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Nandonde F, Adu-Gyamfi R, Mmusi TS, Asongu SA, Opperman J, Makindara J. Linkages And Spillover Effects Of South African Foreign Direct Investment In Botswana And Kenya. WIDER Working Paper 2019/53. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER; 2019.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Linkage relationships among loci controlling morphological traits in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Euphytica 92: 307-311.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Odongo DO, Oura CAL, Spooner PR, Kiara H, Mburu D, Hanotte OH, Bishop RP. "Linkage disequilibrium between alleles at highly polymorphic mini- and micro-satellite loci of Theileria parva isolated from cattle in three regions of Kenya." Int. J. Parasitol.. 2006;36(8):937-46. Abstract

Theileria parva schizont-infected lymphocyte culture isolates from western, central and coastal Kenya were analysed for size polymorphism at 30 T. parva-specific variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci using a panel of mini- and micro-satellite markers. The mean number of alleles ranged from 3 to 11 at individual loci and 183 distinct alleles were observed in total, indicating high genetic diversity within the T. parva gene pool in Kenyan cattle. The frequency distribution of the length variation of specific alleles among isolates ranged from normal to markedly discontinuous. Genetic relationships between isolates were analysed using standard indices of genetic distance. Genetic distances and dendrograms derived from these using neighbour-joining algorithms did not indicate significant clustering on a geographical basis. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that the genetic variation between individual isolates was 72%, but only 2.3% when isolates from different regions were pooled. Both these observations suggest minimal genetic sub-structuring relative to geographical origin. Linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci within populations, as in certain Ugandan T. parva populations. A novel observation was that disequilibrium was also detected between alleles at three individual pairs of VNTR loci when isolates from the three regional meta-populations were pooled for analysis.

Nyang’au TN, Misati L. "The Link between Rural Poverty and HIV/AIDS.". In: Working With Rural Communities. Second Edition. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2011.
Onyango JF, Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Dimba EA. "lining: A case report." Journal of Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery. 2008;7. Abstract
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OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Linguistics and History of Nasal Compounds in dholuo.' In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Languages and History of the Nilotic People. Collogne 1982.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1982. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Linguistic Interaction between Arabic and Swahili.". In: Afro-Arab Colloquium. Dakar, Senegal; 1984.
"The Lingering Question of Neo colonialism in Swahili Plays." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Sciences. 2018;6(2):24-41.
J.N.Muriuki. "Linearly representable nonstationary sequences in Hilbert Spaces. ." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics,. 2004;13(2):4-15.
Kariuki CN. "Linear programming as applied to determination of human expenditure of food.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi. African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute." Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Submitted. Abstract

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O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Linear Estimation of Standard deviation of Logistic Distribution.". In: Theory and Algorithms in InterStat. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
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O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Linear Estimation of Scale Parameter for Logistic Distribution Based on Consecutive Order Statistics.". In: Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics Vol. 69 Part 4, pages 870 . Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics; 2007. Abstract
Historia ya maisha binafsi kutoka kwale
Nzimbi BM. Linear Algebra II-ODL Programme. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Line-planted trees and phosphorus effects on maize water use in sub-humid western Kenya. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 69:173-182.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
Salem A-H, Myers JS, Otieno AC, Watkins WS, Jorde LB, Batzer MA. "LINE-1 preTa elements in the human genome." Journal of Molecular Biology . 2003;326:1127-1146.
Otieno AC. "LINE-1 preTa element in the human genome.". In: 13th International Symposium on Human Identification. Phoenix , Arizona; 2002.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lindley RI, Amayo EO, Marshall J, Sandercock PA, Dennis M, Warlow CP.Acute stroke treatment in UK hospitals: the Stroke Association survey of consultant opinion. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1995 Nov-Dec;29(6):479-84.". In: J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1995 Nov-Dec;29(6):479-84. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The aim of the Stroke Association survey was to document United Kingdom consultant opinion of the immediate treatment for patients with acute stroke. A national postal survey of all UK hospital consultant general physicians, geriatricians and neurologist was carried out in 1992/3. We identified 1,953 consultants who routinely cared for patients with acute stroke; 39% of them regularly used aspirin for patients with acute stroke and 10% used low-dose subcutaneous heparin. Other treatments were rarely used. There was much uncertainty about the effectiveness of all currently available acute stroke treatments; 73% of physicians were prepared to start aspirin before a CT scan, but a much smaller proportion would start heparin therapy without one. Twenty-seven percent of consultants would actively treat hypertension in the initial 24 hours after stroke. Routine aspirin for secondary prevention after ischaemic stroke was widely accepted, but blood cholesterol lowering by drugs was not. In conclusion, aspirin and heparin alone are the only routinely used treatments for the immediate treatment of acute stroke; other treatments are used sparingly or not at all. The great uncertainty about the value of all available acute stroke treatments should encourage participation in randomised controlled trials.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Lin HX, Gontier C, Saron MF, Perrin P. A new immunostimulatory complex (PICKCa) in experimental rabies: antiviral and adjuvant effects.Arch Virol. 1993;131(3-4):307-19.". In: Arch Virol. 1993;131(3-4):307-19. uon press; 1993. Abstract
Rabies Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. The activity of an immunostimulatory complex (PICKCa) which is widely used against several human diseases in China was tested in experimental rabies prophylaxis. PICKCa protected mice against peripheral infection with both fixed and wild rabies strains. It also enhanced the protective activity of an experimental rabies vaccine injected either before or after rabies infection. PICKCa enhanced both non-specific immune responses and specific immunity including antibody production and cell mediated immunity as assessed by interleukin-2 production.
Odada EO, Johnson TC. The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African lakes. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,; 1996.
Odada E, Johnson TC, Whittaker KT. The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers; 2010.
Atieno R. "The Limits of Policy Success: The Case of the Dairy Sector in Kenya.". In: workshop for the World Development Report, by the Future Agricultures Consortium at the IDS, Sussex, UK. IDS, Sussex, UK; 2007.
Ogada, Mordecai O. WONRO, Frank LG. "Limiting depredation by African carnivores: The role of livestock husbandry." Conservation Biology 17 (6): 1521-1530; 2003. Abstract
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Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Yensew A. "Limitations to Use of Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Determination of Carbon-Nitrogen and Wood Density for Tropical Species. Advances in Analytical Chemistry." Advances in Analytical Chemistry . 2013;3(3). Abstractpaper_63_kennedy10.5923.j.aac_.20130303.01.pdf

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used as a rapid and non-destructive method to determine, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and tree wood density.A total of 82 sample cores were scanned in the reflectance mode from 4000 to 400 cm-1 for mid-infrared (MIR) spectra and from 8000 to 4000cm-1 and 11000-4000cm-1 for near infrared (NIR) spectra. The reference values for C and N were measured using combustion method while wood density was calculated using auger method. Calibration equations were developed using partial least-squares and first derivative spectra. Root mean square error (RMSEP) was used to calculate prediction error. Prediction of Cusing MIR spectra gave R2 = 0.59, RMSEP = 0.02; NIR spectra R2 = 0.50, RMSEP = 0.02, whileN prediction usingMIR spectra had R2 = 0.54, RMSEP = 0.22; NIR spectra R2 = 0.48, RMSEP =0.24. Wood density prediction was fair for MIR (R2= 0.79, RMSEP = 0.14); NIR (R2= 0.69, RMSEP = 0.17).Improved predictions using NIR were for extendedspectral range;though accuracies were inferior to MIR. Both MIR and NIR models showed good potentials to be used as rapid and cost effective method of predicting C-N andwood density.

Keywords Infrared Spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression,Carbon, Nitrogen,Wood Density

Ogola JM. "Limitations of Technology Diffusion in Small Scale Informal Industries in Kenya." Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Kenya Chapter, Research Papers. 2010;Vol.no.1,16-32.
Mumbi M. "limate Responsive Architecture: Learning from the History of the Origin, Spread and Development of Tropical Modern Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
N PROFNYAGAP. "Lilly C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga and C.O. Kimoro. (1998). Comparason of immune responses of two Salmonella gallinarum strains viewed as posssible vaccines for fowl typhoid in Kenya. Onderspoort Journal of Vet. Res. Vol. 65.67-73.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1998. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

MUHIA DRLILLIANWANGECHIWAIBOCI. "Lilian Waiboci- Muhia, Howard M. Johnson SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING-1 MIMETIC AND ANTAGONIST PEPTIDES: POTENTIAL AS THERAPEUTIC AGENTS .". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2008.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lilian W, Nasah BI Leke RJI, Ojwang SBO Determinants of Perinatal Mortaligy Hour and Day of birth and method of delivery at the central maternity .". In: J. Obstet. Gyna East Afr. 10(2): 65 1992,. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: In this study, 273 university students (161 men and 112 women) were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mean age of the men was 22.4 +or- 1.6 years and that of the women was 22.1 +or- 1.6 years. 97.4% of the students were sexually experienced. Knowledge of common STDs was high, but knowledge of their signs, symptoms, and consequences was low. 24.5% of the male and 3.7% of the female students had had an STD. The principal sources of information on STDs included books, films, and TV for 39.6% of the students and teachers for 16.8% of the students. Parents played a very minimal role. It is suggested that primary and secondary school students be taught about STDs as part of reproductive health education and that such education be continued at the college level in order to increase the awareness among young people. author's modified

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lilian W, Nasah BI Leke RJI, Ojwang SBO Determinants of Perinatal Mortaligy Hour and Day of birth and method of delivery at the central maternity .". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified
Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Lightweight Polymer–Nanoparticle-Based Composites.". In: Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstract

The increasing demand for eco-friendly materials in various fields including the construction industry has led to increased efforts toward the development of more materials to suit such fields. In this work, a specific review of polymer–nanoparticle-based composites is presented with an emphasis on the nano-silica reinforcements. A background on applications, processing methods, and state-of-the-art review of the subject is presented. It is noted that there is limited literature focusing on the recycling of polymers using silica nanoparticle-based reinforcements for the construction industry. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the direction for future research focus is presented.

Van Gorkom HJ, Pulles MP, Wessels JS. "Light-induced changes of absorbance and electron spin resonance in small photosystem II particles." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(3):331-9. Abstract

Photosystem II reaction center components have been studied in small system II particles prepared with digitonin. Upon illumination the reduction of the primary acceptor was indicated by absorbance changes due to the reduction of a plastoquinone to the semiquinone anion and by a small blue shifts of absorption bands near 545 nm (C550) and 685 nm. The semiquinone to chlorophyll ratio was between 1/20 and 1/70 in various preparations. The terminal electron donor in this reaction did not cause large absorbance changes but its oxidized form was revealed by a hitherto unknown electron spin resonance (ESR) signal, which had some properties of the well-known signal II but a linewidth and g-value much nearer to those of signal I. Upon darkening absorbance and ESR changes decayed together in a cyclic or back reaction which was stimulated by 3-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The donor could be oxidized by ferricyanide in the dark. Illumination in the presence of ferricyanide induced absorbance and ESR changes, rapidly reversed upon darkening, which may be ascribed to the oxidation of a chlorophyll a dimer, possibly the primary electron donor of photosystem II. In addition an ESR signal with 15 to 20 gauss linewidth and a slower dark decay was observed, which may have been caused by a secondary donor.

Van Gorkom HJ, Pulles MP, Wessels JS. "Light-induced changes of absorbance and electron spin resonance in small photosystem II particles." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;408(3):331-9. Abstract

Photosystem II reaction center components have been studied in small system II particles prepared with digitonin. Upon illumination the reduction of the primary acceptor was indicated by absorbance changes due to the reduction of a plastoquinone to the semiquinone anion and by a small blue shifts of absorption bands near 545 nm (C550) and 685 nm. The semiquinone to chlorophyll ratio was between 1/20 and 1/70 in various preparations. The terminal electron donor in this reaction did not cause large absorbance changes but its oxidized form was revealed by a hitherto unknown electron spin resonance (ESR) signal, which had some properties of the well-known signal II but a linewidth and g-value much nearer to those of signal I. Upon darkening absorbance and ESR changes decayed together in a cyclic or back reaction which was stimulated by 3-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea. The donor could be oxidized by ferricyanide in the dark. Illumination in the presence of ferricyanide induced absorbance and ESR changes, rapidly reversed upon darkening, which may be ascribed to the oxidation of a chlorophyll a dimer, possibly the primary electron donor of photosystem II. In addition an ESR signal with 15 to 20 gauss linewidth and a slower dark decay was observed, which may have been caused by a secondary donor.

Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Light-driven bandgap renormalization and terahertz atomic oscillations in few-layer PdSe2." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.02034. 2020. Abstract
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Robinson M, Bernard A, Julius M, Marin R, Kostantinos F, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Aduda B, Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Mwabora J, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Marin R, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Materials Sciences and Applications. 2013;4,2013:718-722. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Addition- ally, studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell; Light Soaking; Conversion Efficiency; TiO2; In(OH)xSy; Pb(OH)xSy

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Light and Water Use in Low Input Maize (Zea mays)- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Intercrop in Sub Humid Conditions of Kenya.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Light and Water Use in Low Input Maize (Zea mays)- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Intercrop in Sub Humid Conditions of Kenya.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. Taylor & Francis; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Oketch(ed.)E, Siele N. Life’s Prescription: A Journey of Inspiration through Poetry. Nairobi: BlueBay International; 2011.
Khasakhala L, Sorsdahl KR, Harder VS, Williams DR, Ndetei DM. "Lifetime mental disorders and suicidal behaviour in South Africa.". 2011.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Life's Tense Irony", A Review of Tensions: Poems by Richard C. Ntiru, Dhana 1 56-58.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1971. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Life Saving Skills Manual in Reproductive Health.". In: June 2001(Draft edited and in press). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Life Saving Skills Manual in Reproductive Health.". In: June 2001(Draft edited and in press). Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
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Shah PS. "Life of Wangari Maathai." OERB Reach 16 (2013):9-11.
"Life in the Balance: Ecological Sociology of Turkana Nomads, Nairobi." Nairobi: Acts Press, African Center for Technological Studies; 1990. Abstract
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EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Life history studies on the predatory mite Phytoseius finitimus Ribaga (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 34 : 437 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1974. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Fombong AT, Haas F, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) under laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012;32(1):1-8.Website
TF A, F. H, PN N, LW I. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) unde laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012. AbstractInternational Journal of Tropical Insect Science

The life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Witte), a recently reported pest of honeybee colonies in East Africa, was studied for the first time under laboratory conditions. Adult O. haroldi collected from beehives in the coastal part of Kenya were reared on a mixture of moist sterilized soil and cow dung. At 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 5% relative humidity and a 10 h light-14 h dark photoperiod, the laid eggs took 11.9 ± 1.3 days to hatch into a curved pear-shaped scarabaeiform larva with a well-developed head and thoracic legs. The first, second and third larval instars lasted 14.6 ± 2.6, 17.5 ± 2.4 and 34.6 ± 2.4 days, respectively. The pupal stage, which was marked by formation of a mud cocoon, lasted 31.1 ± 6.7 days with the adults surviving for 2–6 months under laboratory conditions, suggesting that the beetle is multivoltine. A detailed taxonomic description of the external morphology of the third instar larva is provided

Vadher A, Ndetei DM. "Life events and depression in a Kenyan setting.". 1981.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Life Begins at Forty, Even for ISK:." Land and Property Digest. Special Issue No 9 (2010).
Kilemi M. Life As A Nairobi University Student. Nairobi: Nairobi University; 2012.
Gona G, Kailembo AMM. "The Life and Times of an African Trade Unionist." Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa. 2002.
H.J. OJWANG. "Life and Message of a Biography."; 1995. Abstract

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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Life and Government of Jomo Kenyatta".". In: In Encyclopedia of African History, Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, Volume 2,pp 755-57.; 2005. Abstract
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PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Life against HIV/AIDS-epidemiology,blood safety and research.". In: IDA - 3340-01/02-Rep-02/(4) KNA. Pp.20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
E NYENZE, J MUSTAPHA. "Lid reconstruction after tumour excision in a patient with seborrhoiec keratosis: A case report." JOECSA. 2016;20(1):40-44. Abstractlid_sebarrhoiec.pdfWehttp://coecsa.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/JOECSA/article/view/138bsite

comABSTRACTSeborrhoiec Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids, usually affecting elderly females. Typically, the lesions start as discrete, tan-dark brown, flat lesions starting on the face and progressing to other sun-exposed areas. The natural progression is generally an increase in size, thickness and pigmentation of these lesions. A variant of SK, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN), has been described in black people, characterized by an earlier and more severe manifestation with multiple, profuse lesions. The diagnosis is clinical, although histopathological examination may be sought to confirm the diagnosis. These lesions are benign and usually only removed for cosmetic reasons. However, in some patients, concern or discomfort may warrant removal. Cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage or shave excision are all effective methods of management. When eyelid lesions are excised, the resulting anterior lamellar defect can be repaired by primary closure, local skin flaps or Full-Thickness Skin Grafts (FTSG). We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with DPN and thick pigmented lesions on the eyelids of both eyes, causing mechanical ptosis, left lower lid ectropion and interfering with vision. She was successfully managed with excision and lid reconstruction for both eyes.Keywords: Seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis papulosa nigra, Eyelid tumours, Eyelid reconstruction, Eyelid excisional biopsy, Glabellar flap INTRODUCTIONSeborrhoeic Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids1. It usually affects elderly people, with a female preponderance and some cases of reported family history2. The exact cause is unknown and has been linked to sunlight exposure3. Typically, lesions are small, discrete and tan-brown flat macules, most frequently on the face and trunk4. With time, these lesions exhibit increase in size, thickness and level of pigmentation5. As they grow, the lesions become papules with the characteristic verrucous “stuck-on” appearance4. A variant of seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN) has been described in black people2. This variant manifests earlier, with multiple and profuse lesions which are larger, thicker and exhibit a more chronic and worsening course than classic SK. SK lesions are benign and do not usually require removal5. However, many patients present to dermatologists due to concern about possible skin malignancy when there is growth or increased pigmentation of the lesions6. Reasons for removal include cosmetic reasons, discomfort, itchiness or documented growth in the lesions. The diagnosis is clinical in majority of cases. However, especially if lesions are going to be removed, histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis may be sought. Histology of lesions is characterized by hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, acanthosis with intraepithelial horn or pseudohorn cysts3. There are several options for

P.N W, E.T.O O, A.J R. "License Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Nairobi; 2010.
Wambui P, Rodrigues A, Opiyo E. "Licence Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: ICCIR. Kampala Uganda; 2010.
Bhatt B, Kalambuka HAA, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "LIBS Development Methodology for Forensic Nuclear Materials Analysis." Analytical Methods. 2018. Abstract
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Waweru JN. Library orientation.; 2014.
Kanori JN. "Libraries and Rural development in Kenya: Problems and prospects .". In: Library Workshop. University of Nairobi; 1984.
Konneh SS, Saleem A, Awange JL, Goncalves RM, Kiema JBK, Hu KX. "Liberia's coastal erosion vulnerability and LULC change analysis: Post-civil war and Ebola epidemic." Applied Geography. 2018;101:56-67.
Kivuva JM. "Liberal Democracy and the Challenges of Multiparty politics in Kenya and Uganda." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;2(9):64-77.
"Liberal Arts and the Achievement of vision 2030.". In: Synergy and Networking to Enhance Research and Development. 1st Alexander Van Humboldt Alumni Meridian Court Hotel, Nairobi.; 2010.
Waithaka K. "Liatris forcing in Kenya."; 1985.
Musisi S, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Liaison Psychiatry."; 2006.
Kameri-Mbote P, Odote C. "Liability for Climate Change in Kenya.". In: Climate Change Liability: Transnational Law and Practice. London: Cambridge University Press; 2012.
Kameri-Mbote P, Odote C. "Liability for Climate Change in Kenya.". 2012.Website
DR. WEBER TILO. "Lexikon und Grammatik in Interaktion .". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. de Gruyter; 2010. Abstract
What are the elementary building blocks of language? Which categories can they be assigned to, based on which criteria? What function do parts of speech or lexical categories have for the speakers of a language? This study provides answers to these theoretical questions, showing on the example of German that lexical categorization is dependent on cognitive and functional conditions ― not as a static structure, but rather as a dynamic process. The empirical part of the study shows that this has consequences, especially for writers of German.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Lexicalist Approach to Bantu Morphology.". In: Annual Conference of the Linguistic Society. Australian National University, Canberra; 1981.
JOHN MRNDOLOISAAC. "Lewis, J. and I.J. Ndolo, (1987): Estimating Moisture Availability for Rice in Mwea, Kenya.". In: Agric. Jour. Vol. 41: (81-90). Association of Africa Universities; 1987. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J.Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
{ Breast-feeding may be an important route of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vertical transmission in settings where it is routinely practiced. To define the prevalence and quantity of HIV-1 in cell-free breast milk, samples from HIV-1-seropositive women were analyzed by quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR). HIV-1 RNA was detected in 29 (39%) of 75 specimens tested. Of these 29 specimens, 16 (55%) had levels that were near the detection limit of the assay (240 copies/mL), while 6 (21%) had >900 copies/mL. The maximum concentration of HIV-1 RNA detected was 8100 copies/mL. The prevalence of cell-free HIV-1 was higher in mature milk (47%) than in colostrum (27%
Wanjala C. "Lewis Nkosi's Early Literary Criticism.". In: Still Beating the Drum. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi; 2005.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Lewa, A.K., N. Maingi, W.K. Munyua, and T.A. Ngatia (1999). Seasonal population dynamics of gastrointestinal helminths in donkeys in Kiambu district of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 47: 19-20.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77(6):840-4.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1983;77(6):840-4. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1983. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, R.W. Munene, D M Maina and S.K Bartilol. 2010. Mineral Micronutrient Density in Local Cereals Sample from Bungoma, Maseno and Kibwezi areas. (AJFAND) 10: 11 (2010).". In: (AJFAND) 10: 11 (2010). Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, R.W. Munene, D M Maina and J.M. Mangala. 2010. Mineral Micronutrient Density Characterization Using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis in Four On-Farm Kenyan Wild African Fruit tree Germplasm. JAfrican Journal .". In: (AJFAND On Line) Volume 20 No 8. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, G. Mulokozi and D M Maina. 2010. Characterization of African leafy Vegetables for Organo- and Mineral Micronutrient Densities based on X- ray Fluorescence and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. African Journal of Food and .". In: (AJFAND) 10: No. 11 (2010). Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, G. Mulokozi and D M Maina. 2010. Characterization of African leafy Vegetables for Organo- and Mineral Micronutrient Densities based on X- ray Fluorescence and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. African Journal of Food and .". In: (AJFAND) 10: No. 11 (2010). Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya M Akundabweni, et. al,- 2008. Screening and Mapping Nutraceutical Dense Biodiversity on Women Smallholder Farms Based on Farmer.". In: International Society for Horticultural Science; Leuven, Belgium. 739 pp. African Scholarly Science Communications Trust; 2008.
OLALE P, Odote C, Kibugi R. "Leveraging integrated spatial planning for sustainable regulation of coastal tourism activities in Malindi town, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2020;Volume 19(Issue 1).
Mwangi H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z. "Leveraging HIV advancement in the light of Tuberculosis and Malaria using System Dynamics." Advances in Computer System. 2016;5:47-54.
Moturi C, Karuga E, Orwa D. "Leveraging Big Data Analytics." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021;DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720. AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Khasakhala" "AA. "Levels, Trends and Pattern in Overall, childhood and Maternal Mortality in Kenya.". In: 2. 4th Population Association of Kenya (PAK) Conference,. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Gachuiri CK;, Carles AB;, Schwartz HJ. "Levels, causes and factors affecting mortality in a herd of small East African goats on a semi-arid thornbush Savannah."; 1986. Abstract

Kenya comprises vast arid and semi-arid areas and at the present level of technology and economic infrastructure in the country, the only feasible way to prod-:&z food for human consumption from these areas is through domestic ruminants. Small stock production has played a major role in th economy of range areas in the past 10 years. Sheep and goats have contributed significantly more than cattle in terms of livestock products in these areas (Semenye, 1977). The goat population has recently been estimated at 7.7 million with 40% of these being kept by pastoralists (Stotz, 1983). An increasing proportion of goats is observed in the pastoralists flocks with increasing aridity of the environment, leading to the assumption that goats are better adapted to the conditions of the arid rangeland of Northern Kenya. High mortality rates, especially prcweaning, has been cited as a major constraint on improving productivity. Wilson et al. (1985) reported a preweaning mortality of 28.6% for goats in a Maasai ranch. Carles et al. (1982), working in a pastoral area in Northern Kenya, reported mortalities of 6-12% for breeding females, rising as high as 66% during the first year of life. An opportunity arose to study in more detail, the causes, levels and factors affecting mortality in a typical pastoral system with the establishment, by the Department of Animal Production in cooperation with the Ministry of Livestock Development, the European Economic Community, the German Research Foundation and the German Agency for Technical cooperation, of a research station in a pastoral area near Isiolo.

ABONG&#39; MRGEORGEOOKO. "Levels of reducing sugars in eight Kenyan potato cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and storage conditions.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 (2): 76 . 1. George O. Abong; 2009.
Abong GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Levels of reducing sugars in eight Kenyan potato cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and storage conditions." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(2):76-84.2009_-_redsugar_and_potato.pdf
F.H W, Wafula AG, C LB, T. KK. "Levels of PM10 and PM2.5 and Respiratory Health Impacts on School-Going Children in Kenya. Journal of Health and Pollution." . Journal of Health and Pollution. 2020;10 (27) 200912(ISSN: 2156-9614).
WAKONYU DRKANJAL, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Levels of organochlorine Pesticide residues in milk of Urban Mothers in Kenya.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1998.
WAKONYU DRKANJAL, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "Levels of organochlorine Pesticide residues in milk of Urban Mothers in Kenya.". In: journal.; 1998.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Levels of Mercury in water, fish, sediments and blood samples from different regions of Kenya", J. Biochemiphysics, 1, 9.". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1991. Abstract
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Mavuti SK, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM. "Levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in farmed Oriochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2021;9(4):230-233.
E.N. PN. "Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.". 2009. Abstract

AIDS. 2009 Jan 28;23(3):309-17. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328321809c.
Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.
Levinson P, Kaul R, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Moses S, MacDonald KS, Broliden K, Hirbod T; Kibera HIV Study Group.

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Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Several mucosal innate immune proteins exhibit HIV inhibitory activity and their analogues are potential microbicide candidates. However, their clinical associations and in-vivo role in cervicovaginal host defense against HIV acquisition are poorly defined.
METHODS:

Cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) were collected from HIV uninfected Kenyan sex workers at enrolment into an HIV prevention trial. After trial completion, CVS from participants acquiring HIV (cases) and matched controls were assessed for levels of innate immune factors and HIV neutralizing capacity, by blinded investigators. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of innate immune factors were examined.
RESULTS:

CVS contained high levels of defensins (human neutrophil peptide-1-3 and human beta defensin-2-3), LL-37 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted levels were lower, and IFNalpha was undetectable. CVS from 20% of participants neutralized a clade A primary HIV isolate, and 12% neutralized both clade A and C isolates. HIV neutralization was correlated with human neutrophil peptide-1-3 (alpha-defensins) and LL-37 levels. However, alpha-defensin and LL-37 levels were increased in participants with bacterial sexually transmitted infections and were independently associated with increased HIV acquisition in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS:

Despite significant HIV inhibitory activity, cervicovaginal levels of alpha-defensins and LL-37 were associated with increased HIV acquisition, perhaps due to their association with bacterial sexually transmitted infections.

PMID:
19114868
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "Levels of aluminium in green leaf of clonala teas, black tea and black tea liquors and effects of rates of nitrogen fertilizers on the aluminium black tea contents.". In: Food Chemistry 35, 59-68. Association of Africa Universities; 1990. Abstract

Clonal teas have different aluminium content increasing with age of leaf. Although aluminium andfertilizernitrogen enhance teagrowth andteayields, respectively, field trials have shown no relationship between total aluminium content in the leaf and clonal tea yields. Higher aluminium concentrations were found in the dust grades of black tea than in the large size grades. However, aluminium levels decreased in the tea liquor from dust grades compared to the large size grades. Only up to 40% of the total aluminium in tea was infused into tea liquors; the amounts infused varied with clones and grading (sorting). Aluminium content of black tea was lowered by increasing rates of nitrogenous fertilizers, more frequent fertilizer application, and application of NPK 20:10:10 as opposed to NPKS 25:5:5:5.

Mbaria JM, Ambala PA. "Levels of Aflatoxins in maize samples collected from Makueni District, Kenya, during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in humans. .". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine biennial scientific conference. Faculty of veterinary medicine ; 2006.
Ogolla JA, George O. Abong, Okoth MW, Kabira JN, Imungi JK, Karanja PN. "Levels of Acrylamide in Commercial Potato Crisps Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya ." Journal of Food Nutrition and Research. 2015;3(8):495-501.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Levels Of 17β Steroid and Alkylphenol Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting compounds in Nairobi River." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies. 2016;2(3):46-49.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Level of seed-borne Colletotrichum lindemuthianum on common bean cv. Rosecoco - GLP2 from small scale farmers in Kenya, African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala 14-18 June 1993. PP 260-262.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala 14-18 June 1993. PP 260-262. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1993. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
Omoko BJ, Onyatta J, Nyabaro O, Kenanda OE. "Level of Metal Pollutants in Water from Nyakomisaro Stream through Kisii Town.." International Journal of Science and Research . 2016;5(7):464-565.
Wanjala. G, Wanjala E. "Level of Teachers’ Efficiency in Work Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Wajir North District, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(4):23-36.abstract.pdf
QURESHI ZAHIDA, Jamner A, Filippi V, Gwako G, Osoti A, Mehrtash H, Baguiya A, Bello FA, Compaoré R, Gadama L, Kim CR, Msusa AT, Tunçalp Ӧ, Calvert C. "Level and determinants of contraceptive uptake among women attending facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022;156 Suppl 1:27-35. Abstract

To investigate the level and determinants of nonreceipt of contraception among women admitted to facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa.

Syagga PM, Kamau GN. "Letters and Viewpoints.". 2001.Website
Ondicho, TG. "Letter: Study Trends of Lecturers at the Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: S. Wakana, S. Siraishi & T. Ondicho (Eds) Re-finding African Local Assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS Pp. 287-289; 2016.
Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
Thornton JA, Harrison MJ. "Letter: Duration of action of AH8165." Br J Anaesth. 1975;47(9):1033.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Letter to Editor;To observe the association between the staple Ethiopian diets and cancer of the oesophagus. Joshi MD.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):292. East African Medical Journal.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Lets share with Others: Developing Radio and Illustration Materials with and for Rural Women. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
Kanyinga K. "Let's strengthen the rule of law to crush impunity." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2012.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Let us Together rebuild the Temple.". In: paper presented at the launching of the book They've Destroyed the Temple. Longman, Nairobi, at K.I.C.C., Nairobi, July.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Let the Factory Close in Our Secret Lives. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1996.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Yao XD, Ball TB, McKinnon LR, Omange WR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko WG, Rosenthal KL & Plummer FA (2009). HIV-1 RNA dysregulates the natural TLR response to subclinical endotoxemia in Kenyan female sex-workers. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644.". In: UoN research meeting. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Yao XD, Ball TB, McKinnon LR, Omange WR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko WG, Rosenthal KL & Plummer FA (2009). HIV-1 RNA dysregulates the natural TLR response to subclinical endotoxemia in Kenyan female sex-workers. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Yao XD, Ball TB, McKinnon LR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko W, Plummer FA, Rosenthal KL.Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness are increased in viraemic HIV-1 infection.AIDS. 2008 Mar 30;22(6):685-94.". In: AIDS. 2008 Mar 30;22(6):685-94. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling. METHODS: Two hundred HIV-infected and uninfected women from a Kenya cohort participated in the studies. TLR1 to TLR10 messenger RNA expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). TLR ligand responsiveness was determined in or using ex-vivo PBMC by cytokine production in culture supernatants. RESULTS: Chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with increased mRNA expression of TLR6, TLR7, and TLR8 and when analysis was limited to those with advanced disease (CD4 cell count < 200 cells/ml) TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 were additionally elevated. TLR expression correlated with the plasma HIV-RNA load, which was significant for TLR6 and TLR7. In vitro HIV single-stranded RNA alone could enhance TLR mRNA expression. PBMC of HIV-infected subjects also demonstrated profoundly increased proinflammatory responsiveness to TLR ligands, suggesting sensitization of TLR signalling in HIV. Finally, viral suppression by HAART was associated with a normalization of TLR levels. CONCLUSION: Together, these data indicate that chronic viraemic HIV-1 is associated with increased TLR expression and responsiveness, which may perpetuate innate immune dysfunction and activation that underlies HIV pathogenesis, and thus reveal potential new targets for therapy.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Sex, microbial translocation and the African HIV epidemic. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89.". In: UoN research meeting. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Sex, microbial translocation and the African HIV epidemic. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Gichuyia LN. "LESSONS LEARNT FROM THERMAL DATA-LOGGING OF BUILDINGS IN NAIROBI OVER THE YEARS; HIGHLIGHT- ING THE DEMAND FUNCTIONS FOR DECI- SION-SUPPORT.". In: Annual Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop and Exhibition. ADD Building - University of Nairobi; 2019.
Jennings Mayo-Wilson L, M M, Yi G, Mak’anyengo, MO, Davoust M, ML M, Stefan Baral, Fred M. Ssewamala, Glass NE. "Lessons learned from using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to assess sexual risk behaviors among Kenyan young adults living in urban slum settlements: A process evaluation." PLoS ONE . 2020;15(4).
B. K, S.M. M, Ouko C. "Lessons Learned from Smallholder Agroforestry Project in Semi Arid Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2013.
Kanyinga K. "Lessons from nominations." Sunday Nation, May 20, 2017.
Gitao CG, Kihu SM, Muse AE, Wanjohi M. "Lessons from interaction of researchers with pastoralists from eastern Africa." African Journal of Rural Development. 2016;1(3):271-280.
Ogeng’o J. "Lessons from a case of tubal twin pregnancy." Anatomy Journal of Africa.. 2017;6(1):817-819. Abstract

Unilateral tubal twin pregnancy illustrates and amplifies fundamental phenomena in developmental and
reproductive anatomy. Knowledge of this condition is also important to practicing obstetricians and
gynaecologists because it may constitute a diagnostic challenge, management dilemma, complex ethical
issues and increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality (Benn et al., 2016). Previously considered
a rare occurence, recent data suggest that the condition is not uncommon (Svirsky et al., 2010). Indeed,
there are many reports (Vohra et al., 2014), including several from Sub-Saharan Africa (Makinde and
Ogunniyi, 1990). The case reported by Pulei et al., in Anat J Afr 2017; 6 (1) reveals several unique
features in the profile of risk factors, location, chorionicity and amnionicity, mode and time of
presentation, condition of the tube, diagnosis and fetal viability. There was no evidence of the
conventional risk factors (Sivalingam et al., 2011). This is consistent with several other reported cases
where it occurred spontaneously (Abi Khalil et al., 2016). In the present case, however, the patient had
multiple intramural and subserosal leiomyomata. Intramural myomata are known to disrupt uterine
contractility which may interfere with transport of the ovum and hence predispose to ectopic pregnancy
(Ajibade et al., 2012). It is probable, therefore, that this was the predisposing factor. Accordingly, it may
be useful to monitor patients with uterine fibroids for potential to suffer ectopic pregnancy. Family
history of twinning may have been useful, and is advocated, in view of the fact that it is one of the major
predisposing factors.

A. N, J. M, C. N. "Lessons for school principals from transformational leadership characteristics. IISTE journal of Education and Practice. Vol 10, No. 10, 2019, ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online).". 2019. Abstract

This study was carried out in selected public secondary schools in Kenya. It is on the realization that the work of the school Principal is not easy and many find themselves in leadership without proper preparation for the hard task. The school principals’ work is a high-stress job especially because he or she has to do virtually everything related to students, teachers, parents, subordinate staff and the community at large. This kind of leader would require extra-ordinary characteristics to be able to be successful. Majority of principals perform decimally in all the areas that spell success in secondary schools especially in discipline and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to find out how principals’ transformational leadership characteristics were correlates to effective school performance. Kouze’s and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory(LPI) “self” questionnaire was used to measure Principals’ transformational leadership style. LPI “others” was used to triangulate the principals’ response with the teachers. The target population consisted of 72 Principals in public schools and 139 principals in private schools. There were also 1210 teachers in public secondary schools and 1500 teachers in private secondary schools in Nairobi County. The findings indicated positive correlations between the Principals’ transformational leadership characteristics with effective school performance.

Keywords: Secondary schools, transformational leadership, modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging the heart, enabling others to act

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Leslie PW, Campbell KL, Little MA, Kigondu CS. Evaluation of reproductive function in Turkana women with enzyme immunoassays of urinary hormones in the field.Hum Biol. 1996 Feb;68(1):95-117.". In: Hum Biol. 1996 Feb;68(1):95-117. uon press; 1996. Abstract
Department of Anthropology and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27516, USA. The frequently reported observation that nomadic populations have lower fertility than their settled counterparts is often attributed to what are perceived as harsh, stressful conditions under which the nomads live. But the consequences of the hypothesized stresses for the reproductive biology or demography of these populations have been documented only a little. Traditionally, the Turkana of northwest Kenya are nomadic herders, but increasing numbers have settled on agricultural development schemes. We used an array of hormonal assays along with anthropometric indexes of nutritional status and interviews covering reproductive history, recent menstruation, diet, and health to compare reproductive function in nomadic and settled Turkana women. First morning urine samples were collected for three consecutive days during a series of surveys. Human choriogonadotropin (hCG; a marker for pregnancy), luteinizing hormone (LH; an indicator of ovulation), and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG; an indicator of postovulatory luteal function) were assessed in the field with commercially available dipstick enzyme immunoassays. These assays along with the interview data allowed us to determine the reproductive status (e.g., pregnant or cycling, and if cycling, which phase of the ovarian cycle) of 166 nomadic and 194 settled Turkana women. The cross-sectional classifications allowed inferences of conception rates and normality of ovarian function. Follow-up surveys provided rates of pregnancy loss. Compared with the settled women, the nomadic women exhibited lower pregnancy rates and cycling nomadic women were less likely to show evidence of ovulation or luteal function. These results suggest that reproductive function of the nomadic women is diminished relative to the settled women. However, the settled women experienced a much higher rate of pregnancy loss, which may mean that their effective fecundability is in fact lower than that of the nomadic women. This study is the first to apply such a wide range of hormonal assays in the field. It demonstrates that field-based assays are feasible and robust and can play an important role in epidemiological and biodemographic studies, even in remote locations under conditions that would ordinarily be considered incompatible with on-site laboratory analysis.
SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Les Mecanismes de Transfert des Charges a travers les Membranes biologiques.". In: Conference. CEAER - UNR; 1980.
ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Les fautes servent ." La Voix du CEFRUNA; 1993. Abstract
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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1985. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K.; Submitted. Abstract

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Miano K. "Leroy Newman on Safari". Nanyuki & Maasai Mara): Book Chronicling Neiman's work in Kenya; 1997.
Akinyi 10. OJ, Sigana DAO, Wang’ondu V, Wambiji N, Ong’anda H, Orembo B. "Length-weight relationship of selected teleost fishes from Kilifi County, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2018; 17 (1):125-135.
Paul UK, Naushaba H, Alam MJ, Begum T, Rahman A, Akhter J. "Length of {Vermiform} {Appendix}: {A} {Postmortem} {Study}." Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy. 2011;9. AbstractWebsite
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beryl Ominde S, Olabu B, Ongeng'o J. "Length of Coronary Sinus in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation with Heart Length." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2015;4(1):488-495.
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MJ. "Lemudong’o: a new 6 Ma paleontological site near Narok, Kenya Rift Valley." Journal of Human Evolution . 2004;44:737-742. AbstractWebsite

Lemudong’o is located on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley approximately 100 km west of Nairobi (Fig. 1), an area deeply incised by three major permanent river systems. Stratified lavas, air-fall and water-laid tuffs, alluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments, and paleosols of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene age crop out over a w25 50 km area. Wright (1967) reconstructed three paleolakes and shoreline facies, assumed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age, in the vicinity of an isolated Basement Complex inselberg. Radio- metric dating demonstrates the paleolake deposits exposed at Lemudong’o are Late Miocene in age. During archaeological surveys and excavations in this region in 1995-96 (Kyule et al., 1997) and 1999–2002 (Ambrose et al., 2000; 2002; Hlusko et al., 2002), 55 new archaeological sites (Acheulean, Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, Neolithic and Iron Age), and several paleontological occurrences were discovered. Here we describe the preliminary results from research at the Late Miocene fossil site of Lemudong’o. The most productive Late Miocene paleontological site in the area is exposed in Lemudong’o Gorge, GvJh15, GvJh32 (Figs. 2 and 3). Lithologic units include paludal (marsh) and lake margin claystones, lacustrine diatoma- ceous silts and claystones, and coarser alluvial deposits with interstratified tuffs. Similar ex-posures occur within tens of kilometers, though their correlation to the Lemudong’o strata is not yet confirmed, and fossils are scarce and taxonomically non-diagnostic. Lemudong’o Gorge is a fault-controlled, deeply incised gully system bounded on the east by the Enkoria fault (Wright, 1967). Fossiliferous sedi- ments are exposed at two localities approximately 500 m apart. Locality 1 (Lemudong’o 1, GvJh15, coordinates: 1(18.19S, 35(58.74E, approximate elevation 1600–1620 m) was discovered in 1994, and is located in the upper reaches of the main gully. It contains the higher levels of the depo- sitional sequence, and the main fossiliferous horizons. Locality 2 (Lemudong’o 2, GvJh32, coordinates: 1(17.98S, 35(59.04E) was discovered in 1999 and includes lower strata and a poorly- exposed horizon with sparse, generally non- diagnostic fossil material. No significant unconformities occur in the main sedimentary sequence.

and S. H. Ambrose, L. J. Hlusko KDWMDAM. "Lemudong’o: A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya.". In: 71st Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Buffalo, New York, USA ; 2002.
Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Lemodong'o A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. . 2002;Supplement 34.:37.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN. "Lema VM, Rogo KO, Kamau RK. Induced abortion in Kenya: its determinants and associated factors. East Afr Med J 1996; 73: 164-68.". In: East Afr Med J 1996; 73: 164-68. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lema VM, Ojwang SBO, Wanjala SHM Rupture of gravid uterus. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya.

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