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R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mwangi, J.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Rege, J.E.O., 1994. Effect of breed, month of the year and age of bulls on semen quality of Bos Taurus bulls in a tropical environment. Kenya Veterinary Journal 18(1) 8-11.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. The Nature of Rental Housing in Kenya. Environment and Urbanization Vol. 9. No.2 October 1997:141-159.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1997. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. Research Funding: The Remaining Option. University of Nairobi, Varsity Focus November 1995:6-9.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. Comment. Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 19. No.2 Autumn 1998:65-68; on ADARKWA, K.K. The Role of Regional Development in Closing the Gap Between Rural and Urban Areas: The Ghanian Experience. Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 19. No.2, A.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. Challenges of Urban Land Development and Managing Development in the City of Nairobi and Bordering Urban Areas. In KREIBIC, V. AND OLIMA, W.H.A. (2002 EDS) LAND MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA. Dortmund: SPRING Centre, University of Dortmund. SPRING Cen.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. (1993) Urban Planning in Developing Countries: The Case of Kenya. Nairobi: ACTS. Research Memorandum No.5.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. "Capacity Building for Regional Development Planning and Plan Preparation in Nyandarua District of Kenya". Regional Development Dialogue Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 2007; pp.155-185.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Regional Development Strategies for Enhancing Urban-Rural Linkages: Experiences and Implications for Local Economic Development in Kenya. In UN-HABITAT (2005) URBAN-RURAL LINKAGES APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT. HS/.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Regional Development Strategies for Enhancing Urban-Rural Linkages: Experiences and Implications for Local Economic Development in Kenya. In UN-HABITAT (2005) REPORT ON THE INTER-REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON URBAN-RURAL LINKAGES APPROACH TO DEVELO.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Preparation and Administration of Data Collection Instruments. In NGAU, P. AND KUMSSA, A. (2004 EDS) RESEARCH DESIGN, DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A TRAINING MANUAL. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. Chapter 9. pp.141-175.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Comment. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 2004 pp14-17; on WANYANDE, P. Decentralization and Local Governance: A Conceptual and Theoretical Perspective. Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 2004 pp1-13.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. Canadian Planning Education in East Africa. Plan Canada April, May, June 2001, Vol 41. No. 2. pp26.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. AND MBECHE, I. M. Field Operations for Data Collection. In NGAU, P. AND KUMSSA, A. (2004 EDS) RESEARCH DESIGN, DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A TRAINING MANUAL. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. UNCRD Textbook Series No. 12. Chapter 10. pp177-187.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. (2006) Planning in Kenya on the Brink of a Precipice: Who will save the discipline and the profession. Nairobi: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Nairobi. Discussion Paper. 12 pages.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. (2006) Book Review Article. KUMSSA, A. AND MCGEE, T. G. (2001 EDS) New Regional Development Paradigms Volume 1: Globalization and the New Regional Development Connecticut, USA: Published by Greenwood Press, 88 Post Rod West, Connecticut, USA.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I. K. (2002) Using Urban Planning Instrument in Improving Urban Food Security. Workshop Paper. Organized by UN-Habitat in Partnership with Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Development Research Centre (IDRDC) and Strategic Ini.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Mwangi, I. and W. Oluoch-Kosura 2004 .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2004.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "Mwangi, Faith Wanjiru and B.N.K. Njoroge, Alternative Solid Waste Management Model for the Nairobi City.". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mwangi, D.W., Mukuria,J.C. and Noguchi, A. (1998). Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) serum antibody and total sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients.African Journal of Health Sciences 5: 108 .". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 5: 108 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

N PROFNYAGAP. "Mwangi, D.N; Munyua, W.K. and Nyaga, P.N. (1990). Immunosuppresion in caprine trypanosomiasis. Effeets of acute Trypanosoma congolense infection on antibody response to anthrax spore vaccine. Trop. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. 22: 95-100.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1990. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Mwangi, D.M., Munyua, W.K., and Nyaga, P.N. (1990): Immunosuppression in caprine trypanosomiasis: Effects of acute Trypanosoma congolense infection on antibody response to anthrax spore vaccine. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 22: 95-100.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part Two, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of EducationScience and Technology, 68 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part One, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Education,Science and Technology, 81 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers, English Units 1-6,Institute of In-service Teacher Training and Ministry of Education, Mogadishu - Somalia.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P and Macheru N.,Project Proposal Writing, Kenya Adult Education Association.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Mwangi, A. and Nyangeri, E.N. Performance Evaluation of Community .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWANGI S.W. & F.B. MWAURA(1998). Response of Leuceana leucocephala, L.diversifolia, Calliandra calothyrsus & Sesbania sesban to inoculation with rhizobia from several ecological zones of Kenya. In:Harnessing Biological Nitrogen Fixation in African Agricul.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWANGI S.W. & F.B MWAURA (2002). Inoculation responses of Leucaena leucocephala grown in two tropical soils. International J. of BioChemiPhysics. Vol. 13 & 14 :.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Mwangi J.W., Guantai A.N. and Muriuki G. Eucalyptus Citriodora - Essential oil contents and chemical varieties in Kenya. E.Afric. Agr. For J. 46, 89 1981.". In: E.Afric. Agr. For J. 46, 89 1981. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract

he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Mwangi J.W. Guantai A.N., Muriuki G.m Essential oil of Plectrathus marrubiodes Benth. Kenya J. Sci. Technnol (A 63 1986.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technnol (A 63 1986. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1986.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Mwangi J.W. Guantai A.N., Muriuki G., Kwande W.Constituents of the essential oil of ocimum fischeri guerke. Kenya J. Sci series (B) 9:119-121 1988.". In: Kenya J. Sci series (B) 9:119-121 1988. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1988. Abstract

Cardiovascular activities of nitidine chloride from Zanthoxylunt chalybeum have been compared with those of 9-methoxychelerythrine. Whereas nitidinc chloride was found to show significant hypotensive activity in rabbits, 9-methoxychelerythrine chloride showed no hypotensive activity. The effect of nitidine chloride on isolated rabbit heart was also compared with those of adrenaline and acetylcholine. 9-Methoxychelerythrine, which has hitherto been regarded as an artefact formed by recrystallization of chelerythrine base from methanol, has been shown in this work to be a true natural constituent of Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Keywords: 9-inethoxychelerythrine; nitidine chloride; cardiovascular properties; hypotensive effect; Zanthoxylum chalybeum.

CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Mwangi J. Blood group distribution in an urban population of patient targeted blood donors. East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1999. Abstract

Participatory Approaches to Veterinary Epidemiology Project, Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, UK. andy.catley@oau-ibar.org In southern Sudan, livestock keepers identified a chronic wasting disease in adult cattle as one of their most-serious animal-health problems. Participatory-appraisal (PA) methods and conventional veterinary-investigation methods were used to characterise the chronic wasting disease and identify linkages between indigenous knowledge and modern veterinary knowledge. The local characterisation of chronic wasting encompassed trypanosomosis, fasciolosis, parasitic gastroenteritis and schistosomosis (as both single and mixed infections).A standardised PA method called matrix scoring had good reproducibility when investigating local perceptions of disease-signs and disease causes. Comparison of matrix-scoring results showed much overlap with modern veterinary descriptions of cattle diseases and the results of conventional veterinary investigation. Applications of PA methods in remote areas with very limited veterinary infrastructure are discussed. The validation of data derived from PA is discussed by reference to the low sensitivity of 'field-friendly' diagnostic tests for important cattle diseases.

CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Mwangi J, Gatei DG.Hepatitis B virus, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):34-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):615-8. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common malignancy in Kenyan males occurring with a peak incidence at 40 years of age. A worldwide correlation has been noted between the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and prevalence of hepatitis B virus. Liver biopsies with histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and the normals were reviewed by the authors. They were then stained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis e core antigen (HBcAg). Only 2.5% of normal livers were positive for HBsAg compared with 33% of HCC and 25% of cirrhosis respectively. Hepatitis core antigen was not demonstrated in normal liver biopsies but it was present in 11.5% of HCC and 14% of cirrhosis. Background cirrhosis was noted in 52% of biopsies showing HCC. It is clear that a causal association exists between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Higher antigen markers, up to 80% have been reported in South East Asia and India. This difference may be due to the type of biopsy examined (needle biopsy vs open biopsy) but the possibility that other factors such as aflatoxin and non A/non B hepatitis viruses play a more significant role in the causation of liver disease in Kenya than has previously been assumed should be explored.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Mwangi DW, Mukuria JC, Noguchi A.Serum Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody and total sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients.Afr J Health Sci. 1998;5(1-2):108-12.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1998;5(1-2):108-12. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1998. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Mwangi D. K., Kiama S. G. (2005). Stereological methods for estimation of total number of particles in an organ. The Kenya Veterinarian 29: 33-36.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 6th to 8th September 2006. Elsevier; 2005.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Mwangi A.M., Kogi-Makau, W and Ngala S. Report of the world vision.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi A, Matiru, B and Schlete R (eds) Teach Your Best: A Handbook for University Lecturers, Institute for Socio-Cultural Studies, University of Kassel .". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995.
G DRKIBOIJULIUS. "Mwang'ombe NJ, Kiboi J.Factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2001 May;78(5):238-41.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 May;78(5):238-41. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Six hundred and seventy seven patients with severe head injuries who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1992 and December 1996. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy seven patients with severe head injuries were treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, between January 1992 and December 1996. Three hundred and eighty one patients died while undergoing treatment, 56.2% overall mortality. Age specific mortality was 35.7% in patients below 13 years, 44% in age group 14-25 years, 56% in age group 26-45 years. The admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was recorded in 637 patients. Patients with admission GCS of 3-4 had a mortality of 88%, those with GCS 5-6 had a mortality of 60% and those with admission GCS 7-8 had a mortality of 52%. Ninety per cent of the patients who had bilaterally dilated pupils not reacting to light on admission died and 66% of the patients with bilaterally constricted pupils at the time of admission died. Only 20% of patients with severe head injury who had normal pupillary reaction to light at the time of admission died. Eighty five per cent of the patients with systolic BP of less than 90 mmHg on admission died while 60% of those with systolic BP greater than 120 mmHg died. CONCLUSION: In this study, factors associated with poor outcome in severe head injury patients at Kenyatta National Hospital were age, admission GCS, admission blood pressure (systolic), presence of other associated injuries and pupillary reaction to light.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mwang.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1988. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Mwang.". In: Pan-Commonwealth Conference on Open Learning Proceedings. http://pcf4.dec.uwi.edu/papers.php. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2006. Abstract

Seven hundred and fifty bean plant samples with root rot symptoms were collected from farmers' fields during two surreys carried out in Embu district, Kenya. Various fungal pathogens were isolated in the laboratory from these samples; among them were 50 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, which were subjected to pathogenicity tests in a glasshouse. Thirty-six isolates of R. solani obtained from beans with root rots were subjected to DNA microsatellite analysis. Five isolates of R. solani that cause black scarf of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were also analysed alongside those from the beans. A total of 50 alleles were detected when six microsatellite loci were typed in the 41 samples, with the mean of 8.33 and a range of 3 at locus RB23 to 19 at locus AF513014. The smallest allele size was 129 basepair at locus RE102 and the largest was 297 basepair at locus AY212027. Microsatellite analysis showed a moderate variation among the isolates from different agro-ecological zones and administrative boundaries (divisions). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters within the population of 41 isolates of R. solani from Kenya. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 had 15, 10 and 75% isolates, respectively. However, cluster 3 had 4 sub-clusters and cluster 1 had 2 sub-clusters, while cluster 2 did not have a sub-cluster. There was no relationship between microsatellites and geographical origin of the isolates. This is the first study on the genetic diversity of R. solani using DNA microsatellite analysis in Kenya. Key words: DNA microsatellite analysis, Kenya, Phaseolus vulgaris and Rhizoctonia solani

M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Mwandotto, B.A.J., Waruiru, R.M., Rege, J.E.O., Okeyo, A.M., Mosi, R.O., Ang'wen nyi, G., Rinkanya, F., Thorpe, W. & Kimenye, D., 1990. Breeding and genetic diversity in Kenyan livestock.". In: KARI Conference, Nairobi. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
A DRRAJABJAMILLA. "Mwanda WO, Rajab JA. Granulocytic sarcoma: report of three cases.East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):594-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):594-6. VDM Verlag; 1999. Abstract
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary solid tumour composed of malignant immature cells of the granulocytic series. It may herald, accompany or signal acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL). GS may also occur in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) where it is a sign of imminent disease progression. Three cases of GS are presented; the first one involving the pancreas and preceding AML, the second case affecting uterine cervix in stable phase CGL and the third case is GS of the breast accompanying AML. Any site of the body may be involved by the GS, and morbidity depends on the local organ/tissue affected in addition to the attending primary leukaemia or MDS. Treatment of GS involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The objective of this communication is to enhance awareness in personnel providing health care. Further, early diagnosis and treatment affects overall outcome.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda WO, Christopher W, Scot CR, Lederman M, Orem J, Banura C. Anatomical sites predilections of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96.". In: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda WO, Christopher W, Scot CR, Lederman M, Orem J, Banura C. Anatomical sites predilections of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96.". In: A Report on 54 cases. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S90-96. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W.O., Abdallah F.K., Obondo A., Musau F. Quality Of Life: Aspects To Look For In Male Cancer Patients At A Referral Hospital In Kenya . EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347.". In: EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W.O., Abdallah F.K., Obondo A., Musau F. Quality Of Life: Aspects To Look For In Male Cancer Patients At A Referral Hospital In Kenya . EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347.". In: EAMJ 2004; 81: 341-347. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A DROBONDOANNE. "Mwanda W. O., Abdallah F. K., Obondo A.A., Musau F., .". In: East African Medical Journal 2004; 81: 341 . International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Prevention and early detection of paediatric cancers. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Prevention and early detection of paediatric cancers. The African journal of Hospital Medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda W. O. Geographical, demographical and some clinical characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya . Doctor of Medicine (M.D) thesis of the University of Nairobi , 2001.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

O MW. "Mwanda W. O. Geographical, demographical and some clinical characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya . Doctor of Medicine (M.D) thesis of the University of Nairobi , 2001." (Medicom) 2001:16, 6;100-102.. 2001. AbstractWebsite

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda OW, Rosemary Rochford, Ann M Moormann, Adam Macneil, Christopher Whalen, Mark L Wilson. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya : Geographical, Age, Gender and Ethnic distribution. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S68-77.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S68-77. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda OW, Rosemary Rochford, Ann M Moormann, Adam Macneil, Christopher Whalen, Mark L Wilson. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya : Geographical, Age, Gender and Ethnic distribution. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S68-77.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S68-77. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Wanjohi E.W., Cheserem E N., Kassabach Merrit Syndrome in an adult female African, Case report, East African Medical Journal 67, 214, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal 67, 214, 1990. MBA; 1990. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Otieno C. F., Abdalla F. K., Transfusion Haemosiderosis Inspite Of Regular Use Of Desferrioxamine - Case Report. EAMJ 2004; 81:326-328.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Otieno C. F., Abdalla F. K., Transfusion Haemosiderosis Inspite Of Regular Use Of Desferrioxamine - Case Report. EAMJ 2004; 81:326-328.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Dave P. Megaloblastic Marrow in Macrocytic anaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital and M P Shah hospitals , Nairobi .". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76,11;610-614. MBA; 1999. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Dave P. Megaloblastic Marrow in Macrocytic anaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital and M P Shah hospitals , Nairobi .". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76,11;610-614. MBA; 1999. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W., Abinya N.O. Relapse of Hodgkin's lymphoma after 10 years of complete remission. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998, 75:3, 165-167.". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76,11;610-614. MBA; 1998. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. The Clinical Characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma seen in Kenyan Patients. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. The Clinical Characteristics of Burkitt's Lymphoma seen in Kenyan Patients. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S78-89. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Principles of Applied Blood Transfusion Manual.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus anticoagulants: pathophysiology, clinical and laboratory Associations: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568.". In: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568. MBA; 2003. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus anticoagulants: pathophysiology, clinical and laboratory Associations: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568.". In: A review EAMJ 2003; 80:564-568. MBA; 2003. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The quality of life of cancer patients is likely to be influenced by psychological reactions of the cancer patients yet there are no documented issues related to quality of life in cancer patients in Kenyan hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate issues which affect the quality of life in male cancer patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Cancer patients above 12 years of age were interviewed during the course of their stay in the hospital, specifically to gather information on; semi structured questions and a modified Beck's 24 item depression inventory with a view to solicit for their reaction on issues which pertains to quality of life. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age group, level of education, tribe, geographical place (province) of birth, chief complains, main concerns, views on doctors, contact with psychiatrist and psychologist, the anatomic site of cancer, treatment given and responses on modified Beck's depression inventory. RESULTS: Forty two patients were studied, their age range 13-72 years, mean 43.2 and peak 13-26 years. Forty seven per cent of cases had no formal education. The cancers were gastrointestinal tract 33%, blood and lymphoid tissue (26%), bone and muscle (11.9%), skin (9.4%) and genitourinary tract (4.8%). Treatment given was chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Ninety three per cent were unable to cope. Chief complaints were pain, inability to work, feeling miserable and concerns were families, health and work retardation. Modified Beck's depression score was 20%, with major issues being; work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, and anorexia. Most affected were, age group 27-35 years (and least 13-26 years), uneducated, living in Nairobi (city), having carcinomas, treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy. Low education level and residence in Nairobi coped poorly. Radiation therapy group appeared to cope better than other modalities. CONCLUSION: The issues affecting the quality of life of male cancer patients stated were pain, inability to work, poor coping with cancer and psychological reactions of work retardation, insomnia, weight loss, fatigability and depression. Gambling, suicidal ideas and social withdrawal were minimal. Other concerns were families, health and work.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus Anticoagulant Syndrome. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620.". In: East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620. MBA; 1998. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Lupus Anticoagulant Syndrome. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620.". In: East African Medical Journal 1998;75:10;619-620. MBA; 1998. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Haematological changes in human immunodeficiency virus infection Part II. East African Medical Journal 1997, 11: 737-739.". In: East African Medical Journal 1997, 11: 737-739. MBA; 1997. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Haematological changes in human immunodeficiency virus infection Part II. East African Medical Journal 1997, 11: 737-739." East African Medical Journal 1997, 11: 737-739.. 1997. Abstracthaemotological_changes_in_human_immunodeficiency_virus_infection_part_ii.pdfWebsite

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Haematological changes in human immunodeficiency virus infection Part I. East African Medical Journal 1997, 74:11, 732-736.". In: East African Medical Journal 1997, 74:11, 732-736. MBA; 1997. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Cancer in Children younger than sixteen years in Kenya . East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9. MBA; 1999. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Cancer in Children younger than sixteen years in Kenya . East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76:1;3-9. MBA; 1999. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O.W. Aflatoxicosis: Health Implications. Editorial. EAMJ, 2005; 273-274.". In: EAMJ, 2005; 273-274. MBA; 2005. Abstract
D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W., Cecily Banura, Edward Katangole Mbidde, John L. Johnson, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Afshin Dowlati, Rolf Renne, Eric Arts, Christopher Whalen, Michael M. Lederman, Scot C. Remick. Therapeutic challenges of AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the U.". In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002: 94, 718-32. MBA; 2002. Abstract

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) remains the second most common malignant complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As we enter the third decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, it is apparent that the evolution of antiretroviral therapy and the emergence of combination antiviral strategies have greatly affected the natural history of HIV infection and its neoplastic complications. For example, there may be a trend for declining incidence of AIDS-related lymphoma in the United States for the first time. However, in regions of the world where the burden of HIV infection is greatest, such as in East Africa, AIDS-related lymphoma is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of lymphoma has evolved coincident with improvements in antiretroviral therapy. Infusional chemotherapy regimens may offer advantages over other regimens and schedules, but comparative trials have not been done. Clinical trial data are available on which to develop therapeutic strategies to treat this disease in East Africa where pragmatic approaches are needed. Both the differences in manifestations of HIV infection and the inherent difficulties in administering cytotoxic chemotherapy in this part of the world must be taken into consideration in planning therapeutic strategies. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection and lymphoma will likely yield improved therapeutic interventions as well.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Practical Guide to Coagulation Tests.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Practical Guide to Coagulation Tests.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Kasili's Synopsis of the Management of Paediatric Cancers in Kenya.". In: BOOK. MBA; 1990. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Cancer prevention and early detection. The African journal of hospital medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Cancer prevention and early detection. The African journal of hospital medicine (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89.". In: (Medicom) 2001:16, 6, 85-89. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma; The Initial defining Characteristics. EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67.". In: EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma; The Initial defining Characteristics. EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67.". In: EAMJ, 2004;81:S63-67. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya : views from the 20th Century, Introduction. EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Burkitt's Lymphoma in Kenya : views from the 20th Century, Introduction. EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81:S61-62. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Blood transfusion. Sustainable Donor's system is the key to the service. A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32.". In: A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32. MBA; 2000. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W. Blood transfusion. Sustainable Donor's system is the key to the service. A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32.". In: A. J. H. M. (MEDICOM) 2000, 15, 2:31-32. MBA; 2000. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W ., Scot Remick, Christopher Whalen. Adults Burkitt's Lymphoma in patients with and without Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in Kenya . Int. J. Cancer: 2001;92, 687-691.". In: Int. J. Cancer: 2001;92, 687-691. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W , Rochford Rosemary, Jenetter Rainey, Mark L Wilson. Challenges (in the epidemiological and clinical aspects) of Burkitt's lymphoma in Kenya : linking evidence and experience. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S111-116.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O. W , Rochford Rosemary, Jenetter Rainey, Mark L Wilson. Challenges (in the epidemiological and clinical aspects) of Burkitt's lymphoma in Kenya : linking evidence and experience. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S111-116.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O W, Magoha G A O, Afulo O K. Autologous transfusion in surgical patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. EAMJ, 2001; 78:11;563-568.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):564-7. MBA; 2001. Abstract
Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To identify autotransfusion strategies and their basis in elective surgery patients. DESIGN: A cross sectional prospective study. SETTING: General surgery and orthopaedic wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult patients of both sexes planned for elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Forevery patient, the following were enquired about and documented: age in years, sex, ethnicity, religion, occupation and educational standard. Blood values of haemoglobin, platelet counts, total and differential white cell counts, urea, electrolytes and liver function tests were assayed. Others were the number of units of blood donated before the operation, the type of surgery performed, time taken from diagnosis to performing the operation and whether the blood was transfused preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of sixty three cases constituting five per cent of all surgical patients admitted during the period of study were evaluated. Of these 53 (84%) were males and ten (16%) females. The age range was 15 to 65 years with a peak at 45-49 years. There were more Christians (90%) than Muslims (10%). In all, 32 (51.6%) had primary school education, 23 (36.5%) secondary school education, seven (11.3%) no formal education and one (1.6%) had attained college level. Employment pattern showed 50% were civil servants, 30% were self employed and 20% were unemployed. The duration of disease ranged from 1-24 weeks with two peaks at two weeks and six weeks. Orthopaedic cases constituted 78.7% and general surgery 21.3%. Preoperative haemoglobin ranged from 13.5-14.2 g/dl. Transfusions were given intraoperatively to 41 (66.1%) and to 12 (33.9%) postoperatively. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 13 days (range 5 to 21 days). 98.4% deposited only one unit while 1.6% deposited four units of blood. Only one patient required additional transfusion from homologous donors. CONCLUSION: The strategies and basis for autotransfusion have been demonstrated among a majority of adult patients requiring orthopaedic procedures. Major determinants are shown to be baseline blood count profiles and time to operation.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Mwanda O W, Magoha G A O, Afulo O K. Autologous transfusion in surgical patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. EAMJ, 2001; 78:11;563-568.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):564-7. MBA; 2001. Abstract

Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To identify autotransfusion strategies and their basis in elective surgery patients. DESIGN: A cross sectional prospective study. SETTING: General surgery and orthopaedic wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult patients of both sexes planned for elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Forevery patient, the following were enquired about and documented: age in years, sex, ethnicity, religion, occupation and educational standard. Blood values of haemoglobin, platelet counts, total and differential white cell counts, urea, electrolytes and liver function tests were assayed. Others were the number of units of blood donated before the operation, the type of surgery performed, time taken from diagnosis to performing the operation and whether the blood was transfused preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of sixty three cases constituting five per cent of all surgical patients admitted during the period of study were evaluated. Of these 53 (84%) were males and ten (16%) females. The age range was 15 to 65 years with a peak at 45-49 years. There were more Christians (90%) than Muslims (10%). In all, 32 (51.6%) had primary school education, 23 (36.5%) secondary school education, seven (11.3%) no formal education and one (1.6%) had attained college level. Employment pattern showed 50% were civil servants, 30% were self employed and 20% were unemployed. The duration of disease ranged from 1-24 weeks with two peaks at two weeks and six weeks. Orthopaedic cases constituted 78.7% and general surgery 21.3%. Preoperative haemoglobin ranged from 13.5-14.2 g/dl. Transfusions were given intraoperatively to 41 (66.1%) and to 12 (33.9%) postoperatively. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 13 days (range 5 to 21 days). 98.4% deposited only one unit while 1.6% deposited four units of blood. Only one patient required additional transfusion from homologous donors. CONCLUSION: The strategies and basis for autotransfusion have been demonstrated among a majority of adult patients requiring orthopaedic procedures. Major determinants are shown to be baseline blood count profiles and time to operation.

Wamitila KW. Mwanakijiji na miwani.; 2006.Website
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwambazi, E. and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1996). Women's Access to Land, Security of Tenure and Agricultural Productivity: A Case Study of Monze District, Zambia, in Mukhebi, A. et al (Eds.) Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa:.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Mwamba, D.K. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. The influence of phosphorus fertilization and spacing on growth and fruiting of bell peppers (Capsicum annum L.) (Abstract). Acta Horticulturae, 152: 161.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
R T. "Mwalimu Adui.". In: Alionja Asali na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2015.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mwalali P.N., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Africa,1:64, 1982 The Effects of GnRH and TRH on pituitary secretion of FSH, LH and PRL in Normal Kenyan Males.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Africa,1:64, 1982. uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwala, A.K. and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Effects of rock phosphate fertilizer, Rhizobium inoculation and VA-mycorrhizae on nodulation and growth of soyabeans (Glycine max L.) grown on Humic Nitosol. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 160-161.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1998. Abstract
n/a
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Mwajumwa, L.B.S., Kahangi, E.M. and Imungi, J.K. 1991. The Prevalence and nutritional value of some Kenyan indigenous leafy vegetables from three locations of Machakos District. Ecology of Food and Nutrition: 26:275.". In: Presented at the Seminar of Post harvest Management of Food Crops. Nairobi, 29 - 30 January 1992. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Mwai C, Rutenberg N, Kalibala S, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Nganda B, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Provider time for women seeking MCH care in the kenyan Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV project: Baseline findings.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 403. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Mwacharo, J.M., Okeyo, A.M., Kamande, G. K., and Rege, J.E.O. 2006. The Small East African Shorthorn Zebu cattle in Kenya I. Linear Body Measurements.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production. 38: 65-74. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2006. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Mwacharo J. M., Otieno C.J., Okeyo A.M. and Aman R.A. 2002. Genetic variations between indigenous fat-tailed sheep populations in Kenya.". In: Small Ruminant Research. 44(3) 173-178. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Mwacharo J. M., Otieno C.J., Okeyo A.M. and Aman R.A. 2002. Characteristics of Indigenous Fat-tailed and Fat-rumped Hair sheep in Kenya: Diversity in Blood Proteins.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production. 34(6) 515-524. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Mwacharo J. M., Otieno C.J. and A.M. Okeyo. 2003. Haemoglobin and transferring (Beta-globulin) polymorphism in Indigenous Kenyan sheep breeds.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. and prod. in Africa. 51: 139-14. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2003. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OGWARI DRMWABEPHILIPH. "Mwabe, P.O., J.O.L. Wendt, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1996. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OGWARI DRMWABEPHILIPH. "Mwabe P.O., Woodcock, C.R. .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1984. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OGWARI DRMWABEPHILIPH. "Mwabe P.O., W.C. Lin, J.O.L. Wendt, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OGWARI DRMWABEPHILIPH. "Mwabe P.O., Mechanisms Governing Alkali Metal Capture by Kaolinite in a Downflow Combustor.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OGWARI DRMWABEPHILIPH. "Mwabe P.O. , J.O.L Wendt, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 199. Abstract

Mbugua PM, Thairu K, Ng'ang'a JN, Telang BV.

A cholinomimetic substance was isolated from desiccated venom of Dendroaspis polylepis by one-dimensional ascending paper chromatography. The migratory and staining properties of the substance were compared with those of standard acetylcholine. Pharmacological and biochemical identification was carried out on various in vitro and in vivo biological test objects as well as with high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The assay of the cholinomimetic substance was done on both superfused guinea pig ileum and hamster stomach strips. The cholinomimetic substance content was 2.44 - 3.46mg/0.96gm of total protein in the desiccated venom.

PMID: 7100627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

B MISSREGOASSUMPTA. "Muyanda-Mutebi,P., and Rego, A.B (eds), 1988, UNICEF Teaching/Learning Methodology Guide for Environmental Education including Popuation Education in Eastern and Southern Africa, UNICEF, Nairobi.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1988. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Mukhwana A, Iribe MP. "Muundo wa Kiswahili: Ngazi na Vipengele." A-Frame Publishers, Kijabe; 2010. Abstract
n/a
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mutungi, A.K., Sanghvi, H.C.G., Sinei, S.K., Ojwang, S.B.O., Sekadde-Kigondu,C.B. Contraceptive Acceptance and Continuation Among Women Managed for Incomplete Abortion at Kenyatta National Hospital.J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Centr. Afr. 14; 78. 1998.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Centr. Afr. 14; 78. 1998. uon press; 1998. Abstract
Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, WANGO EO, ROGO KO, KIMANI VN and KARANJA JG . Abortion: Behaviour of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, WANGO EO, ROGO KO, KIMANI VN and KARANJA JG . Abortion: Behaviour of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J.76: 541-546, October 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kingondu SC, Ndavi PM: Contraceptive Acceptance and Continuation in Women Managed for Incomplete Abortion at Kenyatta National Hospital: J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 14 No. 2, 84: 1998.". In: E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SK, Ndavi PM.Contraceptive Acceptance and Continuation in women managed for incompleteabortion at Kenyatta National Hospital.J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afr. 1999: 14, 84-88.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SK, Ndavi PM.Contraceptive Acceptance and Continuation in women managed for incompleteabortion at Kenyatta National Hospital.J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afr. 1999: 14, 84-88.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract

Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC, Ndavi PM Reasons for the non-use of contraception by Post-abortion women at Kenyatta National hospital. J. Obst. Gyn East. Central. Afr. 1999: 14, 89-96.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC, Ndavi PM Reasons for the non-use of contraception by Post-abortion women at Kenyatta National hospital. J. Obst. Gyn East. Central. Afr. 1999: 14, 89-96.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Mutungi AK, Karanja JG, Kimani VN, Rogo KO, Wango EO.Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996. SETTING: An urban and a rural district in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues. DATA COLLECTION: One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers. CONCLUSION: Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures.

G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, KARANJA JG, KIMANI VN, ROGO KO and WANGO EO. Abortion: Knowledge and Perceptions of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "MUTUNGI AK, KARANJA JG, KIMANI VN, ROGO KO and WANGO EO. Abortion: Knowledge and Perceptions of Adolescents in two Districts in Kenya. East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 76: 556-561, October 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Mutungi A.K., Wango E.O., Rogo K.O., Kimani V. and Karanja J.G.(1999). Abortion: Behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.East Afr. Med. J.76, 541-546.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Mutungi A.K., Sanghvi H.C.G., Ojwang S.B.O., Sinei S.K. Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. Utilization of maternal and peri-natal Outcome of Twins Delivered at Two Public Hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya. J. Obstet. Gynaecol, E.C. Africa Vol 15 (5) 20, 1999.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol, E.C. Africa Vol 15 (5) 20, 1999. uon press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Mutungi A.K., Kimani V.N., Rogo K., Wango E.O. and Karanja J.G(1998). What school adolescents say about induced abortion.Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sao Paulo, Brazil.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Mutungi A.K., Karanja J.G., Kimani V., Rogo K.O. and Wango E.O.(1999). Abortion: Perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.East Afr. Med. J. 76, 556-651.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi A.K. Sanghvi; Sinei S.K. Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC The frequency of Antenatal Care and Diagnosis of two Public hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.J. Obst. Gyn. East Central Africa 1999: 14, 78-83.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi A.K. Sanghvi; Sinei S.K. Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC The frequency of Antenatal Care and Diagnosis of two Public hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.J. Obst. Gyn. East Central Africa 1999: 14, 78-83.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Mutungi A., Wango E.O., Rogo K., Karanja J.K. and Kimani V.N.(1998). Behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya.". In: East,Central and Southern African Association of Obstetrical and Gynaecological Societies Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe, 18th-21stOctober. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. et al. (1985) The joint GOK/IDA/CDC/Smallholder Coffee Improvement Project supervision and review mission report. Report of findings submitted to the project steering committee.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "MUTULI, D.A. AND OKOTH, M.W. Valuation Practice: Challenges in plant and machinery valuation in the agro-industrial sector of Kenya. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on real Estate in Africa, African Real Estate Society (AFRES), Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on real Estate in Africa, African Real Estate Society (AFRES), Nairobi, March 12-13, 2003. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "MUTULI, D.A. AND OKOTH, M.W. Valuation Practice: Challenges in plant and machinery valuation in the agro-industrial sector of Kenya. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on real Estate in Africa, African Real Estate Society (AFRES), Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on real Estate in Africa, African Real Estate Society (AFRES), Nairobi, March 12-13, 2003.; 2003. Abstract
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WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "MUTULI, D.A. AND OKOTH, M.W. Towards agro-industrial sustainability in Kenya through energy conservation and other technologies. In: .". In: Proceedings of a conference organised by Institution of Engineers of Kenya in collaboration with Engineers. University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "MUTULI, D.A. AND OKOTH, M.W. Towards agro-industrial sustainability in Kenya through energy conservation and other technologies. In: .". In: Proceedings of a conference organised by Institution of Engineers of Kenya in collaboration with Engineers.; 2001. Abstract
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A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) The Role of Agricultural Engineering in Food Manufacturing . In Proceedings for the Kenya Institute of Food Science and Technology Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, November 7th.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Some Engineering opportunities for the Sustainable Development of African Agriculture. Proceedings of the FAOE/IEK All African Engineers Conference, December,.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1994) Agricultural Mechanization in Kenya: A Review of Policies and Strategies to date . In Proceedings International Conference August, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1992) Advances in Agricultural Machinery Technology Towards Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the KSAE Annual Seminar, 5-7th August.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1992. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1990) An Investigation into the effect of Cultivator Design on seedbed preparation . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1990. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988)Infiltrating solar collectors for crop drying . Proceedings of the Annual Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1988) The performance of an air-infiltrating solar collector M. Phil thesis. University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1988. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Small holder Coffee Processing in Kenya . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Meru, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1985) Mechanical drying of Arabien Coffee . Proceedings of the Annual Coffee Seminar, Eldoret, Kenya.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1985. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1982) The general position paper for the coffee factories section of the Ministry of Agriculture. Government Working Paper (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1982. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1981) Draft proposals for the practical training programme for graduate engineers serving the coffee industry in the Ministry of Agriculture . Government Working Paper (unpublished)Mutuli, D.A. (1982).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1981. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

A MRMUTULIDANIEL, A MRMUTULIDANIEL. "Mutuli, D.A. (1980). Design of a solar supplemented continuous flow dryer for coffee . Third year design project dissertation. University of Nairobi (unpublished).". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers, No. 45. Geneva: International Labour Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1980. Abstract

A description is given of a novel liquid phase immunoassay for the measurement of testosterone in peripheral venous plasma from men and women. The procedure involves: (i) competitive binding of the analyte and tritiated antigen to specific antibodies; (ii) enzymatic conjugation of the free ligand with glucuronic acid; and (iii) separation of the antibody-bound and free ligand by partition of the reactants into an organic and aqueous phase. The technique has been called ligand differentiation immunoassay (LIDIA). The mean sensitivity was 5 pg/tube (equivalent to 0.35 nmol/l female plasma; 0.87 nmol/l male plasma). The mean reagent blank (+/- SD) was 0.24 (0.12) nmol/l female plasma; 0.61 (0.30) nmol/l male plasma. A precision profile gave values less than 50%; the within batch variation was less than 8.3% and the between batch variation over three months was 12.3%. An accuracy profile between the second and penultimate points on the calibration curve gave values between 77 and 103%. The correlation coefficient 'r' between LIDIA and a heterogeneous radioimmunoassay was 0.92 when applied to plasma from men and 0.95 to samples from women.

Otieno SPV. Mutuku. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
MUNIALO MRSMUTOROJULIANA. "MUTORO J, M(2006)A handbook on how to write text books for the University of Nairobi, College of Education and External Studies, Faculty of External Studies.". In: Animal Production Society of Kenya Egerton, Njoro. July 1992. The Kenya Medical Association; 2006. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
MUNIALO MRSMUTOROJULIANA. "MUTORO J, M(2005)Primary School Social Studies Series (Standard 1-8) - Dhillon Publishers.". In: Animal Production Society of Kenya Egerton, Njoro. July 1992. The Kenya Medical Association; 2005. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
Namai HW, Odegi-Awuondo C. Mutomo: a market in the periphery.; 1994.Website
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Mutitu, E.W., Narla, R.D., Oduor, H. and Gathumbi J.K., (2003). Causes of ear rot of maize with mycotoxin implication in Eastern and Central Kenya.". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in on October 12-17th, 2003. University of nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W., D.M. Mukunya and S.O. Keya, 1990. Effect of moisture on Fusarium yellows of beans caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli in Kenya. Accepted for publication in the Kenya National Academy Journal Series B. for 1990.". In: International Journal at Biochephysics vol.10, 30-33 (2000). Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1990. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W., D.M. Mukunya and S.O. Keya, 1988. Effect of antagonistic bacteria isolated from soil organic amendments on Fusarium oxyysporum Schl. In culture. Abstract 5th International congress on Plant Pathology, Kyoto, Japan.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1988. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W., D.M. Mukunya and S.O. Keya, 1985, Biological control of Fusarium yellow on beans caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F.sp phaseolus Kendrick and Snyder using organic amendments. ACTA HORT. 218:267 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1985. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W., D.M. Mukunya and S.O. Keya, 1985, Biological control of Fusarium yellow on beans caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F.sp phaseolus Kendrick and Snyder using organic amendments. ACTA HORT. 218:267 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p.; 1985. Abstract
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MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W., D.M. Mukunya and E.M. Gathuru, 1989. Effect of organic amendments on Fusarium yellow disease on the bean host. Discovery and Innovation Vol 1: 67 .". In: International Journal at Biochephysics vol.10, 30-33 (2000). Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1989. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Mutitu, E.W. and D.M. Mukunya, 1979. Epidemiology and control of bean scab caused by Elsinoe Phaseolus Jenkins in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the grain Legume Symposium held in Nairobi, Oct. 1979. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1979. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Mutitu, E. W. and J. W. Muthomi. 1994. Control of carnation Fusarium wilt using antibiotic culture filtrates from Streptomyces spp. African Crop Science Journal, 2 (1): 111-116.". In: African Crop Science Journal, 2 (1): 111-116. African Crop Science Society; 1994. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MUTITU E.W., J.M. WAGACHA., J.W. MUTHOMI, & F.B. MWAURA, (2008). Control of bean rust on snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using antibiotic metabolites produced by Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Bots. J Agric & Appl. Sci. Volm. 4 No.1 2008: 62 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M: Meniscal Cysts - An Appraisal. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 21 No. 1, March 2002.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 21 No. 1, March 2002. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2002. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M: Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the anorectum: A case report. East African Medical Journal, Feb.". In: East African Medical Journal, Feb. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1996. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M: Advocacy and Legislation in Emergency and Disaster Management .". In: Proceedings of The First International Conference on Emergency Management in Africa, 19th-22nd Nov 2001. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2001. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M.; Pelvic Fractures at Kenyatta National Hospital. M.Med Dissertation .". In: M.Med Dissertation . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1990. Abstract
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DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M., Okumu.D., Kinoti.M.:Fire Safety- Awareness Of Fire RiskAmong Students At The Medical School Of The University Of Nairobi:A Preliminary Study. East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004.". In: East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M. Review Article: Planning In Emergencies and Disasters. . East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004.". In: East and Central Africa Journal of Surgery Vol 9, No.1 April/May 2004. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso.V.M,Ongaro.N.: Sickle Cell Disease in Surgery. Tropical Doctor 2006; 36:200-202.". In: Trop Doct. 2006 Oct;36(4):200-2. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstractsickle_cell_disease_in_surgery.pdf

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com

DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Mutiso VM, Ongaro N. Related Articles, Links No abstract Sickle cell disease in surgery. Trop Doct. 2006 Oct;36(4):200-2. Review. No.". In: Trop Doct. 2006 Oct;36(4):200-2. Review. No. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study.  <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up.  <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members.  <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Ogaa, J.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. 1981. Bovine dystocia in Kabete area of Kenya. Mod. Vet. Pract. February 1981. 111-113.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1981. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Mutiga, E.R., Ogaa J.S. and Agumbah, (1981). Dystocia in Kenyan cattle. Mod. Vet. Pract. 80, 111 - 113.". In: Wld. Congr. Dis. Cattle. Amsterdam, 7 - 10th Sept. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1981. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Munyua, S.J.M. and Tsuma, V.T. 1994. Effect of a Herd Health programme on milk production in periurban dairy farming Kenya Veterinary Journal 18(1) : 3-6.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mutiga, E.R., Munyua, S.J.M. and Tsuma, V.T. (1994). The effect of improved reproductive herd health on milk production from peri-urban dairy farms. Kenya Veterinarian 18: 3-6,.". In: 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. and Azage, T. 1993. Luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha in Boran/Fresian cross-bred heifers. J. Agri. Sci. 120 : 103-106.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Mutiga, E.R., Mbai, K., Tsuma, V.T., Karitu, P.T. and Ojiayo, S.O. (1993). Incidence and causes of retained placenta in small-holder dairy herds. Indian Vet. J., 70: 333-336,.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Mutiga, E.R., Mbai, K., Tsuma, V.T., Karitu, P.F. and Ojiayo, O.(1993). Incidence and causes of retained afterbirth in small holder dairy herds. Indian J. Vet. Scie. 70: 333-336.". In: Proc of the regional workshop on Pastoral Indigenous systems and Substainable development in Nairobi, 16th to 18th January, 1995. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1993. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Kiptoon, J.C. and Masha, J.B. 1978. Pueperal diseases of dairy cattle in Kenya. Mod. Vet. Practice. January 1978. P. 45-46.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1978. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Baker, A.A. and Jillella, D. 1983. Limitations of intrauterine balloon catheters for ova collection in sheep. Theriogenology 20: 213-220.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1983. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., and others 1993. Incidence and causes of retained placentas in smallholder dairy herds in Kenya. Indian J. Vet. Med. 70 (4) : 333-336.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., and Baker, A.A. 1984d. Ovarian activity oestrous cycle length and plasma progesterone levels in goats following superovulation. Kenya Vet. 8(1) : 3-24.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., and Baker, A.A. 1984B. Transfer of sheep embryos through a laparoscope. Vet. Record. 114: 401-404.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Ogaa, J.C. 1977. Abnormal oestral pattern in agoat a case history, Vm/Sac. August 1977 p. 1372-1373.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1977. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. 1992. Effect of the method of estrus synchronisation and PMSG dosage on estrus and twinning in Ethiopian sheep. Theriogenology 727-734.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1992. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Kiptoon, J.C. 1978. Dexafort induced parturition in dairy cows with clinical problems. Kenya Veterinarian. January 1978 p. 13-14.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1978. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Kiberling, C.V. 1977. An evaluation of a clinical procedure for treatment of retained placenta in cattle. Vm/Sac. Vol. 72 : 1877-1878.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1977. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

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