ, Ojwang PJ, Orinda DA. External quality control performance in clinical chemistry: experience in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.
O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Mbiti MJ, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA. Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk: II. Effects on protein and bone metabolism.East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):627-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):627-30. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kenyatta National Hospital, University of Nairobi, Kenya. We determined serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin levels in a group of 66 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. We used these parameters as markers to study the effect of sodium supplementation on protein and bone metabolism in VLBW infants fed on their mothers' milk. 41 of the infants were supplemented with 3 mMol/kg/day sodium chloride for a duration of six weeks of postnatal life. The remaining group were fed only on their mothers' milk. Results indicated significantly increased serum levels of calcium (P < 0.01) in the non-supplemented group while inorganic phosphate and total protein levels showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in the supplemented group. Both groups had increased levels of osteoblastic activity accompanied by high rate of protein synthesis in the supplemented group compared to the non-supplemented one. These findings together with a significant difference in growth rate (P < 0.01) observed between the two groups indicate that sodium supplementation may have a significant effect on the rate of bone mineralization and protein synthesis in VLBW infants.

W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Mbiti M. Orinda D.A.O.Contributor in .". In: Publishers CCAK, 1995. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "Mbithi,P.M.F.;Mbiuki,S.M.;Nguhiu-Mwangi,J.A.;Kihurani,D.O.(1991);Non-fracture lameness in cattle; A retrospective study. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (1991)39(3)307-309.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
Out of 3,278 bovine cases seen and treated at the large animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (LAC-UON), 549 (16.74%) had non-fracture lameness (NFL). Foot lameness contributed to 65% of the NFL and the commonest cause of the foot lameness (37.34%) was septic arthritis of the distal interphalengeal joint. The data is being used to establish examination, therapeutic and preventive protocol to be followed in hospital as well as on farm herd health programs.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Mbithi, P.M.F., Mbiuki, S.M., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., and Kihurani, D.O. (1991):Non fracture lameness in cattle: A retrospective study. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39;307-309.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Mbithi, P.M.F., Mbiuki, S.M., Mbugua, S.W. and Mitema, E. (1994). Pseudoarthrosis and arthrodesis of the bovine fetlock. Tanzania Vet. Journal.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Mbithi P.M.F., Mbiuki S.M. and Kiptoon J.C. (1991): Clinical and Experimental Evaluation of the Healing of Autologous free full-thickness skin grafted on untreated skin wounds in Distal limbs of cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol.39 p.289-291.". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1991.
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. Rural Communication for Sustainable Development in Africa.". In: Paper presented at the 9th ACCE Biennial Conference 16th-23rd October 1994, Accra, Ghana. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The role of the media in the national aids control programme in Kenya.".". In: A Keynote address, workshop for Journalists in the print and electronic media organized by Minsitry of Health and National Aids Control Programme, Kenya. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The role of mass media in national development".". In: A paper presented at the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Management Course. Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The media in Africa".". In: Deutche Welle (Voice of Germany) reunion seminar, Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1984. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The management of population communication in Africa.".". In: A paper presented at FAO, ILO and UNESCO inter-agency symposium for communication planners and decision makers, Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The impact of communication channels among the small and large scale farmers in Eastern Nigeria,".". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "The flow and structure of foreign news and programmes in Kenyan Mass Media".". In: In Teichert, W. (Ed.) Image, Communication Manual. Media and Communication Department; Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung, Bonn. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Social Mobilization Strategies for Acceleration and Sustaining Universal Child Immunization Levels in Zambia".". In: Consultancy Report for UNICEF, Lusaka, Zambia. au-ibar; 1990. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Rural communication in Kenya".". In: Paper presented at Deutsche Welle Radio Correspondents, Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "People's Participatory Radio and Training".". In: Paper presented at World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters' Seminar on the Establishment of a Training Institute for Community Broadcasters for Anglophone Africa. Namibia. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Obstancles and Restrictions to Information Flow and Exchange in East and Southern Africa.".". In: Study carried on behalf of UNESCO Office of the Regional Communications for East and Southern Africa. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Media coverage of health issues in Kenya: Analytical observations".". In: Paper presented at unit of peace research and development studies, University of Tampere, Training Course of E.A. Journalism on Primary Health Care. Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Mass media training needs for rural journalism in the 1990's and beyond.".". In: Paper presented at the seminar for training the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting organized by the Kenya Insitute of Mass Communication and Freidrich Ebert Stiftung, Kisumu, Kenya. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "General Aspects of Rural Communication and Development.".". In: Paper presented at ACCE/FES/School of Journalism, University of Nairobi on Rural Print Journalism in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1991. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Diffusion of Innovations: A Theoretical Framework and its Implications for Family Planning.".". In: Paper presented at UNESCO-UNFPA Population Communication Project on Persuasion and Message Design Workshop, nakuru, Kenya. au-ibar; 1991. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Culture, communication and peace".". In: Paper presented at round table conference for the celebration of the international year of peace in UNESCO's Field of Competence, Paris, France. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
JOSEPH DRMBINDYO. "Mbindyo, J.M. "Communication and Political Democracy: Public Relations and marketing Perspectives.". In: A Keynote Address, conference organized by African Council for Communication Education, Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 1995. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity

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